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Sections

  • Introduction to Computers
  • WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System?
  • Other Operating Systems
  • Introduction to Windows Vista
  • Exploring the Desktop
  • Personalize your Desktop
  • Using Windows Vista
  • Date and Time Settings
  • Working with Windows
  • Using Help
  • Working with Multiple Windows
  • Shutting down Windows Vista
  • Organizing Your Work
  • Files and Folders
  • Using Computer
  • Working with Folders
  • Working with Files
  • Using Shortcuts
  • Using Applications
  • Using Notepad
  • Using WordPad
  • Creating a graphic using Paint
  • Copying between Applications
  • Previewing, Printing and Saving
  • Cleaning up the desktop
  • Using Calculator
  • Word Processing
  • Overview of Word Processing
  • What is Word Processing?
  • Creating and Editing a Document
  • Introduction to Microsoft Word
  • The User Interface
  • Creating New Documents
  • Entering and Formatting Text
  • Saving, Closing and Opening files
  • Moving through Text
  • Using Automatic Editing Features
  • Navigating a Document
  • Editing a Document
  • Working with graphics
  • Previewing and Printing a Document
  • Revising a Document
  • Moving and Copying Selections
  • Working with Multiple Documents
  • Inserting Page Breaks
  • Finding and Replacing text
  • Inserting the Current Date
  • Modifying Page Layout
  • Paragraph Formatting in detail
  • Character Formatting in detail
  • Creating Lists
  • Inserting Shapes
  • Editing while previewing
  • Inserting Objects
  • Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists
  • Saving to a New Folder
  • Hiding Spelling and Grammar
  • Formatting Documents Automatically
  • Creating a Table of Contents
  • Updating the Table of Contents
  • Formatting a Document Section
  • Using Footnotes and Endnotes
  • Adding Bookmarks
  • Formatting Picture Layout
  • Creating a Simple Table
  • Sorting Data
  • Inserting Headers and Footers
  • Checking the document
  • Printing Selected Pages
  • Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns
  • Using Word Art
  • Inserting Symbols
  • Adding a Drop Cap
  • Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge
  • Printing Mailing Labels
  • Preparing and Printing Envelopes
  • Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook
  • Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word
  • Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista
  • Using a Configured Language in Word
  • SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction
  • Features of Microsoft Excel 2007
  • Workbooks and Worksheets
  • Navigating the Excel Worksheet
  • Creating a New Workbook
  • Entering and Editing Data
  • Changing Column Width
  • Saving, Closing and Opening a Workbook
  • Moving Cells
  • Centering and Merging Cells
  • Using Formulas
  • Duplicating Cell Contents
  • Using Functions
  • Formatting the Worksheet
  • Working with Graphics
  • Entering the Date
  • Previewing and Printing
  • Using Charts
  • Creating a Chart
  • Modifying a Chart
  • Managing a Workbook
  • Working with Sheets
  • Managing Large Sheets
  • Forecasting Values
  • Headers, Footers and Print Settings
  • Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics
  • Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates
  • PowerPoint Presentation Views
  • Creating your First Slide
  • Sizing and Moving Placeholders
  • Saving and Opening a Presentation
  • Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures
  • Changing Fonts and Formatting
  • Checking Spellings
  • Inserting, Moving and Deleting Slides
  • Running a Slide Show
  • Previewing and Printing a Presentation
  • Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink
  • Create and Enhance a Table
  • Using SmartArt
  • Inserting Clips and Clip Art
  • Create and Enhance Shapes
  • Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme
  • Adding Animation and Other Effects
  • Changing the Slide Master
  • Creating Notes Pages
  • Printing Handouts
  • Using Headers and Footers
  • Duplicating and Hiding Slides
  • Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show
  • Documenting a File
  • Using Advanced Presentation Features
  • Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides
  • Adding Action Buttons
  • Delivering Presentations
  • Internet Basics What is a Network?
  • What is Internet?
  • What is WWW?
  • Information Flow Over the Internet
  • Communication Systems
  • How Do We Connect?
  • Browsers
  • Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7
  • Using the Favorites Center
  • Using Forms
  • Printing and Saving Web Pages
  • Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services
  • Google
  • Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services
  • Using Newsgroups
  • Using Messengers for Instant Messaging
  • Social Networking
  • Overview Introduction to Databases
  • Creating a Database Introduction to Access
  • Creating a New Database
  • Creating a Table
  • Preview and Print a Table
  • Close and Open a Table and Database
  • Making Copies of Database Objects
  • Making a Copy of the Database
  • Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields
  • Finding and Replacing Data
  • Sorting Records
  • Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard
  • Adding Records in a Form
  • Queries and Reports Using Queries
  • Creating Reports
  • Modifying Report Layout
  • Printing a Report
  • Creating a Report from a Query
  • Protecting the Database Using Passwords
  • Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook
  • Using Calendar
  • Creating an Appointment
  • Creating a recurring appointment
  • Creating an event
  • Changing the calendar view
  • Creating a task list
  • Setting up Categories
  • Sorting tasks
  • Using a task timeline
  • Updating the task status
  • Printing tasks and calendar items
  • Creating Notes
  • Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook
  • Adding and Removing Contacts
  • Importing & Exporting Contacts
  • Searching Address Books
  • Creating and editing mailing lists
  • Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account
  • Creating an E-mail Message
  • Using Attachments
  • Sending Mail
  • Receiving Mail
  • Viewing and Saving an Attachment
  • Replying to and Forwarding a Mail
  • Handling mails in the Inbox
  • Using Instant Search
  • Using Flags
  • CD Writing What is CD Writing?
  • Burning a CD using Windows Vista
  • Erasing a CD
  • Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus?
  • Virus Protection
  • Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music
  • Downloading Music
  • TV Tuner Card
  • PC to Mobile: Sending SMS
  • What is Spam?
  • Spam Blocking Software
  • What is Speech Recognition?
  • What is Digital Video Editing?
  • Windows Movie Maker
  • Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens
  • Blogs
  • Edutainment
  • Infotainment
  • Netiquette
  • Technology Today
  • Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology
  • Home Networking
  • Popular Websites Wikipedia
  • YouTube

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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.

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WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac

Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
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Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
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d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. To backup specific files. click “Back up your computer”. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. 4| Page . Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. you may use the “Back up files” button. Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”. Click “Change backup settings”. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. click “Change settings”. In the displayed window. Under “System and Maintenance”. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure.

5| Page . Whenever a file is retrieved. sectors that are adjacent to each other. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk. A track is a concentric ring. The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. However. it is reconstructed from the fragments.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. click “Delete Files”. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. In the displayed window. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed.e. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. click “Select volumes”. To start the defragmentation process. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. Verify the files and click “OK”. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. After a period of time. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”.

it is known as a “Utility Suite”. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance. They also compress and make backups of programs. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. as well as clean up your hard disk. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. history files and cookies. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. locate lost files and repair damaged files. Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. Norton SystemWorks and V Communications.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task.

to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
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restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.

Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.

Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.

Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
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the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.

Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
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Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. Now click “OK”. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. so more items fit on the screen. fewer items fit on the screen. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. In the “Customize” box. In the displayed figure. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Click “OK” to save your settings. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. In the “Wait” field. but they are larger and easier to see. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. At higher resolutions. specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. so more items fit on the screen. move the slider to the resolution you want. Under “Resolution”. At lower resolutions. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. simply move your mouse or press any key. items appear smaller. fewer items fit on the screen. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. say “Good Morning!”. At higher resolutions. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. move the slider to the resolution you want. but they are larger and easier to see. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. To change the setting options for your screen saver. In this way. click “Settings”. At lower resolutions. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. Under “Resolution”. items appear smaller. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. To clear the screen saver after it has started. In the displayed figure. select “See-saw”. Click “OK” to save your settings.select “3D Text” from the list. In the “Rotation Type” box. Click on one and then click “Open”. 10 | P a g e . Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings.

Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. you 11 | P a g e . as it is the starting point for most features on your computer. the monitor can flicker. To save your settings. or other files you want to access quickly.To get the best color display from your monitor. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. causing eye strain and headaches. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. It is a convenient place to store documents. graphics. As you learn more about Windows Vista. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. You can add programs to the pinned items list. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. To use your computer. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. From within “Pictures”. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. Click “Advanced Settings”. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. a submenu with additional options is displayed. If the refresh rate is too low.

the “Control Panel” and other system applications. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. and other resources on the network. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. print photos or copy photos to a CD. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. printers and modem. you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. and Region → Date and Time”. On the “Date and Time” tab. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. click on “Change date and time”. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. Language. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. month. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. rotate them. and year under “Date” to set the date. To change only the hour. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. printers and other hardware. double-click the hour. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. such as a printer or shared folder. Now click the correct day. view a slide show.can view photos at different sizes. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. printers. simply double-click on it. receive support and more. obtain troubleshooting information. mouse. From the Control Panel. To set the time. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified.

Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . Language. Now click “OK”. Select “Control Panel → Clock. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. and close it. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. On the “Internet Time” tab. On the “Formats” tab. you can move and size windows. To change your time zone. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. click “Change Settings”. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. usually referred to as the local time. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. Minimize. Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program. make sure you are connected to the Internet. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. click on it. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time. Maximize. For this.decrease the value. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window.

then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. check boxes. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. click on it. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. combo boxes and other such controls. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. Data may be entered using push buttons. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. Let us have a look at some of them. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. 14 | P a g e . scroll bars appear on the window. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them. To choose a command listed in a menu. text boxes. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. change settings.minimize the window. “Show Windows Stacked”. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. option buttons. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. To choose an arrangement. or provides you with information. maximize the window to its largest size. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. allows you to select options to perform a task. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. restore the window to the original size or close a window. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”. list boxes. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. Moving a Window: To move a window. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. If a command is shown in gray.

information is displayed on multiple tabs. You may perform tasks related to Security. Here. options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. 15 | P a g e . A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. Unlike a drop-down list. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. The other options are displayed when you click the control. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. The currently selected tab appears at the front. They are also called “radio buttons”. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. This is the most commonly used windows control. In the “Search Help” text box. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics.

Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. in this case. When a new window is opened. but only one window is active at a time. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. then select an item to make it the active window. 16 | P a g e . As more windows are opened. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. To switch to a specific program. Double-click on it. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. just click its taskbar button. This is now the “active” window. “Computer” and “Document1”. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. the window currently in use. There are now three programs running at the same time. that is. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. The “Document1” window is the active window. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. “Windows Help and Support”.

press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. It saves all open documents and programs. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. Restart: This closes all open programs. and allows you to resume working within seconds. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key. To turn off your computer. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. you see various options. select “Log Off”. While holding down the Windows logo key. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. use this option. Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. click the “Start” button. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. Let us see what each of them does. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. It closes all open programs. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. Alternatively.

Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. click “Folders” again. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. Click the triangle to expand the folder.In a computer. At the top. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. CD-ROM drive. Some common file icons are displayed. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. you can tell what kind of file it is. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. spreadsheets. Pictures. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. Examples of files are text documents. To close the Folders list. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. and even songs. a Preview 18 | P a g e . Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. digital pictures. Your computer represents files with icons. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. You can also search for and open files and folders. This displays the “Folders list”. By looking at a file icon. and network drives. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. hard disks. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. In the Folder List. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. a Details Pane.

move.Pane. no matter which folder you are presently in. Tools and Help. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. Edit. Select the folder that you wish to delete. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. Let us select “Menu Bar”. you can copy. it must be assigned a name. Alternately. you may select the folder. View. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. and/or the Navigation Pane. For example. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created. These links let you open folders quickly. A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. and search for files and folders. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. rename. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. List. drag it to the Favorite Links area. To create a new folder. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. Small Icons. Medium Icons. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. You can now see a menu with the items File. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons. Using Windows Explorer. Large Icons. Let us click on “Documents”. Details and Tiles. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. right-click and select “Rename”. You may type a new name for this folder. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently.

and then click a result to open it. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu.txt”. 20 | P a g e . To select all the files and folders in the window. select the item to be copied or moved. you can use the Start menu to search instead. The “Move Items” window is displayed. For this. Then. Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. Type anything you can remember about the file. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. For this. A copy of it is created at the new location. such as part of its name. the File Name and the Extension. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. If you do not know which folder to search. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files.docx”. First. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. Type in the Search box. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. For example. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “.The name of a file consists of two parts. The file that was copied remains at the original location.

Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. Select “File → Save As”. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. For this. In the open Notepad. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . In the “Font” window. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. If you fail to save the file.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. To start Notepad. When the application first opens. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. type your Name and then press “Enter”. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. If necessary. locate the folder you have created to save your work. In the “Save As” window. To access the location of this file quickly. To create a shortcut to your folder. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. all the changes you have made will be lost. select the font along with the style and size you require. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice.

A new blank document is displayed. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. Click “Save”. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e . you may want to print a copy of your document. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. Printing a Document: Now. To start WordPad. save and print your documents using this menu. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. Each menu has different menu items. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. open. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. status bar and the ruler.txt”. such as creating or saving a file. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. You may create. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. Your file is stored with the extension “. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. format bar. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text.

menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. Click at the beginning of your text. This is called “Editing” text. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it. Finally. you first need to select the text you want to format. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. Before you can apply the formatting effects. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. you may decide to remove a word. The title now appears in the selected color. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. Since you want to select the entire title. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. 23 | P a g e . Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. Entering text: As you type. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. After looking over the text. To further enhance the appearance of the title. Editing text: After you have entered your text. ready for you to begin entering text. The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. Font size is measured in points. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. you would like to increase the font size. you may need to make some modifications. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it. You want to center it between the margins. which refers to the height of the character. To select text. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text.

select the text. If you plan to use this file again shortly. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. To save the document. To copy text for writing to another location. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. The associated program. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. is started. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. Moving. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. Your file is stored with the extension “. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu. select the text. To open this file.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop.rtf”. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. To paste text you have cut or copied. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. double-click on the file name on the desktop. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace. WordPad in this case. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text.

The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. we open the application first. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. including a title bar. edit the drawing and so on. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. fill shapes with colors. By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window.bmp”. Select “File → Save”. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. when we create a file. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. A circle or 25 | P a g e . it changes to a plus (+). which is the picture of a palm tree. you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. the desktop icon displays a blank square. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. Now. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. First.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. To start Paint. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. Paint has many of the same features. and then create and save the file. Let us create a logo for your organization. similar to the one shown above. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. To begin drawing. called a toolbox. Your file is stored with the extension “. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. Generally. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. The “Save As” window is displayed. Since the file is blank. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area.

26 | P a g e . the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. To clean up the drawing. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. you want to create two tree trunks.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. called “fill-style” buttons. Double-click on a color in the color box. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. right-click in the color palette. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. you want to create the palm fronds. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. you may create a custom color. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. The eraser uses the background colors. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. You may change the foreground color to brown. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. To set the background color. Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. To use the background color. Notice the three additional buttons. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. The color box consists of two areas. If you select colors before creating a shape.

and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. click a fill style. such as hue and saturation. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. you may click anywhere on the matrix. To draw a rectangle. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents.many of which are displayed in the color box. Your logo is now ready. The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. click a fill style. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. click a line width. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. At the bottom of the toolbox. click the “Line” icon. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. 27 | P a g e . You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. This is a color matrix. You can only create two curves for each line. Drag the mouse to draw the line. At the bottom of the toolbox. associated with the selected color. To draw a square. To define a custom color. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. click the “Polygon” icon. At the bottom of the toolbox. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. click the “Curve” icon. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. To draw the polygon. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”.

Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document. linking or embedding it. Select “Edit → Paste”. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. Click inside the text frame to type text. Enter the dimensions you require. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. click the “Text” icon. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. To create a text frame. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. in this case the entire picture. 28 | P a g e . you may select the entire drawing area. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. To do this. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document. A dotted line identifies the selected area. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. On the text toolbar. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. size and style you require. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. click the font.

Before typing the text. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. containing the palm tree. and the graphic appears in its own editing window. If you do not like how your text box looks. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. you can also choose a color for the text. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. You may verify that the original file created using Paint.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. you first create a box. When adding text. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. 29 | P a g e . To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. Paint. Previewing. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. Since no changes were made to the file. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. The text frame displays an insertion point. has not changed. because it was the last-used application. the text of your document is still displayed. To make the background the same as the grass. the server application is opened within WordPad. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. WordPad is displayed again. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. To edit an embedded object.

such as addition and subtraction. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. It performs basic arithmetic. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. multiplication or division. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. type the first number in the calculation. 30 | P a g e . Type other operators and numbers in the same way. “*” to multiply. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. subtraction. such as logarithms and factorials. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. Finally. “-” to subtract. perform the following steps: First. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. click “+” to add. Open the folder where you save your files.The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. or “/” to divide. To save the current document. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. After that. Then. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. To start Calculator. type the next number in the calculation. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon.

Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. retrieve and print part or all of a document. For this. Decimal. you can easily correct errors. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. printing etc. modify. Octal and Binary.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. C --> Clears the entire calculation. % --> Calculates percentages. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. In addition to handling simple calculations. store. With a few keystrokes. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. for example. faxes and even professional manuals. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. Through a word processor you can create. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. editing. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. an invoice form. move paragraphs and reprint your document. form letters. brochures.

Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. printing. such as “New”. integrated into it. You can also create your own templates.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. and closing a file. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. saving. Undo. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. 32 | P a g e . You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. and Redo. from the menu that appears. In Word. Additionally. a file is called a “document”. click the arrow on the right. Once the “New” icon is added. To start the Microsoft Word application. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. etc. This contains commands for opening. The text frames can be linked anywhere. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents. graphics. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. tables. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components.

The “Review” tab contains spell check. To remove an icon. “Paragraph”. and spacing properties. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. orientation. right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”.Now. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. such as pictures. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. and copy/paste. citations. “Font”. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. styles. Click “OK”. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. including footnotes. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. and text boxes. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. pages. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. thesaurus. bullets. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. clip art. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. and track changes. click “More Commands”. For example. 33 | P a g e . “Cut”. and index. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. table of contents.

Every single command on the Ribbon. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. They relate directly to the tabs. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. You then see little labels. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. When an existing word document is open. to create a new blank document. You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. the Microsoft Office Button menu. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. commands. To restore the Ribbon. When you first start Word. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. how to include all such features into your document. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. you see a question mark symbol. groups. or badges. a new blank document is opened. and other things that you see on the screen. click the Office Button and select “New”. The tabs. We shall now learn step-bystep. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. At the right end of the Ribbon. 34 | P a g e . Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands.Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. For this. You first need to press the “Alt” key.

move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. Similarly. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. from the drop-down menu. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. For now. To make the text appear in italics. in the “Font” group. you may change the Font Size. press “Enter” once again. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. without actually applying it. on the “Home” tab. To make existing text bold. invoice or business letter. click the “Italic” icon. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document. On the “Home” tab. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. To insert a blank line. Click on the font you would like. When text is selected. Underlining: To underline your text. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. Selecting Text: To select a section of text.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. Let us insert some more text. It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon.

line breaks. Center. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. you may select Align Text Left. 36 | P a g e . Align Text Right or Justify. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. 2. Saving. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for.Select the text you would like to justify. 3. Closing a File: To close a file. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. When you save a new file for the first time. Alternatively. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. navigate to the location of your document. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. Click on Center. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. 1. Enter the name. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. such as paragraph marks. click on this button once again. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. Then. To remove the display. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document.docx”. tab stops and spaces. Alternatively. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. the “Save As” window is displayed. Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. There are three ways to save a document. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. For this. select the file and click “Open”. In the “Paragraph” group.

Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. As it is typed. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. click “Quick Parts”. On the “Insert” tab. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. click “Quick Parts”. and then click “Word Options”. they are replaced by the text “First”. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Click the Office Button. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. it is shaped as an I-beam. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. you can see that it is corrected. in the “Text” group. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. Now click “OK”. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. On the “Insert” tab. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. say “Global Tours Logo”. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. in the “Text” group. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. The building block is inserted. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. In the Create New Building Block window. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. 37 | P a g e . type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. you may check the boxes against the options you require.

Your cursor moves to the specified line. Use the Up. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. such as “January”. it is underlined with a red wavy line. Re-enter “Discounts”. You may navigate to a specific item in your document. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. You can also navigate to a specific page. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. section.When you begin typing in the name of a month. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. the wavy line is removed. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. a green wavy underline appears. endnote etc. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. Word automatically finishes the name. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. and then click “Word Options”. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. 3. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. Let us move to a specific line number. 4. Simply click “OK”. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. If you then press “Enter”. This time. 38 | P a g e . To display the line numbers in a document. Let us leave the default settings. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. footnote. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. Some of them are as follows: 1. 2. Once you correct the spelling. Down.

Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. To change the size. click on that line and press “Delete”. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. You can also redo an action that has been undone. To delete a blank line. Let us first delete a line of text. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. To remove individual characters. click on the picture.To remove the display of line numbers. The line is displayed once again. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. To delete an entire word. Now to undo this action. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. you may decide they are not necessary after all. The picture now appears in your document. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. To move your 39 | P a g e . Click the “Picture” icon. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. color etc. The line that was displayed is now deleted. location. For this. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. you may select it and press “Delete”.

picture. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. The “Print” window is displayed. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. In the “Number of copies” box. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. To display Multiple Pages. 2. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. In the “Name” field. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. To specify the number of pages to view. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. 40 | P a g e . Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. Under “Print Range”. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print.

select “Thesaurus”. 2. in the “Proofing” group. select “Spelling & Grammar”. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. in the “Pages per sheet” box. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. Some words. you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. When the checking is completed. 1. On the “Review” tab. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize.Under “Zoom”. number of copies and other such things. click “OK” to print the document. After you have entered your options. On the “Review” tab. 2. with the most likely match highlighted. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. you are informed accordingly. 41 | P a g e . such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1. in the “Proofing” group. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. Press “Shift+F7”. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found.

in the “Clipboard” group. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1. On the “Home” tab. On the “Home” tab. Press “Ctrl+X”.S. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. On the “Home” tab. You may choose from the options Insert. select “Paste”. On the other hand.You now see a panel on the right. The document itself does not change. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. 2. In the “Search for:” text box. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. Copy and Look Up. 2.)” from the dropdown list below. say “Contact”. 42 | P a g e . select “Cut”. in the “Clipboard” group. enter your expression. When you select “Insert”. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. Press “Ctrl+V”. in the “Clipboard” group. 2. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. select “Copy”. For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. leaving the original location unchanged. You may use any of the following methods: 1. Press “Ctrl+C”. A list of synonymous terms is displayed.

Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. A blank document is displayed in a new window. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Click “Find Next” once again. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. Enter some text. 43 | P a g e . Alternatively. This becomes the “active” program. Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Let us now move the text back to its original location. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. First. Then. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. select the item to be copied or moved. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. say “office” and click “Find Next”. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. To insert a Page Break.

say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. check the “Update automatically” box. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . This updating is seen when you next open your document. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Select the format you require. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each. On the “Margins” tab. Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Click “OK”. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins.

Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. Click “OK” to save your settings.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. In the “Paragraph” group. You can see that this time. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. etc. click on the arrow at the bottom right. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. pressing the “Tab” key after each word. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. although this method is not as precise. Now enter the text as shown. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. from the drop-down list. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. In the “Default tab stops” box. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. Select a paragraph of text. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner. A5. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. On the “Paper” tab. Alternatively.

Let us select “UPPERCASE”. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. Now. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. Also. Select the text “Time Table”. Now. let us change the font color of a section of text. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. This brings up the “Font” window. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. Now to copy the formatting of this text. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. First. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . In that case. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. in the “Font” group. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. You may select an option from the menu displayed. Effects: On the “Home tab. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. Numbered List: Alternatively.

docx”. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Because you wish to create a link to another document. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”.document. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. In this case. 2. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Now enter your text. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. This document exists in the same folder as your document. Click “OK”. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. 47 | P a g e . A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Select this text. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. you can view the time table document. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. Let us add some text to this banner. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. To make this banner more attractive.docx” which contains the complete time table. another document or to a Web site. Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. To view a document in the Print Preview mode.

Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. For this. Click again to see it in a compressed size. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel. in the “Paragraph” group. click on the “Create from File” tab. You may now save your changes. Now enter your list.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. When you wish to edit the document. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. video clips. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. On the “Home” tab. In the “Object” window. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. Now click “Insert”. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style.

the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. Now click “Proofing”. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. 49 | P a g e . Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. Click the Office Button. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. At the bottom of the window. and then click “Word Options”. check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”. The steps to save the file are: 1. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. 3. Click “New Folder”. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk.Next. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. 2. If you wish to change your file name. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. You will use this folder to hold related files.

Simply click “OK”. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document. This style is now applied to your selected text. The “Table of Contents” window appears. Similarly.You can use this method to quickly insert text. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. In the document displayed. it is best to use the default settings. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. On the “References” tab. On the “Home” tab. You may enter your specifications here. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. select “Table of Contents”. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. select “Update Table”. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . let us apply different styles to different heading levels. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. It shows you at a glance. You would need to update your table of contents. For now. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. in the “Table of Contents” group. Select the main heading. in the “Table of Contents” group. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. Your table of contents is ready. On the “References” tab. Doubleclick at the center of the document.

You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Click “OK”. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group. comment on. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. Let us select “Continuous”. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. To do so. When you are done. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. Type your footnote. In the “Page Setup” window. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. Sometimes. change the left margin to “5”. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Under “Section Breaks”. select the type of section break you wish. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. Under “Preview”. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. or provide references for text in a document. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. To insert a section in your document. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Position your cursor before the first point. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window.

In the “Bookmark” window. in the “Arrange” group. Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. on the “Format” tab. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. Under “Show document content”. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. but not among multiple documents. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. and then click “Word Options”. In contrast to hyperlinks. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. This caption will be used for reference. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. You must now add a caption to this figure. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Click on the figure you want to refer to. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. you may need to change the position of a graphic. Under “Picture Tools”. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. select “Position”. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Click before this text. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. references allow you to move within a document. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Now click “Advanced”.

select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. To insert multiple rows or columns. Enter your text. In the “Caption” window.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. Similarly. enter your caption. In the “Rows & Columns” group. Now click “Close”. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. In the “Insert Cells” window. 53 | P a g e . Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. Under “Table Tools”. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. In the “Cross-reference” window. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. Your table is displayed on the screen. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. see “. Click “OK”. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. click in the table. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. This displays the caption near your text. Moving a table: To move your table. say “For your information. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns. click on the “Layout” tab. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference.This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. In the “Insert Table” window. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right.

Now. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. in the “Data” group. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. Click in the table. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. you may make your selection. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. borders and alignment settings. For now. Under “Table Tools”. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. click the “Design” tab. You may select the cells. click on your choice in the “Style” box. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. click the Layout tab. Under “Table Tools”. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. In the “Table” group. Now let us remove the borders of the table. In the “Sort” window. Under “Table Tools”. In the “Table Styles” group.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. colors. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. and then click “Select Table”. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. Click in the table. click “Sort”. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. 54 | P a g e . In the window that comes up. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. on the “Layout” tab. click “Select”. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. under “Table Tools”. Click “OK”. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. Click it to select the table. patterns. click the “Design” tab. For this. In the “Table Styles” group. you may select the options that you want.

If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. A list of header styles is displayed.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. select the word “North”. For this. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. special terms and abbreviations. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. if any. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. Under “Editing options”. if any. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”. The header area becomes active. You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Now. click the Office Button. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. Click on the first one. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. Checking the document After your document is ready. Similarly. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . Now click “Advanced”. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. In the document displayed. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. and then click “Word Options”. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. The footer area becomes active. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. From the list displayed. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline.

Your text is displayed in columnar format. you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. 10. To print single pages. Under “Print Range”. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. 12”. 11”. select “All” to print the entire document. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. To print only selected pages in your document. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. Click “OK”. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. To print a range of pages. 8. use the format “7. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. If you want. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style. In the document displayed. The “Print” window is displayed. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . Click “OK” to print your document. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. by using the format “3-6. In a newsletter. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. You may click on the number of columns you require. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. Then. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. use the format “3-6”.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. 9. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document.

3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. Select the text “Special Offers”. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. Leave them unchanged for now. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. covering several lines. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. To select an effect. Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. On the “Format” tab. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. in the “Text” group. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. select “WordArt”. In this way. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. font size and font style if you wish. click “3-D Effects”. You may change the font. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. On the “Insert” tab. Then click “Close”. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. Then click “OK”. Click on a style. Now select “Tight”. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. click on the left side of the displayed box. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document. On the “Symbols” tab. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. The names and 57 | P a g e . you may enhance your WordArt text. Let us use a drop cap in our document. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window.

Click after the word "Dear". You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". select "Use the current document". We are now ready to insert the field names. Click "Next". Similarly. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Click "Next" to complete the merge. say "List1" and click "Save". A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. then on "Insert". click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". Now click "Close". since you are ready with your letter. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. your letters to everyone are ready. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. The result is a personalized letter. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. Enter your file name. Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. you want to create labels for the envelopes. 58 | P a g e . Enter a space. Enter the Title. The "New Address List" window is displayed. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. click "OK". Inserting Fields: Now. First Name and Last Name of the first person. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. Selecting the starting document: Now. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. After you are done. Make sure to insert a space between each field. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. Click on Title. The "Save Address List" window appears. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. Now.

Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Then click "Next". Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. then on "Insert". For now. the type of label product. Address Line 2 and City. Click "Update all labels". Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. Enter the Address Line 1. Address Line 1. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". and the product number. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. Now click "Label options". Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. enter the fields First Name. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Similarly. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". Click "Next" to complete the merge. After you are done. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. click "OK".Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Click "Next". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Last Name. Inserting Fields: Now. Click on the Title field. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. navigate to the location of your list. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. you may select the type of printer. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. Similarly. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". In the "Select Data Source" window. The "Label Options" window is displayed. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Let us now include address details. you may add the names and address details on the labels. Now click “Close”. Here.

Let us make envelopes for some of them. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. browse to the location of your list.Sometimes. you make changes as required. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. click on "List1" and then click "Open". Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. On the "Envelope options" tab. You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". simply click “OK”. such as Microsoft Outlook. For now. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. as you did for labels. For this. Click "Address block". You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. Now. In the "Select Data Source" window. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. click "Next". Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. 60 | P a g e . Now click "Envelope options". In the “Insert Address Block” window. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". Click “Next”. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. Now click "Next". Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse".

Now click "Close". Inserting Fields: Now. In the "To" field. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. select the mail format you want to use. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. under “Templates”. Under "Send records”. click "OK". In the "Subject line" field. You may make changes if required. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. special formatting and styles. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. 61 | P a g e . You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. Then click "OK". click "Next". Let us create a new document based on an existing template. select the records you want to merge. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. Now click "Next".Selecting the starting document: Now. Click after the word "Dear". Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. Enter a space. click "Next". Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. Now. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. browse to the location of your list. In the "Select Data Source" window. page layout. Replace body text with your own text. Let us use this list. Then. menus. click on "List1" and then click "Open". The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Brochures and Reports. select "Use the current document". In the "Mail format" field. Click "Next" to complete the merge. since you are ready with your message. type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. key assignments. then on "Insert". In the right left panel. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click on First Name. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window.

click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. Now. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. In the box at the bottom. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Language. Click “Add” to add a new language. Now click “Word Document”. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Now. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. Language. Click on the “Start” button. click “Control Panel Home”. Then click “Control Panel”. Now click “Change keyboards”. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. the box at the top displays the default input language. before you can start using some languages on your computer. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Hence. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. let us add the Arabic language as an example. In the “Add Input Language” window. To exit the Word application. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. In the “Save As” window. You can see that your text appears in the new language. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. Finally. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. Now start typing your text. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right.

and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. therefore there is no paper used. This data can be edited. Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. and unwanted data can be deleted.It is very easy to manage. You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. Whenever a hard copy is required. calculate and analyze data. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. since you can add. consisting of rows and columns.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e .forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. To start the Microsoft Excel application. Although the information is well organized. . filled with numerical or textual data.All data is stored in the computer. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. update and delete data with a few keystrokes. new data can be added. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. . change.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. . .

like those for cutting and pasting information. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. paper orientation. saving. graphics. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks. and closing a file. charts. formatting your data. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. like sorting. and grouping. and other page settings. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. You can specify margins. printing. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. and Redo. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. and hyperlinks. Undo. This contains commands for opening. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . filtering.

up or down. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet.… AA.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. You can use the arrow keys to move left. Each cell has its own address called the cell address. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. you need to click the worksheet tabs. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets. you must first move to the cell. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number.576 rows by 16.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. optionally. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. the Excel 2007 grid is 1.048. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. the address of that cell will be E3. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box. BA. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007. …AZ. The columns are named as A. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet. C. By default. 65 | P a g e . B. To enter data in a cell. As you move from one cell to another. right. a single file or document is called a workbook. AB. BB. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. Specifically.

Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. etc. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. To select a group of cells. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. A template file has an extension “. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection.xltx”. the same default settings are used. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and . The cell pointer will move down one row. To enter data. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data. Expense Statement. For example a Sales Report. you can enter data in it. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet. click in the cell you want to begin. 66 | P a g e .Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen . To activate a particular cell. Balance Sheet.. Click the Office Button and select “New”. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry. When you finish entering data in one column. It is here that you will be entering the data.

you can also resize the name box. Enter data in all five columns as shown. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. or "X" to roll it back. When you start typing in the formula box. For this. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. To accommodate long names. To adjust the height of the formula box. Leave it as it is for now. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. that is. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. We will see later on. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. Below the Ribbon. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. To remove individual characters. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. if you make a typing mistake. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow.While entering the data in the “Name” column. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. how to adjust the column width. column C. double-click on the cell. You may make the changes you require.

You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. Another way to save is file is. To do so. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . click the Office Button and select “Save As”. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. Saving. Select all the data you have entered. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. click the Office Button and select “Close”. To open an existing workbook. by placing the mouse in cell A1. To close the file. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. by placing the mouse in cell A1. you must make place on the worksheet. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. Once a file has been saved. Keep saving it as you work. to save it again. Enter the column width and press “OK”. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. Now close the file. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. save it. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Now click “Open”. To save a file. As soon as you have opened a new file. “Ctrl+S”. Select all the data you have entered. Your file is stored with the extension “. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet.xlsx”. you must make place on the worksheet. From the window that is displayed. To do so. browse to select the file you want to open. you must save the file. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar.shape changes. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved.

A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. As soon as you click on the icon. percent and exponentiation respectively. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. multiplication and division. In regular Mathematics. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. addition and subtraction. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. To do this in Excel. as shown in the figure. they are evaluated from left to right. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. including a description of each item. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. type ‘Marks’. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down. In Excel. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. subtraction. When you see the item you want. division. /. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. When you begin typing a formula. A moving border appears around the selection. Do the same for the other headings – . -. press Tab to enter it into your formula. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure.group on the “Home” tab. In the cell above Sub1. 69 | P a g e . *. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. you have to make use of a formula. multiplication. %. exponentiation. and ^ to perform addition.

observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. all related formulas are recalculated automatically. another worksheet. another workbook or in a totally different application. Right click in anywhere in the selection.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. 70 | P a g e . What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. a range. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. The contents of several continuous cells. Alternatively. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. A moving border appears around the selection. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet.66667. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. This is called “What-If Analysis”. press Esc key. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. Let us change the marks of one student. Select all cells from F11 to G19. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. that is. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82.to cancel the moving border. This indicates that the contents have been copied. Select cells F10 and G10. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. In the Formula Bar. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. In regular Mathematics.

IF(G10>=60. you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:). Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10.) like A4. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. "Fail"). A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. Click on the first cell."Pass". The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. IF(G10>=75.In formulas. the student will be declared “PASSED”. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. "B". The results for all students are displayed. A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. Press “Enter”. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. Pass grade All others fail. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. you will use the “IF” function. "C". "A+". IF(G10>=50. "A". =IF(G10>=35. In regular English. This is called “nested IF”. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. IF(G10>=35. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. =IF(G10>=80. In Excel. C7. Now select C14:F21. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. The grades for all students are displayed. E9. 71 | P a g e . You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks."PASS".

select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. you have to use “MIN” function. activate it. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. If the category is something else. to find the minimum marks. To find the average marks. 72 | P a g e . Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. the “Statistical” category will already be selected. From the window that opens. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. The result is displayed in cell C24. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. minimum and average marks scored by the students. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. B23. From the “Select a function” list. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Activate cell C24. you can make use of some statistical functions. Activate cell C23. Select the “Statistical” category. and B24 respectively. The Function Arguments window is displayed. From the “Select a function” list.Now to find the maximum. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. Type ‘Maximum marks’. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. To insert a function in cell C22. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”.

Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. All the headings are centered. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. A window of colors is displayed. A theme consists of a color palette. To bring the headings to the center. If the headings are not selected. select them first. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. click on the “Number” tab. font set. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. click in cell A1. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. While the headings are still selected. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. A5. 73 | P a g e . With the Ctrl key still held down. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. A list of fonts is displayed. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. and effects. Select the range of Percent marks. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. you must first select all of them. To select all headings. Click “OK”. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document. Select “Blue”. you can make them bold. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes.

Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts

You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears

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in the Formula Bar at the top. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. For this. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. You may enhance the appearance of your chart. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. Similarly. if some spelling mistakes have been made. 77 | P a g e . Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. to enter the description for the X-axis. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. on your worksheet. You can now see the actual marks of each student. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. To print only the chart. you can even change the Chart Type. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. This time. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. drag it to a position of your choice. To enter the description for the Y-axis. Now click “OK”. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. After a chart has been created. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. Now. Your chart appears as a bar chart. The chart title is displayed above your chart. drag to a suitable size. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. type “Names” and press “Enter”. Press “Enter”. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. select it by clicking in the chart area. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane.

All you need to do is to add data. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. click on Sheet2. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2. If you change a word which you did not want to. On the sheet tabs below. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. You may copy a sheet to another workbook. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . You may make changes in this sheet for another class. If a spelling is found to be wrong. Select the “Move or Copy” option. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. You do not have to type all the headings once again. You can use the same format of the worksheet. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. The Sheet2 will be displayed. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. a message saying so is displayed. Some words. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. From the “Before sheet” list. “Ignore” etc. the spelling checker moves to the next word. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. In that case. click in the “Create a copy” check box. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. select the sheet. click on the “Change All” button. Select the “Paste” option.. When you click on any button such as “Change”. To copy the sheet. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. click on “Undo Last”. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. In the “To book” list. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. select the book you want to move the sheet to.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready.

You can name the sheet accordingly. While you drag. When you copy. you can insert. 3000. Simply type the new name. The name of the sheet is changed. If you select “Insert”. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. delete. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. without opening the sheets. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. Other such autofill entries are . You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. etc. To deselect the sheets. move or copy. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. rename. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. Double-click on the name of the sheet. To stop 79 | P a g e . Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. For this. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series. select all sheets. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. and change the tab color. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. The name will be highlighted. This is the fill handle. number series like 1000. names of the months in short. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon.button. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. When you release the mouse. the sheet will be moved to the new location. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets. a chart or something else. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. 2000. another copy of the sheet is made. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. To copy a sheet with the mouse. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. the “Insert” window is displayed. Through the options in this window. You will see a black plus sign. If you select “Delete”.days of the week in short.

You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. If you reduce the percentage. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. to calculate 20% marks. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. For the Final exam. Now. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. you have made the column and the row references absolute.the automatic relative cell references. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. vertically or both horizontally and vertically. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. This makes the cell reference absolute. in the cell A1. Let us now go to Sheet3. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’. Although the formula has been copied. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. At such times. At such times. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. Now. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. To split the window vertically. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. the cell reference does not change. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . This is called referencing multiple sheets. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. Here. but data for marks will have to be typed. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. starting with cell ‘J1’. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007.

When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. To remove the freeze. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. the top left pane freezes. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To freeze the top row or first column. or both. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. To split the window horizontally. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. To remove a split. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. Also. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. For this. To freeze the left pane of the window. if you click on the top left cell. This means that. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. As you scroll through your worksheet. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. rows and columns. To freeze the top pane of the window. 81 | P a g e . you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze. you can freeze either.

The page number is usually given as the footer. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. In the “Goal Seek” window. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. containing the “Total” marks of the student. 82 | P a g e . You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. The default setting is “Portrait”. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. the cell with the marks below pass level. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. you want to find out. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. For example. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. you often come across situations.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. You can do this with Goal seek. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Activate cell F16. Headers. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. You now want to find out. If you know the result that you want from a formula. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. you can use the Goal Seek feature. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. During analysis. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. Click “OK”. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. Click “OK”. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. If the data is not properly visible on the page. if a student has failed. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. you can change the page orientation to landscape.

In the “Print What” section. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. movies and sounds. charts and tables. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. In addition. Now press the “Tab” key. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. In the “Print” window. correct and update the presentation. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. 83 | P a g e . Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. This will insert the date. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. Here. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. text. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. For this. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation. This displays another box to the right. click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”.

The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening.Each presentation is divided into slides. printing. saving. and Redo. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. Groups and Command buttons. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. 84 | P a g e . Undo. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. and closing a file. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic.

movies. you see your presentation the way your audience will. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. under “Templates”. On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. Slide Sorter View. You can see how your graphics. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. add or delete slides.In the left panel. This view takes up the full computer screen. or delete slides. timings. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. Now. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. which displays a large view of the current slide. You can make changes as required. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. To actually run a slide show. For example. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. Here. In this full-screen view. and Slide Show View. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. making it easy to reorder. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. It has three working areas. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. This is the main editing view. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. like an actual slide show presentation. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. add. You can also rearrange. In the Normal View. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group.

you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. In the existing slide. To rotate a placeholder. These are called “Placeholders”. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. To move a placeholder. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . In the Slide Pane on the right. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. First. Click on the “Design” tab. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. and pictures. tables. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. In the “Themes” group. When you start PowerPoint. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. Click on the title text. Now click on a theme of your choice. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. you can drag to the location you wish. You may now edit the text as you wish. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. you see two boxes. click on the text in the title. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes.

select “Picture”. Similarly. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. Select a suitable one. click the Office Button and select “Open”. tables. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. Enter the title and text as shown. As you did earlier.To save your presentation. click the picture icon. in the “Insert Picture” window. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Now click “Save”. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. In the “Illustrations” group. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. Click on the “Home” tab. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Enter the title and text as shown. such as text. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. Your file is stored with the extension “. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. In the “Insert Picture” window. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. You can see a new slide with the specified layout. In the “Slides” group. You may click on a style of your choice. Click on the picture. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. In the “Open” window. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder.pptx”. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. The available layouts are displayed. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. on a slide. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. browse to the location of your picture file. browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. In the “Picture Styles” group. pictures. You may change the size and position as required. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. charts and movies. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. To open a file that you have previously saved. browse to the location of your picture file.

Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. you may select other effects such as Bold. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. Let us create such a list on the third slide. Now to create a bulleted list. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. click on the “Design” tab. to create a numbered list. Similarly. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. To correct the misspelled words. You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. Italic. click on the “Review” tab. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. Let us center the title of the slide. Now click on the “Home” tab. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. 88 | P a g e . You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group.

click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e . you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. To select multiple slides in a row. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. To insert a slide between two slides. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. and drag to a new location. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. you will be informed accordingly. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. When your entire presentation has been scanned. Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. click “Ignore”. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag.For each word that is misspelled. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Inserting. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation.

Print what: Here. on the “Slides” tab.run a presentation. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. You may print all slides. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. select “Web Page Preview”. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. handouts. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group. click “Customize” in the left pane. 90 | P a g e . notes pages or outline view. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. In the window displayed. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. The “Print” window is displayed. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. the current slide only or any selection of slides. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. From the list displayed below.

Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. click “Text Box". you may choose the color quality of the prints. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. In the "Replace" window. In the “Text” group. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria. click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window.Color/grayscale: Here. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab. 91 | P a g e . In the “Editing” group. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. Enter some text and click “Find Next”. another document or to a Web site. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word. Click on the “Home” tab. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. Enter your options and click “OK”.

click “Table”. click “Hyperlink”. click on the “Insert” tab. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. As you type the text in the text box. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. indicating that you can enter text in it. Cycle. Let us change the style of the heading text. 92 | P a g e . Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. Each category contains several different layouts. Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Under “Select a place in this document”. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Hierarchy. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. In the “Tables” group. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. Relationship and others. Now click “OK”.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. To insert a table. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. In the “Insert Table” window. click on “First Slide”. Select a suitable one. Now you are ready to enter the table content. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. You may choose from various categories such as Process. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. You may size or move your table as required. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined. When you run the slide show. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. Using SmartArt graphics. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. In the “Links” group.

select a category. click “Change Colors”. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. In the “Illustrations” group. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. Click on the “Insert” tab. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. animation or movies. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. you may click “Text Pane”. In the “Illustrations” group. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. In the graphic displayed on your slide. click “SmartArt”. under “SmartArt Tools. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. In the panel displayed on the right. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. sound. Let us first insert a small clip. A “Clip” may be a single media file. Now click on the “Insert” tab. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . Alternatively. in the “Search for” box. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. For this. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. including art. click “Clip Art”. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. In the “Search in” list box.

A number of related clips are displayed. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. Now click “Go”. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. For this. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. On the “Slides” tab. Now click on a theme of your choice. In the “Themes” group. Click on the “Design” tab. check the box against “Movies”. To insert Clip Art. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. Under “Basic Shapes”. 94 | P a g e . simply start typing as shown in the figure. From the pictures displayed. click on “Hexagon”. To enter a title above the shape. You may size and position the shape as required. Let us now insert some Clip Art. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. drag a suitable one onto your slide. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. you need to run the slide show. In the “Drawing” group. Now click “Go”. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape.box. You may change the size of the clip as required.

screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. Now click on the “Animations” tab. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. This ensures consistency and saves time.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. 95 | P a g e . In the panel at the right. To see the Slide Master. click on the graphic. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. If you move your mouse over them. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. On the “Animations” tab. It is applied to all slides. click “Slide Master”. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. Now click “Play” to view your animation. You can see it is surrounded by a box. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane. Click on a suitable one. In the "Presentation Views" group. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. Now. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. First. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. In the “Animations” group. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. To associate a sound with your transition. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. click on the “View” tab.

Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. In Normal View. or nine miniature slides on a page.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. You may print all slides. Let us select “Vertical”. To view your notes page. 96 | P a g e . Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. click the “View” tab. whether horizontal or vertical. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. On the “Slides” tab. six. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. Let us select 4. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. two. You see the master slide in the right pane. Print what: Select “Handouts”. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. The “Print” window is displayed. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. four. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. Let us change the background style. three. or for your audience.

check the box against “Footer”. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. In the “Slides” group. To hide a slide. check the appropriate boxes. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. if you need to duplicate a slide. On the “Slides” tab. select “Header & Footer”. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. click the slide you wish to copy. it can be quite easily achieved. To insert the date. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. In the “Text” group. To hide the footer on the title slide. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. select “Header & Footer”. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. or to bottom of a slide. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. the time and date. time and slide number on the slide. you may hide the slide. To display the same footer information on all slides. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. Click the “Home” tab. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. click “Apply to All”. 97 | P a g e . On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. handout or notes page. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation.

and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. the author name. “Previous”. you can go backwards and redisplay it. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. click on the “Summary” tab. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. In the window displayed. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. for example. When you run your presentation. “Advanced Properties”. the subject. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. 98 | P a g e . The hidden slide icon is then removed. right-click the slide that you want to show. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. if someone has a question about a previous slide. For example. For this. In the “Document Information Panel”. Before saving the completed presentation. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. These may be a descriptive title. Enter your details on this tab. Use the “Next”. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. and then click “Hide Slide”. this slide will not be displayed. You may move to any slide in your presentation. you may want to point to an important word. Also. Then on the Ribbon. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation. A menu is displayed as shown.

Click the “Insert” tab. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. This has two tabs. Check the box against “Play sound”. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. click on the “Sound” icon. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Click “Save”. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. Under “Action Buttons”. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. In the “New Presentation” window. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. As the names suggest. on the “Slides” tab. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. 99 | P a g e . Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. Your original presentation does not get affected. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. To do this. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. In the “Illustrations” group. click “Shapes”. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. simply save the presentation with a new name. You may make any changes with respect to colors. you may save the file as a new presentation. themes etc that you require.

100 | P a g e . Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. it is important to rehearse the timing. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. on the “Slide Show” tab. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. Now. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing.During the slide show. To exit the PowerPoint application. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. they form a network. Click “Yes”. Click the “Slide Show” tab. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. After you set the time for the last slide. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. select “Rehearse Timings”. in the “Set Up” group. In the “Set Up” group. Now when you run your slide show. Click “Next” to move to the next slide.

A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes. a printer or a computer.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node. It could be any device such as a data storage device. To understand computer networks. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. a client is a user’s microcomputer. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. let us have a look at the types of networks. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. Typically. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. and are quite powerful. 101 | P a g e . Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. In decentralized organizations. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer.

Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. metropolitan area and wide area networks. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. In a “star network”. Networks may also be citywide and even international. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. The four principal network topologies are star. including a common internet connection. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. the Internet which spans the entire globe. within the same building. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. This is called the network’s topology. ring and hierarchical. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. Typically. Unlike a LAN. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. The widest of all WANs is of course. bus.Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . The hub may be a host computer or file server. When this is done over longer distances. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN.

The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. usually a mainframe. data and resources can be shared. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. client/server and peer-to-peer. In a “terminal network”. Client nodes request the services. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. For example. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. processing power is centralized in one large computer. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. However. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. For example. The most common network strategies are terminal. just like a star network. In a “peer-to-peer network”. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. forming a ring. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. 103 | P a g e . nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. In a “bus network”. each device is connected to two other devices. In a “ring network”. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network.

In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. It acts as a gatekeeper. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. operating systems and strategies. Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. or part of an intranet. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. newsletters. online order forms etc. 2) Like the public Internet. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. prices. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. hardware or a combination of both. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. web sites and web pages. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. pricing structures etc. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. Specific information such as product ranges. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. intranets use browsers. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. Firewalls can be implemented in software. 104 | P a g e . They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks.

This project was named ARPANET. after 1970. This led to the birth of the modern Internet. To send data along telephone lines. wireless telephones and even satellites. new independent centers were created in different places. Universities. Instead of having a central system of limited machines. Gradually. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. 105 | P a g e . researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project.

companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. You can take classes on various subjects. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. It has become a popular medium for business. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. information. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. shopping. Using the Internet.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. national and international news using the Internet. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. movie previews. You have additional options such as live concerts. advertisement and news. education. playing. 106 | P a g e . You can find the latest local. music and games is available using the Internet. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. book clubs and more. You can have access to entertainment.

a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses. This is known as e-commerce. Also. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. Electronic Commerce i. there are some disadvantages too.e. 107 | P a g e . it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. From the seller’s perspective. monetary transactions are also being carried out. For a buyer. With the help of Internet. While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet.

1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind.gomez. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www.com”. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. “www.com” and “www. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers.buy. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online.yahoo.com” and “www.private. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices.com” and “www.bizrate.americanexpress. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users. Security of your credit card number is important.epinions.consumersearch. In “Web auctions”. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. you need to check his reputation before placing an order.com”.com” and “www.com/privatepayments”. transferring funds. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information.shopping. You can enlist it to compare prices. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.com” are examples of review sites on the Web.mysimon. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e . You may visit vendor review sites such as “www. you have to place the order and make the payment.

paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. 109 | P a g e . For example. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. For a list of digital cash providers. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. see the displayed figure. If it is a valid cheque. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. This method is more secure than credit cards. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another.

Excel and PowerPoint. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e .Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk. To use a web-based application. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. When you exit the program.

The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. these programs can 111 | P a g e . Additionally.Internet and saving it on your computer. QuickTime from Apple. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. This is called “uploading”. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits.

provide filters and much more. have a look at the displayed figure. protect against computer viruses. chat groups and newsgroups. and programs with any other user. These programs control spam. You may chat using the keyboard. data files. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. using voice chat.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . Today. For a list of some of the best known filters.

Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. You can also play different games on the Internet. Chat groups. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. etc. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. listen to sound files. You can retrieve documents. Newsgroups. animation and sound. The name of its website is http://www. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. Telnet to connect to another computer. programs and information between two or more computers. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. but they are not the same thing.org. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. animations and videos. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text.w3. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. Netscape. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. graphics. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Internet Explorer. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Mailing lists. view images. 113 | P a g e . video. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. Instant Messaging: This supports direct.with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. cables and satellites.

Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. You may even move between pages at random. providing interactive games and more. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. This may be done by following hyperlinks. displaying graphics. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. Java applets are used for presenting animation. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. Using this protocol. Educational. in the course of learning something. A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. or just having fun. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. News. "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. Statistical Information and Personal Information.

example. “198. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. your computer would be the “sending device”. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel. For example. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel.4” before a connection can be made. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say. if you enter a URL.132. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. At the receiving end.are difficult to remember. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. say “www. For example. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel.103. 115 | P a g e .com”. 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. when you send an e-mail. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses.

Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. There are two categories of communication channels. 116 | P a g e . Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices. The other category is wireless. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. They include telephone lines. Compared to coaxial cable. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer.

“Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. We see a large number of cables in our offices. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations.e. 117 | P a g e . printers. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. Bluetooth is a small. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. broadcast radio. homes and everywhere else. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. microwave and satellite. wireless fidelity)”. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances. mobile phones. For longer distances. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. Conceived initially by Ericsson. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. etc. “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where.

The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. on the other hand. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. 118 | P a g e . Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. Computers. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart.

Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow. The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . Unlike other modems. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. PC Card and wireless. A “wireless modem” may be internal. It sends and receives signals through the air. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. internal.There are four basic types of modems: external. external or a PC Card. it does not use cables.

there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service.capacity. While special high-speed lines are very expensive. These include DSL. T2. satellite and cellular services. These lines are known as T1. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. 120 | P a g e . “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. cable modems. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet.

Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication.Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. 121 | P a g e . There are three categories of bandwidth. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. This is also known as low bandwidth. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time.

“Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. you can access the Internet through the LAN. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. In this method. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. Cable Modem. Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. the data transmission rate is much higher. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. password and access phone number. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. Using the modem and dialer software. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. Using a telephone. The service provider gives you a software package. you need a device called the “Modem”. In the last five years. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. Besides these. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. Examples are DSL. Some companies also offer free Internet access.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. Today. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. In the past. To do so. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. With this connection. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. username. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet.

click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. images. This allows easy viewing of text. you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. and animations. For example “. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. playing audio and video files and running programs. Since it is created by Microsoft. http://www. Using a browser.com” indicates a commercial site and “. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol.through the Internet to your computer screen. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. When you want to visit a website. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”. 123 | P a g e . The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. It allows navigation from one page to another. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. Internet Explorer. Each web site has a distinct.microsoft. type the website address or URL in the address bar. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet.in” indicates India. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. for example. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. At the top. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short.com/ and press “Enter”. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. If you do not see this icon. A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages. The second part presents the “domain name”. separate and unique address. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar.

and passwords. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”.To the right of the address bar. On the “Content” tab. To create a new tab. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. you can see a toolbar. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. Links may be in the form of underlined text. To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. the web page related to the link is opened. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. When you click on the link. You may use this to reload a web page. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. select “Tools → Internet Options”. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. click on the “X” to the right side of it. buttons or pictures. you can see the “Refresh” button. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. select “Tools → Internet Options”. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. you may use the “Forward” button. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. click “Settings”. On the “General” tab. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. click “Settings”. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. Under “Tabs”. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. you may enter the settings you require. To close a tab. under “AutoComplete”. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. 124 | P a g e . forms data. Below the address bar. you may enter the settings you require.

If a Web site offers multiple languages. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. from the “Create in” drop-down list. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. To place this favorite in an existing folder.. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. simply click on the “X” shaped. If you speak several languages. 125 | P a g e . content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. click “New Folder”. To unpin it. click “Add”. To view these pages in your preferred language.”. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. you may create a new folder for a favorite.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. click “Languages”. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. the related page is displayed in another frame. In the “Language Preference” window. Alternatively. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. In the “Add Language” window. select the language you want to add and click “OK”. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. you can arrange them in order of priority. select the desired folder and click “Add”. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. For this. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. On the “General” tab. Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders.

and then click “Organize Favorites”. select “File → Print” from the menu. For example.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. For this. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection. rename or delete a folder. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. address. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. check boxes. 126 | P a g e . click on one of the calendar icons. You may print all pages. To view the History list. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. buttons. A form may have text boxes. and so on. History items are displayed sorted by website. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. selected text. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites. Now. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. To delete an item from the History List.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. right-click on it and select “Delete”. such as your name. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. Once you have completed your registration. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. the current page.. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. phone number. pop-up menus or drop-down lists. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. In the “Organize Favorites” window. The “Print” window is displayed. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center.

Search services can be categorized into two types. Choose “Save Target As”. you can use the Preview option. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. Now click “Save”. web directories and search engines. The “Save As” window is displayed. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . For this. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. For example. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. Right-click to display a pop-up menu. A search can be done by entering a keyword. Choose a folder in which to save this image. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. In a keyword search. web directories and search engines. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. For this. Search services can be categorized into two types. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Click “Close” when the download is completed. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. position the mouse pointer over the image. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Choose “Save Picture As”. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu.

thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.

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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.

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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google

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You can filter inappropriate material. You may click on the link of your choice. Then press the “Google Search” button”. You will not see the search results page at all. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search.google. At a personal level.com in the address box. Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. employees and customers. you might want to try Advanced Search. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. 131 | P a g e . Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. Click the links to visit the related web pages. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. but if you do. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. Click “more” to view additional links. At a business level. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query.

E-mail has become very popular because of its speed. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. You see a form displayed on your screen. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. Just as every web page has a unique address. “ahmed” is the name of the person. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. especially in urban areas. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. To go to the Yahoo home page. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet.com. try a variation of the name. In this. Some of the examples are mail. When the mail server identifies the recipient. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”.com. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”.E-mail. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. low cost and absence of time restrictions. After you have chosen a name. 132 | P a g e . The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement. etc. Rediffmail. Next. type “www. The use of e-mail in our country.com” is the name of the domain or server. The first step is to fill out your personal information. “yahoo. When an e-mail is sent. Hotmail. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. has increased rapidly in recent years. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. At the other end. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. Indiatimes. you have to create a password. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk.yahoo. There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use.com.Yahoo. or electronic mail.com. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. or for his computer to be on. Now. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. it sends the message to his address.com. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide.com”.

For this. the file name is displayed in the header area on the attachment line. receiving and optionally persons receiving copies are generally included in an e-mail message. get-richquick schemes. Your e-mail account is then created and you may use it to send and receive messages. The different websites have different features for the e-mail facility they provide. comes the actual message text. many more personalization features are also provided. you have to enter the user name you selected during the registration process and also your password. often for products of questionable quality. To verify your registration. E-mail. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. The website authenticates your user login information and then provides access to your mailbox. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. address and telephone number. Auto Reply and Customized Signature. this information includes the sender’s name. Login Page: To access your mail account. Address Book. message and signature. type the code shown in the box exactly as you see it. Read the "Terms of Service" agreement and “Privacy Policy” by clicking on the related links and check the box after “Do you agree?” to confirm that you agree to them. The first part is the user’s name and the second part is the domain name which includes the top-level domain. A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header.You may check the “Marketing Preferences” box if you wish to receive promotional offers from Yahoo by e-mail. Inbox. Typically. Some of the common features are a Login Page. or something similar. Attachments: You can attach files such as documents and pictures to a mail message. You know that an e-mail address has two parts. the signature line provides additional information about the sender. After the header area. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. In an attempt to control spam. A more effective approach has been 133 | P a g e . These are mostly related to commercial advertising. Now click the “Create My Account” button. The header appears first and includes the following information: Addresses: Addresses of the person sending. you must first login. Besides these. Subject: This is a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. Finally. If a message has an attachment. in case of official mails. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks.

Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. When “Congratulations” is displayed. In the window displayed. 134 | P a g e . and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. When the option is selected.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. and then click "Customize". If you have not previously set up a newsreader. click "Go". In the "Categories" list. In the “Internet Accounts” window. click "News". Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”.mozilla. Also.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. In Windows Mail. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. In the United States of America. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. Click on the "Commands" tab. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. click “Finish”. Click “Next”. perform the following steps. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. In the "Commands" list. Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. Select “Go → News” from the menu. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. and to post replies to them. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. You may then close the “Customize” window. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. enter your e-mail address. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. Now. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. click “Add”. to download and read news messages. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu.

Windows Live Messenger. You may choose to reply to a message. If you wish. Click the “Add a contact” button. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. ICQ.Click “Close”. Now click “OK”. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. In the “Windows Live” folder. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. “Work” and “Notes” sections. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. To print this message. Select “Start → All Programs”. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. you can have a complete conversation. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. Click “OK” to confirm. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. To use a messenger. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Now. On the “All” tab. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. To unsubscribe from a group. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. In the contacts list. If both parties are online at the same time. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. You 135 | P a g e . Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. Google talk etc. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. “Personal”. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. select “File → Print” from the menu bar. It is similar to e-mail. Then click “Subscribe”. you may add additional information in the “Contact”.

editing contact details. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. In the main Messenger screen. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. When a contact comes online. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . click on your name at the top of the screen. “Out to lunch” etc.can chat with any contact who is online. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. also called “Smileys”. After you have completed your chat. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. Click “Options”. For this. you are notified about it. In the window displayed. the emoticon is sent along with the text. For this. You may send an emoticon along with your message. Click on your name at the top of the screen. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. When you click “Send”. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. The new picture is then displayed. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. deleting the contact etc. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. double-click the name of an online contact. Click “Change display picture”. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. you are ready to begin your chat. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. Chatting with your contact: Now. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. In the same way. In the “Save As” window. “Emoticons”. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. For this. you are informed about his status. Now select “File → Save”.

a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. you might join Meetup. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. see the displayed table. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. gender. For example. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online.e. For example. Members can search the database to locate individuals. if you are looking for business contacts. you provide profile information such as your age. This information is added to the site’s database. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. For a summary of social networking sites. you might join LinkedIn. 137 | P a g e . friend-of-a-friend and common interest. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual.One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. connecting individuals to one another. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. school name etc.

Currently.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task. retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. 138 | P a g e . You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. Although the information is well maintained. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School.

The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. enter data. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. using Access 2007. Queries. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. Here. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. manipulate. edit data. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). and present information in many different ways. Typically. Forms and Reports. before any other objects are created. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. In Access. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. It is an electronic database management system which can store. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. the information in a database is stored in a table. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record. That file contains database objects. However.accdb”. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. organize. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. 139 | P a g e . thing or place. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. data is organized in linked tables. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. print and preview data and much more. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. Usually. Tables store information. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. In the following labs.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. which are simply the components of a database. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. access. you will learn how to create a database. this action involves retrieving a piece of information.

The main table will include the employees’ basic information. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. manage contacts. queries. For example. Planning is the first step in the development of a database. 140 | P a g e . Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. you can easily switch between various objects. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. how its grouped and sorted. and how its formatted. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. or you can customize them to suit your needs. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database. or keep a record of expenses. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. delete and modify records from a table. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. -Your tables. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. By clicking the object tabs. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. You must understand the purpose of the database. -It is easy to add. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. Template databases can be used as they are. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. creating. there are templates that can be used to track issues. For this you must study the existing employee records. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information.

a table named Table1 which is completely blank. Access creates your first database object. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. with no defined fields. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . and Redo. In the panel at the right. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. Groups and Command buttons. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. click the arrow in the upper corner. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. Now click “Create”. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. To apply a command to a database object. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. At the left. and closing a file. Change it to “Employee. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. the names of your database objects such as tables. form. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View.accdb”. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. click the arrow at the top. Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. printing. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. It also allows you to enter and edit the data.For now. you see the “Navigation Pane”. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. Undo. or other database objects. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. When you open a database or create a new one. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. saving. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. to provide you with a larger work area. and configure the fields. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. you will create only the table containing the employee information. In the “File New Database” window. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. Design view allows you to create or change a table. To open a database object. But you cannot change the data in design view.

Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. meaning the fields that will hold the data. spaces.). Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. and search for data. like words. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. and special characters. Before you can enter data into a table. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. add and delete data. queries and reports. you need to enter a name for the table. The name can consist of letters. Now let us begin creating the table structure. and brackets([]). Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. and queries. You may also create a table using this view. you can edit fields. Before defining the fields in a table. and that it is always unique. You must specify a primary key for all tables. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. When you create a new table. Phone No. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. and numbers that are not used in calculations. Subject1. you must create the structure of the table. except a period (. numbers. forms. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. which makes queries and other operations fast. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. forms. the default name “Table1” is displayed. In Datasheet view. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. etc. Examples are names and phone numbers. You will learn about the different data types shortly. combinations of words and numbers. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left.now in datasheet view. In the “Save As” window. Following are the data types you can use. an exclamation (!). 142 | P a g e . We shall use the “Design View” to create a table.

A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. Birth date. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. Giving this description is optional. For example. Pass. Date of joining. AutoNumber: It is a unique. When you select a data type. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. Marks in an exam is an example. Price. 143 | P a g e . graphs etc. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. spreadsheet files. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. etc. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. As you can see. etc. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. True or False. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. documents. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Number: It is used to store numbers only. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. Attachment: This is used to store images. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. Summary of a book is an example. The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. Fees. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. Type the description wherever applicable. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. and On or Off. For example. Select the “Text” data type. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. etc. Each data type has its own set of field properties. documents. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field.

Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. Now. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. let us change some of the defaults. The structure of your table is now ready. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. In the same manner. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. Click the “Field Size” property text box. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. We used the Design View to define the structure.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee. Do not make any other changes. This value can be changed. But you cannot do so until you change the view. Select “General Date”. 144 | P a g e . Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data. sorting. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. If you set it to “Yes”.

On the “Home tab”. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. The document will be printed using the default settings. If you make a mistake while typing. Then drag in the desired direction. You may adjust the column width. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. Now click “Add”. Click “OK”. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. left or right until you get the desired width. For this. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. in the “Records” group. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. If you want to 145 | P a g e . Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. You have been informed by the HR department. that is. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. To see that the picture has really been inserted. This is the small box to the left of the record. click “Delete”. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. double-click in the attachment field. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. Type the employee’s ID number. In the “Choose File” window. Then you must delete that employee’s record. Click “Yes” to delete the record. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. For the date fields. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. in the “Employee ID” column. navigate to the location of the picture file. Then click “OK”. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. For this. Alternatively.

For example. If you want to change the page orientation. select “Selected Record(s)”. in the “Pages From:” field. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. Since you have just one table open presently. After you have entered your print specifications.change some settings you may do so. to print pages 1 to 5. To close the preview. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. You can see the preview consisting of one. to print pages 1 to 5. To print selected records. in the “Pages From:” field. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. Click “Yes” to save changes. To print pages that are continuous. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . enter the page range. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. To close a table. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. To print pages that are continuous. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. select “Selected Record(s)”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. you have to close the database. If you click “No” to discard changes. click “OK”. you may first click on the related tab to make it active. Closing the database: Next. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. Select “All” to print all records. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. For example. The table tab will close. enter the page range. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. Select “All” to print all records. After you have entered your print specifications. click “OK”. the table will close without saving the changes. To print selected records. The “Print” window is displayed. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on.

Let us modify the default name. If any database 147 | P a g e . select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. For this. In the document pane. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Your Database window is displayed. To open the “Emp Info” table. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. we shall copy the structure only.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Sometimes. To exit Access. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. click “More…” at the top of the list. In such a case. In the “Save As” window. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. In the “Paste Table As” window. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. This time. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. including its structure and data. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. you may not see the name of your database in this list. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. In the “Open” window. You may create a new database or open an existing one. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. The table will open in Datasheet View. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. Sometimes.

Click “Yes”. The new database is created identical to the original database. you need to first change to Design View. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. Make “Phone” the current field. You can even add and delete fields. Now. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. Also. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it.accdb” and click “Save”. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. enter the location and the name for the new database. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes. To define the format. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. So. In the “Size” field property. say “Backup_Employee. switch to Design View. For example. 148 | P a g e . Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. In the “Save As” window. For this. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. To set the display format.objects are open. To do so. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed.

So. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. While looking through the records. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. “Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. If you do not give a message. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Switch to “Datasheet” view. Now switch to Datasheet View. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. Save the design changes related to default values. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages. 149 | P a g e . A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. You can also add validation text. Type ‘M’ in it. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. you can make data entry a bit quicker.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. Similarly. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it.

Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. The warning message is immediately displayed. You will be asked to save the changes. You may change them if required. click “No”. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. Click “Yes”. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. switch to Datasheet View. In the “Validation Rule” property box. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. Now. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. 150 | P a g e . The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. Click “OK” to continue. For now. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. When you make changes to the structure of a table.

select “Whole field”. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. You want to match the whole field. In the “Find What” box. Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. so. 151 | P a g e . close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. type ‘BS’. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. Click “Find Next”. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. If you make changes to a single record. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. cancels the command. you have been told to make two changes. So. Now. Now. select “All”. one of the employees. type “Smith”. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values. In the “Search” box. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. in the “Match” box. Your original data appears. The other is that. Once you move to another record or move to another window. not part of it. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. the “Undo” command has no effect. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. you have to make changes in the “State” field. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. then click on the “Replace” button. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. You need not do this manually. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. If it is.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. Check whether it the record you are looking for. While in the “Datasheet” view. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. the last name of the employee. In the “Replace With” box.

Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. In this case. In Access. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. In the “Match” list options. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. If you check the box against “Match Case”. Sorting Records In the first lab. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. If you remember. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. For example. and All (which is the default). Save the changes made to the table. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. You are asked whether you want to continue. you may select the name of the table from the list. Down. Instantly. click on “Replace All”. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e .The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text. The options are Up.. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want.e. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. A warning message is displayed by Access. By default. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. When you select multiple columns to sort. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. If you want to search the entire table. In the “Default Value” property box. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i.

They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. To sort on multiple fields. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. To return to the primary key sort order. Then release the mouse. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. To sort on multiple fields. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. sorting is done from the leftmost field. The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . To select the two columns. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. the temporary sort must be removed. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. you need to sort on multiple fields. In the “Datasheet” view. This is the small box to the left of the field name. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”.column and moves to the right across the columns. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”. you need to select the two fields. Both the columns will be highlighted. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. So. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. in Datasheet View. switch to Design View. Now. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. To change the order of fields. observe the order of the records before sorting. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. To remove the temporary sorting order.

one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. lines. type it and click “Finish”. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. To make it easy to view and use. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. In the “Forms” group. In the “Tables/Queries” list. you are asked to select the style of the form. labels. boxes and pictures. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. titles. Select the fields from the list one by one. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. In the next step. The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. If not. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed. “Columnar” is selected by default. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. the layout of the form is displayed. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. click the close 154 | P a g e . Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. The next step is the last step. The other two buttons below this. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. In the next step. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. It guides you through the steps required to create a form. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee.To close the form. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default.

“When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. you can enter and view as many records as you want. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. Of course. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane.button on the form. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. So framing a question correctly is important. In the navigation pane. But if you ask. 155 | P a g e . The form with all blank boxes is displayed. to see all the records that you have entered. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. The form will be displayed. After you are done. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. For example. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. you have to put questions in the form of queries. In Access. Now. you first need to open the form. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. it is necessary to frame a question. In this way. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. To add records. to get information stored in the tables. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. Now let us change the label “Photo”. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. You will add this information using the form you created. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. Click on it and enter “Photograph”.

In the lower part. Parameter query. “First Name”. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. “Address”. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. you have a request from the Administrative department. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. Crosstab query. “Last Name”. the fields selected in the query are displayed. analyze and even change existing data. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. In the “Available Fields” list.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. select it. While the query is open. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. Queries are used to view data in different ways. which you are going to use. Click “Next”. Access saves each query in your database. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. In the document window. It was very simple. they want a list of all employees. In the “Other” group. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. But now. Now. This is very interesting. In the “Tables/Queries” list. click “Query Wizard”. but with selected fields. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. click on the “Home” tab. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. If not. “City”. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. Once you’ve saved a query. The most common is the “Select” query. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. Action query and SQL query. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. who have been in service for at least five years. and “Phone”. like any other database object. Here. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. To select the required fields. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. at the top. which you have already done.

For this. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. “Pin code”. “City”. there is an option for grouping fields. In the “Reports” group. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. double-click on this field. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. In the criteria row.organization. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. Running a query: To see the result of this query. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. The records matching your criteria are displayed. click “Report Wizard”. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. “State”. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. In the next “Report Wizard” window. as you did while selecting fields for the query. Now close the query tab. “First Name”. Now close the query tab. In the Tables/Queries list. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. so click “Next”. Select fields “Last Name”. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. “Address”. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. 157 | P a g e . For this. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. select “Table: Emp Info”. You must now specify a criterion for this field. which you are not going to need. As soon as you press “Enter”. Then. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. scroll down a bit. Click “OK”. Click “Next”. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement.

You need to make some changes. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. Similarly. The next window is the last step of the wizard. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. click on it. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. But if you see the report properly. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. where the data is not displayed completely. click on it. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. 158 | P a g e . Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. Now.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. Click on the heading “Last Name”. So. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. To make these changes. Click in the check box that says. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. A box appears around it. you need to modify the report layout. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. For now. In the next window. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order.

all the records of employees who have worked for five years. instead of the table. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. The next window is the last step of the wizard. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. To create a report from a query. Click “Next” once again. If they are still not properly visible. Close the preview. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. In the next window. You can see in the preview. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. The “Print” window is displayed. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. Click on the “Create” tab. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”.To see the preview. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. click “Report Wizard”. 159 | P a g e . “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. you may move and resize the fields again as required. To create this report. you will select the query. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. So. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. The difference is that. in the “Report Wizard”. Click in the check box that says. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. In the “Reports” group. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. Select the printer from the “Name” list. Click “OK”. in ascending order of the “First Name”. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list.

but away from access by unauthorized people.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. For this. In the “Open” window. Your database is now open. schedules etc. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. First. It is very important that you remember your password. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. If you forget your password. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. click “Encrypt with Password”. Enter your password and click “OK”. In the “Database Tools” group. In the “Set Database Password” window. In the “Database Tools” group. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. navigate to the location of your database. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. Click the “Database Tools” tab. You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. The “Password Required” window appears. Now click “OK”. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. Click the “Database Tools” tab. type your password and click “OK”. it cannot be retrieved. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. click “Decrypt Database”. Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. In the “Unset Database Password” window. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. type your password in the “Password” box. 160 | P a g e .

events and meetings. 161 | P a g e . Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. Select the day. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. upcoming appointments. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. having today’s date and time divisions. Calendar. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. Press “Enter”. and Contacts etc. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. The “Day” view. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. Your appointment has now been recorded. To begin with. click the arrow in the upper corner. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. we shall take a look at the calendar. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. and storing addresses. to provide you with a larger work area. Let us create an Appointment. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. click the arrow at the top. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information.

Click the 9 am time slot. 162 | P a g e . in the “Actions” group. in the “Options” group. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. On the “Appointment” tab. You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. In the text box below. type your notes. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. Select “Out of Office”. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. Let us keep this setting unchanged. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. select “None”. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded.Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting . Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. The current setting is “No end date”. such an entry is called an Event. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. The current setting is “Weekly”. Click “OK”. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. monthly or yearly. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. In the “Untitled .Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. In the “Show As” field. To turn a reminder off. weekly. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. You may keep this setting. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar.

In addition. in the date navigator window. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Select “View → Current view”. you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list. Changing the calendar view By default. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . you can view your calendar based on different criteria. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”.

they are displayed. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. The “Task” window is displayed. status. due date. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. choose the option “In Progress”. This view shows detailed information about each task. From the “Status” drop-down menu. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window.A task is a personal work related action item. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. Your task has now been recorded. if necessary. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. 164 | P a g e . 2. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. such as a weekly report. Outlook has certain predefined categories. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. 3. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. Meeting with the maintenance staff. To change the view to a detailed list. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. To change the view to a simple list. You may make changes as per your requirements. you have several tasks that need to be completed. If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. Click on “Save & Close”. subject. Meeting at the Yoga Club. To set up your categories. Press “Enter”. It includes different columns for priority. percentage complete and categories.

In this view. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. For example. The next time you click. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. right-click in the “Categories” column. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. 165 | P a g e . Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. they are sorted in descending order. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. the “Status” column must be visible. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. click on the column heading “Categories”. Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. each task will be represented by a task symbol. Similarly. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates. For example. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. To update the status of the task. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. In the “Detailed list” view. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. From the available categories list. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. select “Personal”. The subject of the task is also displayed. To assign a category to this task. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. From the drop-down list.

Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. the Print style. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. Click on the “Page Setup” button. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. Print range and Copies. Now. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Click “OK” in the “Print” window. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. To display the preview in actual size. Let us make some changes. “Table” or “Memo”. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. Type the required message and then close the window. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. If necessary. Select “File → Print”. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. select “File → Print”. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. The “Print” window is displayed. If everything is OK. Here two styles are available. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. Click “OK”. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders. to print the appointments. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. Type your name in the left header text box. Click on the “Preview” button. Similarly. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed.

Like other outlook tools. “Company”. This is called “Exporting”. “By Category”.Contact” window is displayed. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. email addresses. Click “Next”. “Address Cards”. phone numbers. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. Click “OK”. This is called “Importing”. “Phone numbers” etc. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. On the “Contact” tab. Click “Next”. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. birth-dates and anniversaries. Choose “Export to a file”.different types of information such as business and home address. Here. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. “Phone List”. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. 167 | P a g e . Click “Next”. “By Company” and others. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. Choose “Personal Folder File (. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. The “Untitled . “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. nick names. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. “Addresses”. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. Click on the “Browse” button.

e-mail address and company name. you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. Outlook will search all the available address books.Now click “Finish”.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. Click “Next”. first or last name. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. click “OK”. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. and then select the appropriate name. Under “Address Book”. click “Select Members”. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. choose “Import from another program or file”. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. This list is saved with a name. Now click “Finish”. in the “Members” group. select the 168 | P a g e . In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. type a name for the mailing list. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. In the list below. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. On the “Distribution List” tab. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). In the “Name” field. Click on the “Browse” button. Click “Next”. select “File → New → Distribution List”. You can also enter new contacts. Choose “Personal Folder File (. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people.

Under “Server Information”. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. and then click “Members”.name. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. For this. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Additionally. You first need to set up your mail account. Now click “OK”. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. On the “E-mail” tab. under “User Information”. 169 | P a g e . Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. select Account type. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk. POP3 is generally used. Let us delete a member from this list. Now click “Save & Close”. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window. click “New”. enter your name and email address. You can now make the changes you require. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. For this. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. and then click “OK”.

Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. Click “OK”. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. To send an e-mail. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. type your message. While composing the message. word processor documents. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. In the “Untitled Message” window. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. click on the "To:" button. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. database files. This brings up the “Select Names” window. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button. Click the “More Settings” button. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. the subject and the content of the mail. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. Now click “Close”.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. Now. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. click “Insert”. including spreadsheets. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Under “Logon Information”. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. Click “Next”. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. even sound recordings and graphic images.

She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. When you receive an attachment in a message. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. click the “Send” button. you can preview it. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. In order to view an attached file. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. You can see this folder in the left panel. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it.displayed just below the Subject Field. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. It is very important to know how to view them. For this. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. click the “Message” button. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. For example. For this. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. 171 | P a g e . When you connect. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. Reading Mail: In the center panel. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. when you start Microsoft Outlook. create a mail as described earlier. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. If you are not connected to the Internet. To return to the message body. click on the mail whose content you wish to see.

Also. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. Now send it like any other mail. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. You may make any changes you require. For this. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. Printing Messages: To print a mail. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. To reply to her mail. subject. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. 172 | P a g e . You may forward the mail that you have received. A new mail message window is displayed. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. For this. sender’s name etc. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. You may sort your mails by date received. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. In the “Save As” window. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. Now. This may be changed if required. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. Now click the “Reply” button. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox.

There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views.also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. On CD-RW disks.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . To display more search fields in the Query Builder. 173 | P a g e . You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. Body. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. such as Mail. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software. Type your search text in the From. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. Calendar and Contacts. you can click the flag once again. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox. When you have taken the necessary action. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. the related mail is displayed. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. Subject. in your Inbox. and then select the search fields you want from the list.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. the space can only be used once. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. and even in the Calendar. or To fields. Simply type a word in the search box. click “Add Criteria”. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. The moment a match is found.

You may change the files in this folder if you wish.the space can be erased and re-used many times. 174 | P a g e . Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. By default. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. such as a music CD. they are copied automatically to the disc. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. and click “Next”. This is the “Destination Drive”. In the “Burn a disc” window. an empty disc folder opens. Let us delete one of the files. However. In the window that appears. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. Before you can copy files to a CD. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. As you drag files into the disc folder. An empty disc folder opens. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. This is the “Source Drive”. In the window that appears. click “Burn files to disc”. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. In the “Burn a disc” window. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. click “Burn files to disc”. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. When the formatting is complete. enter a name for this disc.

However. If you use the Live File System format. and becomes part of.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. another executable program. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. and the infected file. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. Trojan horses and other such software. click “Next”. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. on the toolbar. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. Now. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. A virus attaches itself to. is called a "host". To select more than one file. To delete a specific file on a disk. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. click “Burn to disc”. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. While viruses can be intentionally destructive. press the “Delete” key. To erase all files on a disc. When the disc burning is complete. The selected files are copied to the disc. An example of an executable file is a program. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. burn these files to another disc”. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. click “Erase this disc”. on the toolbar. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. by destroying data. In the window that is displayed. a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. or executable code that is not part of a file. for example. click on the file name. using someone else’s credit card. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. for example. COM or EXE file. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. Now. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system.

e. When a file is checked. Anti-virus software.automatically plays. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. before copying data to your hard disk. Once installed. Fortunately. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). port monitoring and other methods. due to the popularity of the Internet. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. Such analysis may include data captures. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. Even if CDs are read only. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. displays. or downloads advertising material to a computer. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. Today. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. 176 | P a g e . “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. identity theft and adware. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. the files on them may already be infected. Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. MacAfee. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. network-borne worms are more common than viruses. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor.

If you hear a great song on the radio. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. only to find it’s the only good song in the album. Because these music files are compressed. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. By downloading from the Internet. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. you can choose to purchase individual songs. a large hard drive is not required to store them. You can use it to block certain Web sites. 177 | P a g e . This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. You may also listen to music online. if so desired. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. there is no download wait when streaming. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. Second. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. no files are left on your computer to take up space. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. First. To listen to music. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. buying online is fast and convenient. However. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio. after the music has finished playing. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream.

You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. you may create a large music collection on your computer. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. you must respect copyright laws. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk. 178 | P a g e . you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. To stop recording. For this. If it is not a free download. Once downloaded. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. you may view your favorite TV shows. there are others from which you can download legal music. tuner. For this.lycos.net and music. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. While downloading music. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. Like TV sets. Although many sites offer pirated music. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses. By downloading music. Once a TV tuner card has been installed. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. If you are downloading pirated digital files. demodulator. double-click the file to play it. even while running other applications. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. click the “Stop” button. or distribution to other computer users. Once a song is found. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites.com. Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. click the “TV” icon on the desktop. Then select the channel. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. Size and move the television window and control box window. The card contains a receiver. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. spyware and other unwanted software.

The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab.Once you have saved the video clip. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. current events. SMS is used by organizations for marketing. You may add it to a Web page. sports news and much more. click the “Movie” icon. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. information about flight delays. If the phone is powered off or out of range. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. SMS is a very popular service. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. paging. and voice mail systems. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. particularly among young people. often for products of questionable quality. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. or from the Internet. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. or something similar. Now in the “Media Clip” group. Today. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. you may use it in any way you like. using an "SMS gateway" website. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. To play the video clip. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. What is Spam? E-mail. get-richquick schemes. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well.

If you do want to view the remote images. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. they will continue to send mails. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. you have an alternative. In the left panel. You can use your voice to control your computer. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. 180 | P a g e . When you receive a message with remote images.mozilla. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. The spam indicator is then removed. click “Junk Settings”. Now click “OK”. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. By default. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. learn how to talk to your computer.e. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. In the left panel. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message.program which is available for free download at “www. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. and you can dictate text to the computer. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. To specify a white list. such as those of family and friends. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”. click “Junk Settings”. For this. under “Local Folders”.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. under “Local Folders”. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked.

and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.

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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. legal or otherwise. On the other hand. multimedia software. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories.restrictions. music. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. The third feature is comments. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. computer and video games. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. films. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. etc. websites. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks.

whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. but try not to hurt people’s feelings. 185 | P a g e . Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. As a result. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. Give people the benefit of the doubt. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. So. For example. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. and sound. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. video clips. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. Even if you are not a great singer. It now has an additional dimension. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. For example. Technology Today Today. They should not misuse this to read private email. naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. always be cautious with your words.has its own culture.

both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. When he does so. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. If both parties are online at the same time. click the “Add Files” button. To hold a video conference. the file is transferred to him. even if one of you is offline. Windows Live Messenger. This enables you to see and hear your contact. It is similar to e-mail. iPods. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. Before you can share files with a contact. ICQ. When your contact agrees to share the file.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. both you and your contact can access it. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . Your contact is given an option to accept the file. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. you can have a complete conversation. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. To create a sharing folder. Google talk etc. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. In the Conversation window. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23. When he does so. 2001. Till date. For this. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. In the displayed window. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. the video conference begins. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. In the “Sharing Folders” window. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers.

Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. Put simply. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. you may create a custom CD. or any portable music player . You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. First. iPod is a music player and more. you need to connect to “www.audio player series in history. iPods. games. They vary in size and features. It also transfers photos. Connect your iPod to your computer. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. other than the iPod touch. talk shows or anything else. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. They store music files internally. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. 187 | P a g e . Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. To transfer individual music files. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you.apple. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. iTunes starts automatically. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. videos. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. can also serve as external data storage devices.

have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. 188 | P a g e . Odeo. radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. Bluetooth vs. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. in general. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. for Commentaries. Bluetooth is a small. using the Internet. instructional and promotional material. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. with a short range. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. Using this technology. printers. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. mobile phones. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. Conceived initially by Ericsson. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. Today. film reviews. etc. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. Sportscasts and lots more. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Juice. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. homes and everywhere else. We see a large number of cables in our offices. and.

Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. 189 | P a g e . multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. modem. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. and offers better security than Bluetooth. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. Home Networking Today. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP).Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. you may use it to share different resources. Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. It covers greater distances. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. you need to set up the connection first. computers are commonly found in homes. It is a web-based free content. It enables a faster connection. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. For this. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. and Internet connection that you have. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. If you have more than one computer. Since its creation in 2001. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. A home network is commonly used to share files.

Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. provided it is not potentially offensive. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". Started in 2005. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed.wikipedia. Type “Einstein” into the box. and press enter or click “Go”. using Wikipedia. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies.This is a special type of website. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. You see a page which displays links to other pages. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. the site was purchased one year later by Google. singing. It can be found at www. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. you must include appropriate references. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish.youtube. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. So. you can research on any topic with great ease. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword.com. For example. Simply click a link to view the related page. preferring that they watch videos online. if you add information to an article. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. and in other creative ways. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. 190 | P a g e . Here you will most likely find all the information you need. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. Let us click on “English”. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein.com. This encyclopedia can be found at www. posting video resumes. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips.

the site has been banned in a few countries.Like most other social-networking sites. Because of this. *****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues.

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