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Sections

  • Introduction to Computers
  • WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System?
  • Other Operating Systems
  • Introduction to Windows Vista
  • Exploring the Desktop
  • Personalize your Desktop
  • Using Windows Vista
  • Date and Time Settings
  • Working with Windows
  • Using Help
  • Working with Multiple Windows
  • Shutting down Windows Vista
  • Organizing Your Work
  • Files and Folders
  • Using Computer
  • Working with Folders
  • Working with Files
  • Using Shortcuts
  • Using Applications
  • Using Notepad
  • Using WordPad
  • Creating a graphic using Paint
  • Copying between Applications
  • Previewing, Printing and Saving
  • Cleaning up the desktop
  • Using Calculator
  • Word Processing
  • Overview of Word Processing
  • What is Word Processing?
  • Creating and Editing a Document
  • Introduction to Microsoft Word
  • The User Interface
  • Creating New Documents
  • Entering and Formatting Text
  • Saving, Closing and Opening files
  • Moving through Text
  • Using Automatic Editing Features
  • Navigating a Document
  • Editing a Document
  • Working with graphics
  • Previewing and Printing a Document
  • Revising a Document
  • Moving and Copying Selections
  • Working with Multiple Documents
  • Inserting Page Breaks
  • Finding and Replacing text
  • Inserting the Current Date
  • Modifying Page Layout
  • Paragraph Formatting in detail
  • Character Formatting in detail
  • Creating Lists
  • Inserting Shapes
  • Editing while previewing
  • Inserting Objects
  • Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists
  • Saving to a New Folder
  • Hiding Spelling and Grammar
  • Formatting Documents Automatically
  • Creating a Table of Contents
  • Updating the Table of Contents
  • Formatting a Document Section
  • Using Footnotes and Endnotes
  • Adding Bookmarks
  • Formatting Picture Layout
  • Creating a Simple Table
  • Sorting Data
  • Inserting Headers and Footers
  • Checking the document
  • Printing Selected Pages
  • Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns
  • Using Word Art
  • Inserting Symbols
  • Adding a Drop Cap
  • Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge
  • Printing Mailing Labels
  • Preparing and Printing Envelopes
  • Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook
  • Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word
  • Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista
  • Using a Configured Language in Word
  • SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction
  • Features of Microsoft Excel 2007
  • Workbooks and Worksheets
  • Navigating the Excel Worksheet
  • Creating a New Workbook
  • Entering and Editing Data
  • Changing Column Width
  • Saving, Closing and Opening a Workbook
  • Moving Cells
  • Centering and Merging Cells
  • Using Formulas
  • Duplicating Cell Contents
  • Using Functions
  • Formatting the Worksheet
  • Working with Graphics
  • Entering the Date
  • Previewing and Printing
  • Using Charts
  • Creating a Chart
  • Modifying a Chart
  • Managing a Workbook
  • Working with Sheets
  • Managing Large Sheets
  • Forecasting Values
  • Headers, Footers and Print Settings
  • Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics
  • Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates
  • PowerPoint Presentation Views
  • Creating your First Slide
  • Sizing and Moving Placeholders
  • Saving and Opening a Presentation
  • Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures
  • Changing Fonts and Formatting
  • Checking Spellings
  • Inserting, Moving and Deleting Slides
  • Running a Slide Show
  • Previewing and Printing a Presentation
  • Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink
  • Create and Enhance a Table
  • Using SmartArt
  • Inserting Clips and Clip Art
  • Create and Enhance Shapes
  • Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme
  • Adding Animation and Other Effects
  • Changing the Slide Master
  • Creating Notes Pages
  • Printing Handouts
  • Using Headers and Footers
  • Duplicating and Hiding Slides
  • Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show
  • Documenting a File
  • Using Advanced Presentation Features
  • Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides
  • Adding Action Buttons
  • Delivering Presentations
  • Internet Basics What is a Network?
  • What is Internet?
  • What is WWW?
  • Information Flow Over the Internet
  • Communication Systems
  • How Do We Connect?
  • Browsers
  • Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7
  • Using the Favorites Center
  • Using Forms
  • Printing and Saving Web Pages
  • Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services
  • Google
  • Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services
  • Using Newsgroups
  • Using Messengers for Instant Messaging
  • Social Networking
  • Overview Introduction to Databases
  • Creating a Database Introduction to Access
  • Creating a New Database
  • Creating a Table
  • Preview and Print a Table
  • Close and Open a Table and Database
  • Making Copies of Database Objects
  • Making a Copy of the Database
  • Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields
  • Finding and Replacing Data
  • Sorting Records
  • Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard
  • Adding Records in a Form
  • Queries and Reports Using Queries
  • Creating Reports
  • Modifying Report Layout
  • Printing a Report
  • Creating a Report from a Query
  • Protecting the Database Using Passwords
  • Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook
  • Using Calendar
  • Creating an Appointment
  • Creating a recurring appointment
  • Creating an event
  • Changing the calendar view
  • Creating a task list
  • Setting up Categories
  • Sorting tasks
  • Using a task timeline
  • Updating the task status
  • Printing tasks and calendar items
  • Creating Notes
  • Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook
  • Adding and Removing Contacts
  • Importing & Exporting Contacts
  • Searching Address Books
  • Creating and editing mailing lists
  • Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account
  • Creating an E-mail Message
  • Using Attachments
  • Sending Mail
  • Receiving Mail
  • Viewing and Saving an Attachment
  • Replying to and Forwarding a Mail
  • Handling mails in the Inbox
  • Using Instant Search
  • Using Flags
  • CD Writing What is CD Writing?
  • Burning a CD using Windows Vista
  • Erasing a CD
  • Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus?
  • Virus Protection
  • Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music
  • Downloading Music
  • TV Tuner Card
  • PC to Mobile: Sending SMS
  • What is Spam?
  • Spam Blocking Software
  • What is Speech Recognition?
  • What is Digital Video Editing?
  • Windows Movie Maker
  • Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens
  • Blogs
  • Edutainment
  • Infotainment
  • Netiquette
  • Technology Today
  • Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology
  • Home Networking
  • Popular Websites Wikipedia
  • YouTube

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ALL ABOUT COMPUTERS
Introduction to Computers The purpose of this course is to help you become competent with computer technology. Computer competency refers to acquiring computer-related skills. They include the effective use of popular application packages and the Internet. Today, computer competency is undoubtedly a prerequisite in all walks of life. To begin with, you must understand the impact of computers in the world today. Computers are affecting our lives is some way or the other. Airline and railway reservations, telephone and electricity bills, banking, medical diagnoses, weather forecasts… the list of services using computers is almost endless. A computer is a device that allows you to input data, process data quickly and efficiently, receive outputs and store data. Thus a computer consists of one or more input devices, output devices, storage devices and a processing unit.

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WINDOWS VISTA
WINDOWS BASICS What is an Operating System? Mac

Other Operating Systems Mac OS: “Mac OS” is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. It is a powerful, easyto-use operating system that is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers and many home users. One of the latest versions of the Macintosh operating system is “Mac OS X”, also known as “Tiger”. It provides powerful features such as “Spotlight” and “Dashboard Widgets”. Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files, folders, e-mail messages, addresses and much more. Dashboard
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Widgets are specialized programs that constantly update and display information. The next version of Mac OS, “Leopard” includes “Boot Camp” which allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to use both Mac OS and Windows XP. UNIX and Linux: UNIX is a powerful multitasking operating system that was developed in 1969. It was originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments. Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers and Web servers. Linux is a popular version of UNIX. It was initially created as a hobby in 1991 by a graduate student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He allowed free distribution of the operating system code and encouraged others to modify and further develop the code. Introduction to Windows Vista Windows Vista has a more elegant and sophisticated looked than all previous versions of Windows. The new Vista interface is great to look at, with a lot of added functionality making working in Vista a really pleasant experience -and a more secure one. Windows Aero: This is the graphical user interface for Windows Vista. Its name is a contraction of the words Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It includes new transparencies, live thumbnails, live icons and animations which are visually very appealing. Glass window borders and surfaces make the interface both professional and beautiful. Windows Sidebar: This is a long, vertical bar that is displayed on the side of your desktop. It contains mini-programs called gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. To add a gadget, right-click on the side bar and select “Add Gadget”. Now simply drag a gadget from the Gadget gallery onto the sidebar. To remove a gadget from the sidebar, move your mouse over it and click on the “X” sign next to it. Additional gadgets can also be downloaded from the Microsoft Gadgets website by clicking on “Get more gadgets online”. Search Boxes: Search boxes are prominently integrated into Windows Explorer, the Start menu, Control Panel, Windows Internet Explorer and Help. So no matter where you are, you can always search for related files, folders or information. Two types of searches are supported: Regular search, where a search is performed when you click the “Search” button, and Instant search, where the results are displayed immediately as you type.
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Windows Vista has maintenance utilities such as “Disk Cleanup” and “Disk Defragmenter”. b) “Antivirus programs” that guard against programs that can damage your computer system. Under “System and Maintenance”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. The “Backup Status and Configuration” window is displayed. click “Back up your computer”. Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. There are various utility programs such as: a) “Troubleshooting” or “diagnostic programs” that recognize and correct problems before they become serious. c) “Uninstall programs” that allow you to safely remove programs that you do not need from your hard disk. you may use the “Back up files” button. To enter settings regarding where the backup is to be stored and which files are to be backed up. specify the file types that you wish to backup and click “Next”.Utilities: “Utilities” are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. 4| Page . Now click “Save settings and start backup” to begin the backup process. Click “Change backup settings”. and Disk Defragmenter is used to rearrange your files so that they are not broken up. In the displayed window. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. e) “File compression programs” that reduce the size of files for easy storage and transfer over the Internet. Disk Cleanup is used to remove unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster. click “Change settings”. d) “Backup programs” that make copies of files to be used in the event of the originals being lost. Backup “Backup” is a utility program included with Windows Vista that makes a copy of all or selected files that have been saved onto a disk. To backup specific files. Specify how often and when you wish to take a backup. Specify the location where you wish to store the backup and click “Next”. You may backup your entire computer by clicking “Back up computer”.

The operating system tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors i. Disk Defragmenter Files are stored and organized on a disk according to “tracks” and “sectors”. click “Defragment now” and click “OK” in the displayed window. 5| Page . In the displayed window. sectors that are adjacent to each other. Then select the drive you want to clean up and click “OK”. into small parts that are stored wherever space is available. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Cleanup”. Whenever a file is retrieved. it is reconstructed from the fragments. many nonessential files are saved on your hard disk.Disk Cleanup When you surf the Web. After a period of time. “Disk Cleanup” is a utility that eliminates such files and frees up valuable disk space and improves system performance. Verify the files and click “OK”. The disk cleanup process begins and the selected files are removed. You may modify the scheduled time for defragmentation by clicking “Modify schedule”. It runs automatically at a scheduled time by default. A track is a concentric ring. “Disk Defragmenter” is a utility program that eliminates unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. The space that will be made free by the cleanup is calculated and the files suggested for cleanup are displayed. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections called sectors. To start the defragmentation process. click “Select volumes”. this is not always possible and the file has to be broken up or fragmented. In the displayed window specify whether all files or only your files are to be cleaned up. click “Delete Files”. However. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories → System Tools → Disk Defragmenter”. Click “Continue” in the “User Account Control” window. To specify which partitions of your hard disk you wish to defragment. the hard disk becomes highly fragmented and results in slower operations.e.

Virus protection programs set up a barrier to viruses attempting to enter a computer system. These suites also include programs that protect your system from dangerous programs called computer “viruses”. “Norton CleanSweep” is a collection of programs that help you to safely remove programs that you do not need. These protection programs are loaded into memory and run continually in the background and monitor all operations looking for actions associated with viruses. “GoBack Personal Edition” can be used to restore system configurations. They protect existing files from damage when new programs are installed. Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately. When several utility programs are combined into a single package. as well as clean up your hard disk. “Web CleanUp” is a collection of programs that remove unnecessary files from your computer such as temporary files. Norton SystemWorks The Norton SystemWorks utility suite includes the following: “Norton AntiVirus” is a collection of antivirus programs that can protect your system from different viruses. it is known as a “Utility Suite”. Device Drivers: “Device drivers” are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. Existing viruses are removed and the virus list is automatically updated so that your system is checked for the newest viruses.Utility Suites: A “Utility Program” performs a specific task. “One Button Checkup” integrates several of the separate utilities. It is a quick evaluation that looks for typical PC problems and alerts you accordingly. history files and cookies. locate lost files and repair damaged files. Three popular utility suites are McAfee Office. When a new device such as a mouse or a printer is added 6| Page . Norton SystemWorks and V Communications. Viruses enter your computer in various ways such as opening e-mail attachments and downloading from the Internet. They also compress and make backups of programs. “Norton Utilities” is a collection of separate troubleshooting utilities that can be used to prevent and fix problems and improve system performance.

to a computer system, a new device driver must be installed before it can be used. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads all device drivers into memory. Windows supplies many device drivers which are automatically installed when a new device is connected. If a particular device driver is not included with the Windows systems software, it is supplied by the manufacturer of the product. When a device driver needs to be manually installed, wizards provided by Window assist you in the process. For example, the “Add Printer” wizard provides step-by-step guidance for installing a driver for a printer. Ex.: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel”. Under “Hardware and Sound”, click “Printer”. Click the “Add a printer” button on the toolbar to display the “Add Printer” wizard. Follow the onscreen instructions to install the driver. Sometimes, when your computer behaves unpredictably, you could try reinstalling or updating your device drivers. Windows makes it easy to update your drivers using “Windows Update”. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Windows Update”. In the left pane, click “Check for updates”. To see if updated drivers are available, click “View available updates”. Windows Update will list any updated drivers that are available for devices installed in your computer. If updates are available, click the driver that you want to install, and then click “Install”. Some of the security and safety features of Windows Vista are as follows: Windows Defender: This is a software product which is a part of Windows Vista. It is designed to prevent and remove spyware. Spyware on your computer could result in information being transmitted from your computer without your knowledge. Windows Firewall: This helps in guarding your computer against many types of malicious software. User Account Control: This is an infrastructure that requires user consent before allowing any action that requires administrative privileges such as installing new software or changing system settings. Parental controls: An administrator can apply parental control restrictions to other users on the computer. Facilities include web content blocking,
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restrictions on what kind of games may be played and what programs may be executed. Exploring the Desktop Desktop When your computer is booted up and ready to use, the screen you see is called the “Desktop”. It is the background for all programs and contains the commands needed for accessing those programs. The background graphic is called “Wallpaper”. The desktop can be customized to suit individual needs.

Icon Another important graphic feature that you find on the desktop is an “Icon”. Icons are small pictures that are linked to programs. Most icons and toolbar buttons display a “Tool Tip” containing a brief description of the item when you rest the mouse pointer on it. Double-clicking on the icon runs the program or accesses the file and rightclicking accesses a menu offering options, actions and properties. Icons can be moved around on the desktop by clicking and dragging them. Vista’s live icons graphically depict the content of files stored on your computer.

Recycle Bin The "Recycle Bin" on the desktop serves as a trash can. When you delete a file or folder, it goes into the Recycle Bin where it stays until the bin is emptied. Double-clicking on the icon opens a window that shows you its contents. If you delete something you shouldn't have, you can find it in the Recycle Bin and restore it to its proper place. When the Recycle Bin is emptied, everything in it is permanently deleted.

Taskbar At the bottom of the screen, you see a long, thin bar which is called the “Taskbar”. The currently active tasks are displayed in the form of buttons on
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the taskbar. When you move your mouse over a button, a thumbnail image of the window is displayed. The taskbar has a circular button displaying the Windows logo at one end and a clock on the other. The button at the left end is the "Start" button which is used to start a program, open a document, get help, find information and change the system settings. If you click on the "Start" button, a box called a “Menu” appears. This menu contains several items. Some of them have sub-items which can be accessed by clicking on them. You may see icons on the taskbar, too. These are called "Quick Launch" icons that allow one-click access to frequently used programs. The right end of the taskbar is the “Notification” area. In the “Notification” area, to the left of the clock are several icons that indicate the tools that are automatically started when you turn on your computer and are running in the background, such as antivirus protection. This area also temporarily displays icons while a tool is in use, such as a printer when printing is in progress.

Personalize your Desktop You may set different display properties for your desktop. Right click on the desktop and select “Personalize”. Changing the Wallpaper: You can make your desktop as attractive and colorful as you wish by setting a wallpaper of your choice. For this, click on “Desktop Background”. In the “Picture Location” box, select the location of the picture. Now from the pictures displayed, make your choice by clicking on it. You may use the “Browse” button to search for a background picture from another location not in the list. Specify how you want the picture to be positioned and click on “Change background color” to select a color to fill the space not used by the picture. You may also save a picture from a Web site as your desktop background. Right-click the picture and then click “Set as Background”. Setting a Screen Saver: A screen saver is a program that displays an image, animation, or just a blank screen on a computer after no input has been received for a certain length of time. Screen savers were originally designed to prevent damages (called burn-in) to CRT screens. The screens manufactured nowadays are much more resistant to damages. To set a screen saver, click on “Screen Saver” in the “Personalization” window. Now
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specify the number of minutes of idle time after which you want the screen saver to start. To clear the screen saver after it has started. In this way. You may even specify a different pointer for a specific action. Click on “Mouse Pointers” in the “Personalization” window. Click on “Busy” in the “Customize” box and then click “Browse”. To change the setting options for your screen saver. you can see the way your mouse pointer will appear when different actions are performed. In the displayed figure. Under “Resolution”. You can see a variety of cursors displayed in the “Browse” window. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. Click “OK” to save your settings. move the slider to the resolution you want. Click on one and then click “Open”. fewer items fit on the screen. so more items fit on the screen. In the “Wait” field. Click “OK” to save your settings. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. you may try using other screen savers and make changes to the related settings. At lower resolutions. but they are larger and easier to see. but they are larger and easier to see. Screen resolution refers to the clarity of the text and images on your screen. Click “Preview” once again to see how the screen saver will look with the new settings. At lower resolutions. select “See-saw”. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor. In the “Custom Text” box enter some other text. Changing the Display Settings: You may change various settings related to the display of your monitor. items appear smaller. items appear smaller. In the “Customize” box. Now select a different scheme from the “Scheme” list. you can see the recommended resolution based on the size of the monitor.select “3D Text” from the list. Now click “OK”. click “Settings”. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. so more items fit on the screen. Click “Preview” to see how the selected screen saver will appear on your monitor. Click on “Display Settings” in the “Personalization” window. In the displayed figure. At higher resolutions. Changing the Mouse Pointer: You may choose a different mouse pointer and also change the way it appears during activities such as clicking and selecting. At higher resolutions. In the “Rotation Type” box. Under “Resolution”. simply move your mouse or press any key. move the slider to the resolution you want. say “Good Morning!”. fewer items fit on the screen. 10 | P a g e .

Documents: “Documents” is your personal folder. Click the “Monitor” tab and make a selection from the “Screen refresh rate” box and click “Apply”. Programs you have not recently used are removed from the list and replaced with the more recently used programs. As you learn more about Windows Vista. When you point to an item with an arrowhead symbol. a submenu with additional options is displayed. The programs on the pinned items list remain there and are always available for you to click to start them. It is a convenient place to store documents. causing eye strain and headaches. Pictures: The “Pictures” folder in Windows Vista offers a variety of options for viewing and managing your digital pictures. Clicking an icon in the “Start” menu starts a program or accesses an item or feature immediately. you need to start application programs and access files you have created using these applications. The first part is the “Pinned Items List”. as it is the starting point for most features on your computer.To get the best color display from your monitor. A refresh rate of at least 75 hertz generally produces less flicker. You can add programs to the pinned items list. Windows colors and themes work best when you have your monitor set to 32-bit color. graphics. Click “Advanced Settings”. To save your settings. The next part is the “Most frequently used programs list”. or other files you want to access quickly. you may make a selection from the “Colors” box. From within “Pictures”. You may explore the various other options in the “Personalize” window to further personalize your Windows experience. Click “Yes” in the displayed window and then click “OK”. Programs are added to the most frequently used programs list when you use them. Pointing to an item in the “Start” menu moves the selection cursor to the item and displays a pop-up description. Using Windows Vista The “Start” button is one of the most important features in Windows. the monitor can flicker. Another consideration in getting the best possible display from your monitor is the screen refresh rate. The list of programs on the Start menu is divided into two parts. you will find there are many ways to perform the same task. If the refresh rate is too low. To use your computer. click “OK” in the “Display Settings” window. you 11 | P a g e .

you can access many support applications that enable you to customize the appearance and functionality of your computer system. From the Control Panel. To change only the hour. the “Control Panel” and other system applications. On the “Date and Time” tab. Date and Time Settings The “System Date” and “System Time” are the date and time as maintained by the computer's internal clock. month. such as a printer or shared folder. Language. Computer: This item in the “Start” menu is used to access drives. click on “Change date and time”. obtain troubleshooting information. Network: “Network” displays shortcuts to shared computers. and year under “Date” to set the date. you can access hardware settings for the keyboard.can view photos at different sizes. All Programs: Clicking “All Programs” opens a list of programs currently installed on your computer. and then click the arrows to increase or 12 | P a g e . print photos or copy photos to a CD. The shortcuts are created automatically whenever you open a shared network resource. enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. rotate them. and Region → Date and Time”. as well as settings for the monitor display and sound. Control Panel: Using the Control panel. Now click the correct day. printers. and other resources on the network. receive support and more. To play a particular audio file that you have saved. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. To set the time. printers and modem. Music: The “Music” folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. mouse. view a slide show. click on the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Clock. Changing the date and time manually: To make changes to the system date and time. printers and other hardware. double-click the hour. simply double-click on it. Help and Support: You can click “Help and Support” to learn how to use Windows Vista.

Select “Control Panel → Clock. Maximize. Scroll bar: This lets you scroll the contents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. On the “Formats” tab. enlarge it to fill the whole screen. Updating the Date and Time: You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. Minimize. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes. Now click “OK”. click “Change time zone” on the “Date and Time” tab. usually referred to as the local time. make sure you are connected to the Internet. seconds and the AM/PM indicator. To change your time zone. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty. select your current format and then click “Customize this format”. Borders and corners: You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window. and Region → Regional and Language Options”. click on it. respectively Menu bar: This contains several items that that you can click to make choices in a program.decrease the value. Enter the formats you require on the “Time” and “Date” tabs of the “Customize Regional Options” window. On the “Internet Time” tab. and close it. and Close buttons: These buttons reduce the window to a button on the task bar. click “Change Settings”. For this. Sizing and Moving Windows: To make the desktop more workable. you can move and size windows. Changing the date and time display: You may change the way in which your computer displays the date and time. Language. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Using the buttons in the Title Bar you can 13 | P a g e . Working with Windows A window is a rectangular section on the screen that is used to display information and other programs. Each program that you open is opened in its own window. Most windows have the same basic parts:Title bar: This displays the name of the window which indicates which program is running. Changing the Time Zone: Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time.

14 | P a g e . text boxes. To choose an arrangement. Command buttons may also appear as small icons without any text. “Show Windows Stacked”. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command. change settings. Command buttons: A command button performs an action when you click it. whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options. Scrolling a Window: When there is more information in a window than can be viewed on the screen. check boxes. Arranging windows automatically: You can also have the windows on your desktop automatically arranged. point to the title bar and drag the window to the new location on the desktop. allows you to select options to perform a task. click on it. Moving a Window: To move a window. Windows Controls: Most windows have “controls” that allow you to select commands. right-click on an empty area of the taskbar. To choose a command listed in a menu. Menus: To keep the screen free of unnecessary items. Some menu controls are shown by an arrow next to a word or picture. scroll bars appear on the window. option buttons. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. list boxes. Dialog Boxes: A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question. it is unavailable and cannot be clicked. If a command is shown in gray. Let us have a look at some of them. Data may be entered using push buttons. Changing the Size of the Window: You can change the size of the window by pointing to the border of the window with your mouse and dragging to make it smaller or bigger. combo boxes and other such controls. restore the window to the original size or close a window. maximize the window to its largest size. or “Show Windows Side by Side”. To scroll you can either click the arrow of the scroll bar or you can drag the scroll box to move the content within the window. There are two types of scroll bars Vertical and Horizontal. Split buttons: These buttons change into two parts when you point to them.minimize the window. or provides you with information. or perform other actions related to the working of the window. then choose one of the options “Cascade Windows”. menus are hidden until you click their titles in the “menu bar”.

Unlike a drop-down list. You may click on any topic under “Find an answer” to see help for that topic. you may enter the keywords you wish to search on. This is the most commonly used windows control. The currently selected tab appears at the front. information is displayed on multiple tabs. Drop-down lists: These are similar to menus. Sliders: A slider enables you to adjust a setting along a range of values by dragging the slider toward the value that you want. In the “Search Help” text box. You may perform tasks related to Security. You can switch to a different tab by clicking on it. Click on the magnifying glass or press “Enter” to display a list of related topics. Using Help With Windows Vista Help features. you can choose multiple options at the same time using check boxes. 15 | P a g e . options are available for selection instead of commands to be executed. List boxes: A list box displays a list of options that you can select from. The other options are displayed when you click the control. Click the “Start” button and then click “Help and Support” to display the “Windows Help and Support” window. some or all of the options are displayed without having to open the list. you may search across multiple remote and online providers to get the most information for the topic that you are investigating. Here. A drop-down list shows only the currently selected option when it is closed. Text boxes: A text box is used to type textual information. They are also called “radio buttons”. Maintenance and Troubleshooting by selecting appropriate options. Under “Ask someone” you may click on the various links for additional assistance and support from friends. Tabs: In some dialog boxes. Check boxes: Check boxes enable you to select one or more independent a single option only. Windows communities or from Microsoft Customer Support online.Option buttons: Option buttons enable you to make one choice among multiple options.

“Windows Help and Support”. the Microsoft Word document named “Document1”. To switch to a specific program. it appears in the size in which it was last used and at any location on the desktop. Multiple windows can be open on the desktop at once. The newly opened window is automatically the active window and appears on top of other open windows on the desktop. allowing you to switch easily between tasks without having to put one away before beginning the other. the window currently in use. The “Document1” window is the active window. If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons. the taskbar buttons resize themselves automatically to fit in the taskbar. Switching between windows: Using the taskbar: Each running program has a corresponding button on the taskbar. This indicates that clicking this link will open the associated item on your computer. “Computer” and “Document1”. This makes working with your computer more like you would actually work. Opening a New Window: Notice the “Document1” icon on the desktop. There are now three programs running at the same time. 16 | P a g e . then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button. On the Start menu click “Computer” and then “Help and Support”. As more windows are opened. Working with Multiple Windows The capability to run multiple programs at the same time is called “Multitasking”. but only one window is active at a time.Under “Information from Microsoft” you will find guidance on various tasks which will make your experience of working with Windows Vista smooth and convenient. You can see that each program is displayed in its own window. in this case. This is now the “active” window. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group. The window in which the program is running appears in front of the other windows. that is. A new window opens on the desktop and the taskbar displays an additional button for this open window. Double-click on it. When a new window is opened. You can tell it is the active window because the taskbar button and title bar appear dark whereas those of the inactive windows are dimmed. just click its taskbar button. then select an item to make it the active window.

Lock: This is used to lock the computer when you do not want anyone else to access your files. Switch User: This enables you to switch to another user without closing the programs of the current user. Shut Down: To shut down your computer completely. It closes all open programs. and allows you to resume working within seconds. It saves all open documents and programs. Release the Windows logo key to display the window at the front. shuts down Windows and puts off your computer. Sleep: Sleep is a power-saving state. Release the “Alt” key to show the selected window. click the “Start” button. Restart: This closes all open programs. Alternatively. Shutting down Windows Vista It is very important to shut down Windows Vista correctly. This closes all your open programs but does not put the computer off. Do not turn off the computer by pressing the power button as you may lose valuable data. While holding down the Windows logo key. Using Windows Flip 3D: This feature allows you to flip through a cascading stack of your open windows. You may also click on the “Switch between windows” icon on the taskbar to enable the “Windows Flip 3D” feature. click any part of a window in the stack to display that window. Let us see what each of them does. press the “Tab” key repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to cycle through open windows. use this option. shuts down Windows and restarts the computer once again. select “Log Off”. This action puts your computer in “sleep” mode. Log Off: If you share the computer with someone else. When you click the arrow next to the “Lock” button. you see various options. Organizing Your Work Files and Folders 17 | P a g e . To turn off your computer. and then click the “Power” button in the lower right part of the Start menu.Using ALT+TAB: You can cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down the “Alt” key and repeatedly pressing the “Tab” key.

Click the triangle to expand the folder. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. This displays the “Windows Explorer” which shows you the contents of your floppy disk. where you can click any folder to navigate directly to it. Click “Layout” to specify whether to display Menus. You can view additional folders by clicking “Folders” at the bottom of the Navigation pane. Your computer represents files with icons. Some common file icons are displayed. Click the resulting triangle to collapse the expanded list. commonly used folders are displayed under the heading “Favorite Links”. and even songs. click on the “Start” button and select “Computer”. At the top. you see a small triangle next to each folder which has subfolders. Windows Vista offers “Live Icon” views of files and folders.In a computer. Using Computer To open the “Computer” window. In the Folder List. folders created in the main folder appear indented below the main folder. Examples of files are text documents. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. Click the “Organize” button to organize the contents of a folder. You know that Windows has some common folders such as Documents. a “file” is an item that contains a collection of related information. To close the Folders list. and gain access to options in the Control Panel to modify your computer settings. CD-ROM drive. a Details Pane. A folder within a folder is known as a “Subfolder”. and network drives. The panel at the left is the Navigation pane. When you move the mouse pointer into the area of the Folders list. You can graphically view the content saved on your computer in ways that enable you to visualize what is inside a folder or file. click “Folders” again. A Folder System is also called a “Directory System”. a Preview 18 | P a g e . You can also search for and open files and folders. spreadsheets. the folder contents in the right panel change to display the contents of the location you clicked. Music and others that you can use to organize your files. By looking at a file icon. Subfolders appear indented below their parent folders. When you click a location in the Navigation pane. A “folder” is a container in which you can store files. So a “Folder System” is made up of folders and subfolders. digital pictures. This displays the “Folders list”. you can tell what kind of file it is. Pictures. hard disks.

Renaming Folders: To rename a folder. and search for files and folders. For example. you may select the folder. Select the folder that you wish to delete. rename. Let us click on “Documents”. Working with Folders Creating Folders: Using the Folders list. Small Icons. Using Windows Explorer. you can copy. List. Let us select “Menu Bar”. and then drag the file to another folder or drive. and/or the Navigation Pane. all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. you may select the location where you wish to store your data files. select “File → New → Folder” from the menu bar. Deleting Folders: When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. Edit. To create a new folder. Sorting and Grouping Files and Folders: You may click on any column heading to sort the files by that column. Press the “Delete” key or select “File → Delete” from the menu bar. drag it to the Favorite Links area. Clicking again reverses the sort order from ascending to descending. You can use the context menu that appears on right-clicking the mouse to perform various functions. move. you can open a folder that contains a file you want to copy or move. You can choose from the options: Extra Large Icons.Pane. These links let you open folders quickly. Click the “Views” button to specify how you wish to view the contents of a folder. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files. You can now see a menu with the items File. Details and Tiles. it must be assigned a name. Alternately. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ / : * ?><| If you think you will need to use a folder frequently. no matter which folder you are presently in. You may type a new name for this folder. Medium Icons. Tools and Help. View. Working with Files 19 | P a g e . A folder icon with “New Folder” written next to it is displayed. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. right-click and select “Rename”. Large Icons. click on the folder name and select “File → Rename” from the menu bar. Folder and File Names: When a file or folder is created.

Moving a file: You may move a file from one location to another. Click on the folder you wish to copy it to. Now this file can be copied to one or more locations. A copy of it is created at the new location. Type anything you can remember about the file. such as part of its name. you can use the Start menu to search instead. Renaming and deleting a file: A file can be renamed or deleted in the same way as a folder by clicking on it and selecting “File → Rename” and “File → Delete” respectively. click “Select All” on the “Edit” menu. Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. The file is removed from the original location and placed at the new one. select the item to be copied or moved. If you do not know which folder to search. Keep the “Ctrl” key pressed and then select multiple files.txt”. For example. Selecting Multiple Files: When you want to copy or move several files into the same folder. a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “. Now click on the location you wish to move the file to and then click “Move”. The file that was copied remains at the original location. First. To quickly select adjacent files you may similarly use the “Shift” key. you can use the Search box at the top to search the current folder. point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed. Finding Files: If you are looking for a specific file from a large number of files in a folder. For this. and then click a result to open it. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “. To select all the files and folders in the window. Then. Now select “Edit → Paste” from the menu bar. A file can also be copied to a folder by selecting ““Edit → Copy To Folder” from the menu bar and clicking on the appropriate folder in the “Copy Items” window. click on the file name and select “Edit → Copy” from the menu bar. Different types of files are stored with different extensions.The name of a file consists of two parts. click on the file name and select “Edit → Move To Folder” from the menu bar. For this. Type in the Search box. 20 | P a g e .docx”. The “Move Items” window is displayed. you can select these files to copy or move them at the same time. Copying a file: You may make a copy of a file. the File Name and the Extension.

A shortcut icon with an arrow at the bottom left appears on the desktop. all the changes you have made will be lost. you may specify the location 21 | P a g e . In the open Notepad. Press “OK” to apply your selection to the complete text in your document. If you fail to save the file. right-click and select “Send To → Desktop (create shortcut)”. Saving Files: A permanent copy of the work you have created using an application program is stored as a file on the disk only when you save it. To access the location of this file quickly. you can create a shortcut icon for the location and place it on the desktop. To start Notepad. To create a shortcut to your folder. Take the mouse cursor to the beginning of your name and press “Enter” twice. Type your Address and press “Enter” again. Using Applications Using Notepad Some useful applications are available as a part of Windows Vista. You may use this shortcut to quickly access your data file location again. select “Format → Font” from the menu bar. Point the mouse pointer to the folder name. When the application first opens. In the “Save As” window. Formatting a Document: You may wish to change the way your text appears. locate the folder you have created to save your work. a blank workspace is ready for you to begin typing to create a new document. If necessary. Using Notepad: “Notepad” is a basic text editing program and it is most commonly used to view or edit text files.Using Shortcuts You may need to use a particular file or folder stored on your computer frequently. The default name of the shortcut is the same as your folder name followed by the word “Shortcut”. Editing a Document: One of the advantages of using a computer is that you can edit the contents of your file. Select “File → Save As”. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Notepad”. For this. type your Name and then press “Enter”. Press the “Up Arrow” key twice and then type the date. select the font along with the style and size you require. re-size the “Notepad” window to an appropriate size. In the “Font” window.

The “Ruler” is used to set tab stops by clicking on it where you want a tab stop to appear. This method is called using a “Keyboard Shortcut”. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → WordPad”. Because Notepad supports only very basic formatting. save and print your documents using this menu. The buttons on the “Format Bar” are used to change the format of text. A tab stop specifies the place that the cursor stops at when you press the “Tab” key. Click “Save”. A new blank document is displayed. you cannot accidentally save special formatting in documents that need to remain pure text. format bar. Your file is stored with the extension “. such as creating or saving a file. Make the appropriate selections from the “Print” window and click “Print”. The “File” menu is used to perform tasks related to your document as a whole. To start WordPad. Another way is to do this is by directly pressing “Ctrl+P”.where you wish to save the file and the name of the file. you may want to print a copy of your document. The “Edit” menu is used to perform tasks related to the content of your document such as entering and modifying your data. The “Status Bar” provides additional information about the buttons and commands in WordPad. You may create. open. Menus: Let us have a brief look at the different menus available on the menu bar. Toolbars: The buttons on the main “Toolbar” are shortcuts for common file management tasks. The “View” menu is used to specify whether or not you want to display the toolbar. Using WordPad Using WordPad: “WordPad” is an application used to create rich text documents. status bar and the ruler. This is especially useful when creating HTML documents for a Web page because special characters or other formatting may not appear in your published Web page or may even cause errors. You can delete tab stops by dragging them off the ruler. Select “File → Print” from the menu bar.txt”. A lightweight editor: Notepad is a basic text editor that you can use to create simple documents. Printing a Document: Now. WordPad includes many features and can be used to create and format large and complex text documents. Each menu has different menu items. The “Insert” 22 | P a g e .

you first need to select the text you want to format. Click the “Font Size” drop-down list button on the Format Bar and select the font size you wish. Most documents use a font size of 10 or 12 point. you would like to increase the font size. To further enhance the appearance of the title. The two most common means to remove text are to use the “Backspace” key to delete unwanted characters to the left of the insertion point. ready for you to begin entering text. make the characters larger and display the characters in a color. Since you want to select the entire title. which refers to the height of the character. Click at the beginning of your text. Click the “Color” button and select a color of your choice. The title now appears in the selected color. To select text. This feature is called “Word Wrap”. you can click in the left margin of the line to select the entire line quickly. Click the “Bold” button on the Format Bar to add a bold effect. with a point equal to about 1/72 inch. “Font size” refers to the height and width of printed characters. The “Help” menu contains items through which you can get assistance whenever you require. Press “Enter” twice and then use the “Up Arrow” key to move the insertion point up. The first change you want to make to this document is to add a title. the text automatically moves to the next line when it reaches the right edge of the margin. You can also select the text you want to delete and then press “Delete” to remove it.menu is used to insert the date and time and other objects in your document. After looking over the text. Font size is measured in points. Formatting Text: You decide you want to improve the appearance of the title by applying various formatting effects to the text. You want to center it between the margins. This is called “Editing” text. Before you can apply the formatting effects. or the “Delete” key to remove characters to the right. 23 | P a g e . The insertion point is positioned at the top of the document. you may decide to remove a word. Finally. Editing text: After you have entered your text. Entering text: As you type. you may need to make some modifications. The “Format” menu is used to enhance the appearance of your document content. you will make the title text bold and apply a color to it. You may use the “Center” button on the Format Bar to center the title. Now enter the title and press “Enter”. drag from one end of the area of text to the other. A quicker way to select a word is to double-click on it.

Notice that this icon does not display the arrow symbol that appears in shortcut icons. place the insertion point where you want to paste the text. Copying and Deleting Text: To cut text that you want to move to another location. Let us now see some additional features of WordPad. The file name is displayed in the title bar before the program name and the Windows taskbar displays a button for the open application. Finding and Replacing Text: To find or replace specific characters. you can save the file on the desktop using a new file name for easy access. To paste text you have cut or copied. You may click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the original text.rtf”. To copy text for writing to another location. select “Edit → Find” or “Edit → Replace” from the menu and specify your search criteria in the “Find what” field. The document icon for the WordPad file appears on the desktop. Click “Replace” to replace the original text with the new text. You may undo your actions by selecting “Edit → Undo” from the menu. double-click on the file name on the desktop. Then click "Save" to save the file on the desktop. Your file is stored with the extension “. WordPad in this case. To open this file. If you plan to use this file again shortly. select the text. The “Save As” window appears on the screen. If you want to replace that text with other text enter it in the “Replace with” field. and the file is opened and displayed in the workspace.Saving a file to the Desktop: If you like how the document looks then you may save the document. Creating a graphic using Paint 24 | P a g e . To save the document. select “File → Save As…” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Cut” from the menu. and then select “Edit → Paste” from the menu. This is because the file is actually stored in the desktop folder and the icon is not a shortcut to an object that is in another location. Moving. Type the desired file name and select “Desktop” as the location to save the file. The associated program. select the text. You may refine your search by checking the boxes against “Match whole word only” to find whole words matching your search criteria and “Match case” to make your search specific to capital and small alphabets. is started. and then select “Edit → Copy” from the menu.

By default the toolbox is displayed on the left edge of the window. Your file is stored with the extension “. menu bar and status bar as you have seen in the other application programs. called a toolbox. when we create a file. The white area in the workspace is the drawing area where you may create the drawing. You may wish to create a blank file on the desktop. Let us create a logo for your organization. you need to draw the plot of grass below the tree. The text under the icon displays the default icon name "New". similar to the one shown above. Select “File → Save”. In this case you will create a blank file called “New” on the desktop using the “24 bit Bitmap” image file type. To start Paint. The “Save As” window is displayed. Generally. The Paint program also includes a toolbar. a drawing program that can be used to create and modify graphic images. Since the file is blank.bmp”. The Paint program is loaded with the blank file open. the desktop icon displays a blank square. move the pointer to where you want the circle to begin. we open the application first. The “Ellipse” tool creates an ellipse or circular shape. The pre-selected icon is the “Pencil” button. that you can add to the document you previously created using WordPad. To begin drawing. which is the picture of a palm tree. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Paint”. When you move the mouse pointer into the drawing area. The tool you select is drawn when you drag or click in the drawing area. fill shapes with colors. Since you want to use Paint to create the graphic. The mouse pointer appears as a pencil when this tool is selected and you are pointing to the drawing area. it changes to a plus (+). edit the drawing and so on. Specify the location as “Desktop” and then select the type of file you want to create from the “Save as type” list. A circle or 25 | P a g e . Try to draw a picture of a palm tree. you are ready to open the file and create a graphic. Paint has many of the same features. Displayed at the top of the window is the color box that is used to add color to the graphic. First. Now. including a title bar.Another application that is included with Windows is “Paint”. you need to select this application by clicking on the icon on the desktop. and then create and save the file. The toolbox buttons are used to draw shapes. You can tell it is selected because it appears in a box.

you may create a custom color. Creating a Custom Color: Since the color selection of green colors on the palette is limited. You need to delete the oval and replace it with another that contains color. 26 | P a g e . Using different shapes can add interest to the drawing. displayed at the bottom of the toolbox. Adding Color: You now want to fill the shape with a green color. you can use the Eraser tool to delete the parts of the trunk you may not like. This tool also provides several "spray" shapes. The first button draws an ellipse with an outline border in the selected fill color without filling the object. The color box consists of two areas. To use the background color. called “fill-style” buttons. You have created a simple oval shape with a black outside borderline and white interior. Using the “Airbrush” Tool: Finally. The Brush tool creates broad lines of color as you drag. You need to use the Airbrush tool for this purpose. You need to use the Brush tool to create the shape and apply the color at the same time. The Airbrush sprays with the foreground color. the “select colors area” and the “color palette”. For this you may need to erase sections of your drawings. Double-click on a color in the color box. If you select colors before creating a shape. To clean up the drawing. the outline of the shape is created using the foreground color. Using the “Eraser”: You may make mistakes or to not like the appearance of your drawing. The brush applies the foreground color when you drag to create the shape. This is the default selection and the setting you have used. The last fill style creates an object without a border using the selected fill color. right-click in the color palette. you want to create two tree trunks. To set the background color. The “Edit Colors” window contains a palette of basic colors. you want to create the palm fronds.ellipse is created by dragging the mouse until the shape is displayed as you want it to appear. Using the “Brush” Tool: Next. You may do this by selecting colors from the color box. Notice the three additional buttons. The second button draws an outline border and also fills the object with the selected fill color. You may change the foreground color to brown. drag with the right mouse button held down while spraying. while the inside of the shape is filled with the background color. The eraser uses the background colors.

27 | P a g e . The “Save” command saves the document as it appears onscreen to the same file name. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally in the direction you want. Click on the page where you want each new line segment to appear. and then hold down the left mouse button to drag the pointer to adjust the curve. automatically replacing the original contents with the new contents. The custom color automatically becomes the foreground color and replaces the originally selected green. click the “Polygon” icon. Repeat these steps and double-click when done. click the “Rectangle” icon to create a square-cornered shape. click the “Curve” icon. associated with the selected color. Drawing a Rectangle or Square: In the toolbox. To draw a square. Drag the mouse to draw the line. or click the “Rounded Rectangle” to create a round-cornered shape. Release the mouse button and repeat this step for a second arc. This is a color matrix. Press the “Shift” key while dragging to get a straight line. At the bottom of the toolbox. The green color you selected is the selected color in the “Basic colors” palette. click a line width. Now see the live icon representing your Paint document. you may click anywhere on the matrix. Drawing a Curved Line: In the toolbox. At the bottom of the toolbox click a line width. press the “Shift” key while dragging the pointer. Click on the page where you want one arc of the curve to be. You can see a small picture of the graphic you created. Now you may apply this color to the fronds. click a fill style. You can only create two curves for each line. To draw the polygon. The box below the matrix displays the selected color. You can also use the slider on the color gradient bar at the right to change the elements. Drawing a Straight Line: In the toolbox. click a fill style. Drawing a Polygon: In the toolbox. To draw a rectangle. click the “Line” icon. To define a custom color. At the bottom of the toolbox. At the bottom of the toolbox. Click “Define Custom Colors >>” to display the color area to the right. Draw a straight line by dragging the pointer. Let us now see some additional features of Paint. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer to draw a straight line. such as hue and saturation. Your logo is now ready. Click “Add to Custom Colors” and then click “OK”.many of which are displayed in the color box.

You would like the palm tree picture that is stored in the Clipboard to be centered at the top of the document. in this case the entire picture. Contents of the selected area are copied to the Clipboard. These indicate the object is selected and can be manipulated. Click inside the text frame to type text. The “Paste” and “Paste Special” commands on the “Edit” menu are used to insert a copy from the Clipboard into a document. you need to copy the graphic from Paint and insert it into the WordPad document. linking or embedding it. Since the drawing occupies almost the entire space. A dotted line identifies the selected area. To do this. Now you are positioned in the document where you want the picture inserted. To create a text frame. click the “Text” icon. 28 | P a g e . size and style you require. It is surrounded by a box and eight solid squares called “handles”. You may also resize your picture by dragging the image resize handles that are located at the bottom right corner and along the sides of your picture. You can adjust the size of any selected object by dragging the handles in the same manner as sizing windows. You can copy the entire picture or any part of the drawing by selecting an area. You will embed the palm tree object in the document. This is because the “Center” feature was in effect for the line the insertion point was on when the two new lines were created. An object can be inserted into another document by pasting. you may select the entire drawing area. click the font. Enter the dimensions you require. On the text toolbar. hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer diagonally to the size you want. select “Image → Attributes” from the menu. Embedding an Object: You are now ready to insert the picture into the WordPad document. You can select an item from an open document and copy it to another location in the same or another document. Changing the Picture Size: To change the size of your picture. Copying between Applications Now you can insert the logo of your organization (the palm tree) into your WordPad document.Typing and Formatting Text: In the toolbox. The insertion point appears at the center of the blank line. Select “Edit → Paste”. The graphic of the palm tree that was stored in the Clipboard is pasted into the document.

you first create a box. it is always a good idea to preview on screen how your document will appear when printed. you may decide you want to add some text inside the graphic. You may verify that the original file created using Paint. To save time and unnecessary printing and paper waste. To edit an embedded object. you can always use “Edit → Undo” from the menu and try it again. To make the background the same as the grass. You now have access to the Paint menu and toolbar so you can edit the object while you are still in the WordPad document. The color that is applied to the text is the foreground color. Before typing the text. has not changed. you want to give a copy of the document to a friend to get feedback regarding the content and layout. This indicates that the Paint program has not been opened a second time in its own application window. you can also choose a color for the text. the server application is opened within WordPad. Paint. containing the palm tree. Previewing. The text frame displays an insertion point. Notice that there is still only one Paint application button in the taskbar. the text of your document is still displayed. 29 | P a g e . This allows you to edit the embedded graphic from within WordPad. It shows the default type style and size that will be used when you type the text entry. you can open the object server by double-clicking on it. called a text frame and then type the text inside it. WordPad is displayed again. When adding text.Editing an Embedded Object: After looking at the inserted graphic. If you do not like how your text box looks. Select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. and the “Fonts” window is displayed. You may want to add the company name to the grass area of the graphic. The “Print Preview” feature displays each page of your document in a reduced size so you can check the layout. Also notice that the title bar still displays "WordPad" and if you scroll down. Since no changes were made to the file. The Text tool is used to add text to a Paint object. Printing and Saving Although you still plan to make several formatting changes to the document. You may want to increase the font size to 14 point. you are not prompted to save the file before it is closed. because it was the last-used application. you make the text frame transparent so that the background is visible. and the graphic appears in its own editing window.

The Preview window displays a reduced view of how the current page will appear when printed. To save the current document. click “+” to add. “-” to subtract. subtraction. The Preview window also includes its own toolbar. Type other operators and numbers in the same way. “*” to multiply. Open the folder where you save your files. or “/” to divide. Backspace --> Removes the last digit of the displayed number. such as logarithms and factorials. Using Calculator Using Calculator: “Calculator” is an application which performs functions parallel to a handheld calculator. click the “Save” icon on the Toolbar. perform the following steps: First. You can print the flyer directly from the Preview window using the “Print” button. Right-drag the selected icons to the right pane of the window. click “=” or press the “Enter” key to get your result. After that. 30 | P a g e . Then. It performs basic arithmetic. type the next number in the calculation. To start Calculator. The functions of the different buttons on the Calculator are as displayed. Finally you will remove the shortcut icon. multiplication or division. Cleaning up the desktop You have a few files stored on the desktop of your computer. as well as functions found on a scientific calculator. click “Start” and select “All Programs → Accessories → Calculator”. type the first number in the calculation. You may want to clear these from the desktop and move them to the folder where you store your data. such as addition and subtraction. Finally. You can now see that the file icons are no longer on the desktop and are now located in the selected folder. Select “View → Refresh” from the menu to refresh the display of the window. Performing a simple calculation: To perform a simple calculation involving addition. Double-click the shortcut icon you created to your data location. The flyer looks good and does not appear to need any further modifications immediately. This view allows you to check your page layout before printing. Choose “Move Here” from the shortcut menu. The desktop should be cleared of all icons you created and should appear the same as when you started.

faxes and even professional manuals. % --> Calculates percentages. The activity of word processing includes typing text using the keyboard and using various facilities of formatting.CE --> Clears the number displayed at that time. Octal and Binary. you can easily correct errors. for example. 1/x --> Calculates the reciprocal of the displayed number. the Scientific Calculator has complete trigonometrical calculations. select “View → Scientific” from the menu. In addition to handling simple calculations. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice. programming calculations and statistical calculations for averages and standard deviation. brochures. Creating and Editing a Document 31 | P a g e . Word Processor Applications help you to create different types of written documents such as personal letters. You have a choice of four numbering systems: Hexadecimal. Sqrt --> Calculates the square root of the number on the screen. Through a word processor you can create. store. M+ --> Adds the displayed number to the memory. an invoice form. retrieve and print part or all of a document. editing. MR --> Recalls a number from the memory. MC --> Clears the numbers in the memory. With a few keystrokes. printing etc. modify. move paragraphs and reprint your document.org Writer are a few of the popular Word Processors. MS --> Stores numbers in the memory. Documents that you use often can be saved as templates. Performing a scientific calculation: Your calculator can be made into a full-functioned scientific calculator. For this. form letters. Word Processing Overview of Word Processing What is Word Processing? Typing text using a computer is commonly known as Word Processing. Decimal. C --> Clears the entire calculation.

It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. Microsoft Word contains numerous functions to assist you in creating perfectly styled documents. You can add an icon to the toolbar by just clicking on an icon name. from the menu that appears. graphics. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components. Text can be formatted multi-columnar and have text frames. saving. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Word 2007”. and closing a file. In Word. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save.Introduction to Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a complete Word Processor Application. etc. To add an additional command to the Quick Access toolbar. Word comes with a variety of templates for almost every purpose. you can simply click on it when you need to create a new document. You can define the structure and appearance of the indexes and tables according to your needs. integrated into it. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. printing. 32 | P a g e . and Redo. Microsoft Word offers a wide variety of options to design documents. Undo. You can also create your own templates. This contains commands for opening. even beyond page limits to create a newspaper format. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. The text frames can be linked anywhere. a file is called a “document”. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. To start the Microsoft Word application. such as “New”. Additionally. tables. click the arrow on the right. Once the “New” icon is added. you can create various indexes and tables in text documents.

“Cut”. The “References” tab contains the most common items needed when generating a professional paper. and track changes. For example. bullets. 33 | P a g e . right-click on it and select “Remove from Quick Access Toolbar”. citations. The “Clipboard” group in turn has the “Paste”. such as pictures. clip art. “Font”. Under “Choose commands from:” you can see a list of commands that you may add to your Quick Access toolbar. The “Insert” tab contains all items that can be inserted into the file. including footnotes. table of contents. The “Mailings” tab contains the items needed for a mail merge. styles. pages. orientation. “Styles” and “Editing” groups. “Paragraph”. Click an icon and then click the “Add” button. and copy/paste. c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. When you move your mouse over most command buttons. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Word: The “Home” tab has common formatting commands. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. The “Page Layout” tab contains margin. This provides a detailed description of what the button does. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. and spacing properties. You can see that your chosen icons now appear on the Quick Access toolbar. The “View” tab contains the view options for the document and is the location of the Switch Windows command to move between files open in that application. The “Review” tab contains spell check. thesaurus.Now. a “Super-tooltip” is displayed. the “Home” tab has the “Clipboard”. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. To remove an icon. and text boxes. “Copy” and “Format Painter” command buttons. and index. Click “OK”. click “More Commands”. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks.

You want your document to be attractive and at the same time informative. the badges showing the Key Tips for the commands on that tab appear. The tabs. You can hide the Ribbon if you wish to have more space to write. At the right end of the Ribbon. and other things that you see on the screen. showing the Key Tips for all the tabs. you see a question mark symbol. which includes the most commonly-needed commands. When an existing word document is open. Access keys: Access keys are another type of keyboard shortcut used to access the Ribbon. commands. You are working for Global Tours and Travels. Every single command on the Ribbon. to create a new blank document. and command buttons change as you take on various activities. It is like a blank piece of paper that has certain default settings which are the most commonly used settings. Creating New Documents Let us now learn to effectively use Microsoft Word using the following simple Case Study. When you first launch most of the Microsoft Office applications you’ll find yourself in the Ribbons Home tab. We shall now learn step-bystep. You first need to press the “Alt” key. When you first start Word. a new blank document is opened. You decide to create a document like the one displayed above. how to include all such features into your document. right-click any tab and choose the “Minimize the Ribbon” command again. You are required to create a document listing the special offers of your company. the Microsoft Office Button menu. To restore the Ribbon. You then see little labels. right-click anywhere on the Ribbon and choose “Minimize the Ribbon”. For this. They relate directly to the tabs. Now click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Clicking this brings up the Help window related to the Office application that you are using. click the Office Button and select “New”. You may use them when you are more familiar with the commands. and the Quick Access Toolbar has an access key. 34 | P a g e .Equivalent keyboard shortcuts are also displayed if applicable. After you press a key to activate a particular tab. or badges. and every access key is assigned a Key Tip. groups.

It remains semi-transparent until you move your mouse pointer over it. a "Mini Toolbar" is automatically displayed. To change the color of the text click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon and select a color. To make existing text bold. You may choose other underline styles and colors by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Underline” icon. When text is selected. On the “Home” tab. click at the point you want to begin and drag your cursor to the right and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. To make the text appear in italics. move your mouse over the different fonts displayed. Now type “Come to any of the offices”. Justifying Text: 35 | P a g e . Changing the Font: Let us select the text “SPECIAL OFFERS” and change the font. without actually applying it. click the “Italic” icon. Making text Bold: To enter text with a bold display. click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group and begin text entry. You will be comfortable using it after you are more familiar with the Word application. Underlining: To underline your text. Type "SPECIAL OFFERS". Press "Enter" once to come to the next line. from the drop-down menu. Setting up the way a page of text will look by entering certain attributes is called “Formatting”. select it and then click on the “Bold” icon. It provides easy access to the most-used formatting commands. The "Live Preview" feature allows you to have a preview of how the selected font would affect the appearance of the text. select it and then click on the “Underline” icon in the “Font” group. Similarly. Let us insert some more text.A “Template” is a pre-designed document designed for common purposes such as a fax. To insert a blank line. you may change the Font Size. press “Enter” once again. let us use the command buttons on the Ribbon. A “Font” is a design for a set of characters. invoice or business letter. Selecting Text: To select a section of text. You may create a new document using standard templates provided by Word by clicking on a template name in the “New Document” window. For now. Click on the font you would like. in the “Font” group. on the “Home” tab. Entering and Formatting Text Let us now enter text into a new document.

There are three ways to save a document. Click the Office Button and select “Save”. Then. line breaks. When you save a new file for the first time. Closing and Opening files Saving Documents: Your file is stored with the extension “. click on this button once again.docx”. Alternatively. 3. Using the shortcut keys “Ctrl+S”. you may click on the “X” shaped icon at the top right corner of the window or use the keyboard shortcut “Alt+F4” to exit the Word application. you may click the Office Button and select “Open”. Click on Center. 36 | P a g e . Click the “Line spacing” icon in the “Paragraph” group and make your selection. Click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Changing Line Spacing: Select the text you would like to change the line spacing for.Select the text you would like to justify. Displaying formatting marks: You can display nonprinting characters in your text. Saving. To remove the display. select the file and click “Open”. Enter the name. You may use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+O”. 1. the “Save As” window is displayed. you may select Align Text Left. navigate to the location of your document. You may open a recently used document by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking a document name under the list of “Recent Documents” displayed on the right. For this. Moving through Text Moving through text using the Keyboard: You can use the arrow keys and other keys on the keyboard which are shown above to position the cursor at the location you want to type or modify text. click the “Show/Hide” icon in the “Paragraph” group. folder and location for the file and then click “Save”. Center. 2. Alternatively. Align Text Right or Justify. click the Office Button and select “Close” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+W”. such as paragraph marks. In the “Paragraph” group. Opening Documents: There are many ways in which you can open a document. Closing a File: To close a file. tab stops and spaces.

and then click “Word Options”. When you can use the mouse to move the insertion point. Now click “OK”. On the “AutoCorrect” tab. you can see that it is corrected. it is shaped as an I-beam. When you type the digit “1” followed by the alphabets “s” and “t”. and then click “Building Blocks Organizer”. Creating a Reusable Building Block: Select the text or graphic that you want to store as a reusable building block. Now enter numeric “1st” in the “Replace” box and alphabetic “First” in the “With” box. Select “AutoText” from the “Gallery” drop-down list. in the “Text” group. Click where you want to insert a building block in the document. Using a Building Block: Let us insert this building block into another document. in the “Text” group. they are replaced by the text “First”. Ensure that the box against the option is checked. On the “Insert” tab. Using AutoComplete: Another useful feature is “AutoComplete”.Moving through text using the Mouse: You can use the mouse to move the insertion point to a specific location in a document. Using Automatic Editing Features Using AutoCorrect: You may use the numerous features provided by Microsoft Word to automatically correct your document. As it is typed. Now try typing the text “HAppy” with two initial capitals. The building block is inserted. Now click “Proofing” and then click the “AutoCorrect Options” button. say “Global Tours Logo”. Click “Gallery” to sort by gallery. On the “Insert” tab. In the Create New Building Block window. You can even replace some text with alternate text as it is typed using the “Replace text as you type” option. click “Quick Parts”. Begin typing the unique name of the building block you created. Click on a building block name and then click “Insert”. Building Blocks: Building Blocks in Word are designed specifically for the addition of frequently used content to your documents. enter a unique name for the building block in the “Name” field. These corrections are effected as you enter your text. type enough so that the name is different from that of any other building block and then press “F3”. you may check the boxes against the options you require. and then click “Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery”. Click at the point where you wish to position the cursor. click “Quick Parts”. Click the Office Button. You can see that the “Correct TWo INitial CApitals” option is checked. 37 | P a g e .

You may navigate to a specific item in your document. 38 | P a g e . a green wavy underline appears. 2. Down. Automatic Spelling and Grammar checking: Click the Office Button. Now enter the line number to which you wish to go and click the “Go To” button. Now click “Proofing” and then check the boxes against the spelling and grammar checks you require. Your cursor moves to the specified line. This results in a grammatically incorrect sentence. Simply click “OK”. You can see that as soon as this word is entered. Let us move to a specific line number. Let us leave the default settings. 3. Use the Up. and then click “Word Options”. Now remove the word “Discounts” from the sentence. On the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. Now enter the sentence “Discounts are available on international tickets” with the word “Discounts” incorrectly spelled. The green wavy line disappears since the sentence is grammatically correct once again. This time. such as “January”. Once you correct the spelling. Right and Left Arrow keys on your keyboard. You may also use the “Page Up” and “Page Down” keys on your keyboard. Navigating a Document There are different ways you can move through your document. If you then press “Enter”. Click “Close” in the “Find and Replace” window. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → Continuous” in the “Page Setup” group. Re-enter “Discounts”. click “Line” in the “Go to what” list. Alternatively you may use the scrollbars on the right and bottom of your screen. Use the “Ctrl+Home” keys to go to the beginning of the document and the “Ctrl+End” keys to go to the end. endnote etc. Some of them are as follows: 1. Click the “Home” tab and select “Find” in the “Editing” group. These checks are enforced as you enter your text. To display the line numbers in a document.When you begin typing in the name of a month. Word automatically finishes the name. the wavy line is removed. You can also navigate to a specific page. footnote. it is underlined with a red wavy line. 4. Word brings up a little box above the incomplete word. section. using the “Go To” tab of the “Find and Replace” window.

you may select it and press “Delete”. It is surrounded by eight boxes called “sizing handles”. You may select from the various options available in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. click on the picture. Let us first delete a line of text. Editing a Document After entering the text of a document. In the “Insert Picture” dialog box. click on that line and press “Delete”. You can also redo an action that has been undone. For this. Let us insert a picture from an existing file on the hard disk. you may decide they are not necessary after all. Sizing and Moving Graphics: You may change the graphic that you have inserted in respect of size. To delete an entire word. select “Redo” from the Quick Access Toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Y”. Select the entire line and press “Delete”. To change the size. location. To remove individual characters. You can reverse your last action by using the “Undo” command. you would like to proof read it for accuracy and completeness and modify or edit the document as needed. you may also use "Ctrl+Delete" for words to the right of the insertion point or "Ctrl+Backspace" for words to the left. color etc. The line is displayed once again. Click at the point where you wish to insert the picture. Click the “Picture” icon. Working with graphics Inserting Graphics: You now wish to insert a picture of one of the buses of your company along with your company name. specify your picture and its location and click “Insert”. you may select “Undo” from the Quick Access toolbar or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z”. To delete a blank line. click the “Page Layout” tab and select “Line Numbers → None” in the “Page Setup” group. Selecting and Deleting Text: In order to delete a section of text. To move your 39 | P a g e . Now to undo this action. The picture now appears in your document. The line that was displayed is now deleted.To remove the display of line numbers. Undoing and Redoing Editing Changes: After making some changes. you may press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. Point to a handle and drag with your mouse to the size you require.

click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. place the cursor on the picture and drag with your mouse to the new location. One Page: Click this icon to display one page in the preview window. Shrink One Page: Click this icon to prevent the document from being printed on an additional page. The preview size will be adjusted accordingly. you may specify whether you wish to print the entire document or a specific part. 2. click on the icon below the “Many pages” button and drag towards the right and down. you may specify how many copies of the document you wish to print. To specify the number of pages to view. Under “Print Range”. you may select the name of the printer on which you wish to print the document. Printing a document: There are two ways to print a document: 1. Let us have a look at few of the basic options you might need to change. To display Multiple Pages. This is particularly useful for documents which have only a small amount of text on the last page. click the “Zoom” icon and select “Many pages”. Drag the slider to the right or left as required. The Zoom level can be adjusted using the slider at the bottom right of the window. Default settings are displayed which are normally acceptable. Zoom: The “Zoom” icon can also be used to specify the zoom percentage. In the “Number of copies” box. 40 | P a g e .picture. In the “Name” field. The “Print” window is displayed. The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Previewing and Printing a Document Previewing a document: It is always a good practice to preview your document onscreen before you print it. Two Pages: Click this icon to display two pages in the preview window. Click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu.

you may specify how many pages of your document you want printed on a sheet of paper. in the “Proofing” group. 1. On the “Review” tab. click “OK” to print the document. The “Spelling and Grammar” window appears only when a mistake is found. Some words. it determines which words in its dictionary are similarly spelled and displays a list of those words in the “Suggestions” box. They are no longer displayed as spelling mistakes. There are two ways to start the thesaurus. On the “Review” tab. When the spelling checker encounters a word it doesn’t recognize. in the “Pages per sheet” box. Thesaurus: The “Thesaurus” is a dictionary of synonyms which you can use to find words that are synonymous with a term. 2. It lets you print a document with one click but does not offer the flexibility to specify whether to print all or just part of your document. 2. You may click “Options” in the “Spelling and Grammar” window to specify the spelling and grammar checks that you require. in the “Proofing” group. You may also select “Print→ Quick Print” from the Office Button menu. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. After you have entered your options. with the most likely match highlighted. select “Spelling & Grammar”. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. you are informed accordingly. 41 | P a g e . number of copies and other such things. Press “Shift+F7”.Under “Zoom”. Use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. When the checking is completed. select “Thesaurus”. Click on the correct spelling and then click “Change”. You can see that the incorrect spelling has been corrected. REVISING AND REFINING A DOCUMENT Revising a Document Spelling and Grammar checking: There are two ways you can do this: 1.

2. the word is inserted at the current cursor position. Moving and Copying Selections Using Copy: Let us select some text for copying to the clipboard. The contents are inserted at the position of the cursor. select “Cut”. in the “Clipboard” group. Then press “Ctrl+V” to paste. On the other hand. but any existing clipboard contents are overwritten. In the “Search for:” text box. The “Cut-Paste” commands involve deleting the section from the document. moving it to the clipboard and then pasting it to a location of your choice.You now see a panel on the right. select “Paste”. A list of synonymous terms is displayed. Click on the arrow to the right of the search box. The document itself does not change. Press “Ctrl+X”. On the “Home” tab. Select “Look Up” to look up further variations of the selected word. You may point to a synonym of your choice and specify the action you wish to perform by viewing the drop-down list. You may use any of the following methods: 1. in the “Clipboard” group. Select “Copy” to copy the word which can be pasted to another location. Using Cut and Paste: You may decide to move a section lower down in your document. say “Contact”. You may choose from the options Insert. 2. Press “Ctrl+V”. When you select “Insert”. in the “Clipboard” group. Select “Thesaurus: English (U. leaving the original location unchanged. Paste: This command is used to insert the contents of the clipboard into the document. Any selected text or objects are replaced by the pasted contents. select “Copy”. You may use any of the following methods for pasting: 1. Now move lower down in the document and click where you want to place your selection. You may use any of the following methods for cutting: 1.S. Copy and Look Up. Press “Ctrl+C”. 2. On the “Home” tab. 42 | P a g e . For this select it and use “Cut” to move the selected section.)” from the dropdown list below. On the “Home” tab. the “Copy-Paste” commands create a copy at the new location. enter your expression.

point the mouse to it and drag the pointer to the new location by keeping the mouse button pressed.Drag and Drop: All Windows applications have the ability to copy or move selections using the “Drag and Drop” feature. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Enter”. Let us leave our graphic on the first page and display the other text on the next page. You may now drop the selection by releasing the mouse button. Now open a second Word document by clicking “New” in the Office Button menu. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Paste the contents by clicking on “Paste” in the “Clipboard” group of the “Home” tab. This becomes the “active” program. Inserting Page Breaks To control document paging so that important titles and headlines appear on the top of the pages. Then. To insert a Page Break. Click “Select All” from the menu displayed. Click “Create” in the “New Document” window. Working with Multiple Documents Opening a Second Document: Save the current document by clicking the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Click “Find Next” once again. Copy the contents by clicking “Copy” in the “Clipboard” group. Copying between Documents: The dormant program appears dimmed on the taskbar. A blank document is displayed in a new window. place the cursor at the point where you want a new page to begin and click “Page Break” in the “Pages” group of the “Insert” tab. select the item to be copied or moved. 43 | P a g e . Make it active by clicking on the taskbar. A fixed page break is inserted and the cursor is now at the beginning of the new page. Click “Select” in the “Editing group on the “Home” tab. Enter some text. Let us now move the text back to its original location. First. say “office” and click “Find Next”. Finding and Replacing text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in a document. The previous document is the “dormant” program now. Move to the new document by clicking on the taskbar. Alternatively. you may need to insert Page Breaks just before them so that they start on a new page. Select “Find” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” tab of the “Find and Replace” window.

Inserting the Current Date Let us now insert the current date into this document. select “Margins” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may click on any of the 44 | P a g e . You can see that your document is displayed with wider side margins.Finding and Replacing: You may search for a word or phrase in a document and replace it by some other text. Select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” tab of the “Find and Replace” window. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. If you want the date to be automatically updated when the current date changes. This function provides many advanced options to help make your search as specific as necessary to find what you are looking for. Click “OK”. On the “Margins” tab. check the “Update automatically” box. Select the format you require. Enter the text you wish to find in the “Find what” field and the text with which you wish to replace it. Replace All: You may click this button to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. you may enter your requirements in one or more of the fields. Click “Undo” on the Quick Access toolbar to revert to the original margins. Modifying Page Layout Changing Margin Settings: To set margins. say “new office” in the “Replace with” field. Position the cursor above your text and select “Date & Time” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. You may click on any of the available options or click “Custom Margins” to enter your own specifications. More: You may click this button to specify additional search options. Select from the “Portrait” or “Landscape” options. Entering the Page Size: To set the Page Size. Replace: You may click this button to replace the next occurrence of the search text by the specified new text. select “Size” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Changing the Orientation: You may orient your document vertically or horizontally by clicking on “Orientation” from the “Page Setup” group of the “Page Layout” tab. This updating is seen when you next open your document. Let us change the left and right margins to 4 inches each.

click “Tabs” to display the “Tabs” window. Spacing: You may specify the spacing between paragraphs by adding space above or below selected paragraphs. A5. You can also use your mouse to set the tab stops in the “Ruler”. Then click on the “Page Layout” tab. Click “OK” to save your settings. In the “Default tab stops” box. On the “Indents & Spacing” tab. Let us learn to set the position of a tab stop in a blank document. Character Formatting in detail 45 | P a g e . Paragraph Formatting in detail Indents: Indentation determines the distance of the paragraph from either the left or the right margin. Setting Tab Stops: A “Tab Stop” is the amount of spacing that is applied each time you press the “Tab” key. On the “Paper” tab. Now enter the same text pressing the “Tab” key after each word. although this method is not as precise. You may also manually set the dimensions you require in the “Width” and “Height” fields. etc. you may use the “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab for indenting your text. For this use the “Spacing Before” and “Spacing After” boxes in the “Paragraph” group on the “Page Layout” tab. In the “Paragraph” group. you may select the paper size from preset formats like A4. you may specify your indent requirements in the “Indent Left” and “Indent Right” boxes. click the “View Ruler” button at the right corner.available options or click “More Paper Sizes” to enter your own specifications. the distance between the words is as per the new tab stops specified. enter “2 cm” and click “OK”. You can see that this time. pressing the “Tab” key after each word. it is advisable to use tabs rather than spaces to avoid problems with text alignment. In the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. This brings up the “Paragraph” window. from the drop-down list. click on the arrow at the bottom right. Press “Undo” twice on the Quick Access toolbar to remove these indents. Alternatively. If you do not see the horizontal ruler displayed just below the Ribbon. You can quickly set tabs by clicking the ruler at the location you want your tab stop. Select a paragraph of text. When more than a single space is required to be inserted between words. Now enter the text as shown. You can see on the ruler that each word appears at a distance of 2 cm from the other.

let us change the font color of a section of text. Joining and Separating Numbering: You have the option to restart numbering. continue numbering or even skip some numbers from the previous list used. click on the arrow next to the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a numbering style. Effects: On the “Home tab. you may decide to go in for a numbered list. Your text now appears as a bulleted list. Giving all this information in a single document will crowd the document. So you may use a “Hyperlink”. Click on the arrow next to the “Text Highlight Color” icon in the “Font” group and select a color. Simply right-click on the number and select from the options “Restart at”. Format Painter: You can copy the formatting applied to a section of text to another section.Changing the capitalization of text: You may change a portion of text in respect of case. the document will lose its clarity regarding the main information that it is meant to convey. This means you may specify which parts you want in capital letters and small letters. Let us select “UPPERCASE”. in the “Font” group. You may select an option from the menu displayed. Numbered List: Alternatively. drag it over the text to which you wish to apply the same format. You may use a bulleted list or a numbered list. Bulleted lists are normally used to list logically related information. Now to copy the formatting of this text. Numbered lists are normally used to convey a sequence of events. Highlighting: Select some text to highlight. You can see that your text is displayed with all capital letters. Creating Lists You may want to display the information about the special offers that you have entered as an itemized list so that it stands out from the rest of the text. Now. This brings up the “Font” window. click on the “Change Case” icon from the “Font” group. Now. You can see that your mouse pointer changes to a paint brush. You may specify effects for your text by checking the boxes against the effects you require on the “Font” tab. “Continue Numbering” or “Set Numbering Value”. Using Hyperlinks Inserting Hyperlinks: You now want to give information related to the different routes and their timings. Bulleted List: Select your text and then click on the arrow next to the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group of the “Home” tab and select a bullet style. Also. Select the text “Time Table”. select it and click on the “Format Painter” icon on the “Home” tab in the “Clipboard” group. In that case. First. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current 46 | P a g e . click on the arrow at the bottom right.

The Print Preview tab appears when you view the current document in the Print Preview mode. There are two ways to insert a hyperlink: 1. When you press the “Ctrl” key and click on this text. another document or to a Web site. Select this text. To make this banner more attractive. A hyperlink may be in the form of text or a graphic. 2.document. Place the cursor in your document at the point where you wish to insert the hyperlink. Inserting Shapes Word offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document. Click “Shapes” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab to display the various shapes that you can use.docx”. You may format the text by selecting it and using the mini toolbar displayed. You now see that the hyperlink text is underlined. right-click on it and select “Remove Hyperlink”. Click “OK”. 47 | P a g e . Editing while previewing Now you will preview your document to see if any changes are required. Removing Hyperlinks: To remove the hyperlink while retaining the text. You now wish to insert a banner at the bottom of your document. Now enter your text. Use any of them to display the “Insert Hyperlink” window. click “Current Folder” and then click on “time_table. Because you wish to create a link to another document. This document exists in the same folder as your document. Click the “Hyperlink” icon in the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab.docx” which contains the complete time table. make a selection from the “Shape Style” group. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. You may also drag to place the shape at another location. Under “Stars and Banners” select the “Double Wave” banner. You may use the sizing handles to modify the size of the shape. Use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+K”. Let us insert a hyperlink to another document called “time_table. In this case. Right click on the banner and select “Add Text”. To view a document in the Print Preview mode. Drag your mouse to create your shape of the size you wish. Let us add some text to this banner. you can view the time table document. we shall use the text “Time Table” as a hyperlink.

Click “Browse” and navigate to the file you wish to insert. You can easily change the level of an item in the hierarchy by simply increasing or decreasing the indent by using the “Tab” or “Backspace” keys respectively. Different items are indented to represent their level in a document’s structure. uncheck the box against the “Magnifier” button in the “Preview” group on the Print Preview tab. Now enter your list. video clips. For this. Check the box against “Display as icon” if you want to display your object as an icon. select “Object” from the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. You see that the object is now a part of your document Using Additional Word Features Creating Multilevel Lists A multilevel list shows the list items at different levels rather than at one level. The mouse pointer changes to an “I” beam. Click on the page you wish to magnify to see it in normal size. On the “Home” tab. You may create a new object to insert or insert an existing one from a file. Now click “Insert”. It makes the hierarchy of items in a document very clear and easy to understand. click on the “Create from File” tab. Saving to a New Folder 48 | P a g e . In the “Object” window. Inserting Objects You may insert external objects such as pictures.When the mouse pointer moves over the document it is shaped as a magnifying glass with a plus sign. Make your changes and then click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview window. When you wish to edit the document. Click again to see it in a compressed size. You may now save your changes. in the “Paragraph” group. Click “OK” in the “Object” window. a spreadsheet or even another word document into your current document. Creating a multilevel list: Click where you want to begin your list. You can edit the object later using the application which created the source file. click the “Multilevel List” icon and select a list style. Use the “Tab” key to go to the next level and “Shift+Tab” to move up one level. This indicates that you can now make changes to the text. Check the box against “Link to file” if you want your document to be updated whenever the file containing the inserted object is edited. Let us insert an existing spreadsheet created using Microsoft Excel.

check the boxes against “Hide spelling errors in this document only” and “Hide grammar errors in this document only” and click “OK”.Next. The new folder is created as a subfolder in the active directory. Now click “Proofing”. you sometimes notice that many spelling and grammar errors are indicated by red and green wavy lines. As you move the mouse pointer over different areas. If you wish to change your file name. Click “New Folder”. Using Click and Type: On a new blank page. 3. and then click “Word Options”. The red and green wavy lines are no longer displayed. Click the Office Button. You may turn off the display of these errors if you do not wish to be distracted as you work. Hiding Spelling and Grammar When you go through a document. They are mostly for words that are not in the dictionary. Click the Office button and select “Save As”. You can still run spelling and grammar checks manually by using functions like “Spelling & Grammar” on the “Review” tab at any time you wish. The steps to save the file are: 1. Enter the appropriate location where you wish to place the file in the “Save in” field. You will use this folder to hold related files. You can create a new folder at the time you save a file. 49 | P a g e . At the bottom of the window. Move the mouse pointer across the page and observe the change in it. Formatting Documents Automatically There are two ways in which you can format your document automatically. you will save the multilevel list you have created in a folder on your disk. Your document is now saved in the newly created folder. switch to the Print Layout view by selecting “Print Layout” from the “Document Views” group on the “View” tab. 2. Type the name of the new folder in the “Name” field in the “New Folder” window and press “Enter”. make appropriate changes in the “File name” field and then click “Save”. The chart displayed in the figure lists the different pointer shapes and formatting that is applied. Press “Save” to save your file with the same name in the new folder. the I-beam pointer displays an icon indicating the formatting that will be applied when you double-click at that location.

You may enter your specifications here. Updating the Table of Contents Updating the Table of Contents: You may introduce new headings or move certain information to another page in your document at a later stage.You can use this method to quickly insert text. Applying Styles: This is the second way in which you can format your document automatically. This makes your document attractive as well as clear. you may apply styles “Heading2” and “Heading3” to subsequent heading levels. Simply click “OK”. You may choose to update page numbers only or the entire table. the topics that are included in the document and makes it easier to locate information. it is best to use the default settings. Click on the “Table of Contents” tab. In the document displayed. Doubleclick at the center of the document. let us apply different styles to different heading levels. graphics or other items in a blank area of a document. in the “Styles” group select the “Heading1” style. Let us create a Table of Contents for the document you created in the previous assignment. Creating a Table of Contents A Table of Contents is a listing of the topics that appear in a document with their associated page references. You would need to update your table of contents. Select “Update entire table” and click “OK”. select “Table of Contents”. in the “Table of Contents” group. This style is now applied to your selected text. Place the cursor at the beginning of the document. avoiding the need to enter blank lines. To see the complete list of styles click on the arrow at the bottom of the “Styles” group. Formatting a Document Section 50 | P a g e . in the “Table of Contents” group. For now. You can now see “Region 3” in the table of contents. You can see in the displayed document that “Region 3” is not displayed in the table of contents. Your table of contents is ready. The “Update Table of Contents” window is displayed. The “Table of Contents” window appears. Select the main heading. A particular style can be applied to a heading or any other text to improve its appearance or make it stand out clearly. On the “References” tab. select “Update Table”. Similarly. You can now enter text which will be formatted as per the pointer shape. Click on a style to apply it to the selected text. On the “References” tab. Click “Insert Table of Contents” at the bottom of the window that comes up. It shows you at a glance. On the “Home” tab. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on any heading to move to the related content in your document.

select the type of section break you wish. Footnotes appear at the end of each page and endnotes appear at the end of the document. select “Breaks” from the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. Sometimes. right-click the footnote and select “Go to Footnote” to take you back to the insertion point in the main body so you can continue working on your document. To do so. Type your footnote. Formatting a section: Let us now make some changes to the section that you have created. Under “Preview”. comment on. When you are done.You may need to apply specific formatting to only a part of your document. “Continuous” creates the section at the cursor position. Position your cursor before the first point. To insert a section in your document. position your cursor at the text you want the footnote to appear. ensure that “This section” is selected in the “Apply to” field. simply delete the note reference mark in the document window. Select “Insert Footnote” from the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Click “OK”. location and format by clicking on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Footnotes” group. Adding Bookmarks 51 | P a g e . Let us select “Continuous”. In the “Page Setup” window. or provide references for text in a document. Using Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes or Endnotes are used to explain. Deleting a Footnote or Endnote: When you want to delete a note. change the left margin to “5”. Endnotes: You may insert endnotes in the same way using the “Insert Endnote” button in the “Footnotes” group on the “References” tab. Let us consider the document we had created earlier. Under “Section Breaks”. Inserting a Footnote: To insert a footnote. Deleting the text in the note does not delete the note. you can create sections within the document and apply the formatting to the required section. You may make changes to your footnotes and endnotes in respect of numbering. “Next Page” moves the section to the new page. A footnote or an endnote consists of two linked parts — the note reference mark and the corresponding note text. “Odd Page” or “Even Page” starts the section on the next odd or even numbered page. meanings of difficult words are given in the form of footnotes. A reference mark is inserted at the point you selected and you are taken to the bottom of the page. You can see that the text in the section after the cursor position gets indented as per the new left margin. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Page Setup” group.

Deleting a Bookmark: To delete a bookmark. Then select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. You must now add a caption to this figure. Select “Insert Caption” from 52 | P a g e . on the “Format” tab. Changing the Object Position: Click on the picture. Clicking on the reference takes you to the referred location in the document. Click on the bookmark and then click “Go To”. Now click “Advanced”. enter a name for your bookmark and click “Add”.A Bookmark is used to mark a certain location in a document. check the box against “Show bookmarks” and click “OK”. Under “Show document content”. In the “Bookmark” window. Adding a Bookmark: You now wish to insert a bookmark before the text “Contact Us”. the bookmark appears as an Ibeam. It identifies a location in the document or a selection of text that you name for future reference. Formatting Picture Layout Sometimes. click on it and then click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. Click “Close” in the “Bookmark” window. Move your mouse over the various options under “With Text Wrapping” and click on your choice. references allow you to move within a document. but not among multiple documents. you may need to change the position of a graphic. Showing Bookmarks: Click the Office Button. drawing or object in your document or type some text around it. If you have assigned a bookmark to a location. Moving to a specific bookmark: Select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. You can also set cross-references to the captions of charts and tables. Wrapping text around graphics: To change the way text wraps around the picture. You first must define a reference target for the cross-reference. Click before this text. select “Bookmark” from the “Links” group on the “Insert” tab. Select “Text Wrapping” in the “Arrange” group and choose a suitable option from the ones displayed. If you have assigned a bookmark to an item. Your text now appears by the side of the picture. You can define the wrapping style around an object. Referencing Figures Setting References: A cross-reference is a reference from one part of a document to related information in another part. Click on the figure you want to refer to. and then click “Word Options”. This caption will be used for reference. Your cursor now moves to the bookmark location. in the “Arrange” group. Under “Picture Tools”. Click on the bookmark and then click “Delete”. the bookmark appears in brackets on the screen. In contrast to hyperlinks. select “Position”.

see “. select “Shift Cells Right” and click “OK”. Inserting additional rows and columns: To insert additional rows or columns at a later stage. Press “Tab” to move to the next cell. Sizing a table: To quickly change the overall table size.the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. click in the table. Under “Table Tools”. In the “Insert Table” window. select “Insert Above” to insert a row above the current row. Inserting a Table: To insert a table. Your table is displayed on the screen. You see that the data has been moved to the right and a new blank column has been inserted. Position your cursor at an appropriate location. Select some cells which you would like to shift. Shifting Cells: You may shift a few cells or a complete row or column. say “For your information. This displays the caption near your text. Entering data: Click on a cell and enter your data. select the same number of rows or columns required to be inserted and then click on the appropriate icon. select the position of the caption and press “OK”. In the “Rows & Columns” group. click on the “Layout” tab. enter your caption. In the “Cross-reference” window. “Insert Left” inserts a column to the left and “Insert Right” inserts a column to the right. drag the resize handle at the bottom right corner of the table to an appropriate location. You may now press the “Ctrl” key and click on the caption to see the captioned picture. We have created a table with 2 rows and 5 columns. Click on the arrow at the bottom right of the “Rows & Columns” group. select “Figure” as “Reference type” and “Entire Caption” as “Insert reference to” from the respective drop-down lists. Click “OK”. Similarly. Now let us insert a cross-reference for this reference. Enter your text. In the “Caption” window. Select “Cross-reference” from the “Captions” group on the “References” tab. To insert multiple rows or columns. Moving a table: To move your table. In the “Insert Cells” window. Under “For which caption:” click on the appropriate caption and then click “Insert”. Creating a Simple Table A table is used to organize information into an easy-to-read format of horizontal rows and vertical columns. select “Table” in the “Tables” group on the “Insert tab. Now click “Close”. Select “Insert Below” to insert a row below the current row. place the cursor on the top left corner and drag with your mouse to the new location. You may drag with your mouse to specify the dimensions of the table or click “Insert Table”. 53 | P a g e .This handle appears whenever the mouse pointer rests over the table. enter the Table size in respect of number of rows and columns.

on the “Layout” tab. Now let us remove the borders of the table. except that the formatting affects the selected cells only. Click in the table. In the “Table” group. Sorting a List: The “Sort” feature and various sorting options can also be used for non-tabled text. For now. click on your choice in the “Style” box. You may select the cells. data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. Let us let the displayed field “Coach Number” remain as the field to sort by. In the “Table Styles” group. In the “Table Styles” group. Click it to select the table. Sorting Data Word can quickly sort text. The available auto formats consist of a combination of fonts. 54 | P a g e . select the text and then click the “Sort” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Under “Table Tools”. and then click “Select Table”. Now.Formatting a table: This is similar to formatting a document. Let us center the text in the first column of the table displayed. Inserting Headers and Footers Headers and footers provide information that typically appears at the top and bottom of each page in a document and helps the reader to locate information in a document. The same header and footer can be used throughout the document or different ones can be used in different sections. you may select the options that you want. You can see that the data in the table is now sorted by Coach Number. click the “Design” tab. Under “Table Tools”. under “Table Tools”. click the “Design” tab. let us leave the default options in the “Sort Text” window unchanged. colors. Using table Styles: A quicker way of applying formats to a table automatically is to use the Table Styles offered by Word. and use the different formatting options from the “Home” tab. in the “Data” group. For this click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “No Border”. In the window that comes up. Click in the table. Under “Table Tools”. Inserting a Header: Let us now add a header to the document you created previously. Click “OK”. Move the pointer over the table until you see a four headed arrow at the top left corner. Simply click “OK” to see a sorted list. Let us sort data contained in the time table document displayed. borders and alignment settings. you may make your selection. Select the first column and click the “Center” icon in the “Paragraph” group Borders: You may specify the border style for your table. For this. click the arrow next to the “Borders” icon and select “Borders and Shading”. In the “Sort” window. click “Select”. click the Layout tab. patterns. click “Sort”.

click the Office Button. scroll down and click on “Bold Numbers 3”. Word indicates formatting inconsistencies with a blue wavy underline. Similarly. inserting the page number at the top of the page overwrites a previously inserted header. special terms and abbreviations. The header area becomes active. check the boxes against “Keep track of formatting” and “Mark formatting inconsistencies” and then click “OK”. Click the “Spelling & Grammar” icon in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab. Now click on “Bottom of Page”. You can see the words “East” and “West” highlighted as well. In the document displayed. A list of header styles is displayed. select “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. it offers you the opportunity to make all similar formatting schemes identical to the format scheme that occurs most frequently. Under “Editing options”. Now click “Advanced”. select the word “North”. Click on the first one. For this. Select “Footer” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab and select the style “Blank (Three Columns)”. Click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab. Respond appropriately to any other located errors. Inserting the Page Number: You may insert the page number and the total number of pages in your document on every page of your document at a position of your choice. right-click on it and select “Styles → Select Text with Similar Formatting”. Choose “Ignore All” for all proper names. you may like to check it in respect of spelling and grammar as well as formatting consistency. if any. if any. This is because all three words have been entered by applying a specific style. If the Format Consistency Checker finds at least two instances of a scheme that are identical. Checking Formatting Inconsistencies: To turn on this feature. It identifies different formatting schemes that are very similar to each other. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab and scroll down to see your footer. Inserting the page number at the bottom of the page overwrites a previously inserted footer. Inserting a Footer: You may insert a “Footer” in the same way as the header. Click in the first placeholder and enter the word “Comfort”.Select “Header” in the “Header & Footer” group on the “Insert” tab. Now click “Close Header and Footer” on the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. and then click “Word Options”. Press the “Tab” key twice and enter the name of your company in the header area. You may recall that you 55 | P a g e . You now see the page number and number of pages displayed at the bottom right of the page. Now. The footer area becomes active. Checking the document After your document is ready. Enter the words “Style” and “Economy” in the second and third placeholders in the same way. From the list displayed.

you can print a combination of page ranges and single pages. 11”. Right click on this underline to display formatting suggestions. use the format “3-6”. Under “Print Range”. In the document displayed. select “Columns” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. You may choose to ignore or remove the inconsistency from the different options displayed. You may select other settings for the size and display of the columns under “Width and spacing”. Selection: You may use this option to print only the selected areas or objects in the current document. 9. Click “OK” to print your document. To print only selected pages in your document. Changing the Display of the Document Creating Newsletter Style Columns A newsletter is a common application for newspaper columns. You may apply these column settings to the whole or part of the document. The “Print” window is displayed. Click “OK”. 12”. Using Word Art 56 | P a g e . use the format “7. Then. If you want. you need to click the Office Button and select “Print” from the menu. Click “More Columns” to display the “Columns” window. you may use either the “Current page” or “Pages” option under “Print Range”. 10. To print single pages. 8. Let us select “Two” as the number of columns under “Presets”. narrow columns help the reader read the articles more quickly. Printing Selected Pages You know that to print a document. Pages: You may use this option to print only the pages that you specify in the “Pages” field. The default column style is one column across the full width of the page. In a newsletter. Select the text that you wish to display in columnar format. by using the format “3-6. Your text is displayed in columnar format. To print a range of pages. the word “South” has been entered using the size and font of an existing style without applying the style.learnt about applying styles in the assignment titled “Formatting Documents Automatically”. You may click on the number of columns you require. select “All” to print the entire document.

On the “Symbols” tab. click “3-D Effects” once again and click the appropriate “Tilt” button on the right side of the displayed box. in the “Text” group. select “WordArt”. Using Mail Merge Using Mail Merge The Mail Merge feature combines a list of data. Then select “Drop Cap” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab. The symbol is inserted at the current cursor position. Select the text “Special Offers”. Click on the “Format” tab under “WordArt Tools” to modify the WordArt as per your requirements. select “Symbol” in the “Symbols” group on the “Insert” tab. you may enhance your WordArt text.WordArt is used to enhance your documents by changing the shape of text and adding special effects such as 3-D and shadows. You may change the font. click on the left side of the displayed box. The names and 57 | P a g e . Then set the “Lines to drop” field as “2”. 3-D Effects: You may apply 3-D effects to your WordArt text. Click “OK” to display the drop cap in your document. Click “More Symbols” to display the “Symbol” window. You can see that your text has been adjusted accordingly. font size and font style if you wish. click “3-D Effects”. Let us use WordArt to enhance the heading of the document created. The “WordArt Gallery” is displayed. Click “Drop Cap Options” to display the “Drop Cap” window. The “Edit WordArt Text” window is displayed. click on a symbol of your choice and click “Insert”. typically a file of names and addresses with a document to create new documents. click on “Spacing” in the “Text” group. Then click “Close”. Now select “Tight”. On the “Insert” tab. Let us use a drop cap in our document. You may also specify the font and the distance of the drop cap from your text. covering several lines. Select the first letter “C” from the list of offers. In this way. To change the direction of the 3-D effect. Adding a Drop Cap Drop caps are the first character/s at the beginning of a paragraph that are enlarged. On the “Format” tab. Then click “OK”. Click on “Dropped” under “Position”. Spacing: To modify the spacing between the characters of the WordArt. To select an effect. Click on a style. Leave them unchanged for now. Inserting Symbols To insert Symbols or Special Characters in your document.

Now. Similarly. since you are ready with your letter. you want to create labels for the envelopes. Now click "Close". Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab.addresses are entered (merged) into the document in the blank spaces provided. Click "OK" in the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. click "OK". You wish to mail your document about special offers to a large number of people. Set the document type to "Letters" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. Click "Next". Enter the Title. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. This is very simple using Word’s Mail Merge feature. A personal touch can be added by addressing each person by his individual name at the top of the document. First Name and Last Name of the first person. The result is a personalized letter. You see that the field names are now inserted in your document. your letters to everyone are ready. click "Next" Creating a List: Let us create a list of people we wish to send our document to. The "New Address List" window is displayed. Make sure to insert a space between each field. Click after the word "Dear". We are now ready to insert the field names. select "Use the current document". Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Previewing Letters: You now see a preview of the letter to the first person on your list. enter the fields First Name and Last Name. Click "New Entry" to add subsequent entries. Printing Mailing Labels Now that your letters are ready. Select "Type a new list" and then click "Create". Use the right and left arrows to preview letters to the others. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Enter a space. Printing or Editing Letters: You may now click "Print" to print your letters or click "Edit individual letters" to make changes to any letter. say "List1" and click "Save". The "Save Address List" window appears. Let us add the text at the beginning of our document as shown. After you are done. Click on Title. Enter your file name. Selecting the starting document: Now. You may make your selections from the windows that are displayed. A wizard guides you and in a few steps. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Inserting Fields: Now. 58 | P a g e . Click "Next" to complete the merge. then on "Insert".

After you are done. Click on the Title field. Then click "Next". enter the fields First Name. you may select the type of printer. Inserting Fields: Now. Click "Next". Address Line 2 and City fields for all the people in the list. Click on the name of the list in the box at the bottom and then click "Edit". Press “Enter” after the Last Name field to bring the Address Line 1 to the next line. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab.Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Address Line 2 and City. Enter the Address Line 1. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". navigate to the location of your list. Selecting Recipients: You have a list of people you wish to send your document to. select “Formtec” in the “Label vendors” box and "Formtec AT-7210" under Product Number and click "OK". click "OK". Now click "Label options". The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. Arranging Fields: Let us now arrange the fields. Click “Yes” to confirm the address details in the window that comes up. Then insert a space before each field in the first line. Let us now include address details. The default location is the sub folder “My Data Sources” in the “Documents” folder. Set the document type to "Labels" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Click on your list "List1" in the appropriate location and then click "Open". Previewing Labels: You now see a preview of the labels. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Click "Update all labels". Address Line 1. move the Address Line 2 and City fields to the following lines. Replicating Labels: You may copy the layout of the first label to the other labels. then on "Insert". you may add the names and address details on the labels. the type of label product. Here. Now click “Close”. Printing or Editing Labels: You may now click "Print" to print your labels or click "Edit individual labels" to make changes to any label. You see that the field names are inserted in your document. The "Label Options" window is displayed. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. For now. and the product number. Preparing and Printing Envelopes 59 | P a g e . Similarly. Last Name. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Similarly. Now click “OK” and then click "Next". Use the right and left arrows to move between labels. In the "Select Data Source" window.

Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Printing or Editing Envelopes: You may now click "Print" to print your envelopes or click "Edit individual envelopes" to make changes to any envelope. On the "Envelope options" tab. Arranging your envelope: Let us use the "Address block" feature. For this. Starting the Wizard: In a new blank Word document. you may want to quickly address a single envelope instead of printing and pasting a label. Let us make envelopes for some of them. Set the document type to " Envelopes" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Click "Next" to complete the merge. select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. In the “Insert Address Block” window. Set the document type to "E-mail messages" and click "Next" at the bottom of the wizard to go to the next wizard step. Click "Address block". In the "Select Data Source" window. your system must include a compatible e-mail program. Now click "Next". browse to the location of your list. For now. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". you make changes as required. Starting the Wizard: Select “Start Mail Merge” in the “Start Mail Merge” group on the “Mailings” tab. click on "List1" and then click "Open". click "Next". Merging for sending E-mails using Outlook You may also want to e-mail your document so as to reach out to a larger number of people. Use the right and left arrows to preview other envelopes. You may specify different settings related to the appearance and printing of the envelope on the "Envelope options" and "Printing options" tabs. select an appropriate Envelope size and click "OK". as you did for labels. The "Mail Merge Recipients" window is displayed. such as Microsoft Outlook. You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. Un-check the boxes in front of the names for which you do not want envelopes and then click "OK". simply click “OK”. Select “Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard” to display the Mail Merge Wizard at the right. Previewing Envelopes: You now see a preview of the first envelope. Now. Click “Next”. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. The "Envelope Options" window is displayed.Sometimes. You can use the Mail Merge task pane to create a group email distribution. 60 | P a g e . You may use "More items" to insert any individual items you wish. This directly inserts all address fields on your envelope. Now click "Envelope options".

Now click "Next". Replace body text with your own text. Inserting Fields: Now. click "Next". then on "Insert". Now click "Close". Use the right and left arrows to preview other messages. Then click "OK". In the "Mail Merge Recipients" window. special formatting and styles. under “Templates”. Click "Next" to complete the merge. Sending mails: You may now click "Electronic Mail" to send your e-mails. You may go to the previous step at any time by clicking "Previous". menus. Selecting the Template type: Click on the “Equity Letter” template and then press the “Create” button. key assignments. A template determines the basic structure for a document and contains document settings such as fonts. select the records you want to merge. In the "Subject line" field. Using Standard Templates Using a Template from Word Every Microsoft Word document is based on a template. browse to the location of your list. Click after the word "Dear". click on "List1" and then click "Open". select "Use the current document". Previewing your messages: You now see a preview of the first e-mail message. verify that "Email_Address" is displayed. Then.Selecting the starting document: Now. click "OK". You may click "Edit Recipient List" to make changes to your list. In the "Select Data Source" window. You may make changes if required. Just ensure that you have entered the e-mail addresses of the people on the list. type the subject line you want to use for all the messages. Now. Selecting Recipients: You already have a list of people. click "Next". you may add the items that you wish to be incorporated in it. In the "Mail format" field. Brochures and Reports. Enter a space. In the "To" field. Select "Use an existing list" and then click "Browse". click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. A new document is displayed with pre-defined settings. Click the Office Button and select “New” from the menu. Adding details: Just click on the parts marked in square brackets and enter your details. since you are ready with your message. page layout. Under "Send records”. Click on First Name. select the mail format you want to use. The "Merge to E-mail" window is displayed. You may use any of the standard templates provided by Microsoft Word for your document such as Resumes. In the right left panel. Click "More items" to display the "Insert Merge Field" window. Let us use this list. 61 | P a g e . Let us create a new document based on an existing template.

Now. Now start typing your text. Then click “Control Panel”. Finally. You can see that your text appears in the new language. click “Apply” and then “OK” in the “Text Services and Input Languages” window. You can do this by configuring the language settings in the “Clock. Check the box next to the first keyboard type and click “OK”. you must configure Windows Vista to be able to use fonts specific to those languages. Click on the plus sign in front of “Arabic (Saudi Arabia)”. To exit the Word application. Using a Configured Language in Word Start the Microsoft Word application. SPREADSHEET Overview of Excel Introduction You have recently accepted a new job as an Administrative Assistant with All Saints High School. If you see the “Classic View” displayed. click “Change keyboards or other input methods” under “Clock. In the “General” tab of the “Text Services and Input Languages” window.Saving the document: You may save this file just like a normal document. and Region” option of the “Control Panel”. before you can start using some languages on your computer. Hence. Click “Add” to add a new language. and Region” This displays the “Keyboards and Languages” tab of the “Regional and Language Options” window. Currently the school records are maintained on paper 62 | P a g e . In the “Save As” window. In the “Add Input Language” window. let us add the Arabic language as an example. enter “Special Package” in the “File name” field and click “Save”. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Word” button at the bottom right. Click the Office Button and click on the arrow next to “Save As”. click “Control Panel Home”. In the box at the bottom. Your document is created based on the template you selected. Word Processing in Other Languages Language Settings in Windows Vista Setting a language for the Windows Vista operating system: By default Windows Vista does not support entry in certain languages. the box at the top displays the default input language. Now. you see a list of languages that Windows Vista has been configured to use. Now click “Word Document”. click “OK” in the “Regional and Language Options” window. Now click on the plus sign in front of the word “Keyboard” displayed below it. Click on the “EN” icon on the taskbar. Click on the “Arabic” language in the window that comes up. Now click “Change keyboards”. Click on the “Start” button. Language. Language.

You are responsible for maintaining the exam records of all students. new data can be added.All data is stored in the computer. It is mainly used for different type of calculations varying from very simple to complex. therefore there is no paper used.It is very easy to manage. it still takes time to manually leaf through the folders to locate the information you need. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Excel 2007”. . . calculate and analyze data.forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. This data can be edited. whole or part of the spreadsheet can be printed. and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. change.You can create well-designed spreadsheets that produce accurate and professional-looking results. The Microsoft Office user interface is uniform across most of its components.It is a general purpose electronic spreadsheet used to organize. Whenever a hard copy is required. It consists of three main parts: 1) The Office Button 2) The Quick Access toolbar 3) The Ribbon 63 | P a g e . Features of Microsoft Excel 2007 Features of Microsoft Excel 2007: . Microsoft Excel is the world’s most widely-used spreadsheet program. . You will prepare the Exam Record of students in Microsoft Excel 2007. since you can add. filled with numerical or textual data. update and delete data with a few keystrokes. A spreadsheet is like an accountant’s ledger. The User Interface The User Interface is the way in which you interact with your computer. To start the Microsoft Excel application.You can create charts to represent data more effectively. . Although the information is well organized. and unwanted data can be deleted. consisting of rows and columns. An electronic spreadsheet or worksheet is made up of rows and columns. The school has purchased new computers and it plans to computerize all administrative operations.

c) Command buttons in each group that carry out a command or display a menu of commands. The “Formulas” tab helps you build useful formulas that can resolve a great deal of problems. The Ribbon: The Ribbon is a component of the Office Fluent user interface. charts. It also has buttons that let you add comments to a worksheet and manage revisions. filtering. graphics. saving. Undo. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. and closing a file. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. and Redo. and other page settings. The “Review” tab contains proofing tools like spell check. You can specify margins. The “Data” tab lets you get information from an outside source for analysis. This contains commands for opening. b) Groups within each tab that break a task into subtasks.The Office Button: This appears at the top-left corner of your screen. The “Insert” tab lets you add special ingredients like tables. It also enables you to view several separate Excel spreadsheet files at the same time. It consists of:a) Task-oriented tabs. and grouping. The “Page Layout” tab helps you in getting your worksheet ready for the printer. displaying icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. formatting your data. like sorting. and hyperlinks. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in Excel: The “Home” tab has some of the most commonly used buttons. please refer to the following: Topic: Word Processing Lab: Creating and Editing a Document 64 | P a g e . like those for cutting and pasting information. paper orientation. The “View” tab lets you select from a variety of viewing options. and searching for important pieces of information with search tools. Clicking the Office Button displays the “File” menu. The Quick Access toolbar: This appears to the right of the Office Button near the top of the screen. It is designed to put your most commonly used commands in a place where you can always find them. It also includes tools for dealing with large amounts of information. printing.

Navigating the Excel Worksheet There are several methods for navigating a worksheet. It contains a collection of one or more worksheets and. C. chart sheets containing graphic pictures of your worksheet data. you must first move to the cell. Each cell has its own address called the cell address.The number of the third row is obviously 3 and the name of the fifth column is E. To enter data in a cell.048. A special feature of Excel is “AutoCalculate”. right. the Excel 2007 grid is 1. Excel also calculates workbooks each time they are opened. 65 | P a g e . optionally.576 rows by 16. B. BB. use the vertical scroll bar on the right edge of the window or horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the window. Each worksheet can be used to organize different types of related information. You can use the arrow keys to move left. up or down. To move among the worksheets in your workbook. At the bottom of the workbook window are tabs that give you instant access to other worksheets in the workbook. Suppose you want to refer to a cell in the third row and fifth column. To view the part of the worksheet that is currently not visible. As you move from one cell to another. a single file or document is called a workbook. Cell address: The address of a cell is made up of two parts – the column name and the row number. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 supports up to 1 million rows and 16 thousand columns per worksheet.… AA. the reference or address of the active cell appears in the Name Box.384 columns which works out to more than 17 billion cells. To enable you to explore massive amounts of data in worksheets. …AZ. the address of that cell will be E3. AB. The intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. BA. There are some keyboard shortcuts to navigate within the worksheet. you need to click the worksheet tabs.… XFD and the rows are numbered from one onwards. By default. The columns are named as A. The worksheet is divided into a grid of rows and columns. Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates formulas when the cells that the formula depends on have changed. The simplest way is to click the cell that you want to activate with the mouse.Assignment: The User Interface Workbooks and Worksheets In Microsoft Excel 2007. Specifically.

Template: You may also create a new workbook using a template. CREATING AND EDITING Creating a New Workbook When you first start Excel. etc. a new blank Excel workbook is opened. 66 | P a g e . Click in cell A1 to activate it and type ‘Roll_No’ and press “Enter” to complete the entry.“Ctrl+End” to go to the cell in the last row and last column that contains data.Use “Ctrl+Home” to go the cell A1 and .. There is another way to create a new blank worksheet. use the F5 function key or press “Ctrl+G”. For example a Sales Report. Whenever you create a new workbook using a template. Expense Statement. To activate a particular cell. To select a group of cells. drag your cursor and release it when you have reached the end of the selection. Balance Sheet. Continue typing the data in column A as shown in the accompanying figure.Use the Home key to move to column A of the current row . the same default settings are used. click in the cell you want to begin. Now click “Create” in the “New Workbook” window. A template is a file that is provided by the application in a “ready to use” form. you can enter data in it. move to a cell where you want to enter data and type the entry using the keyboard. When you finish entering data in one column. Entering and Editing Data After you are presented with a blank worksheet.Page Up and Page Down keys can be used to move up or down one screen .xltx”. Type the address of the cell you want to make active and click “OK”. It includes predefined settings that can be used as a pattern to create many different types of workbooks. To enter data. You can also design and create your own workbook templates. activate cell B1 and repeat the same procedure as you did for column A. It is here that you will be entering the data. Click the Office Button and select “New”. The cell pointer will move down one row. A template file has an extension “.

The shape of the cursor will change to a double sided arrow pointing to the right and left. You can use the formula bar to enter and edit data. You may wish to change only a part of the text in a cell. Double click on the boundary while the cursor is a double sided arrow. you see the Name Box on the left and the Formula Bar on the right. You can also click and drag the mouse to adjust the width of the column. The “Delete” key on the keyboard can be used to clear the contents of a cell. that is. To overwrite the contents of a cell simply make the cell active and type whatever you want to. how to adjust the column width. This is particularly useful when a cell contains a large amount of information. double-click on the cell. Leave it as it is for now. To remove individual characters. you can adjust the size of the formula box in the formula bar. Correcting typing mistakes: While entering the data. Move the mouse to the boundary between column B and column C in the bar where column names are given on top. Place the mouse on the boundary between the columns. Click the checkmark to confirm your entry. you can also resize the name box. instead of editing directly in your worksheet. You may make the changes you require. Changing Column Width Now you will adjust the width of the column B. column C. or "X" to roll it back. move your mouse over the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical twoheaded arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. When the cursor 67 | P a g e . a checkmark and an "X" icon appear just to the left of the box. Resizing the Formula or Name Box: To make it easier to view and edit a large amount of text in a cell. To accommodate long names. you will see that the data overflows into the next column. We will see later on. To adjust the width of the name box move your mouse between the name box and the formula box until the pointer changes to a horizontal two-headed arrow and then drag with your mouse to where you want it. To adjust the height of the formula box. The width of the column will be automatically adjusted to the maximum length of characters in the column. Enter data in all five columns as shown. if you make a typing mistake. For this.While entering the data in the “Name” column. Now move the cursor to the point at which you want to edit the text. Below the Ribbon. use the “Backspace” key on the keyboard to erase the wrong character typed and continue typing. press "Delete" for characters to the right of the insertion point and "Backspace" for characters to the left. When you start typing in the formula box.

Enter the column width and press “OK”. To open an existing workbook. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse.xlsx”. click the Office Button and select “Close”. “Ctrl+S”. Once a file has been saved. You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. click the Office Button and select “Open” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+O”. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. to save it again. you must make place on the worksheet. To save a file. Closing and Opening a Workbook Now that all the data has been entered. The background color of the cells changes as you drag the mouse. Then type ‘Exam Record’ in the box in front of the label “File name” and then click on the “Save” button. As soon as you have opened a new file. It is a good practice to save a file often to prevent data loss due to unforeseen circumstances like power failure. Saving. Moving Cells You now have to add a heading to the worksheet. To do so. Select all the data you have entered. browse to select the file you want to open. You may also use the “Cut” and “Paste” commands to move cells. To close the file. Your file is stored with the extension “.shape changes. The height of a row can be changed in a similar manner. Now close the file. by placing the mouse in cell A1. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. To do so. Select the data from the cells to be moved and then select “Cut” in the “Clipboard” 68 | P a g e . Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. From the window that is displayed. you must make place on the worksheet. Release the mouse when you reach cell E11. The name of the workbook appears in the “Title Bar”. by placing the mouse in cell A1. click the Office Button and select “Save” or use the keyboard shortcut. Keep saving it as you work. Another way to save is file is. save it. You can also specify the width of the column by clicking on a column and selecting “Format → Column Width” in the “Cells” group on the “Home” tab. Select all the data you have entered. to click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. click and drag the mouse to widen the column as much as needed. Now click “Open”. Then click and drag the mouse up to the last cell containing data to be moved. you must save the file.

Let the text overflow into the neighboring cells. The total of the marks for the three subjects is displayed in cell F10 as 248. *. When you see the item you want. Centering and Merging Cells To merge and centre headings:Type the headings in appropriate cells as shown in the accompanying figure. A moving border appears around the selection. As soon as you click on the icon. division. exponentiation. you have to make use of a formula. percent and exponentiation respectively. a formula always begins with an equal sign (=) and uses arithmetic operators like +. In Excel. A formula is evaluated from left to right and in the following order: percent. and ^ to perform addition. You will soon see how to bring the heading to the center of the data. as shown in the figure. In regular Mathematics. /. all the selected cells are merged and the heading is centered. they are evaluated from left to right. In the cell above Sub1. press Tab to enter it into your formula. If a formula contains operators of the same precedence. subtraction. Click on the cell where you want to move your data and then click on the upper part of the “Paste” icon in the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. %. Merge and center ‘Marks’ above the three subject marks as shown in the accompanying figure. Exam Record and Class VIII – B. Select cells starting with A1 to E1 and click on the “Merge & Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. type ‘Marks’. one heading at a time You have to now insert cells to make place so that we can give a combined heading for the three subjects. multiplication. When you begin typing a formula. including a description of each item. Type ‘Total’ in cell F8. addition and subtraction. Do the same for the other headings – . multiplication and division. Excel displays a drop-down list of matching items. You now have to calculate the total marks for each student. To do this in Excel. Move the data for ‘Roll_No’ and ‘Name’ one row down.group on the “Home” tab. Select the cells C8 to E8 and right-click on the selection. -. Using Formulas Formula: A formula is nothing but an expression that performs calculation on data contained in the worksheet. Select “Insert” from the pop-up window and select “Shift cells down” from the “Insert” window. Formula AutoComplete: The Formula AutoComplete feature makes entering formulas very simple. Move the cursor down and type ‘=C10+D10+E10’ and press “Enter”. Total Marks secured = Marks of Subject 1 + Marks of Subject 2 + Marks of Subject 3. 69 | P a g e .

Select cells F10 and G10. press Esc key. An adjacent range is a block of adjoining cells. The Percent marks for the three subjects are displayed in cell G10 as 82. 70 | P a g e . The cells in a range can be adjacent or non-adjacent. all related formulas are recalculated automatically. A moving border appears around the selection. The contents of several continuous cells. Select all cells from F11 to G19. In the Formula Bar. Right-click anywhere in the selection Select “Copy” from the pop-up window. In regular Mathematics. another worksheet. But you don’t have to type the formula every time. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+V” or select “Paste” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab. What-If Analysis: If you change one or more numbers in your spreadsheet. Duplicating Cell Contents You have to calculate the ‘Total’ and ‘Percent’ marks for all students in the same way. The row numbers have changed relative to the positions of the cells containing the formula. Let us change the marks of one student.You have now to calculate the percent marks for each student. The formula for adding marks and calculating percent is copied from cells F10 and G10 respectively and pasted into all selected cells. Select “Paste” from the pop-up window. Thus you can change the value in a cell and see the effect on other related cells. that is. Move the cursor down and type ‘=F10 * (100/300)’ which is the formula to calculate percentage and then press “Enter”. This is called “What-If Analysis”.66667. Type ‘Percent’ in cell G8. The formula can be copied and pasted in the other cells.to cancel the moving border. a range. Right click in anywhere in the selection. It shows “=C11+D11+E11”. This is called “Relative Cell Referencing”. The formula in cell F12 is “=C12+D12+E12”. You can see that the value in the “Percent” field is changed automatically. This indicates that the contents have been copied. observe the formula you have pasted in cell F11. another workbook or in a totally different application. Percentage = Marks secured multiplied by 100 and divided by the Maximum Marks. can also be copied and pasted in a similar manner on the same worksheet. Alternatively. A non-adjacent range is two or more cells or ranges that are not adjoining. Range: A range is a selection of two or more cells. you may use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+C” or select “Copy” from the “Clipboard” group on the “Home” tab.

) like A4. you will use the “IF” function. the student will be declared “PASSED”. Type the heading ‘Grade’ in cell I8 and type the function as shown in cell I10. =IF(G10>=80. You will again use the “IF” function to do so. "A". A+ grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 75."Pass". In regular English. =IF(G10>=35. IF(G10>=75. The result of the function is displayed in cell I10.In formulas. "Fail"). otherwise he would be declared “FAILED”. You have to decide whether a student has passed or failed. A non-adjacent range is specified by giving the cell addresses separated by a comma (. 71 | P a g e . Using Functions A “Function” is a prewritten formula that performs calculations automatically. "C". Type the heading ‘Result’ in cell H8 and type the function as shown in cell H10. C grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 35. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from I11 to I19. You now have to give Grades to the students according to their marks. The grades for all students are displayed. "A+". "B". The results for all students are displayed. IF(G10>=50. Pass grade All others fail. In Excel. "FAIL"))))) Press “Enter”. Press “Enter”. The grades will be given as follows: Percent marks greater than or equal to 80. Let us select the range A11:A18 using the mouse. This is called “nested IF”. It is possible to nest multiple IF functions within one Excel formula. Click on the first cell. you would write this condition as follows: If percentage is greater than or equal to 35. Click on the cell A11 and drag to the cell A18. press the “Ctrl” key and then click on the next two cells. IF(G10>=35."PASS". This means a new “IF” statement is started inside another “IF” statement. “Copy” this function and “Paste” it in the cells from H11 to H19. Let us learn to use a nested IF this time. A grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 60. IF(G10>=60. Now select C14:F21. B grade Percent marks greater than or equal to 50. E9. C7. The condition for a student to pass is that he must secure at least 35 percent marks. The result of the function is displayed in cell H10. an adjacent range is specified by giving the starting and ending cell addresses separated by a colon (:).

the “Statistical” category will already be selected. It is written for you by Excel as =MIN (F10:F19) There is another way of using functions. Type the range as ‘F10:F19’ next to “Number1” and click “OK”. activate it. and B24 respectively. Since the “MAX” function has been most recently used. select “Statistical” from the “Or select a category” list. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Activate cell C24. you have to use “MIN” function. The maximum number in the range is displayed in cell C22 as 262. Select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select the “Statistical” category. you have to use the “AVERAGE” function. you can make use of some statistical functions. select “MAX” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. From the window that opens. The Function Arguments window is displayed. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. To insert a function in cell C22. From the “Select a function” list. Press “Enter” to complete the entry. 72 | P a g e . minimum and average marks scored by the students. Here you can enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the maximum number. Activate cell C23. The “Function Arguments” window is displayed. It is written for you by Excel as =MAX (F10:F19) Now. select “MIN” from the alphabetical list of functions and click “OK”. The result is displayed in cell C24. Observe the formula bar to see how the function is written. ‘Minimum marks’ and ‘Average marks’ in cells B22.Now to find the maximum. You can simply type the function you want to use in the cell. To find the average marks. Type ‘Maximum marks’. If the category is something else. Enter the numbers or the range from which you want to find the minimum number. You can type all the functions in the same manner whenever you want to use them. to find the minimum marks. and type ‘=Average (F10:F19)’ in it. click in the drop down box next to “Or select a category”. Type the range as ’F10:F19’ next to”Number1” and click “OK”. From the “Select a function” list. The minimum number in the range is displayed in cell C23. B23.

73 | P a g e . Changing the font color of the headings: Select all headings and click on the arrow next to the “Font Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. and effects. A window of colors is displayed. Changing the “Font” and “Font Size” of the headings: Select cell A1 and click on the “Font” list in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. you can make them bold. A5. All the headings are centered. To select all headings. Now click on “Format Cells” and from the window that opens. The numbers in the “Percent” range are displayed with two decimal places. select them first. you must first select all of them. Now select “Thick Box Border” from the displayed list. You can choose from a variety of predefined styles by selecting “Cell Styles” in the “Styles” group on the “Home” tab. click on the “Center” icon in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab. A thick border is displayed around the entire range. font set. Adding a thick border: Select the range of cells from A8 to H19 and click on the arrow next to the “Borders” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Hold down the Ctrl key and click in cells A4. Select the range of Percent marks. The font color of all headings is displayed with the color Blue. Select “Format” in the “Cells” group on the “Home tab. The font and the font size of the heading are changed. While the headings are still selected. select range A8:H8 and range C9:E9. The accompanying figure shows an enhanced view of the worksheet. “Themes” are universal designs that unify all of the styles. Decimal Places: The percent marks are displayed with many decimal places. “Styles” are individual designs that can be applied to different parts of the document.Formatting the Worksheet You can make your spreadsheet look more coordinated and professional by using Styles and Themes. Let us see how we can enhance our worksheet which looks quite plain. click in cell A1. With the Ctrl key still held down. You may access the theme gallery by selecting “Themes” in the “Themes” group on the “Page Layout” tab. A list of fonts is displayed. Select “Blue”. Then click on the “Font Size” list and select 14. A theme consists of a color palette. Select “Number” from the “Category” list and change “Decimal places” to 2. Select “Bodoni MT Black”. Alignment: To bring the headings to the center. Click “OK”. then click on the “Bold” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. To bring the headings to the center. You want the percent marks to be displayed with only two decimal places. You may use the “Align Text Left” or “Align Text Right” icons to move the headings to the left or right if you wish. click on the “Number” tab. If the headings are not selected.

Highlighting: To highlight the range of “Maximum, Minimum and Average Marks”, select the range B22:C24. Click on the “Fill Color” icon in the “Font” group on the “Home” tab. Select the color “Yellow”. The cell range is filled with the color Yellow. Indenting: To adjust the indenting of the contents of a cell, click on the cell. Then, in the “Alignment” group on the “Home” tab, click on the “Increase Indent” or “Decrease Indent” icon as required. Working with Graphics You now have to insert the logo of the School. To do so, activate cell G3 and select “Clip Art” in the “Illustrations” group on the “Insert” tab. In the “Clip Art” panel at the right, type ‘concepts’ in the “Search for:” box. Check in the boxes before “My Collections” and “Office Collections” in the drop down list of “Search in”. Click in the box before “Clip Art” in the drop down list of “Results should be” and click “Go”. Resizing the graphic image: Click on the “Bull’s Eye” image. It will be bigger in size. You have to resize it so that it occupies less space and looks proportionate to the rest of the data on the page. To resize it, click on the lower right corner handle of the image, and drag the mouse so that the image becomes smaller in size. Release the mouse when the image becomes the desired size. Entering the Date Inserting a row: Click on row number 7 on the left side. Right click and select “Insert”. One Row will be inserted. To insert multiple rows, select an equal number of rows. This means that when you select four rows, four more rows are inserted. Activate cell A7 and type ‘Date:’. Then place the cell pointer in cell B7 and select “Insert Function” in the “Function Library” group on the “Formulas” tab. Select “Date & Time” as category. Select “Date” as function and click “OK”. Type the “Year” as ‘2007’, “Month” as ‘02’ and “Day” as ‘21’ in the “Function Arguments” window. Click “OK”. The date is displayed as “2/21/2007” in cell B7. Formatting the date: To change the date format, right-click in cell B7 and select “Format cells”. The “Format Cells” window is displayed. Click on the “Number” tab. Select “Date” from the “Category” list and select the “Type” as “14-Mar-01”. The sample format is visible in the “Sample” box. Click “OK”. The date is displayed in the format 21-Feb-07. Previewing and Printing
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The worksheet is now ready. You can print it. Before getting a hard copy, you can preview the worksheet. If you do not like the way it looks, you can make more changes. To preview your worksheet, click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the worksheet in the Print Preview mode. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. Everything seems to be OK. But the logo of the school needs to be moved up, in line with the school’s name. Moving the graphic image: Click and drag the “Bull’s Eye” image so that it is in line with the school’s name. Release the mouse when done. The image can also be moved by using the arrow keys on the keyboard by selecting it first. Click on the image to select it. Use the right arrow key to move the graphic image to the right, left arrow key to move it to the left and so on. Printing the worksheet: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. Select the printer name from the list in front of “Name”. Under “Print Range” enter “Pages From” as ‘1’ To ‘1’. Select “Active Sheet” under “Print what” and click “OK”. Sorting Data Excel can quickly sort text, data or numbers according to specified criteria in ascending or descending order. In the worksheet displayed you can see a list of people along with their ages. Let us sort this list according to the names. Click in any of the cells containing names and then click “Sort & Filter” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. To sort the list in ascending order of names, click “Sort A to Z”. To sort it in descending order, click “Sort & Filter” and select “Sort Z to A”. Now, to sort this list according to the ages of the people, click in a cell containing an age and follow the same procedure. When you click the “Sort & Filter” icon, you see the options “Sort Smallest to Largest” and “Sort Largest to Smallest”. This is because previously it was an alphabetic list and now it is a list containing numbers that is being sorted. To sort the list in ascending order of ages, select “Sort Smallest to Largest”. Now if you had to sort the data in the worksheet containing student marks that you previously created in descending order of roll numbers, you would need to follow a slightly different procedure. This is because this worksheet contains headings and information other than simply data. First select all columns which contain data and then select “Sort & Filter → Sort Largest to Smallest” in the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab. Using Charts
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Learning about Charts

You have to present the exam results of the students of class VIII-B. The most easy and effective manner to do this would be to present it in the form of a chart. A chart is a visual representation of data and conveys the information in an easy to understand and attractive manner. There are different types of charts available in Microsoft Excel 2007 such as Column charts, Line charts, Bar charts, Area charts, Bubble charts and many more. You may select a suitable type depending on the data you want to chart and the emphasis you want the chart to impart. Here you will learn to make a single data series chart. Parts of a Chart: A chart has different parts as labeled in the accompanying image. Chart Title – The tile of the chart “Student Vs Marks”. Value Axis – The Y-axis on which the value is shown. Value Axis Title – The title “Marks”. Category Axis – The X-axis on which the category for which you have charted the values is shown. Category Axis Title – The title “Name” Chart Area – The entire area on which the chart is drawn. Legend – The legend, as in a map, shows which color is used to represent what: “Series 1” in this case. Creating a Chart To present the marks of all students as a chart, select the “Name” range (B11 to B20), hold down the “Ctrl” key and select the “Total” range (F11 to F20), without selecting the titles in cells B9 and F9. On the “Insert” tab, in the “Charts” group, select “Column”. Now select “Clustered Column”, the first image from the Chart sub-types displayed. You can now see the chart on your worksheet. You can make changes to your chart and enhance its appearance using various “Chart Tools”. If you do not see “Chart Tools” displayed on the Ribbon, click in the chart area to ensure that the chart is selected. Now, under “Chart Tools”, on the “Design” tab, select a suitable style from the “Chart Styles” group. Now let us add more details in our chart. For this we shall use the “Labels” group on the “Layout” tab under “Chart Tools”. Click “Chart Title” and select “Above Chart”. Now type the title ‘Student Vs Marks’. As you type, it appears

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The chart title is displayed above your chart. Now click “Select Data” in the “Data” group. The “Select Data Source” window is displayed. After a chart has been created. To enter the description for the Y-axis. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow. Managing a Workbook Correcting Errors While entering data. select “Axis Titles → Primary Vertical Axis Title → Rotated Title”. to enter the description for the X-axis. Click on the “Format” tab under “Chart Tools”. if some spelling mistakes have been made. Select a Shape Style from the “Shape Styles” group. Sizing the chart: Click on the center of any side of the chart or at a corner. type “Names” and press “Enter”. Modifying a Chart You may decide that you want to plot only the marks of Subject 1 in the chart. drag it to a position of your choice. Your chart appears as a bar chart. For this. Now. select the cells that contain the data that you want to appear in the chart. Select “Bar” in the left pane of the “Change Chart Type” window and then click “Clustered Bar” in the right pane. Moving the chart: Click on the chart and when the mouse pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. This time. select the data in the “Name” column and “Subject 1” column and click “OK” in the “Select Data Source” window. 77 | P a g e .in the Formula Bar at the top. Data Labels are used to label the elements of a chart with their actual data values. select “Axis Titles → Primary Horizontal Axis Title → Title Below Axis”. click on the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. the spelling checker locates all misspelled words and proposes the correct spelling. Now click on the Office Button and then select “Print”. select it by clicking in the chart area. select “Change Chart Type” in the “Type” group. Press “Enter”. You may explore the various other options on the “Format” tab to further enhance your chart. type “Marks” and press “Enter”. You can see that the chart displays the marks of Subject 1. Then select a WordArt Style from the “WordArt Styles” group. To print only the chart. Similarly. On the “Design” tab under “Chart Tools”. you can even change the Chart Type. Now click “OK”. Select “Data Labels → Outside End”. drag to a suitable size. on your worksheet. You can now see the actual marks of each student. You may enhance the appearance of your chart.

the spelling checker moves to the next word.. select the correct word from the suggestions list and click on the “Change” button. select the book you want to move the sheet to. Right-click on the selection and click on “Copy”. “Ignore” etc. click on “Ignore All” or “Ignore Once” whichever is appropriate. The “Spelling” window is displayed and one by one every word in your worksheet is checked. options are displayed in the “Suggestions” box from the spelling checker’s dictionary. When you click on any button such as “Change”. You may copy a sheet to another workbook.Place the cell pointer at the beginning of your worksheet or from wherever you want to start checking for errors. a message saying so is displayed. You can use the same format of the worksheet. If you change a word which you did not want to. click in the “Create a copy” check box. The “Move or Copy” window is displayed. You may add these words to the dictionary by clicking the “Add to Dictionary” button. You may also move or copy sheets with the mouse. click on “Undo Last”. click on Sheet2. From the “Before sheet” list. In the “To book” list. You may make changes in this sheet for another class. A whole new worksheet with the same layout but with different data is ready. Some words. The Sheet2 will be displayed. If a spelling is found to be wrong. select the sheet. If there are more than one occurrences of the same word spelt wrongly. All you need to do is to add data. You do not have to type all the headings once again. To copy the sheet. Select the “Paste” option. Select all headings in the range A1 to H10. On the sheet tabs below. Select the “Move or Copy” option. such as proper nouns which are not really errors may be shown as spelling mistakes. Right-click in cell A1 of Sheet2. click on the “Change All” button. Simply copy them from one sheet to another. Working with Sheets You want to make the exam record for another class now. Select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group on the “Review” tab or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. You can also select the sheet before which you want to insert it. If the spelling is correct but shown as incorrect for some reason. Click a sheet you want move and drag it to the place you want to copy it and release the mouse 78 | P a g e . In that case. Moving or copying sheets: Right click on the Sheet1 tab. When the checking is completed for the entire worksheet. The range copied from Sheet1 is pasted in cell A1 of Sheet2.

This is the fill handle. right click in any of the sheet tabs and select “Ungroup Sheets”. the current sheet will be deleted after confirmation. You may change the tab color of sheets to distinguish between the data stored on each sheet. Other such autofill entries are . You can name the sheet accordingly. When you release the mouse. Through the options in this window. You can select all sheets by selecting the “Select all sheets” option. If you select “Delete”. Simply type the new name. to give you an idea of what data is stored on the sheet. from which you can select whether you want to insert a worksheet. You will see a black plus sign. another copy of the sheet is made. Double-click on the name of the sheet. The name will be highlighted. If you select “Insert”. names of the months in short. rename. The name of the sheet is changed. number series like 1000. right-click on a sheet tab and select “Tab Color”. delete. the “Insert” window is displayed. the sheet will be moved to the new location. select all sheets. Type the entry ‘January’ in a cell. To copy a sheet with the mouse. a chart or something else. For this. To stop 79 | P a g e . 3000. Autofill recognizes and automatically extends data and alphanumeric headings as far as you specify. a solid black triangle appears along with a blank page icon. etc. When you copy. 2000. The number of the copy appears in brackets in the sheet tab Naming a sheet: When you have many sheets.button. To deselect the sheets. Manage a sheet: When you right-click on the sheet tab. without opening the sheets. and change the tab color. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you drag a sheet. Move the mouse to the corner of the selection. a number of options are displayed in the pop-up window. Using Autofill: Autofill is a feature of Microsoft Excel 2007 that makes entering a series of headings easier by logically repeating and extending the series.days of the week in short. you can insert. Drag the mouse as far as you want the cells to fill and release the mouse. move or copy. A ‘+’ sign appears on the page icon while copying the sheet. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference used in a formula whose location does not change when a formula is copied. While you drag. it becomes difficult to remember what data is stored on each sheet. All the range you selected will be filled with names of months starting with January.

At such times. You can then scroll in one area of the worksheet. Let us now go to Sheet3. Thus “Sheet1!A1” refers to cell A1 on Sheet1. activate cell M6 and type ‘=L6 * $O$2’ in it. This is called referencing multiple sheets. Now both panes have a common vertical scroll bar but 80 | P a g e . vertically or both horizontally and vertically. you can view two areas of a worksheet and lock rows or columns in one area by splitting or freezing panes. For the Final exam. This makes the cell reference absolute. in the cell A1. more data will fit on the screen and vice versa. Now. enter “=Sheet1!A1+Sheet2! A1” and press “Enter”. while rows or columns in the non-scrolled area remain visible. you have made the column and the row references absolute. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Copy this formula from cell M6 to the remaining students and check the formula for each student in the “Formula Bar”. At such times. type a $ (dollar) character before the column and row number. there can be data in a number of rows and columns all of which cannot be seen at the same time. the cell reference does not change. starting with cell ‘J1’. By adding ‘$’ before ‘O’ and ‘2’.the automatic relative cell references. Managing Large Sheets You already know the massive size of the worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2007. Sheet1 has the value 100 in cell A1 and Sheet2 has the value 200 in cell A1. Prepare the data as shown in the accompanying figure in the neighboring space. Referencing multiple sheets: While working you may have to reference data from more than one sheet. But the problem comes when you need to refer to some other part while working in one part of the sheet. Here. When a formula containing an absolute cell reference is copied to another row or column in the worksheet. but data for marks will have to be typed. In the zoom window you may select a zoom percentage of your choice. Splitting Panes: You can split the window either horizontally. Zooming the worksheet: In Microsoft Excel 2007. the reference of cell O2 has remained constant. Select “Zoom” in the “Zoom” group on the “View” tab. Now. You can work in any part of the worksheet at any time. you can change the display percentage of the sheet. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. 20% of the Unit Test marks are to be calculated. You may copy the Roll Nos and the Names. You can see that the sum of the figures on the other two sheets is displayed here. to calculate 20% marks. Although the formula has been copied. To split the window vertically. If you reduce the percentage.

For this. regardless of where you are in the worksheet. you can see that the frozen panes are visible at all times. rows and columns. select “Freeze Panes → Unfreeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To split the window both horizontally as well as vertically. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. To remove a split. select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab once again. Let us assume that you wish to have the headings and roll numbers & names of the students visible always. This means that. you can freeze either. To freeze the top row or first column. You can freeze information in the top and left panes of the window only. place the cell pointer in the appropriate cell where you want the split to appear. Also. 81 | P a g e . if you click on the top left cell. Moving using the horizontal scrollbar keeps the column numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. To remove the freeze. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the top row. As you scroll through your worksheet. or both.individual horizontal scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. you can see the information in those rows and/or columns at all times. Now both panes have a common horizontal scroll bar but individual vertical scroll bars to enable you to move separately in the two panes. To freeze the left pane of the window. Freezing panes: With the “Freeze Panes” option. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. To freeze the top pane of the window. When a window is split both horizontally and vertically. click the cell below and to the right of the row and column you want to freeze. place the cell pointer in an appropriate cell other than the first one in the leftmost column. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. You can see that three panes have appropriate vertical and horizontal scroll bars. Moving using the vertical scrollbar keeps the row numbers in the frozen pane unchanged. the top left pane freezes. To split the window horizontally. select the appropriate options from those displayed on selection of “Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. selecting “Split” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab results in a horizontal and vertical split. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab. Select “Freeze Panes → Freeze Panes” in the “Window” group on the “View” tab.

you often come across situations. The header and footer give additional information about the data on the page. you can use the “Header & Footer” option to add the same header and footer on each page. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. In the “Goal Seek” window. You can see that he has scored very poor marks in one of the three subjects. For example. You now want to find out. containing the “Total” marks of the student. The marks in the failed subject are adjusted to 35. The text that appears in the top margin of the page is called the Header. The default setting is “Portrait”. you may change page orientation to “Landscape” by selecting “Orientation” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Page Layout” tab. if a student has failed.Forecasting Values Goal Seek: One of the features of Microsoft Excel is analyzing data. The page number is usually given as the footer. The header is usually the title you would give to the page. how much he should have scored in the failed subject to score pass marks. If the data is not properly visible on the page. The text that appears in the bottom margin of the page is called the Footer. If you have say 15 pages in your workbook. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. type ‘105’ (the passing total marks) in the “To value” box. you can change the page orientation to landscape. where you have to see the effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. Click “OK”. you may decide that the pages of your worksheet must have a header and footer. Header and Footer: Before you print your data. Select “WhatIf Analysis → Goal Seek” in the “Data Tools” group on the “Data” tab. Activate cell F16. Headers. Student with Roll Number 6 has failed. It is a method which aids you in forecasting values. The “Goal Seek Status” window is displayed. you can use the Goal Seek feature. Footers and Print Settings Page orientation: Depending on the area of the worksheet you want to print. If there is more data to be fitted on one page. you can change the orientation of the page so that data can be fitted accordingly. you want to find out. the cell with the marks below pass level. During analysis. If you know the result that you want from a formula. Click in the “By changing cell” field and then click C16. how many marks he should have scored in that subject so that he would have secured a Pass grade. The value in cell C16 is adjusted to get the target value. Click “OK”. You can do this with Goal seek. 82 | P a g e .

Here. Press “Tab” and then press the “Esc” key to complete creation of the footer. select the name of the printer from the list in the “Name” field. text. click on “Current Date” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. An effective presentation puts your point across clearly and in an interesting manner. Printing selected worksheets: You do not always need to print the entire workbook. For this. 83 | P a g e . click on “Page Number” in the “Header & Footer Elements” group. Check the layout and close the preview by clicking “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group. Press “Enter” and type ‘Class VIII B’ on the second line. In the “Print What” section. whether to the Board of Directors of a company or to your fellow colleagues. Presentation Graphics Overview of Presentation Graphics Introduction to Presentation Graphics If you have to make a presentation to an audience and you want it to be good. Now press the “Tab” key. a Graphics Presentation Program may also suggest layouts and color and animation schemes for different types of presentations and offer professionally designed templates to help you to create a presentation that is sure to hold the attention of your audience. click on “Active sheet(s)” and then click “OK”. Use the “Ctrl” key to select more than one sheet. correct and update the presentation. Now click “Go to Footer” in the “Navigation” group. In the “Print” window. With a few keystrokes you can quickly change. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. you may enter the text “First Term Exam Report”. This will insert the date. Graphics Presentation Programs include features to handle pictures. movies and sounds. charts and tables. This displays another box to the right. Click on the Office Button and select “Print”. A box is displayed at the center of the header area. On the “Design” tab under “Header & Footer Tools”. Select all the sheets you want to print by clicking on the sheet tabs. You can print selected sheets in the workbook. We shall insert the page number in the box displayed. In addition. you can choose from a variety of computer tools called Graphics Presentation Programs. These programs are designed to help you to create an effective presentation.Select “Header & Footer” in the “Text” group on the “Insert” tab.

Groups and Command buttons. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint: To start the Microsoft PowerPoint application. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. and Redo. You will gradually learn to use the commands on all the tabs. The “Insert” tab contains the basic set of objects which you can insert into a slide. The “Slide Show” tab contains tools that control how the slide show is presented. The following Ribbon tabs are displayed in PowerPoint: The “Home” tab contains the basic formatting tools. and closing a file. Each slide shows a different screen to your audience. Click on the Office Button and select “New”. Creating a Presentation Using Installed Templates A “Template” is a pre-designed presentation designed for common purposes such as a photo album or a quiz show. 84 | P a g e . saving. The “View” tab contains tools which help you view your presentation in the most suitable way.Each presentation is divided into slides. You may create a new presentation using a template provided by PowerPoint. The “Design” tab contains tools to design your slides. Undo. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007”. The “Animations” tab contains tools to animate objects and create transitions between slides. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic. The “Review” tab contains tools which help you proofread and correct a presentation. printing.

In the Normal View. In this full-screen view. you may select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group on the “View” tab or click the “Slide Show” button at the bottom right of the status bar. A new presentation is displayed with pre-defined settings. you see your presentation the way your audience will. This makes it easy to navigate through your presentation and to see the effects of changes. animated elements and transition effects will look in the actual show.In the left panel. under “Templates”. movies. For example. On the left are the “Slides” and “Outline” tabs. you may use the options available on the “Slide Show” tab. Click on the tab names to view the respective tabs. You may also change the presentation views by clicking on the buttons displayed on the “Status Bar” at the bottom of the screen. Select “Slide Sorter” in the “Presentation Views” group. PowerPoint Presentation Views Viewing a presentation: A “view” is a way of looking at a presentation. or delete slides. Slide Show View: Select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group or press “F5” on your keyboard. When you have finished creating and editing your presentation. Here. if you need to make changes to the way your slide show runs. Normal View: Select “Normal” in the “Presentation Views” group. you may specify the timing between the display of each slide and which slides are to be hidden during the presentation. This view takes up the full computer screen. Now. click “Installed Templates” to see a list of templates. Slide Sorter View gives you an overall picture of it. Slide Sorter View: Click the “View” tab. on the right you can see the “Slide Pane”. To actually run a slide show. You can make changes as required. Microsoft PowerPoint has three main views: Normal View. It has three working areas. add. This is an exclusive view of your slides in thumbnail form. add or delete slides. you can find various tools that control how the slide show is presented. which displays a large view of the current slide. You can also rearrange. timings. making it easy to reorder. This is the main editing view. like an actual slide show presentation. Click on a suitable one and then press the “Create” button. Slide Sorter View. and Slide Show View. The “Slides” tab shows your slides as thumbnail-sized images while you edit. Creating your First Slide 85 | P a g e . You can see how your graphics. The “Outline” tab shows your slide text in outline form. On the bottom is the “Notes Pane” in which you can type notes that you want along with a slide.

Using the Outline Tab: Alternately. When you move your mouse over a sizing handle the pointer becomes a twoheaded arrow. you can drag to the location you wish. Moving a placeholder: You may wish to change the position of your placeholder. Click in the first placeholder and type the name you want to give your presentation. and pictures. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow. let us assume you need to make changes to the title. Click on the title text. Sizing and Moving Placeholders You know that placeholders are boxes that are part of most slide layouts. Saving and Opening a Presentation 86 | P a g e . It can be used to rotate the placeholder to any angle. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. These boxes hold title and body text or objects such as charts. Applying a Theme: You may enhance the appearance of this slide which looks quite plain. click on the text in the title. Dragging a corner sizing handle adjusts both the height and width at the same time. You wish to create a presentation which introduces your company and tells about its numerous activities. In the Slide Pane on the right. The sizing handles at the sides are used to adjust only the height or the width. click in an area between the sizing handles on the side borders. you see two boxes. In the existing slide. Now click on a theme of your choice. To move a placeholder. In the “Themes” group. drag the rotation handle in the direction that you want to rotate it. You can see a “Rotation Handle” which is a round arrow at the top of the placeholder. Sizing a placeholder: The “Sizing Handles” at the sides and corners of the selection rectangle can be used to adjust the size of the placeholder. you may make editing changes to your text on the Outline tab.You are working for a company which offers various educational courses. You may now edit the text as you wish. To rotate a placeholder. You may need to change some of the text that you have entered on your slide. Editing in the Slide Pane: You may make changes directly in the slide pane. The title is now a selected object and is surrounded by a selection rectangle. you see a blank presentation in Normal View with the default name “Presentation1”. Click on the “Design” tab. When you start PowerPoint. First. In the second placeholder type a subtitle. tables. These are simultaneously reflected in the Slide Pane. These are called “Placeholders”. An insertion point is displayed to show your location in the text.

browse to the location of your presentation and click on the file name from the displayed list. Now click on the “Format” tab under “Picture Tools”. you may click the Office Button and select “Save”. Click on the first slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Click the “Open” button to display the selected file on the screen. tables. such as text. In the “Illustrations” group. on a slide. Now click “Save”. In the “Open” window. select “Picture”. Enter the title and text as shown. pictures. Let us also insert the same picture on the first slide we created. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. click on the “More” arrow to see all available picture styles. click the picture icon. In the “Picture Styles” group. To display a picture of your company logo on your slide. Enhancing the Picture: You may make changes to the picture by using various Picture Tools. Using a Slide Layout and Inserting Pictures A Slide Layout refers to the arrangement of elements. Changing Fonts and Formatting 87 | P a g e . You may change the size and position as required. In the “Insert Picture” window. To open a recently used presentation you may click the Office Button and then click on the presentation name in the list displayed under “Recent Documents”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. Click on the picture name and then click “Insert”. You may use the default name for your presentation or enter a new one. charts and movies.To save your presentation. Similarly. in the “Insert Picture” window. To open a file that you have previously saved. Your file is stored with the extension “. In the “Slides” group. You can see a new slide with the specified layout.pptx”. create a slide using the “Picture with Caption” layout. Enter the title and text as shown. In the “Save As” window specify the location at which you wish to save your presentation. click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon. The picture is displayed on your slide in a placeholder. browse to the location of your picture file. Now click the Office Button and select “Close” to close this file. Click on the “Home” tab. You may click on a style of your choice. browse to the location of your picture file. click the Office Button and select “Open”. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S”. Click on the picture. As you did earlier. You may apply other effects to your picture by selecting from the various options available under “Picture Effects” in the “Picture Styles” group on the “Format” tab. Select a suitable one. The available layouts are displayed. Let us create a new slide by specifying a layout.

click on the “Review” tab. To correct the misspelled words. Now select “Spelling” in the “Proofing” group or use the keyboard shortcut “F7”. Click on the third slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. In this way you can check the spellings on all the slides of the presentation at one time. you may have unknowingly left several typing errors uncorrected. Changing Page Properties: Select “Page Setup” in the “Page Setup” group on the “Design” tab. Click on the second slide on the Slides tab in the left pane. Now to create a bulleted list. Similarly. Changing Font Effects and Color: From the “Fonts” group. You may also increase or decrease the font size by clicking on the “Increase Font Size” and “Decrease Font Size” icons in the “Fonts” group. Make your selection from the various bullet styles displayed. readable and user-friendly is called formatting. Applying different formatting to characters and paragraphs can greatly enhance the appearance of the slide. select the text and then click the arrow to the right of the “Bullets” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. You may select the desired Font and Font Size from the “Fonts” group. Underline and Text Shadow by clicking on the respective icons. you may select other effects such as Bold. Checking Spellings As you may have entered the information on previous slides. to create a numbered list. Let us center the title of the slide. Changing Alignment: You may change the alignment of text by clicking on the “Align Text Left”. Select “Background Styles” in the “Background” group and make your selection. “Center” and “Align Text Right” icons in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Changing the Background Style: To change the background of your slides. you may use the “Numbering” icon in the “Paragraph” group on the “Home” tab. Italic. Bullets and Numbering: You may enter text as a bulleted or numbered list. Let us create such a list on the third slide.Changing Font and Font Size: Let us change the Font and Font Size of the text on the second slide. You will now observe that the text has changed to the new font of the size you selected. Now click on the “Home” tab. In the window displayed you may specify the size and orientation of your slides and then click “OK”. Formatting: Enhancing the appearance of the slide to make it more attractive. click on the “Design” tab. 88 | P a g e . You may also change the color of the font by clicking on the arrow to the right of the “Font Color” icon and making your selection. Select the text to be formatted by highlighting the text on the slide.

Let us revert to Normal View by clicking the “Normal” icon on the Status Bar. Running a Slide Show Running a Slide Show: Once all the slides are in the order that you want. When your entire presentation has been scanned. Inserting. Change to Slide Sorter View by clicking on the “Slide Sorter” button on the Status Bar at the bottom of the screen. You may choose “Ignore All” if the word appears many times throughout the presentation. Click “Change” to make the correction or “Change All” if there are multiple instances of the misspelled word in the presentation. To select multiple slides in a row. click “Ignore”. If you do not wish to change what you have typed. you can see how your presentation would look when viewed by an audience to 89 | P a g e .For each word that is misspelled. you will be informed accordingly. Let us move all slides back to their original positions. you may highlight one of the suggestions displayed or manually correct it yourself by typing in the correct word in the “Change to” box. Moving and Deleting Slides Inserting a Slide: You know that you can insert a new slide by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. a dialog box will appear and will prompt you to effect suitable corrections. If you have a large number of slides in your presentation. Moving a Slide: To move a slide in Normal View. Now to delete the blank slide that was just inserted. you may find it more convenient to use the Slide Sorter View to view all your slides and change their positions. and drag to a new location. You may now select “Delete” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab or press the “Delete” key on your keyboard. Now click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to a new location. select one or more slide icons on the “Slides” tab. To correct a word that is spelt incorrectly. Deleting a Slide: You may use either the Normal View or the Slide Sorter View to delete a slide. click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. To insert a slide between two slides. click on the slide after which you want the new slide on the “Slides” tab and then click on the “New Slide” icon. press “Shift” before clicking the slide icon and then drag.

You can see the “Web Page Preview” button on the Quick Access toolbar. Web Page Preview: To preview your presentation as a web page. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the slide in the Print Preview mode. Then click the “From Current Slide” icon in the “Start Slide Show” group on the “Slide Show” tab. Under “Choose Commands from:” select “All Commands”. you may wish give copies to your colleagues for their comments.run a presentation. In the window displayed. To save time and unnecessary printing and waste of paper. Click the “Outline” button at the bottom left to hide the left pane. Print what: Here. click “From Beginning” or use the keyboard shortcut “F5” to view the complete presentation You may click or press the spacebar to move to the next slide. notes pages or outline view. you need to add the “Web Page Preview” command to the Quick Access toolbar. Click “Close Print Preview” in the “Preview” group to close the preview. To see a preview of your slide in a window on the screen. Viewing the slide show from the current slide: To do so. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. click the slide icon from which you wish to view your slides. Now click “Add” and then click “OK”. From the list displayed below. Clicking it displays your presentation as it would look in a web browser. Previewing and Printing a Presentation Previewing A Presentation: As you work with your slides. you may specify whether you wish to print the slides. 90 | P a g e . click “Customize” in the left pane. it is always a good idea to preview onscreen how your slides will appear when printed. You may print all slides. click on the “Slide Show” tab in the “Start Slide Show” group. select “Web Page Preview”. Click on the Office Button and then click “PowerPoint Options”. The “Print” window is displayed. on the “Slides” tab. You may view all the slides by using the “Next Slide” and “Previous Slide” buttons at the bottom of the screen. handouts. Printing a Presentation: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. the current slide only or any selection of slides.

First let us create a small text box below the text on the slide. you may choose the color quality of the prints. to replace text you may select “Replace” from the “Editing” group on the “Home” tab or press “Ctrl+H” to display the “Replace” window. In the “Text” group. Click on the slide below the existing text and drag with the mouse to draw the textbox. you may enter the new text in the "Replace with" field. Let us insert a hyperlink from the third slide to the first slide. Choosing the “Grayscale” or “Pure Black and White” option allows you to print without color. 91 | P a g e . click “Find” or press “Ctrl+F” to display the “Find” window. In the “Editing” group. A window appears showing the number of replacements made. another document or to a Web site. The next occurrence of the specified term after the current cursor position is selected. Click on the “Home” tab. Click on the third slide icon on the “Slides” tab. Enter your options and click “OK”. A hyperlink is a connection to a location in the current document. Match case: You may check this box for a case sensitive search. In the "Replace" window. Creating a Text Box and Inserting a Hyperlink You may insert hyperlinks in your slides. click “Text Box". Enter some text and click “Find Next”. To create a new text box click on the “Insert” tab. Click “Replace All” to replace all occurrences of the search text by the specified new text. Find whole words only: You may check this box to search for whole words matching the search criteria.Color/grayscale: Here. Modifying and Refining a Presentation Finding and Replacing Text Finding Text: You may search for a word or phrase in your presentation. Inserting a text box: A text box is a container for text or graphics. Replacing Text: Click "Replace". Finding and Replacing: Alternatively. Click “Replace” to replace the current word with the new word.

Enter the headings and details in the other rows as shown. Now you are ready to enter the table content. Using SmartArt A “SmartArt” graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. You can see that the hyperlink text is underlined.Adding text to a text box: You will notice that the text box displays an insertion point. Click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles. Relationship and others. To insert a table. You may select a table style from the gallery displayed. it is automatically resized as needed to display the entire entry. enter the number of rows and columns and click “OK”. When you run the slide show. Now click “OK”. Hierarchy. Inserting a Hyperlink: Select the text entered in the text box. Enter the text “Go to Slide 1”. In the “Insert Table” window. As you type the text in the text box. Each category contains several different layouts. You may enhance the appearance of the text in your table. Let us change the style of the heading text. In the “Links” group. under “Link to:” click on “Place in This Document”. Now click on the “Insert” tab. You may size or move your table as required. In the “Tables” group. In the “Insert Hyperlink” window. Using SmartArt graphics. A “Design” tab is displayed under “Table Tools”. Select a suitable one. click on “First Slide”. click “Table”. You may select a style from the gallery displayed. clicking on this link takes you to the first slide. click “Hyperlink”. You may choose from various categories such as Process. Under “Select a place in this document”. Select the text and then click “Quick Styles” in the “WordArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “Table Tools”. you can effectively communicate your message in a quick and simple way. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by selecting “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. indicating that you can enter text in it. Cycle. Create and Enhance a Table You may wish to display some data in tabular form in your presentation. You may also change the size and position of the text box by using the sizing handles. 92 | P a g e . You may specify the dimensions of your table by dragging with the mouse or by clicking “Insert Table”. click on the “Insert” tab.

This displays the text pane where you can enter your text. Inserting Clips and Clip Art You may insert “Clips” and “Clip Art” in your slides. A “Clip” may be a single media file. You may select a suitable background style for your text box from the gallery displayed. sound. A clip is a file that can contain sounds and animations. enter a word or phrase that describes the clip or the file name of the clip. click “Change Colors”. Let us search for clips of the type “Movies”. let us look for a clip using the word “Computer”. Changing Colors: You may apply color variations to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic. Now click on the “Insert” tab. First create a new slide using the “Blank” layout. select a category. For this. We shall insert a clip as well as Clip Art on one of our slides. In the “Illustrations” group. Click on the “Insert” tab. In the “Illustrations” group. including art. under “SmartArt Tools. Create a text box above the SmartArt graphic and enter the text as shown. in the “Results should be” list 93 | P a g e . ensure that “All collections” are searched by checking the box against “Everywhere”. in the “Search for” box. In the “Choose a SmartArt Graphic” window. Close the text pane by clicking the “X” icon at the top right corner. you may enter text directly by clicking the text boxes. In the graphic displayed on your slide. Now select a suitable graphic and click “OK”. In the “SmartArt Styles” group. click the arrow at the bottom right to view all the available styles and select a suitable one. you may click “Text Pane”. click “SmartArt”. Since yours is a company having operations related to computers. animation or movies. In the panel displayed on the right. in the “Create Graphic” group on the “Design” tab. Click on the slide containing the SmartArt graphic on the Slides tab. Let us first insert a small clip. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. In the “SmartArt Styles” group on the “Design” tab under “SmartArt Tools”. Now click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group on the “Home” tab. click “Clip Art”. Now make your selection from the gallery displayed.Let us create a SmartArt graphic to describe the course structure of one of the courses offered. In the “Search in” list box. Applying a SmartArt Style: A SmartArt Style is a combination of various effects that you can apply to the shapes in your SmartArt graphic to create a professionally designed look. Alternatively.

To insert Clip Art. click “Shapes” to display the various shapes that you can use. you may create a text box as shown in the slide in the figure. To enter a title above the shape. Adding Text: To add text within the shape. Under “Basic Shapes”. Create and Enhance Shapes PowerPoint offers many predefined shapes that you can insert into your document.box. The entered text appears at the centre of your shape. Now click “Go”. For this. simply start typing as shown in the figure. A number of related clips are displayed. You may size and position the shape as required. You may change the size of the clip as required. Click “Quick Styles” in the “Drawing” group and select a style from the gallery displayed. Changing the Presentation Design and Color Scheme Changing the Presentation Design: After you have created many slides. 94 | P a g e . click on “Hexagon”. click on the arrow at the bottom right to see all available themes. In the “Themes” group. Coloring the Shape: You may apply color to the shape by choosing from a variety of background styles. you can see that the new theme has been applied to all the slides. you may decide to give a totally new look to your presentation. drag a suitable one onto your slide. In the “Drawing” group. Now click “Go”. you need to run the slide show. “Clip Art” refers to a ready-to-use picture. check the box against “Clip Art” under “Results should be” and ensure other boxes are unchecked. To see the clip that you inserted actually playing. Create a new slide using the “Blank” layout by clicking “New Slide” in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. Click on the “Design” tab. check the box against “Movies”. On the “Slides” tab. Ensure other boxes are unchecked. click the “View” tab and select “Slide Show” in the “Presentation Views” group. Let us now insert some Clip Art. Drag your mouse to create a shape of the size you wish. Now click on a theme of your choice. From the pictures displayed. Simply click on the one you wish to insert and drag it to a suitable place on your slide.

This ensures consistency and saves time. On the “Animations” tab. click on the “View” tab. select one from the “Transition Sound” list box. Applying transition effects: A transition specifies how the display changes when you move from one slide to another. You can see it is surrounded by a box. In the “Animations” group. Click the “Apply to All” button if you want the same transition effects for all slides. click on “Colors” in the “Themes” group on the “Design” tab. click on the graphic. In the "Presentation Views" group. click “Custom Animation” in the “Animations” group. click in the “Animate” list box and select “Fly In”. If you move your mouse over them. You can view the animation effect right away on your slide. screen tips explain they are masters for different layouts. Adding Animation and Other Effects “Animation” refers to the addition of special visual or sound effects to your slides. in the “Transition to This Slide” group. In PowerPoint build effects are animations to slide contents. First. To associate a sound with your transition. You may select a color scheme by clicking on it. whether on the click of the mouse or after a stipulated time by entering related details under “Advance Slide”. You may specify how you wish to move to the next slide. Changing the Slide Master You know that slides can be created using different layouts. To see the Slide Master. Applying animation to an object: Let us add some animation effects to the graphic in the slide shown. You may click the “Preview” icon in the “Preview” group to view the transition effects for the current slide. click the arrow in the list box below the “Speed” list box and select “Start After Previous”. Click on a suitable one. 95 | P a g e . click on the “More” arrow to see all the available transition styles. You can see a number of slide icons in the left pane.Changing the Color Scheme: To change the color scheme. Now. This results in the animation starting after the previous slide. In the panel at the right. Now click on the “Animations” tab. You can see the various available layouts when you click on the lower part of the “New Slide” icon in the “Slides” group on the “Home” tab. It is applied to all slides. Now click “Play” to view your animation. click “Slide Master”. The “Slide Master” is used to make global changes to the slides in your presentation.

You may print all slides. use the “Notes Pane” at the bottom of the slide to write notes about your slide. Print range: Under Print range you may specify which of the slides you want to print. six. Let us select 4. the current slide only or any selection of slides. Printing Handouts: Click the Office Button and select “Print → Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. To view your notes page. Let us change the background style. You may also use this view to enter or edit notes by clicking in the lower placeholder. you can see that all the slides with the “Blank” layout have the new background style applied. Order: Select the order of printing the slides. or for your audience. click the “View” tab. or nine miniature slides on a page. Creating Notes Pages You can create “Notes Pages” that include extra notes for yourself while you give your presentation. Click “Notes Page” in the “Presentation Views” group. Let us select “Vertical”.Click on the slide icon related to the “Blank Layout”. The “Print” window is displayed. These can be used by your audience to follow along as you give your presentation or for future reference. whether horizontal or vertical. three. In Normal View. On the “Slides” tab. two. 96 | P a g e . Click “Background Styles” in the “Background” group on the “Slide Master” tab and select a suitable one. Now close the Master View by clicking on “Close Master View” in the “Close” group. Scale to fit paper: Check this box to print the slides of a size suitable to fit on the sheet of paper. Printing Handouts You can print your presentation in the form of handouts with one. four. Print what: Select “Handouts”. Slides per page: Select the number of slides you wish to print on one page. You see the master slide in the right pane. Any change made to this slide will be reflected on all slides created using the “Blank” layout.

Duplicating a slide creates a copy of the selected slide and places it directly after the selected slide. it can be quite easily achieved. Using Headers and Footers Headers and Footers are used to add information such as slide numbers. and then type the text that you want to appear at the bottom of the slide in the center. check the appropriate boxes. To display the same footer information on all slides. time and slide number on the slide. a company logo or the presentation title to the top of a handout or notes page in your presentation.Frame slides: Check this box to print the slides with an outer frame. To hide the footer on the title slide. On the “Slide” tab in the “Header and Footer” window. Adding a Footer to a Slide: Click the “Insert” tab. Duplicating and Hiding Slides Duplicating a Slide: In a presentation. select “Header & Footer”. if you need to duplicate a slide. or to bottom of a slide. On the “Slide” tab of the “Header and Footer” window. In the “Slides” group. on the “Notes and Handouts” tab. Click “Preview” to view your handouts onscreen and “Print” to print them. select the “Header” or “Footer” check box. Select any other options that you want and then click “Apply”. 97 | P a g e . click the slide icon on the “Slides” tab. To insert the date. Click “Apply” or “Apply to all”. Click the “Insert” tab and in the “Text” group. check the box against “Don’t show on title slide”. Adding a Header or Footer to a Handout or Notes Page: In the “Header and Footer” window. Hiding a Slide: If there is a slide that you do not want to display to a particular audience. check the box against “Footer”. right-click the slide on the “Slides” tab and select “Hide Slide”. Hiding the Footer: To hide the footer on a specific slide. click “New Slide” and click “Duplicate Selected Slides” below the layouts displayed. To hide a slide. In the “Text” group. you may hide the slide. click the slide you wish to copy. On the “Slides” tab. handout or notes page. click “Apply to All”. Click the “Home” tab. clear the “Footer” check box and click “Apply”. and then type the text that you want to appear at the top or bottom of each notes page or handout. select “Header & Footer”. the time and date.

In the “Document Information Panel”. The hidden slide icon is then removed. right-click on the slide and select “Pointer Options” from the menu displayed. Click on the slide that you wish to hide on the “Slides” tab in the left pane. click the arrow next to “Document Properties” to select the set of properties that you want to change. For example. click the “Slide Show” tab and select “Hide Slide” in the “Set Up” group. Let us select “Ballpoint Pen”. and then click “Hide Slide”. the subject. Right-click on a slide during the slide show. if someone has a question about a previous slide. Use the “Next”. The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. Before saving the completed presentation. right-click the slide that you want to show. Now click “OK” and close the Document Information Panel. you can go backwards and redisplay it. Documenting a File Documenting a file: Document properties are details about a file that help identify it. underline an important point or draw checkmarks next to items that you have covered. you may decide the color of this pen by using the “Ink Color” option. Click the Office Button and select “Prepare → Properties” from the menu. this slide will not be displayed. the author name. These may be a descriptive title. In the window displayed. Enter your details on this tab. To show a slide that you have previously hidden. click on the “Summary” tab. “Previous”. For this. You may move to any slide in your presentation. Then on the Ribbon. Annotate a slide show: During your presentation.The hidden slide icon with the slide number inside appears next to the slide that you have hidden. “Advanced Properties”. When you run your presentation. “Last Viewed” and “Go to Slide” options to move between slides. Also. There is another way in which you can hide a slide. Learning to Control and Annotate a Slide Show Navigating the Slide Show: Running the slide show and practicing how to control the slide show helps you have a smooth presentation. and keywords that identify topics or other important information in the file. Click the “Hide Slide” icon on the Ribbon once again to show the hidden slide. You can then move your mouse and use it as a pen on your slide. you may want to point to an important word. you may wish to include some related documentation with the file. A menu is displayed as shown. for example. 98 | P a g e .

Your original presentation does not get affected. the actions specified are performed when the mouse is clicked on the button and moved over the button respectively. Right-click the first slide in the new presentation and select “Paste”. Let us use an action button to play a sound in the slide shown in the figure. “Mouse Click” and “Mouse Over”. moving to another slide or running another program when you click on them. In the “New Presentation” window. Adding Action Buttons You may add action buttons on your slides to perform functions such as playing sounds. click “Shapes”. click on the “Sound” icon. To do this. In the “Illustrations” group. on the “Slides” tab. Now create a new presentation by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “New”. you may use the slides from one of your existing presentations. As the names suggest. You may make any changes with respect to colors. Save the file by clicking the Office button and selecting “Save”. The copied slide will be inserted in the presentation after the current slide. themes etc that you require. Specify the location and the new file name in the “Save As” window and click “Save”. select “Blank Presentation” and press the “Create” button. Select “Chime” from the list of sounds. Now you may make changes to the new presentation as required. 99 | P a g e . If you want to use all slides from a presentation in a new presentation. The “Action Settings” window is displayed. you may save the file as a new presentation. Click “Save”. simply save the presentation with a new name. Copying a slide: You may want to copy the slide which describes a course structure from your presentation to a new presentation. Click the “Insert” tab. Click the Office Button and select “Save As” and enter the new file name and location. right-click the slide to be copied and select “Copy”. Saving the new presentation: Before you make any additional changes. Let us use the “Mouse Click” tab.Using Advanced Presentation Features Creating a New Presentation from Existing Slides To make the task of creating a new presentation easier. Now drag with the mouse to create the button of the size you require. This has two tabs. Check the box against “Play sound”. Under “Action Buttons”.

Now when you run your slide show. on the “Slide Show” tab. the slides advance automatically as per these settings. “Slide Sorter” view appears and displays the time of each slide in your presentation. Now. You may perform various actions using action buttons such as moving to another slide or running another program. Click “Next” to move to the next slide. a message box displays the total time for the presentation and asks you to confirm that you wish to keep the recorded slide timings.During the slide show. Click the “Slide Show” tab. so that you are sure that it fits within a certain time frame. in the “Set Up” group. You may use the recorded times to advance the slides automatically when you actually give your presentation. 100 | P a g e . they form a network. select “Rehearse Timings”. The “Rehearsal” toolbar appears. A network may consist of just two computers next to each other or can even extend to a large number of computers located in different parts of the world. Delivering Presentations Rehearsing timing: Before delivering a presentation. clear the “Use Rehearsed Timings” check box. After you set the time for the last slide. your presentation can be delivered and you are ready to impress your audience. it is important to rehearse the timing. PowerPoint includes a timing feature that records the length of time spent on each slide and the total presentation time while you are rehearsing. and you can see the timing in the “Slide Time box” at the right. In the “Set Up” group. To exit the PowerPoint application. Click “Yes”. Internet Internet Basics What is a Network? When computers are connected to each other. If you do not want the slides in your presentation to advance automatically as per the slide timings recorded. click the Office Button and then click the “Exit PowerPoint” button at the bottom right. when you click on this button you can hear the sound of a chime.

and are quite powerful.A “computer network” is a communication system that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. Network operating systems (NOS): They control and coordinate activities such as electronic communication and resource sharing between the computers and devices on a network. Computers in a network can be set up in different ways to suit the needs of users. Network interface cards (NIC): These are expansion cards located within the system unit that connect the computer to a network. Typically. a printer or a computer. To understand computer networks. usually a minicomputer or a mainframe. Now that you are familiar with the terminology related to computer networks. It may be a server or simply a connection point for cables from other nodes. a client is a user’s microcomputer. They are sometimes referred to as “LAN adapters”. computer systems at different locations are networked to a main or centralized computer. you need to get familiar with certain terms which are as follows: Node: This is a device that is connected to a network. 101 | P a g e . Host Computer: This is a large centralized computer. Distributed Processing: This is a system where computing power is located and shared at different locations. Server: This is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Hub: This is the central node for other nodes. Network Administrator: This is a person who is a computer specialist responsible for efficient operation of the network and implementation of new networks. A dedicated server is a computer that specializes in performing specific tasks. A non-dedicated server can function as both a client and a server. Dedicated servers are typically used for websites that have high traffic. let us have a look at the types of networks. It could be any device such as a data storage device. In decentralized organizations. Client: This is a node that uses a resource from another node.

Network Types: Different types of channels allow different kinds of networks to be formed. metropolitan area and wide area networks. They are frequently used as links between office buildings that are located throughout a city. All communications pass through the central unit and control is maintained by “polling”. Configurations: A network can be configured or arranged in several ways. Wide Area Networks (WANs) are countrywide and worldwide networks. Telephone lines for example may connect communications equipment within a home or building. they are now being commonly used by individuals in their homes. A “Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)” is the next step up from the LAN. Configurations describe the physical arrangement of the network while strategies define how information and resources are shared. When this is done over longer distances. the network is known as WAN which stands for Wide Area Network. Network Architecture: This describes how a network is arranged and how resources are coordinated and shared. the network is known as a Local Area Network or LAN for short. The widest of all WANs is of course. Each connecting device is asked or 102 | P a g e . bus. a MAN is jointly owned by a group of organizations or by a network service provider who charges a fee to provide network services. MANs span distances up to 100 miles. The four principal network topologies are star. the Internet which spans the entire globe. They provide access to regional service (MAN) providers and span distances greater than 100 miles. within the same building. Usually when computers in one office are connected to one another. LANs span distances less than a mile and are owned by individual organizations. They are used to link microcomputers and share printers and other resources. Network architecture encompasses network configurations and strategies. The hub may be a host computer or file server. Typically. This is called the network’s topology. ring and hierarchical. Networks may also be citywide and even international. The nodes of a LAN are in close physical proximity. In a “star network”. The network types based on the geographical area they serve are local area. Unlike a LAN. While LANs have been widely used within organizations for years. including a common internet connection. They use microwave relays and satellites to reach users over long distances. a number of small computers or peripheral devices are linked to a central unit which is the “network hub”. These LANs are called “Home Networks” and allow different computers to share resources.

microcomputers in a department are connected to individual departmental minicomputers. For example. Server nodes coordinate and supply specialized services and access to resources. 103 | P a g e . data and resources can be shared. For example. there is no host computer and each device handles its own communications. Client/server networks are widely used on the Internet. In a “peer-to-peer network”. nodes have equal authority and can act as both clients and servers. each device is connected to two other devices. A hierarchical network is useful in centralized organizations. client/server and peer-to-peer. The most common network strategies are terminal. The star topology is commonly used to link microcomputers to a mainframe containing an organization’s database. This means that multiple users can share resources (or time) on a central computer. Client nodes request the services. processing power is centralized in one large computer. Distributed data processing is possible using a ring network. In a “terminal network”. forming a ring. All communications travel along a common connecting cable called a “bus” or “backbone”. In a “bus network”. This arrangement is commonly used for sharing data stored on different microcomputers. Strategies: Every network has a strategy of coordinating the sharing of information and resources. In a “ring network”. The minicomputers are in turn connected to the corporation’s mainframe which contains data accessible to all. usually a mainframe.“polled” whether it has a message to send and is allowed to send its message in turn. Each device examines information as it passes along the bus to see whether it is the intended recipient. these computers are also hosts to smaller computers or peripheral devices. just like a star network. “Client/server networks” are based on specialization and use one computer to coordinate and supply services to other nodes on the network. The nodes are either terminals with little or no processing capabilities or microcomputers running special software that allows them to act as terminals. Processing tasks can be performed at different locations and programs. However. There is no central computer and messages are passed around the ring till they reach the correct destination. microcomputers may obtain files from other microcomputers as well as provide files to them. Many airline reservation systems are terminal networks. The “hierarchical network” consists of several computers linked to a central host computer. An advantage of the star topology is that it can be used to support a “timesharing system”.

Most organizational firewalls include a special computer called a “proxy server”. What is Internet? The word “Internet” is derived from the word inter-networking which means connecting different networks together. Firewalls can be implemented in software. pricing structures etc. The purpose is to increase efficiency and reduce costs. newsletters. mediating traffic between a protected network and the Internet. They provide e-mail and other services accessible only to those within the organization. the United States Department of Defense began a project on computer networks. which can be accessed by certain external users via the Internet. Intranets: Many organizations have internal networks similar to the Internet which have web pages that contain company information.Organizational Internets: Most large organizations have a wide range of network configurations. An Intranet is accessible only from within the organization. Specific information such as product ranges. or part of an intranet. All communications between the internal network and the outside world must pass through it. Such networks are known as “Intranets” and may or may not be connected to the Internet. Extranets: An “Extranet” is an intranet. shielding it from access by unauthorized users. may be made available to suppliers or potential customers using an extranet. It then decides whether it is safe to allow a message or file to pass into or out of the organization’s network. hardware or a combination of both. operating systems and strategies. prices. In addition to preventing unrestricted access into a network. Internet technologies are applied to integrate all these networks. intranets use browsers. web sites and web pages. a firewall can also restrict data from flowing out of a network. It acts as a gatekeeper. 2) Like the public Internet. 104 | P a g e . Thus the Internet can be termed as a Network of Networks. The main points of difference between an intranet and extranet are as follows: 1) An intranet is a private network within an organization while an extranet is a private network that connects more than one organization. Extranets are used by some organizations to allow suppliers and others limited access to their networks. Entry into extranets is controlled by usernames and passwords which establish the identity of the user and grant access to the areas of the extranet that he is entitled to view. Firewalls: A “firewall” is a system that secures a network. and from where standard forms can be downloaded. History of Internet: In the second half of the decade from 1960 to 1970. online order forms etc. Communication within and between organizations is supported using intranets and extranets.

wireless telephones and even satellites. Government Departments and Research Centers also began using this network. This led to the birth of the modern Internet. To send data along telephone lines.This project was named ARPANET. The roots of the giant network called Internet can be traced back to this project. researchers developed a new set of rules called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP. Universities. By 1993 the concept of Internet had changed completely. 105 | P a g e . Instead of having a central system of limited machines. Gradually. after 1970. new independent centers were created in different places.

music and games is available using the Internet. You have additional options such as live concerts. “Searching” for all types of information has become very convenient using the Internet. You can access some of the world’s largest libraries directly from your home computer. shopping. advertisement and news. Some courses are free while others have to be paid for. movie previews. information. “Education” or “e-learning” which supports flexible learning anywhere. You can find the latest local. “Entertainment” in different forms such as movies. 106 | P a g e . You can have access to entertainment. anytime for anyone is possible due to the Internet. national and international news using the Internet. education.Today the Internet has become a popular medium for information. “Shopping” is one of the fastest-growing Internet applications. you can search for bargains and make purchases or simply window shop or look for the latest fashions. Using the Internet. You can take classes on various subjects. book clubs and more. It has become a popular medium for business. companionship and many other opportunities on the Internet. playing.

While there are numerous advantages of e-commerce. e-commerce is the buying and selling of goods over the Internet. 107 | P a g e . With the help of Internet. the costs associated with operating a retail store can be eliminated. it offers the convenience of purchasing at any hour of the day or night. These include the inability to provide immediate delivery of goods. It does away with the need to physically travel to the seller’s location. This is known as e-commerce. Also. monetary transactions are also being carried out. a seller is not required to maintain a physical inventory of goods and products are shipped directly from warehouses.Transactions of large industries are also effected over the Internet.e. the inability to “try on” prospective purchases and questions relating to the security of online payments. From the seller’s perspective. The Internet offers a chance to survey a wide variety of products. Electronic Commerce i. The Internet offers a chance to reach out to a larger number of customers. there are some disadvantages too. For a buyer.

epinions.com” and “www.com/privatepayments”.gomez. Existing retail stores use B2C e-commerce to reach out to customers through the Web.consumersearch. You may consider payment options from sites such as “www. 1) Consult product review sites: These sites offer evaluations or opinions on products. You may visit vendor review sites such as “www. 3) Consult vendor review sites: Even if a vendor offers attractive prices. There are two basic types of Web auction sites: 108 | P a g e .shopping. This is done in the form of classified ads or an auction. you need to check his reputation before placing an order. transferring funds. In “Web auctions”. it would be useful to keep the following suggestions in mind. This arrangement often eliminates the wholesaler by allowing manufacturers to sell directly to customers. you have to place the order and make the payment. “Online stock trading” allows investors to research.com” and “www. The three most widely used B2C applications are as follows: “Online banking” enables customers to perform various banking operations such as accessing account information.mysimon. Two well-known shopping bots are located at “www.com”. “www.yahoo. 2) Use a shopping bot: A shopping bot is an automated shopping assistant that searches the Internet for the best price of a product.com” and “www. sellers post descriptions of products at a web site and buyers submit bids electronically.private.com” are examples of review sites on the Web. paying bills and applying for loans without having to visit the bank. buy and sell stocks and bonds over the Internet.bizrate. Security of your credit card number is important.com” and “www. “Online shopping” as you know includes buying and selling consumer goods over the Internet. 4) Select a payment option: Once you have selected the product and the vendor. 2) The second type of e-commerce “Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)” involves individuals selling to individuals.buy.com”.Tips on how to shop online: When you shop online. You can enlist it to compare prices.americanexpress. There are three basic types of e-commerce: 1) “Business-to-consumer (B2C)” involves the sale of a product or service to the general public or end users.

This is typically a manufacturer-supplier relationship. 3) “Digital cash” is electronic currency that only exists online. This method is more secure than credit cards. Sellers convert it to regular currency through the bank. 3) The third type of e-commerce “Business-to-business (B2B)” involves the sale of a product or service from one business to another. secure and reliable payment methods for purchased goods. Buyers and sellers need to be cautious while interacting with these sites. Buyers purchase digital cash from a bank that specializes in electronic currency and use it to purchase goods. see the displayed figure. It is a system that allows a person to pay for goods or services by transmitting a number from one computer to another. 2) “Credit card” purchases are faster and more convenient. Security: The single greatest challenge for e-commerce is the development of fast. For example. paint and varnish which he would purchase from the related suppliers. They facilitate the bidding process but are not involved in completing transactions and verifying the authenticity of the goods sold. You can often get bargain prices and these sites are generally considered safe places to shop. the purchased item is dispatched by the seller. 109 | P a g e . The buyer mails a cheque to the seller. But credit card fraud over the Internet by criminals known as “Carders” is a major concern for both buyers and sellers. b) “Person-to-person auction sites” provide a forum for buyers and sellers. a furniture manufacturer would require raw material such as wood.a) “Auction house sites” sell directly to bidders. For a list of digital cash providers. The merchandise presented is typically from a company’s surplus stock. The three basic payment options are as follows: 1) “Cheques” are the most traditional and cheque purchases take the longest time to complete. If it is a valid cheque.

Most application service providers (ASPs) charge a fee to access and use their applications. you must connect to the ASP’s web site. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP is an Internet standard for transferring files. When you exit the program. “Web Utilities” are specialized utility programs that make using the Internet and Web easier and safer. Excel and PowerPoint. The ASP downloads a copy of the requested application to your computer’s hard disk drive from where you can run it. This free service provides access to programs similar to Microsoft’s Word. The aim of “web-based services” such as ThinkFree is to free users from owning and storing applications. Some utilities facilitate sharing resources over the Internet while others enhance the capabilities of your browser. To use a web-based application. it is automatically deleted from your hard disk. “Downloading” is the process of copying a file from a computer on the 110 | P a g e .Web Utilities: Utilities are programs that make computing easier. A “web-based application” is a software package that can be accessed through a web browser. Web-based applications: Normally application programs are owned by individuals and organizations and stored on the computer’s hard disk.

Plug-ins: “Plug-ins” are programs that are automatically started and operate as part of your browser. Additionally. Many web sites require you to have some plug-ins in order to view their content fully. RealPlayer from RealNetworks and Shockwave from Adobe. Others need to be installed before they can be used by your browser. you may visit some of the sites listed in the displayed figure. The Internet has a lot of content which is not suitable for unrestricted viewing. This is called “uploading”.Internet and saving it on your computer. QuickTime from Apple. These are used for a variety of purposes ranging from viewing and printing documents to playing audio and video files. Filters: “Filters” are programs that block access to selected sites. Windows Media Player from Microsoft. Filters allow parents of young children as well as organizations to block access to certain sites and set time limits. Some plug-ins are included in browsers and operating systems. Some widely used plug-ins include Acrobat Reader from Adobe. To learn more about plug-ins and how to download them. these programs can 111 | P a g e . You can also use FTP to copy files from your computer to another computer on the Internet.

It is popularly known as the "Information Highway" which is used as a versatile means for information sharing.generate reports regarding time spent on the Internet as well as at individual web sites. protect against computer viruses. you can also chat 112 | P a g e . chat groups and newsgroups. using voice chat. These programs control spam. Chatting with your friends in virtual chat rooms is another facility that is available. Anyone with access to the Internet can exchange text. Today. Two of the best known Internet security suites are from McAfee and Norton. data files. Using Internet you can communicate with or find out about what is happening in any part of the world. For a list of some of the best known filters. have a look at the displayed figure. You may chat using the keyboard. provide filters and much more. Internet Security Suites: An “Internet security suite” is a collection of utility programs designed to maintain your security and privacy while you are on the Web. and programs with any other user.

with the other person as if you were talking on the telephone. The Internet is the actual physical network made up of wires. You can also play different games on the Internet. Netscape. There are a large number of applications that can be used on the Internet for various purposes. cables and satellites. 113 | P a g e . Mailing lists. Chat groups. Internet Explorer. video. “live” electronic communication between two or more individuals. You can access the World Wide Web on the Internet by using any browser application such as Mozilla. Communications: Computer communications is the process of sharing data. The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN. animation and sound. Electronic Commerce: This means buying and selling goods electronically. animations and videos. You can retrieve documents. It contains hypertext links represented by underlined text and images that lead to related information. Telnet to connect to another computer. E-mail: This provides a fast and efficient alternative to traditional mail by sending and receiving electronic documents. programs and information between two or more computers. Some of the applications that depend on communication systems are as follows. etc. The name of its website is http://www. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. This means that web pages consist of multiple media such as text. The Web is a multimedia interface to the resources available on the Internet. World Wide Web (WWW or Web) and Instant Messaging. Newsgroups. It is easy to get the Internet and the Web confused. listen to sound files. Instant Messaging: This supports direct. A web page is simply a document formatted in a standard language known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).w3. Examples are Electronic Mail (e-mail). What is WWW? The World Wide Web (WWW) is information organized in the form of Web pages containing text and graphic images. Internet Telephone: This provides a low cost alternative to long distance telephone calls using electronic voice delivery. It connects millions of computers and resources throughout the world. but they are not the same thing. view images.org. The World Wide Web Consortium now manages it. When you connect to this network you are described as being “online”. exchange voice data and view programs that run on practically any software in the world. graphics.

A network also has components called “Routers” that help choose the best path for an individual packet to travel and reach its destination. in the course of learning something. Advocacy (to influence readers to support a cause or idea). or just having fun. The packets are reassembled at the destination to get the original information. either from a search or through a series of linked pages. Statistical Information and Personal Information. TCP/IP: The essential features of this protocol involve: 1) Identifying sending and receiving devices AND 2) Reformatting information for transmission across the Internet. the information to be transmitted is broken down in the form of small packets. Each packet contains the address of its destination computer as well as the computer of its origin. You may even move between pages at random. This may be done by following hyperlinks. Using this protocol. This ensures uniformity among users using various types of computer systems. Information Flow Over the Internet Sending and receiving devices follow a set of communication rules for the exchange of information. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the name of the core protocol used on the Internet. Java applets are used for presenting animation. The information on WWW can be classified in different categories based on the type of their content such as Business and Commercial. The Internet uses some rules or standard set of protocols for communication between computers. providing interactive games and more.Web pages also can contain special programs called “applets” that are generally written in a programming language such as Java. These rules for exchanging data between computers are known as “protocols”. Educational. Protocols are used to create an Internet connection for your computer and they handle the data transfer over network lines. Identification: Every computer on the Internet has a unique numeric address called an “IP address (internet protocol address)”. Because these numeric addresses 114 | P a g e . "Web Surfing" means moving through different web pages. These addresses are used to deliver e-mail and to locate web sites. News. displaying graphics. The other protocols are Point to Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP).

At the receiving end.are difficult to remember. Communication Systems “Communication Systems” are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another.103.4” before a connection can be made. This system uses a “domain name server (DNS)” that converts text-based addresses to IP addresses. 4) Data transmission specifications: These are procedures that coordinate the sending and receiving devices by defining the way in which the messages will be sent across the communication channel. How the message is modified and sent would be described in the “data transmission specifications”. It may be a physical cable or it can be wireless. They convert messages into packets that can travel across the communication channel.example. a system was developed to automatically convert text-based addresses to numeric IP addresses. say “www.132. Your modem would be the “connection device” which would modify the message so that it could travel efficiently across the “communication channel” which is the telephone line. For example. “198. 3) Connection devices: These act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. your computer would be the “sending device”. if you enter a URL. another modem modifies it once again so that it can be displayed on the “receiving device” which would be another computer. For example.com”. when you send an e-mail. 115 | P a g e . 2) Communication channel: This is the actual medium that carries the message. Every communication system has four basic elements which are as follows: 1) Sending and receiving devices: These may be computers or specialized communication devices. a DNS might translate it to an IP address say.

Telephone lines consist of twisted-pair cable which is made up of hundreds of copper wires. coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A single twisted pair culminates in a wall jack into which you can plug your phone and computer. Coaxial cable is a high-frequency transmission cable and consists of a single solid-copper core. There are two categories of communication channels. They include telephone lines. The other category is wireless.Communication Channels: You know that communication channels are an essential element of every communication system. Compared to coaxial cable. Fiber-optic cable transmits data as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. Coaxial cable is used to deliver television signals as well as to connect computers in a network. One category connects sending and receiving devices by providing a physical connection such as a wire or cable. 116 | P a g e . fiber-optic cable is lighter and more reliable at transmitting data as compared to coaxial cable. “Physical Connections” use a solid medium to connect sending and receiving devices.

Microwave is a good medium for sending data between buildings in a city or a large college campus.Wireless Connections: Wireless connections use air to connect sending and receiving devices. microwave and satellite. “Microwave” communication uses high-frequency radio waves. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. Microwaves travel in a straight line and therefore can be transmitted across relatively short distances.e. etc. Most Web-enabled devices follow a standard known as “Wi-Fi (i. “Bluetooth” is a short-range wireless standard that uses microwaves. One of the most common applications is to transfer data from a portable device such as a notebook computer or PDA to a desktop computer. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. 117 | P a g e . “Broadcast radio” uses radio signals to communicate with wireless devices. wireless fidelity)”. Cellular telephones and many Web-enabled devices use broadcast radio to place telephone calls and to connect to the Internet. They can be used to send and receive large volumes of data. Some users connect their notebook or handheld computers to a cellular telephone to access the Web. For longer distances. “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. “Satellite” communication uses satellites orbiting above the earth as microwave relay stations. They do not use any solid substances like wires and cables. They are sometimes mounted with a monitor to display maps and with speakers to provide spoken directions to the driver. sending and receiving devices must be in clear view of one another. Satellites can amplify and relay microwave signals from one transmitter on the ground to another. We see a large number of cables in our offices. GPS devices use that information to determine the geographical location of the device. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. homes and everywhere else. printers. broadcast radio. Since the light waves travel in a straight line. GPS devices provide navigational support in some automobiles. “Infrared” uses infrared light waves to communicate over short distances. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. Conceived initially by Ericsson. Bluetooth is a small. mobile phones. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. Primary technologies used for wireless connections are infrared. The “Global Positioning System (GPS)” is a network of 24 satellites developed by the United States Department of Defense which continually sends location information to the earth. the waves are relayed by microwave stations with microwave dishes or antennas.

Telephones send and receive analog signals which are continuous electronic waves. “Demodulation” is the process of converting analog signals to digital form. The modem thus enables digital microcomputers to communicate across analog telephone lines. “Modulation” is the process of converting digital signals to analog form. 118 | P a g e . Computers.Let us look at a summary of communication channels. This is typically measured in “bits per second (bps)”. A great deal of computer communication takes place over telephone lines. Connection devices: We have seen that connection devices act as the interface between the sending and receiving devices and the communication channel. send and receive digital signals which are binary signals. The various units to measure transfer speed are shown in the displayed chart. Modems: The word “modem” stands for modulator-demodulator. The speed at which modems transfer data is called “transfer rate”. on the other hand.

Large corporations lease special high-speed lines from telephone companies which provide very high 119 | P a g e . The “external modem” stands outside the computer and is connected by a cable to the computer’s serial port. A “wireless modem” may be internal. It sends and receives signals through the air. The “internal modem” consists of a plug-in circuit board inside the system unit. The “PC Card modem” is a credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers. internal. PC Card and wireless. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Another cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. Connection Service: Standard telephone lines and conventional modems provide a “dial-up service” which is quite slow.There are four basic types of modems: external. A telephone cable connects the modem to the telephone wall jack. external or a PC Card. Unlike other modems. it does not use cables.

While special high-speed lines are very expensive. satellite and cellular services. T3 and T4 lines and do not require conventional modems. cable modems. “Cable modems” use existing telephone cables to provide high-speed connections. 120 | P a g e . “Digital subscriber line (DSL)” uses existing telephone lines to provide highspeed connections. Let us compare typical user connection costs and speeds. These lines are known as T1. Satellite/air connection services use satellites and the air to send data to users at faster rates than dial-up connections. there are other affordable connections which provide significantly higher capacity than a dial-up service. These include DSL. These devices use “3G cellular networks” to download data from the Internet. T2.capacity. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) is one of the most widely used types of DSL. “Cellular services” are used by mobile devices and laptops.

It indicates the volume of information that can move across the communication channel in a given time. There are three categories of bandwidth. “Broadband” is the bandwidth used for high capacity transmissions. “Voiceband” is used for standard telephone communication. This is also known as low bandwidth. Audio and video files require a wider bandwidth than text documents to be transmitted. Specialized high-speed devices and microcomputers with DSL. 121 | P a g e .Data Transmission: Several factors such as bandwidth and protocols affect how data is transmitted. Bandwidth: This is a measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. cable and satellite connections use this bandwidth. Microcomputers with standard modems and dial-up service use this bandwidth. “Medium band” is the bandwidth used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes as well as to transmit data over long distances.

Using a telephone. This is just the beginning of the “Wireless Revolution” which will change the way we communicate and use computer technology in a big way. Cable Modem. Using the modem and dialer software. They provide access through standard telephone lines or cable connections. there are also other options for connecting to the Internet. In the last five years. If a computer is part of a local area network (LAN) that has connectivity to the Internet. This is how the PC establishes a connection to the Internet through an ISP. you need a device called the “Modem”. there has been a dramatic change in connectivity. Set Top Boxes and other propriety solutions. To do so. you can access the Internet through the LAN. there is widespread use of mobile and wireless communication devices for gaining access to the Internet. wired devices were required to be able to connect to the Internet. In this method. you are linked to the world of larger computers and the Internet. you can connect your Personal Computer (PC) to the Internet. You can also connect to the Internet using a leased line. Examples are DSL. An “Internet Service Provider” is a company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee. Browsers A Web Browser is a software tool used to browse the Internet. It is a special application program that brings information from any part of the world 122 | P a g e . Colleges and universities mostly provide free access to students. “Wireless service providers” do not use telephone or cable lines. password and access phone number. They are basically large telecom companies that have nationwide coverage and operations. Some companies also offer free Internet access. The providers are already connected to the Internet and provide a path or connection for individuals to access the Internet. the data transmission rate is much higher.How Do We Connect? “Connectivity” is a concept related to using computer networks to link people and resources. You can connect your microcomputer by telephone or other telecommunications links to other computers and information sources almost anywhere. They provide Internet connections with wireless modems and other wireless devices. Today. The service provider gives you a software package. “National Internet Service Providers” are providers who operate primarily on a National level. username. the PC connects to the server of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). With this connection. In the past. Besides these.

you can find and view information about anything on the Web To start Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer automatically sends your query to a search service and displays the results. It is the name of the server where the resource is located. The last part of the domain name following the dot is called the “top-level domain (TLD)”. Type “digital camera” and press “Enter”. 123 | P a g e . for example. Netscape Navigator and Mozilla are some examples of the browser applications that are commonly used. http://www.through the Internet to your computer screen. Another way to navigate the web is to go the address bar and type what you are looking for. This allows easy viewing of text.com/ and press “Enter”. The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) presents the “protocol” used to connect to the resource. You can connect directly to a web site by typing the URL of that site in the address bar or location bar of the web browser. With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer. Internet Explorer. playing audio and video files and running programs. separate and unique address. This address is known as the Uniform Resource Locator or URL in short. Say you are looking for “digital cameras”. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Internet Explorer”.com” indicates a commercial site and “. you can communicate with any computer over the Internet. When you want to visit a website. At the top. type the website address or URL in the address bar. you see a long rectangular box called the “Address Bar”. Most browsers have a Graphical User Interface (GUI). A browser does the work of connecting to the Internet and locating and displaying web pages.microsoft. Protocols are rules for exchanging data between computers. Navigating the Web Using Internet Explorer 7 Internet Explorer is a world-class browser that is designed to support various internet standards across a variety of platforms. The protocol “http://” is the most widely used Web protocol. The second part presents the “domain name”. Each web site has a distinct. click on the “Launch Internet Explorer Browser” icon on your desktop. Since it is created by Microsoft. For example “.in” indicates India. It allows navigation from one page to another. it is closely integrated with the Windows operating system. It identifies the type of organization or what country the website is from. Using a browser. images. and animations. If you do not see this icon. The URL of the web page is displayed in the address bar.

To access the Internet Explorer AutoComplete options. You can quickly switch between open websites by simply clicking on the tabs. click the “New Tab” button or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+T”. which is intended chiefly to greet visitors and provide information about the site or its owner. click on the “X” to the right side of it. 124 | P a g e . When you click on the link. Below the address bar. Use the “Back” button to the left of the address bar to go to the previous page you were on. Under “Tabs”.To the right of the address bar. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. To create a new tab. and passwords. You can scroll through a web page using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. Right-click on a blank space on the toolbar and select “Menu Bar”. the pointer changes to a hand and the URL is shown in the status bar. buttons or pictures. the web page related to the link is opened. You may use this to reload a web page. forms data. click the “Quick Tabs” button to the left of the first tab. Quick Tabs: To see a thumbnail view of all the websites you have open in your tabs. select “Tools → Internet Options”. In the “AutoComplete Settings” window. AutoComplete: Internet Explorer automatically records Web addresses. To quickly go back to a website you visited earlier. select “Tools → Internet Options”. On the “General” tab. You now see a menu displayed above the toolbar. To close a tab. you may enter the settings you require. under “AutoComplete”. click “Settings”. The Home Page of a website is the opening or main page of the website. If you clicked the Back button and you want to move forward to the page you were on just before you clicked it. Click on a thumbnail to view a particular website. you may enter your preferences under “Home page”. click “Settings”. you can see a toolbar. Tabbed Browsing: Tabs enable you to have multiple websites open in one Internet Explorer window at one time. On the “Content” tab. You may change the Internet Explorer Home Page to a site of your preference. you may use the “Forward” button. Selecting links: When you point to a link on a web page. you may click the down arrow just to the right of the Forward button and select the webpage from the dropdown list. In the “Tabbed Browsing Settings” window. Links may be in the form of underlined text. The “Stop” button to its right is used to stop a page from loading. you may enter the settings you require. To access the Internet Explorer Tabbed Browsing options. Home Page: The default page displayed when you start Internet Explorer is called the “Home Page”. you can see the “Refresh” button.

select the desired folder and click “Add”. you can arrange them in order of priority.”. Alternatively. click “New Folder”. click “Add”. In the “Add Language” window. Viewing thumbnails: Thumbnail images are small images shown on a web page because of space limitations and the time required for downloading. Using the Favorites Center Internet Explorer Favorites are used to save links to sites that you want to visit again. Adding items to the Favorites list: Go to the page that you want to add to your list. Click the “Add to Favorites” button on the toolbar and select “Add to Favorites. Displaying web pages in other languages: Some Web sites offer their content in several languages. To place this favorite in an existing folder. You may organize your favorite pages in folders and save items under different folders. You may adjust the size of the frames by dragging the border between the frames. Click on thumbnails to view related documents. When you click on a link on one page included in a frame. The “Favorites” list contains all the favorites you have created. “Close the Favorites Center” icon. If you speak several languages. On the “General” tab. Enter a name for the new folder in the “Create a Folder” window and click “Create”. To view these pages in your preferred language. 125 | P a g e . Creating a list of favorites allows you to visit those sites with a single click. rather than having to type the sites URL each time you want to visit it. Click “OK” in the other windows as well. from the “Create in” drop-down list. You may type a new name for the page in the “Name” text box. This list appears under “Favorites” when you click the “Favorites Center” button on the toolbar. the related page is displayed in another frame. simply click on the “X” shaped. you may pin it to the window by clicking on the “Pin the Favorites Center” button. If a Web site offers multiple languages. Select “Tools → Internet Options”. you can add languages to your list of languages in Internet Explorer. For this. click “Languages”. content will appear in the language that has the highest priority. The “Add a Favorite” window is displayed. If you would like to display the Favorites Center at the left of your screen at all times. Now click “Add” in the “Add a Favorite” window. select the language you want to add and click “OK”.Using frames: The browser area can be divided into different scrollable areas called frames. In the “Language Preference” window.. you may create a new folder for a favorite. To unpin it.

In the “Organize Favorites” window. Click on one of the yellow icons to see what pages you visited at a particular site. You can fill information in it and submit the form contents by clicking on buttons provided. Once you have completed your registration. rename or delete a folder. click the “History” button in the Favorites Center. These must be filled in carefully before they are submitted. Click “Yes” in the displayed window. a specific page or range of pages by making the appropriate selection under “Print Range”. Now. you may use the different buttons in the lower part to create. right-click on it and select “Delete”. To delete an item from the History List. You can also move items from one folder to another by using the “Move” button or dragging the item to the appropriate folder You may also use the Menu Bar to add items to your Favorites list and to organize your Favorites.. phone number. check boxes. such as your name. you may have to enter your personal details while booking an airline ticket online. Online Application Forms: Online Application Forms are forms that are given to the user to fill when connected to the Internet. pop-up menus or drop-down lists.” and “Favorites → Organize Favorites” from the Menu Bar. and so on. address. you can login to your account and use all facilities available. History items are displayed sorted by website. Click the “Add to Favorites” button. Using Forms Forms are part of the web page that can help you to enter data. 126 | P a g e . To view the History list. select “File → Print” from the menu. selected text. the current page. You may then click on a website link to open the related page. The form shown is used to register for a Yahoo mail account. A form may have text boxes. Some mandatory fields must be entered before the data is accepted. Printing and Saving Web Pages Printing and saving web pages: To print the current page. Using the History list: Internet Explorer keeps track of the web pages you have previously visited in the form of history. select “Favorites → Add to Favorites. You may print all pages. You may re-sort your History items by clicking on the arrow next to the "History" button and making your selection.Organizing your Favorites: You may wish to organize your favorite pages by topic. For example. For this. Preliminary validations are performed on some fields. and then click “Organize Favorites”. The “Print” window is displayed. buttons. click on one of the calendar icons.

you enter a keyword or phrase reflecting the information you want. Type a file name for the image and then click “Save”. Search engines provide two different search approaches: Keyword search and Directory search. there is a vast ocean of information available on the World Wide Web.Previewing a web page: To have a look at how a page will look before it is printed. Specify the location at which you wish to save your file. Saving a page without displaying it: Position the mouse pointer over the link to the web page you wish to save. Specify the location at which you wish to download the web page. You may save the web page with a new name by making changes in the “File name” field. The search engine compares your entry against its database and displays a list of “hits” in the form of hyperlinks to related web pages. For this. You may choose a format for the page from the dropdown list in the “Save as type” field. Choose “Save Picture As”. Right-click to display the pop-up menu. Search services help you to quickly locate information about a specific topic from multiple websites. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. position the mouse pointer over the image. In a keyword search. Saving an image from a page: You may wish to save only an image from a web page. web directories and search engines. but typically offer no categories or differentiation between different types of material. Type a file name and then click “Save”. Saving an entire web page: Select “File → Save As” from the menu. The “Save Webpage” window is displayed. The “Save As” window is displayed. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. A number of search tools have been developed and are available on different web sites. web directories and search engines. you can use the Preview option. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Search engines are also huge databases of web sites. Web directories are databases of Internet sites that are organized by topics or subjects. Search services can be categorized into two types. Finding Information on the Web Using Search Services As you know. Now click “Save”. Choose a folder in which to save this image. Choose “Save Target As”. Search services can be categorized into two types. For this. The “Save Picture” window is displayed. select “File → Print Preview” from the menu. a descriptive world or phrase or by browsing a topic list. Click “Close” when the download is completed. if you entered the keyword “travel” you get 127 | P a g e . Right-click to display a pop-up menu. For example. A search can be done by entering a keyword.

thousands of hits. These are ordered according to those sites most likely to contain the information requested and are usually in groups of 10. You may find relevant information on the web using “Subject Directories”. Subject directories are collections of Internet resources organized into subject categories. They are useful for looking for information on a specific subject or to gain familiarity with a topic. Advantages of subject directories are that they generally contain good quality sites and they save time since subject wise information is available. Let us have a look at the Google subject directory. Enter the URL “http://directory.google.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. You can see the Google directory on your screen showing links to various subjects. Clicking on a subject will show you more detailed lists from which you may make your selections. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. Using the Search Box: One of the new features of Internet Explorer 7 is the “Search Box” located at the top right. You can search the internet using most search engines from the search box instead of going to other search engine sites. If you want to find something on a page you are currently on, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Find on this Page”. Enter your search criteria and click “Next”. You may change the default search engine if you wish. For this, click on the down arrow to the right of the magnifying glass and select “Change Search Defaults”. Click “Set Default” and then “OK” to make the search provider you just added as the default one. Metasearch Engines: When you research a topic, you may need to visit different web sites in order to use different search engines. This would be time-consuming and duplicate responses would be inevitable. “Metasearch Engines” offer an alternative. They are programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously. The metasearch engine receives the results, eliminates duplicates, orders the hits and provides the edited list to you. You can see a list of some metasearch engines available on the Web in the displayed table.

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Specialized Search Engines: These search engines focus on subject-specific web sites. They save your time by narrowing your search. For a list of a few specialized search engines, have a look at the displayed table.

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Content Evaluation: You must keep in mind that not all information available on the Web is accurate. In fact, anyone can publish content on the Web. Many sites such as Wikipedia.com, allow anyone to post new material, sometimes anonymously and without critical evaluation. To evaluate the accuracy of information found on the Web, you need to consider the following points. Authority: Is the author an expert on the subject? Is the web site an individual’s personal one or an official one? Accuracy: Has the information been critically reviewed for correctness? Does the web site provide a method of reporting inaccurate information? Objectivity: Is the information reported biased or based on actual facts? Does the author gain personally by convincing the reader or changing his opinion? Currency: Is the information up to date. Is the date when the site was updated specified? Google

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Preferences: You may configure your search exactly as you want it.google. you can save this as your default search behavior on the “Preferences” page. electronic communication has become a standard and preferred way to stay in touch with suppliers. but if you do. employees and customers. You will not see the search results page at all. Press “Enter” to display the Google home page. At a personal level. Click “Preferences” to enter your requirements. the "Iam Feeling Lucky" site would be listed on top. I am Feeling Lucky: You may try using the "I am Feeling Lucky" button when you have entered your search terms. you might want to try Advanced Search. The search results displayed have links to the pages containing matches to your desired keyword. use more descriptive words as opposed to general ones. Type the keyword on which you wish to search in the search text box. Searching by Topic: The Google web site interface consists of many links to various topics and a search text box. which offers numerous options for making your searches more precise and getting more useful results. At a business level. Language Tools: Click “Language Tools” to specify your language preferences for a particular search. Start the Internet Explorer browser and type www. set the interface language and search for pages written in specific languages.“Google” is one of the most popular search engines. The result displayed is page wise if the resulted list is big. Communication Using E-Mail Using Web E-Mail Services You know that communication is the most popular Internet activity. Click the links to visit the related web pages.com in the address box. Then press the “Google Search” button”. 131 | P a g e . Advanced Search: Once you know the basics of Google search. If you typically search only pages in a specific language. friends and family can stay in touch even when separated by thousands of miles. Click “more” to view additional links. This takes you straight to the most relevant website that Google finds for your query. You can filter inappropriate material. Click “Advanced Search” to enter your options. use multiple words and leave out non-essential words. Searching by Keyword: Some simple tips for entering keywords are be specific. Click “even more” to see some more useful links. You may click on the link of your choice.

E-mail has become very popular because of its speed.com. A complete e-mail address is normally in the form of “ahmed@yahoo. try a variation of the name.yahoo. Now.com. The other is based on Post Office Protocol (POP3) using which you may download mails onto your computer or send mails stored on your hard disk. you have to create a password. Creating an e-mail account is fairly simple. The website provides you with a unique user name and you can also specify a password. especially in urban areas. You will be asked to answer this question in case you forget your password. To use the e-mail facility the user has to register with the web site providing the facility. Some of the examples are mail.Yahoo. Just as every web page has a unique address. The mail sent by you is sent to the mail server. it is not necessary for the person to whom the e-mail has been sent to be available. it sends the message to his address. the identity of the recipient is verified and then the mail is forwarded. has increased rapidly in recent years. click “Free Mail: Sign Up”. enter an ID which will act as both your login name and your email address. similarly every e-mail account has a unique address. Let us create a free e-mail ID on Yahoo. Select a security question and enter a suitable answer. You need an e-mail program and a connection to the Internet. The web site has a registration page that will ask you to enter some information and also make you accept a user agreement.E-mail. You have already seen how to fill in an online form. When an e-mail is sent. This is a very powerful tool for communication and a prime reason for the popularity of Internet. Rediffmail. The most popular is the free web mail service that many web sites provide. etc. If the ID you select has already been taken by someone else. 132 | P a g e . There are basically two types of e-mail services you can use. In this. or for his computer to be on. “ahmed” is the name of the person.com. or electronic mail. enables communication by sending and receiving written messages via a computer over the Internet. You see a form displayed on your screen.com. After you have chosen a name. At the other end. The use of e-mail in our country.com” in the address bar and press “Enter”. Then you may enter an alternate e-mail address if you have one. To go to the Yahoo home page.com. all the mail that has been received is downloaded to his computer.com”. The first step is to fill out your personal information. Hotmail. When the mail server identifies the recipient. Next.com” is the name of the domain or server. “yahoo. Indiatimes. When the recipient switches on his computer and connects to the mail service. low cost and absence of time restrictions. type “www.

receiving and optionally persons receiving copies are generally included in an e-mail message. Your e-mail account is then created and you may use it to send and receive messages. Auto Reply and Customized Signature. For this. get-richquick schemes. you must first login. In an attempt to control spam. comes the actual message text. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. Login Page: To access your mail account. Inbox. This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. Now click the “Create My Account” button.You may check the “Marketing Preferences” box if you wish to receive promotional offers from Yahoo by e-mail. Besides these. You know that an e-mail address has two parts. the file name is displayed in the header area on the attachment line. you have to enter the user name you selected during the registration process and also your password. in case of official mails. Address Book. or something similar. this information includes the sender’s name. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. often for products of questionable quality. Typically. The website authenticates your user login information and then provides access to your mailbox. E-mail. Subject: This is a one-line description used to present the topic of the message. type the code shown in the box exactly as you see it. A typical e-mail message has three basic elements: header. Some of the common features are a Login Page. Read the "Terms of Service" agreement and “Privacy Policy” by clicking on the related links and check the box after “Do you agree?” to confirm that you agree to them. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. After the header area. A more effective approach has been 133 | P a g e . the signature line provides additional information about the sender. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. Finally. message and signature. The header appears first and includes the following information: Addresses: Addresses of the person sending. The different websites have different features for the e-mail facility they provide. The first part is the user’s name and the second part is the domain name which includes the top-level domain. address and telephone number. many more personalization features are also provided. To verify your registration. If a message has an attachment. Attachments: You can attach files such as documents and pictures to a mail message.

You may then close the “Customize” window. This newsreader is a Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP) newsreader. Using Newsgroups A newsgroup is a forum on the Internet for discussions on a specified range of subjects. and to post replies to them. perform the following steps. click “Finish”. a folder with this name is created in the list of folders in the left panel. In the window displayed. to download and read news messages. This indicates that you may subscribe to a newsgroup of your choice on the Microsoft news server. In the "Categories" list. Newsgroups are also called discussion groups. When “Congratulations” is displayed. Click “Next”. you can see that there is a default news account named “Microsoft Communities”. In the “Internet Accounts” window. Adding a News Account: Let us add a new account. Enter the server name and then click “Next”. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail program which is available for free download at “www. Point to "Add or Remove Buttons". Newsreaders are used to gain access to various types of newsgroups. You can see this account under the “News” heading in the “Internet Accounts” window. the CAN-SPAM Act has been enacted which requires that every marketing-related e-mail provides an opt-out option. Select “Go → News” from the menu. When the option is selected. and drag it and place it in the "Go" menu. In Windows Mail. Microsoft Outlook automatically sets up the Windows Mail Newsreader. Now.the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. click on “Newsgroup Account” and then click “Next”. click “Add”. and then click "Customize". click "News". Also. the recipient’s address is to be removed from future mailing lists. click "Go". In the "Commands" list. If you do not find the “News” item in the “Go” menu of Microsoft Outlook. If you have not previously set up a newsreader. On the Standard toolbar click the "Toolbar Options" arrow. 134 | P a g e . These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. Select “Tools → Accounts” from the menu. To start the Microsoft Outlook application. Click on the "Commands" tab. In the United States of America. Here you are required to enter the Internet News Server Name. which you can use to download newsgroup content and then work with it when you are not connected to the Internet. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”.mozilla. enter your e-mail address. Enter your name as you want it displayed and click “Next”.

Select “Start → All Programs”. In the “Instant Messaging Address” box enter your contact’s e-mail address. To use a messenger. “Work” and “Notes” sections. The names of the newsgroups appear in the folder list. Use “Ctrl+Click” to select multiple groups. Using Messengers for Instant Messaging Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. In the “Windows Live” folder. it must first be downloaded from the Internet and installed on your computer. Windows Live Messenger. If both parties are online at the same time. You may read any message you wish by double-clicking on it. You 135 | P a g e . select “File → Print” from the menu bar. you need to add his name to your list of contacts. Click on a newsgroup name in the folder list to see a list of messages. You can see that the contact is displayed in your list. Adding a Contact: Before you can chat with someone. Click “Reply Group” to send a reply to all members of a group and “Reply” to reply to the individual sender of the message. It is similar to e-mail. ensure that you are connected to the Internet and click “Yes”. In the contacts list. right-click on its name and select “Unsubscribe”. Since this list needs to be downloaded from the news server. you can see which of your contacts are online and offline at any given time. Enter your e-mail address and password and then click “Sign In”. you may click on the group you wish to subscribe to. Click “OK” to confirm. To unsubscribe from a group. you may add additional information in the “Contact”.Click “Close”. You see a window asking whether you would like to view a list of available newsgroups. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. click “Windows Live Messenger” to start the Windows Live Messenger. If you wish. download the Windows Live Messenger and install it. you can have a complete conversation. Click the “Add a contact” button. Google talk etc. ICQ. Now. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. The list is downloaded and the “Newsgroup Subscriptions” window is displayed. To print this message. You may choose to reply to a message. “Personal”. Then click “Subscribe”. Click “Add Contact” after you are done. Select “File → New → News Message” to create a new message to send to the complete group. enter your message in the “Personal invitation” box and check the box against “Also send an e-mail invitation to this contact”. If your contact does not have Windows Live Messenger. On the “All” tab. Now click “OK”.

For this. Click on your name at the top of the screen. type your message and click “Send” or simply press “Enter”. are symbols that help to convey emotion or additional meaning in a written statement. click on your name at the top of the screen and then click on the status you wish. Click “OK” in the window that comes up. You may send an emoticon along with your message. you may click on the different categories in the left pane to specify related settings. Specifying Other Settings: You may specify other settings such as the way your name is displayed in a conversation. You can also send messages to contacts who are offline. For this. When you click “Send”. the emoticon is sent along with the text. Chatting with your contact: Now. Offline contacts will receive the messages once they come online. Changing your Status: You may wish to display a specific status against your name such as “Busy”. you are informed about his status. you may close the conversation window by clicking “Show Menu” and selecting “File → Close”. Choose a picture and then click “OK” in the “Display Pictures” window. The new picture is then displayed. Click “Change display picture”. In the “Save As” window. deleting the contact etc.can chat with any contact who is online. This message is displayed immediately on your contact’s screen. Changing the Display Picture: You may change the picture that is displayed against your name. You can see the complete conversation in the upper section of the “Conversation” window. editing contact details. When a contact comes online. “Emoticons”. double-click the name of an online contact. Now select “File → Save”. When you click on the name of a contact who is offline. For this. In the same way. Saving your conversation: You may save your complete conversation. After you have completed your chat. “Out to lunch” etc. Changing the Color Scheme: You may change the color scheme of the Messenger application by clicking on the Paint Brush icon at the top of the main Messenger window and selecting a color of your choice. messages from your contact are displayed on your screen. In the main Messenger screen. Type your message and then select an emoticon from the list. enter the file name in which you want to save it and press “Save”. you are notified about it. Right-click on a contact’s name in the main window to perform various activities such as sending an e-mail. click on the “Show Menu” icon to the right of the Paint Brush icon in the conversation window. Social Networking 136 | P a g e . also called “Smileys”. click on your name at the top of the screen. you are ready to begin your chat. Click “Options”. In the window displayed. In the box at the bottom of the conversation window that comes up.

One of the fastest growing uses of the Internet is “social networking” i. “Reuniting” sites are designed to connect people who have known one another but have lost touch. you provide profile information such as your age. “Common interest” sites bring together individuals that share common interests or hobbies. a network could be started by an acquaintance who provides his profile information and list of friends. gender. if you are looking for business contacts. “Friend-of-a-friend” sites are designed to bring together two people who do not know each other but share a common friend. If you wanted to locate or create a special interest group. For example. 137 | P a g e . This information is added to the site’s database. For example. you might join LinkedIn. friend-of-a-friend and common interest. You must consider carefully what you are disclosing before providing information to any site or individual. connecting individuals to one another. Members can search the database to locate individuals. Two well-known friend-of-a-friend sites are Friendster and MySpace. Many sites even notify you when someone joins with parts of his profile matching yours. you might join Meetup. see the displayed table. Two popular reuniting sites are Facebook and Classmates Online. When you join a social network by connecting to a reuniting site. school name etc. There are three basic categories of social networking sites: reuniting. You could then visit his site to connect to his friends and join his list of friends as well. For a summary of social networking sites.e.

retrieving any kind of information is time consuming. You need to manually leaf through the pages to locate the required information. 138 | P a g e . Although the information is well maintained. the employment records are maintained on paper forms and stored in file cabinets organized alphabetically. Also making reports quickly is a difficult task.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Overview Introduction to Databases You have recently accepted a new job as an Employment Administrator with All Saints High School. You are responsible for maintaining the employment records for all employees of the School. Currently.

access. enter data. the information in a database is stored in a table. Each column is a field which is the smallest unit of information about a record.accdb”. It is an electronic database management system which can store. Typically. edit data. using Access 2007. A relational database is the most widely used database structure. The four main objects in an Access database are Tables. Usually. organize. Creating a Database Introduction to Access To start the Microsoft Access application. and present information in many different ways. which are simply the components of a database. thing or place. The table object is the basic object and has to be created first. before any other objects are created. you will learn how to create a database. That file contains database objects. Forms and Reports. 139 | P a g e . Here. print and preview data and much more. this action involves retrieving a piece of information. Queries. In Access. Each row is a record which contains all the information about a person. manipulate. You can create as many tables as you need to store different types of information. The first screen that appears is the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. Tables store information.The school has recently purchased new computers and the management now wants to update the employee record system to an electronic database management system. you can also use queries to make changes to your database. What is a database? : A database is an organized collection of related information. The tables are related or linked to one another by a common field. every database is stored in a single file which has the extension “. The software tool that you will use to accomplish the task you have been assigned will be Microsoft Access 2007. Queries let you quickly perform an action on a table. Access 2007 is a relational database management application that is used to create and analyze a database. data is organized in linked tables. Tables are made up of vertical columns (called fields) and horizontal rows (called records). click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Access 2007”. Forms are windows that you create and arrange in order to easily view or change the information in a table. In the following labs. However.

-It is easy to add. how its grouped and sorted. You can choose where the information appears on the printed page. 140 | P a g e . The main table will include the employees’ basic information. and how its formatted. or you can customize them to suit your needs. Access provides you with a wide variety of templates that are ready-to-use databases that contain all that is needed for performing a specific task. You must understand the purpose of the database. -Your tables. For example. After studying the existing record keeping procedures and the reports that are created. creating. queries. -You can quickly produce reports using some Access features. delete and modify records from a table. and more become available if you click one of the categories under “Template Categories” at the left of the Access window. For this you must study the existing employee records. Several templates are displayed under “Featured Online Templates”. You must know how the structure or layout of each table in the database must be. Another will contain information of all the departments in the School and a third one will contain the payroll of the employees. entering and editing data and then previewing and printing. -You can analyze the data in a table and perform calculations on different fields of data. you can quickly search the table to locate a specific record based on the data in a field. what data each of them will contain and how will they be related. By clicking the object tabs. you decide to create several separate tables of data in the database. You must plan the design of your database in respect of how many tables will be required. Template databases can be used as they are. forms and reports are displayed as tabbed objects in the Access window. or keep a record of expenses. you can easily switch between various objects. -Its capability to sort records in a table according to different fields can provide more meaningful information. there are templates that can be used to track issues. manage contacts. Creating a New Database Creating a database entails several basic steps: planning. Planning is the first step in the development of a database.Reports help you print some or all of the information in a table. The features of Access 2007 are as follows: -Once the data is entered in the database.

or other database objects. the names of your database objects such as tables. double-click the object in the Navigation Pane. with no defined fields. The “View” icon in the “Views” group is used switch back and forth between the Datasheet view and the Design View. you may see the assignment titled “The User Interface” in the “Microsoft Word” topic.accdb”. you see the “Navigation Pane”. The two most commonly used views are “Datasheet View” and “Design View”. Design view allows you to create or change a table. For more details on the Microsoft Office User Interface. Now click “Create”. right-click the object and select an item from the context menu that appears. Datasheet view shows the data in the database. click on “Desktop” in the left panel and then click “OK”. Creating a database: Now that you have designed the database. You may specify the location where you wish to store your database. It also allows you to enter and edit the data. saving. you will create only the table containing the employee information. and configure the fields. to provide you with a larger work area. the default database name is displayed in the “File Name” box. Undo. click the arrow in the upper corner. When you open a database or create a new one. In the panel at the right. To open a database object. Click on the “Browse” icon to the right of the file name. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical bar. printing. Click “Blank Database” under “New Blank Database”. 3) The Ribbon which has Task-oriented Tabs. form. To apply a command to a database object. But you cannot change the data in design view. 2) The Quick Access toolbar which displays icons that represent commonly used commands such as Save. You can also set keys and restrict the values entered here. At the bottom of the screen you see the words “Datasheet View” on the “Status Bar”. it is time to create it so that the data can be stored in it. a table named Table1 which is completely blank. Change it to “Employee. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. Groups and Command buttons. You see the familiar Microsoft Office 2007 user interface which consists of: 1) The Office Button which displays a menu containing commands for opening. and closing a file. In the “File New Database” window. Access creates your first database object.For now. click the arrow at the top. At the left. This indicates that you are 141 | P a g e . Creating a Table Access provides different window formats called “Views” to display and work with the objects in a database. forms and reports appear in the Navigation Pane. and Redo. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane.

Now let us begin creating the table structure. You cannot start the name of a field with a space. Access automatically creates a primary key and assigns a field name of "ID" and the AutoNumber data type to it. Before you can enter data into a table. It is important to choose the right kind of data type before you start entering data in the table. you must create the structure of the table. When you create a new table. This view provides a row and column view of the data in tables. We shall use the “Design View” to create a table. Subject1. queries and reports. Type “Employee ID” as the field name and press “Enter”. like words. add and delete data. You must specify a primary key for all tables. and numbers that are not used in calculations. etc. numbers. Following are the data types you can use. You can see a small key to the left of the field name indicating that this field is the primary key of the table. The name can consist of letters. Before defining the fields in a table. Text: It is the default data type and is used to store text entries. you need to enter a name for the table. Let us first understand what is meant by a “Primary Key”. You may also create a table using this view. You can now see the name of your table in the Navigation Pane on the left. Click on the drop down menu button to select the “Data Type”. and that it is always unique. Phone No. and queries. You will learn about the different data types shortly. 142 | P a g e . Examples are names and phone numbers. Access provides a number of data types to choose from. Access also ensures that every record has a non-blank primary key field. In the “Save As” window. an exclamation (!).). combinations of words and numbers. Following are some examples of valid field names: First name. forms.now in datasheet view. the default name “Table1” is displayed. The “Emp Info” tab is displayed in the document window on the right. forms. which makes queries and other operations fast. Field name: A field name is used to identify the data stored in a field. Enter the Table Name as “Emp Info” and click “OK”. you can edit fields. and search for data. Access automatically creates an index for the primary key. Data type: The data type defines the type of data the field will contain. You can enter up to 255 characters in a text field. Click on “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. and brackets([]). except a period (. and special characters. meaning the fields that will hold the data. This view can be used to create and view the design of all types of database objects such as tables. spaces. A primary key is a field or set of fields in your table that provide Access with a unique identifier for every record. In Datasheet view.

The description that you had entered is displayed in the “Status Bar”. Type the description wherever applicable. documents. Hyperlink: This is used to store web addresses. graphs etc. Some of the more common properties are as follows: Field Size: It decides the maximum number of characters that can be entered in the field. charts and other types of supported files to the records in your database. Price. etc. Caption: Specifies a field caption or a prompt for the user to enter data. Marks in an exam is an example. AutoNumber: It is a unique. Date/Time: It is used for storage of date and time information. OLE Object: This data type is used to store images. Fees. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar and switch to Datasheet View by clicking “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. Format: Specifies how the data is displayed in the table and printed. Number: It is used to store numbers only. Yes/No: This data type accepts only two values – Yes or No. A field property is a characteristic that helps define a field. Description: The “Description” text box is used to describe the field. etc. Each data type has its own set of field properties. For example. its default properties are displayed under “Field Properties”. but is formatted to display decimal places and the currency symbol. the default field size of the “Text” data type is 255. 143 | P a g e . True or False.Memo: It is used to store text that is too long to be stored in a Text field. documents. sequential number that is automatically incremented by one whenever a new record is added to the table. Date of joining. Giving this description is optional. Pass. When you select a data type. It can be used for fields like Fees Paid. As you can see. Calculations can be performed on the numbers stored in a Number field. and On or Off. Select the “Text” data type. Birth date. etc. Summary of a book is an example. Switch back to Design View by clicking “View → Design View” in the “Views” group. Attachment: This is used to store images. spreadsheet files. Input mask: Simplifies data entry and controls what data is required and how it is to be displayed. Information about the data type is displayed in the left panel and on the right hand side is the help box displaying information about the current task. For example. Currency: This is similar to the Number data type.

Now. Do not make any other changes. Validation Rule: Restricts the data entry to meet certain conditions or requirements. and grouping operations run against large amounts of data.Default Value: It specifies a default value for a field to be automatically filled in at the time of data entry. Entering and Editing Data You can now start entering data in the table. But you cannot do so until you change the view. Click the “Field Size” property text box. We used the Design View to define the structure. Required: Specifies whether or not a value must be entered in a field before the record is stored. Allow Zero Length: Specifies whether or not an entry containing no value is valid. Validation Text: It is displayed when the validation rule is violated. Select the “Data Type” of this field as “Date/Time” from the drop down menu. 144 | P a g e . Double-click on 255 to select it and type ‘4’ to change the field size. Click on “View → Datasheet View” in the “Views” group. This value can be changed. We now need to switch to Datasheet View. Type ‘First Name’ and select “Text” as the “Data Type” from the drop down menu. Indexed: An index is used to speed up queries. The structure of your table is now ready. Click on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. You may change the primary key simply by clicking on another field name and then clicking on the “Primary Key” icon in the “Tools” group. If you set it to “Yes”. This field property specifies whether an index is to be created on that field. Select “General Date”. enter the information shown in the table until you come to the “Birth Date” field. it can be used to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. let us change some of the defaults. You can see that the name given to the field with the data type Attachment has been replaced by a paperclip icon. sorting. Click in the “Format” property box and open the drop down list. Click in the “Field Size” property box and change the field size to ’15’. Let us change the primary key back to “Employee ID” as before. In the same manner. You must save your table structure before you can start entering data into the table. So select the “Data Type” as “Attachment”. Click with the mouse in the “Field Name” column to enter the next field name. Follow the same procedure for the next field – Date_Of_Joining. The “Photo” field is of a different type – you want to store the photo of the employee.

If you make a mistake while typing. you may enter the date directly or use the Date Picker displayed at the right of the field. you may adjust the column width to a specific number of characters. Then click “OK”. navigate to the location of the picture file. that is. Inserting a picture: The photo can be inserted as an attachment. You will be asked to confirm the deletion. The document will be printed using the default settings.The insertion point can be seen in the first column of the first row. Now double-click on the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. left or right until you get the desired width. Preview and Print a Table The table is now ready and you want to print it. In the “Choose File” window. in the “Records” group. This is the small box to the left of the record. You have been informed by the HR department. It displays the table in a reduced size so that you can see the layout. click “Delete”. Click “OK”. For this. Remember not to use any spaces before or after the data. This displays the “Column Width” window where you can type the desired value. You can see the name of the picture in the “Attachments” window. that an employee has resigned and is no longer an employee of the School. Then drag in the desired direction. Click on the picture and then click “Open”. Check that you type data exactly as it appears in the accompanying table. Use the right arrow key or press “Enter” to move to the next field. double-click in the attachment field. Now click “Add”. If you want to 145 | P a g e . To see that the picture has really been inserted. Type the employee’s ID number. Double-click in the attachment field to open the “Attachments” window. Alternatively. Previewing the table gives you an idea how the table will look after it is printed. use the “Backspace” key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point or the “Delete” key to delete characters to the right of the insertion point. On the “Home tab”. position the mouse on the right border of a column header. in the “Employee ID” column. Deleting a record: Select the record to be deleted by clicking the “Record Selector”. Changing Column Width The data you have entered may not be completely visible in the Table’s column. You may drag with the mouse to select multiple records. Complete the information for the first record except for the “Photo” field. Then you must delete that employee’s record. right-click a columns name and select “Column Width”. Click “Yes” to delete the record. You may adjust the column width. For this. See that there is consistency in the data that you enter. Click on the Office Button and select “Print → Print Preview”. Before printing it is advisable to preview it. For the date fields.

Closing the database: Next. select “Selected Record(s)”. click on the “Landscape” icon in the “Page Layout” group. in the “Pages From:” field. To print pages that are continuous. Check once again whether everything is as you want it and click on the “Print” icon. you have to close the database. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. simply click on the “X” shaped icon at the right end in line with the table name. The “Print Range” section of the window lets you specify how much of the document you want to print. Clicking on “Cancel” will not close the window and you will be able to continue working. Click on the Office Button and select “Close Database”. To print selected records. The table tab will close. Select “All” to print all records. To close the preview. click “OK”. You can see the preview consisting of one. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. Close and Open a Table and Database You have finished working with the employee database for now and you want to stop working but continue later on. After you have entered your print specifications. enter the page range. select “Selected Record(s)”. the table will close without saving the changes. Since you have just one table open presently. Access will prompt you to save them before closing. click “OK”. For example. For example. To print pages that are continuous. You may also print the table by clicking the Office Button and selecting “Print → Print” from the menu or use the shortcut keys “Ctrl+P”. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. To close a table. you may first click on the related tab to make it active.change some settings you may do so. Select “Pages From” to specify the number of the pages you want to print. to print pages 1 to 5. click the “Close Print Preview” icon. If you click “No” to discard changes. type ‘1’ and in the “To” field enter ‘5’. If you have made any changes that have not been saved. Closing a table: Multiple table tabs may be open at one time. If you want to change the page orientation. You are now back to the “Getting 146 | P a g e . Select “All” to print all records. two or multiple pages if there is more data than can fit on one or two pages. Click “Yes” to save changes. enter the page range. The “Print Preview” tab appears when you view the table in the Print Preview mode. to print pages 1 to 5. To print selected records. in the “Pages From:” field. After you have entered your print specifications. You have to close the table and database that you have created and have been working on until now. The “Print” window is displayed. The page is displayed with a heading and date in the “Header” and the page number in the “Footer”.

Enter the words “(with data)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Click the table name in the Navigation Pane. In such a case. double-click the table name in the navigation pane. You can see the new table displayed in the Navigation Pane and the data displayed in the document window on the right. In the “Paste Table As” window. If any database 147 | P a g e . In the document pane. This would save time in creating a new table which required similar fields but had different data to be entered. Opening the database: When you need to work once again with the “Employee” database. Enter the words “(structure only)” at the end of the name and click “OK”. Double click on the new table name in the Navigation Pane. Now right click once again in the Navigation Pane and select “Paste”. Right click on the name of the “Emp Info” table in the Navigation Pane and select “Copy”. Let us create another copy of the “Emp Info” table. including its structure and data. Let us modify the default name. This copy would be identical to the existing one complete with its objects and data. Now click the Office Button and select “Save As”. Sometimes. This is an alternative method to using the “Save As” option of the Office Button. In the “Open” window. To open the “Emp Info” table. Let us make a copy of the table “Emp Info”. you may not see the name of your database in this list. you can see that only the structure of the table has been copied and there is no data contained in it. navigate to the location of your database and click “Open”. Making a Copy of the Database You can make a copy of the complete database. select “Structure Only” under “Paste Options”. Sometimes. This time. click “More…” at the top of the list. we shall copy the structure only. click on the database name in the list displayed under “Open Recent Database” on the right. you may need to copy only the structure of a table. For this. The table will open in Datasheet View. you may accept the default name displayed or enter a new name. Making Copies of Database Objects Copying a database object: You can make a copy of an object in the database such as a table. in the “Getting Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. In the “Save As” window. you may click the Office Button and then click the “Exit Access” button at the bottom right. You may use the Copy-Paste method to copy both the data and structure of a table by selecting “Structure and Data” under the “Paste Options” in the “Paste Table As” window. You may create a new database or open an existing one. click the Office Button and select “Save As → Access 2007 Database”.Started with Microsoft Office Access” page. To exit Access. Your Database window is displayed.

BS83DT will be displayed with a space between BS8 and 3DT. In the “Size” field property. So. This will display the PIN codes of all records in the same format. For example. You want all the records to display the name of the state in uppercase. you need to first change to Design View. you must insert those fields which you have missed while designing the database the first time. A row is inserted between the “State” and “Phone” fields. You can see that all data in the “State” field is displayed in uppercase. In the “Save As” window. click on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group on the “Design” tab. you realize that there is no uniformity in the data entered in the “State” field. you can use the four symbols used in the table shown. You can easily make all these changes and put restrictions on the way data is entered or displayed.accdb” and click “Save”. The “Pin Code” field should be after the “State” field and the “Gender” field should be after the “Phone” field. type ‘@@@ @@@’ with a space after the first three characters. you have to enter the appropriate symbol in the “Field Properties” window. To do so. Modifying a Table Customizing and Inserting Fields If you look through the records. say “Backup_Employee. Select “Insert Rows” in the “Tools” group on the “Design” tab. For this. To set the display format. You can even add and delete fields. 148 | P a g e . Move to the “Format” field property text box and type ‘>’. Type ‘Pin Code’ and make its data type as “Text”.objects are open. The field’s “Format” property can be defined to tell Access the way you want the data to be displayed. Make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. you see a window asking whether the objects can be closed. The new database is created identical to the original database. Also. switch to Design View. to change the “State” field’s format to display it in uppercase. Click “Yes”. you have forgotten to add two fields! The PIN code number needs to be added to make the address complete and the gender of the employee also needs to go on record. enter the location and the name for the new database. To define the format. type ‘7’ and in the “Format” field property text box. Make “Phone” the current field. One is the “Pin Code” and the other is the “Gender” of the employee. Now. Change to Datasheet View Click on “Yes” to save changes.

“Field Size” as ‘1’ and “Format” as ‘>’. This is because of the “Default Value” property that you have set for these two fields. Switch to “Datasheet” view. Enter its “Data Type” as “Text”. Setting the “Validity Check” option makes sure that the values entered by the user are valid for the field type. While looking through the records. So. This value can either be accepted or another value can be entered by the user while adding a new record. by setting the default value of the “Sate” field to “Bristol” and that of “Gender” to “F”. Fill in these empty fields in all the records. you can make data entry a bit quicker. If you do not give a message. Type ‘M’ in it. Observe that the new blank record has the “State” and “Gender” fields already filled with values. The table is displayed with two new columns which have no data in them. A validation rule is an expression that defines acceptable values. which is an explanatory message that appears if the user enters invalid information in a field for which a validation rule has been set. The table above shows some examples of validity rule settings and corresponding messages.Repeat the procedure for inserting a row and adding the “Gender” field after the “Phone” field. Similarly. 149 | P a g e . make the “Gender” field the current one and click on the “Default Value” property text box. Access displays a default message but it does not clearly explain the reason for the error. Save the new table structure by clicking on the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. Save the design changes related to default values. Now switch to Datasheet View. you observe that most of the employees are from “Bristol” State and that there are more males than females as employees. Click on the “Default Value” property text box and type “Bristol” in it. You can also add validation text. A default value is used to specify a value that is automatically entered in a field when a new record is added. An expression is a formula consisting of a combination of symbols that evaluates to a single value. Switch to Design View and make the “State” field the current one by clicking on it. You want the “Gender” field to accept only two values – “M” for male and “F” for female.

For now. A warning message box is displayed saying that the data integrity rules have been changed. type ‘ “M” Or “F” ’ and in the “Validation Text” property box. In the “Validation Rule” property box. You will be asked to save the changes. Click “OK” to continue. click “No”. Type ‘k’ or any other letter in either upper or lower case. The warning message is immediately displayed.Adding a Validity Rule: Switch to Design View and click on the “Gender” field. 150 | P a g e . You may change them if required. Now try entering an invalid value in the “Gender” field. The “State” and “Gender” fields are already filled with default values. except ‘F’ or ‘M’. Type the data shown in the table in the new record. switch to Datasheet View. Now. Access asks you if you want to check the existing data with the new validity rule. Click “Yes”. Press “Backspace” and enter valid text. you often make changes that could result in the loss of data or existing data may become invalid. When you make changes to the structure of a table. type ‘Please enter either “M” or “F” only.

Select “Whole Field” in the “Match” box and “All” in the “Search” box. click in the “Match Case” check box and click “Find Next”. One is that the “State” names should all be shortened to 2 lettered names. If it is. The “State” field will already be selected in the “Look In” box. then click on the “Replace” button. you have to make changes in the “State” field. the last name of the employee. you have been told to make two changes.Finding and Replacing Data Finding and Replacing data: If you want to search for some information in the table and also replace it. In the “Search” box. The other is that. close the “Find and Replace” window and make the necessary changes in the “Last Name” and the address fields. Click on the “Cancel” button if you do not want to perform any action. You want Access to find a perfect match to what you have typed in the “Find What” box. Click “Find Next”. In the “Find What” box. select “All”. 151 | P a g e . Once you move to another record or move to another window. In the “Replace With” box. not part of it. You need not do this manually. Click in the “Search Fields As Formatted” check box which finds data based on its display format. So. The “Find” command locates all specified values in a field and the “Replace” command finds a value and automatically replaces it. select “Whole field”. If you make changes to a single record. Check whether it the record you are looking for. type ‘BS’. If the text is found and it is the one you want to replace. The “Look In” box displays the “Last Name” field because the field was the current one when the command was given. click in the “Last Name” field of the first record and select “Find”. you may use the “Find” and “Replace” icons in the “Find” group on the “Home” tab. one of the employees. Click on the “Replace” tab and type “Bristol” in the “Find What” box. While in the “Datasheet” view. using the “Undo” command will cancel the last action as long as you have not made any further changes to the table. That means you have to replace “Bristol” with “BS”. “EASTSIDE” with “ES”. Clicking on the “Cancel” button. “NORTHSIDE” with “NS” and so on. cancels the command. You want to match the whole field. type “Smith”. Now. Now. So click in the “State” field and select “Replace”. in the “Match” box. The “Find and Replace” window is displayed with the “Find” tab selected. You may use the “Find and Replace” feature. “Jenny Smith” is married and needs to change her “Last Name” and “Address”. Your original data appears. the “Undo” command has no effect. Use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Z” or click on the “Undo” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. The first occurrence of the search criteria specified is highlighted. so. Finding and replacing data is fast and accurate but you have to be careful not to replace unintended values.

In this case.e. How are you going to give it to them? To arrange the records in the table in alphabetical order. Let us have another look at the various options available in the “Find and Replace” window. “Start of Field” finds data only at the beginning of the field. the data in all the fields containing “BRISTOL” is replaced with “BS”. a search for “Smith” with the initial alphabet “S” in uppercase and “m-i-t-h” in lowercase will not display “SMITH” with all uppercase letters or “smith” with all lowercase letters. the search returns only those instances of the text that have the same case (i. the “Last Name” will be the field which you will use to sort records. The options are Up. In the “Match” list options. In Access. Down. you had seen what a primary key is and what its importance is. type “BS” and switch to Datasheet View. “Whole Field” finds only data that is exactly the same. uppercase or lowercase) as the specified text.. Since you want to replace all the fields containing “BRISTOL” with “BS”. Save the changes made to the table. So you need to make a change in the default value too since you now need “BS”. Sorting: Sorting the data often helps in finding some particular information quickly.The “State” field in the next record is highlighted. You also saw that the records in a table are arranged according to the primary key. You can sort on one field or more than one adjacent field. click on “Yes” because that’s what you want. You are asked whether you want to continue. you can sort data in ascending or descending order. You will see that the new record at the end has the default value changed to “BS”. By default. the “Look In” list contains the name of the field in which your cursor is currently positioned. If you check the box against “Match Case”. click on “Replace All”. Instantly. When you select multiple columns to sort. warning you that the replace operation cannot be undone. For example. you had set the default value for the “State” field as “Bristol”. The “Search” box allows you to specify the direction to follow while searching. you can sort them on a single field – the field on the basis of which you want to arrange them. Access sorts records starting from the leftmost 152 | P a g e . and All (which is the default). If you remember. If you want to search the entire table. you may select the name of the table from the list. But the Accounts department has requested for the employee list in alphabetical order. In the “Default Value” property box. Sorting Records In the first lab. Switch to Design View and click in the “State” field. “Any Part of Field” finds data anywhere in the field. A warning message is displayed by Access.

The “Last Name” field moves up one row so that it is the second field in the field name list. in Datasheet View. The records will again be displayed in the order of the “Employee ID” field. Drag to the right to select the next column – “First Name”. To return to the primary key sort order. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab again. Now. Click in the “Field Selector” of the “First Name” field. The cursor will change to a solid black arrow pointing downwards. switch to Design View. you need to select the two fields. They are sorted on the “Employee ID” field which is the primary key. Observe the records of Tom and Ted now. Creating Forms Using the Form Wizard 153 | P a g e . This is the small box to the left of the field name. sorting is done from the leftmost field. They are arranged alphabetically first by “Last Name” and then by “First Name”. Then release the mouse. Switch to Datasheet View to see the order of the fields. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. “Last Name” must be to the left of “First Name”. click in the “Last Name” field of any record. To sort on multiple fields. the temporary sort must be removed. so Ted’s record comes first and then comes Tom’s record. Select the “Ascending” icon in the “Sort & Filter” group on the “Home” tab to display the records sorted by Last Name. To remove the temporary sorting order. You see that Ted and Tom are sorted by Last Name but not by “First Name”.column and moves to the right across the columns. you need to sort on multiple fields. Both the columns will be highlighted. The new sort order is saved with the table data and automatically applied every time you open the table. In the “Datasheet” view. To select the two columns. So. position the mouse pointer in the column heading of “Last Name”. Tom’s record appears before Ted’s which is not in ascending alphabetical order. Now drag the mouse down until you see a black line under the “Last Name” field. To sort first by “Last Name” and then by “First name”. To change the order of fields. To sort on multiple fields. select “Clear All Sorts” in the “Sort & Filter” group. The records are displayed according to the changed order of fields. Observe the order of records after sorting on the “Last Name” field. observe the order of the records before sorting.

The “Form Wizard” feature of Access makes it very easy to design forms. The other two buttons below this. In the “Forms” group. A form is a database object that is mainly used to enter and display records and make changes to existing records onscreen. labels. Forms are based on a table and contain design control elements like descriptive text. titles. where you are asked to give the form a name and save it. lines. Select the fields from the list one by one. You can move one record up or down by clicking on the “Next record” or “Previous record” buttons respectively. click the close 154 | P a g e . The fields from the current table are displayed in the “Available Fields” list. Information regarding what you are supposed to do in each step is mentioned on the top in the “Form Wizard” window. The field name is displayed in the “Selected Fields” list now. The next step is the last step. Read it so that you know what you are supposed to do in that step. In the next step. “Emp Info” will be displayed by default. The field names are on the left with the corresponding data in boxes in front of them. the name of the current table “Emp Info” is displayed. It is desirable for the onscreen form to be similar to the paper form filled in by each new employee when hired. type it and click “Finish”. Seeing the records at all times in the form of rows and columns can be tiring to the eyes. you are asked to select the style of the form. the layout of the form is displayed. If not. In the “Tables/Queries” list. In the next step. The “First record“ button takes you to the first record and the “Last record” button takes you to the last one. The information on this form will be used as an input source for the new record that will be added for the new employee. as you may have realized can be used to move fields back into the “Available Fields” list. Click on “Employee ID” and click on the button with “>” symbol on it. Leave it as it is and click on “Next”. The “Form Wizard” window is displayed.Being the one to be in charge of the employee records database. Access provides a feature to create onscreen forms. The form is displayed with the first record’s contents in it. To make it easy to view and use. Select all the fields in the same manner as the first field and click on “Next”.To close the form. At the bottom of the form window is the record number indicator. Select a suitable one and click “Next”. boxes and pictures. Click on the “New (blank) record” button to add new records. click “More Forms → Form Wizard”. The button below this can be used to move all fields into the “Selected Fields” list. “Columnar” is selected by default. one of your main objectives is to make the database easy to use. Using the Form Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. It guides you through the steps required to create a form.

if you ask at the railway enquiry counter – “Is there a train to Central Park?” you will most probably not get the expected answer. Adding Records in a Form A new employee has recently joined the School and you need to input all related information into the database. Open the form once again by double clicking the form name in the Navigation Pane. you have to put questions in the form of queries. You can see your form name displayed in the navigation pane on the left. So framing a question correctly is important. Click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar to save your changes and close the form. it is necessary to frame a question. But if you ask. In the navigation pane. To add records. Of course. Now switch to Design View by selecting “View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. In this way. click on the table name in the navigation pane and scroll if required. to get information stored in the tables. Queries and Reports Using Queries To get any information. You can start typing the data of the new employee as shown in the accompanying figure. to see all the records that you have entered. “When is the train to Central Park?” you may get the most appropriate answer “It leaves on Tuesday morning at 6:30 am”. you first need to open the form. 155 | P a g e . Now. The form will be displayed. click “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. Click on it and drag the picture to position it a little lower down in the form. After you are done. Framing it correctly will give you the most accurate information. Click on it and enter “Photograph”.button on the form. you can enter and view as many records as you want. You will add this information using the form you created. You can see that both the form and the table are open on two separate tabs. In Access. You may click on the tab names to switch between them. The form with all blank boxes is displayed. Now let us change the label “Photo”. double-click on the form name “Emp Info”. For example. Click on the field displaying the photo of the employee. You see a box with a dotted outline enclosing the picture and the field label “Photo”. At the top left corner you see a four-headed arrow. Let us learn to modify the design of the form we created. Click on the “New (blank) record” button at the bottom of the window. the “State” and the “Gender” fields have their default values.

Queries are used to view data in different ways. Click “Next”. “Address”. While the query is open. Access saves each query in your database. How are you going to specify this condition? You need to make some modifications in this query you have just created. Click “OK” to display the “Simple Query Wizard” window. Modifying a Query: There was nothing very different in this query. It was very simple. In the “Available Fields” list. If not. you can run it any time you want to take a look at the actual data that meets your specifications. you need to check their dates of joining the 156 | P a g e . This is very interesting. Now. “First Name”. you can see all the fields of the table used for the query in a small window. Queries can be used as a source for forms and reports because they are based on tables. In the document window. Parameter query. The most common is the “Select” query. analyze and even change existing data. to know about the employees who have been in service for 5 years or more. for a “5 Years Service Award” they want to give. they want a list of all employees. who have been in service for at least five years. which you have already done. There are five types of queries in Access: Select query. In the lower part. you see all the fields in the “Emp Info” table. In the “Tables/Queries” list. select them one by one and click on the “>” button. A “Select” query retrieves the requested data from one or more tables and displays it in a query datasheet in the order you specify. To select the required fields. Select the following fields – “Employee ID”. and “Phone”. click “Query Wizard”. you have a request from the Administrative department. the fields selected in the query are displayed. Here. The query is displayed with all the records in the table. Action query and SQL query. at the top. “City”. Once you’ve saved a query. You will find this wizard similar to the one you used to create a form. But now. Crosstab query. “Last Name”. the “Emp Info” table is already selected. Using the Query Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab.Query: A query is a request for specific data in a database. but with selected fields. accept the default name for the query or type a new one and click “Finish”. select it. like any other database object. The “New Query” window is displayed with “Simple Query Wizard” selected. which you are going to use. Switch to Design View by clicking on the upper part of the “View” icon in the “Views” group. Creating a query in Access is very much similar to creating a table or form. In the “Other” group. click on the “Home” tab.

Now close the query tab. you need to modify the query by adding the “Date_of_Joining” field and specifying criteria. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. click on the “Run” icon in the “Results” group on the “Design” tab. and “Phone” one by one by clicking on the “>” button. Using the Report Wizard: Click on the “Create” tab. Creating Reports There is another request from the Administrative department – they need an address report of all employees sorted by name. In the next “Report Wizard” window. click the Office Button and select “Save As”. For this. “State”. As soon as you press “Enter”. Select fields “Last Name”. Type the name ‘5 Year Service’ in the “Save As” window. If you do not see the “Date_of_Joining field in the window at the top. In the “Reports” group. You will do this with the help of the “Report Wizard” that is provided by Access. there is an option for grouping fields. Specifying criteria: You need the list of employees who have been in service for at least five years. You must now specify a criterion for this field. which you are not going to need. It might be a simple listing of all fields or of selected fields based on a query. A report is a printed output generated from tables and queries. SQL (Structured Query Language) is a powerful database language used in queries. double-click on this field. Click “Next”. Each query that you create has an underlying SQL statement. select “Table: Emp Info”. Access adds the “#” signs before and after the dates to identify the values in the expression as dates. In the criteria row. Running a query: To see the result of this query. You will be creating this address report based on the “Emp Info” table. scroll down a bit. “City”. as you did while selecting fields for the query. so click “Next”. which you can view or edit by selecting “View → SQL View” in the “Views” group on the “Home” tab. click “Report Wizard”. Confirm that the “As” box has “Query” displayed in it. “Address”. The records matching your criteria are displayed.organization. Then. In the Tables/Queries list. Click “OK”. Now close the query tab. It is displayed in the first blank box after the “Phone” field. “First Name”. Saving the query: You now need to save this modified query. “Pin code”. type the condition as ‘>= 1/1/2001 AND < 1/1/2002’ and press “Enter”. 157 | P a g e . For this.

So. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. Click on the heading “Last Name”.The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. To make these changes. 158 | P a g e . You may find that the “State” field is too big for its two character contents. In the next window. You can reduce its size and make space for the other fields. If you see that a heading is not displayed completely. drag to the right to position it after the “First Name” column. drag the right edge of the box to a suitable size. Click in the check box that says. When the mouse pointer appears as a two-headed arrow. You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. Here enter the report title as “Employee Address List”. Select a suitable one from the list and click on “Next”. where the data is not displayed completely. For now. You can sort the records by up to four fields in either ascending or descending order. click on it. close the report tab by clicking on the “X” shaped icon at the right end. you need to modify the report layout. When the mouse pointer appears as a four-headed arrow. The next window is the last step of the wizard. the first thing you need to do is to exchange the order of the fields “First Name” and “Last Name”. You need to make some changes. Similarly. Then drag the right edge or lower edge of the box that appears to a suitable position. The next window lets you select the style of the report. The preview of the report is displayed with the title and footer and all the records arranged in the specified sort order. A box appears around it. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. You can see that the complete column is shifted to the right. click on it. You need the address list of employees in ascending order of “Last Name” and within that in ascending order of the “First Name”. the headings and contents of some fields are not displayed completely. Modifying Report Layout Modifying report layout: Double-click on the report name in the Navigation Pane. Switch to Layout View by selecting “View → Layout View” in the “Views” group. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. But if you see the report properly. Now. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”.

You can have the fields laid out as either columnar. The “Report Wizard” window is displayed. you have to follow all the same steps you performed to create a report from the table. The “Print” window is displayed. Click “Close Print Preview” to close the preview. 159 | P a g e . Click “Next” once again. Check if all the data contents are visible on the page. you will select the query. The difference is that. You can see in the preview. Then close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Close the preview. If they are still not properly visible. You need the report in ascending order of the “Last Name” and within that. you may move and resize the fields again as required. in the “Report Wizard”. Click “OK”. Select the query “5 years service” from the Table/Query list. Click the Office Button and select “Print” or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+P”. click “Report Wizard”. “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” and click “Next”. Click on the “Create” tab. To create a report from a query. Save the report either by using the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+S” or by clicking “Save” on the Quick Access toolbar. all the records of employees who have worked for five years. In the next window. you can make use of the query you created to list those employees. you are asked about the layout of the fields and the page. click on “Preview the report” and click “Finish”. In the “Reports” group. So. Printing a Report Printing a report: The report is now ready to be printed.To see the preview. tabular or justified and the page can be oriented either as a portrait or a landscape. instead of the table. To create this report. The next “Report Wizard” window asks for the sort order of the records to be printed in the report. select “Last Name” as the first field and “First Name” as the second field and click “Next”. select View → Print Preview” in the “Views” group. Select a suitable one from the list and click “Next”. Select the “Print Range” by clicking on “Pages From” and typing ‘1’ to ‘1’. Creating a Report from a Query There is a requirement to print a report of all those employees who were listed for the five years service award. Select the printer from the “Name” list. Add all fields in the “Available Fields” list by clicking on the “>>” button and click “Next”. The next window lets you select the style of the report. Here give a report title as “5 Year Service Awards”. Click in the check box that says. The next window is the last step of the wizard. in ascending order of the “First Name”.

Store the password in a secure place from where you can recover it in case you forget it. navigate to the location of your database. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. your company has decided to give laptops to each of its key employees. So you do not have to worry anymore about sharing your Personal Computer. Your database is now open. Click the database file and then click the arrow next to the “Open” button and select “Open Exclusive”. For this. it cannot be retrieved.Protecting the Database Using Passwords Assigning a password: Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides a number of features that can help make your data more secure. but away from access by unauthorized people. Removing a password: Open the database in Exclusive mode. In the “Open” window. open the database in “Exclusive” mode. In the “Unset Database Password” window. type your password in the “Password” box. In the “Database Tools” group. If you forget your password. You have decided to use this opportunity to its maximum potential and are eager to personalize your work environment. schedules etc. Using a password: Open the password protected database as you open any other database. The steps to create and apply a password to your database are as follows. Enter your password and click “OK”. One of the first things you can do in this direction is to use a password for accessing your database. In the “Set Database Password” window. First. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. Close the database by clicking on the Office Button and selecting “Close Database”. click “Encrypt with Password”. You want to use tools to organize your contacts. click on the Office Button and select “Open”. Your database can now be accessed without a password the next time it is opened. Click the “Database Tools” tab. The “Password Required” window appears. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER Getting started with Outlook Introduction to Microsoft Outlook Your cherished dream has come true. In the “Database Tools” group. click “Decrypt Database”. Enter your password in the “Password Required” window and click “OK”. 160 | P a g e . You may exit Access by clicking on the Office Button and then clicking the “Exit Access” button. and then re-type it in the “Verify” box. It is very important that you remember your password. Click the “Database Tools” tab. Now click “OK”. type your password and click “OK”.

The upper portion of the navigation pane contains “Category specific tools” for working with different types of information. upcoming appointments. To expand the minimized Navigation Pane. Press “Enter”. Select the time slot of 6 pm for the appointment in the information viewer of the Outlook window. Select the month from the calendar by using the arrows. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar.With Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. click on the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Microsoft Office → Microsoft Office Outlook 2007”. It can be used to organize and track all types of information. events and meetings. To begin with. In the time slot type ‘Meeting with the client’. To minimize the expanded Navigation Pane. The calendar for the current month is displayed in the category specific tools window. The “Day” view. tasks and important mail enabling you to prioritize your work. Your appointment has now been recorded. Let us create an Appointment. having today’s date and time divisions. to provide you with a larger work area. is displayed in the information viewer on the right. you will see a navigation pane on the left which contains categories such as Mail. we shall take a look at the calendar. This enables you to see a minimized view of the To-Do Bar at all times. By default an appointment is allotted half an hour. The To-Do Bar on the right gives you a consolidated view of your calendar. click “View → To-Do Bar → Minimized”. The Navigation Pane can be minimized into a vertical button bar. The “Untitled Appointment” window is displayed. Click the button corresponding to “Calendar” in the navigation pane. 161 | P a g e . and Contacts etc. Starting Microsoft Outlook: To start the Microsoft Outlook application. The bottom portion contains Category buttons for different tasks. Using Calendar When you open Microsoft Outlook 2007. Creating an Appointment Your immediate concern is to record all your important appointments in the calendar. Some of the important tasks that can be performed using Microsoft Outlook are maintaining a personal calendar of appointments. If the To-Do Bar is not visible at any time. Calendar. Select the day. you have an integrated solution for managing your time and information. Let us create another appointment and enter more details. click the arrow in the upper corner. click the arrow at the top. and storing addresses.

select “None”. Select the end time “10:30 AM” from the drop-down list. such as meetings with your Accounts Manager.Appointment” window type ‘Weekly meeting .Type ‘Meeting with maintenance people’ as the “Subject”. Press the tab key and type ‘Factory Premises’ as the “Location”. Click the 9 am time slot. Click on “Save & Close” on the “Recurring Appointment” tab.Accounts Manager’ as the “Subject” and ‘Accounts office’ as the “Location”. You may wish to be reminded about your appointment by a bell. “Recur every 1 week on Monday”. Click “OK”. Select “Out of Office”. Now click the Monday of the next week and the following week on the calendar. Creating an event There is a two day exhibition for Product Promotions to be held in two weeks. Creating a recurring appointment There are some meetings which take place on a regular basis. Click on the “Today” tab in the Standard toolbar. Select 7 pm as the “End time” from the drop-down list. in the “Options” group. monthly or yearly. Now click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Under “Range of recurrence” you may specify the time frame for your recurring appointment. Click on Monday in the next week in the left panel. To turn a reminder off. such an entry is called an Event. The current setting is “Weekly”. You may keep this setting. you may select the way in which you want your appointment to appear in the Calendar. Click it once again to return to the minimized form. Select “Actions → New Recurring Appointment”. type your notes. say ‘Take along the maintenance log file & purchase bills’. You can specify details of the appointment in the “Appointment Recurrence” window. Under “Recurrence pattern” you may specify the days in the week when the appointment is going to occur and also if it is going to occur daily. Let us keep this setting unchanged. On the “Appointment” tab. Since it will last for at least 24 hours. You may click the To-Do Bar to expand it and view details. The current setting is “No end date”. 162 | P a g e . You can see that one hour has been allotted for this appointment. in the “Actions” group. In the text box below. The “Out of Office” indicator is displayed at the left corner. You can also see the appointment on the To-Do Bar at the right. select the amount of time in the “Reminder” list before the appointment when you want the reminder to appear. You can see that the recurring appointment has been recorded. Under “Appointment time” you may set the start and end time of the appointment. weekly. In the “Show As” field. In the “Untitled .

in the date navigator window.Click on the Monday of two weeks later. Click on the “Save & Close” button in the “Actions” group. Set the “Reminder” to 2 days in the “Options” group” of the “Event” tab. Type ‘International Trade Center’ as the “Location”. you can view your calendar based on different criteria. This means that you may click on the related button to see the appointments on your calendar as you wish. Rightclick in any of the time slots and select “New All Day Event”. Select “View → Current view”. Type ‘Product Promotion Exhibition’ as the “Subject”. In addition. Changing the calendar view By default. Creating a task list 163 | P a g e . you can view your calendar on Day/Week/Month basis. To mark the calendar to show that you will be out of office during these days. Select the next day from the “End time” drop-down menu. select “Out of Office” from the “Show As” list.

Click on the “Tasks” button in the Navigation Pane. Setting up Categories A category is a descriptive keyword or phrase to which you can assign related items. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. select “View → Current View → Simple List”. Click in the “Due Date” text box and select a date from the calendar. For your weekly meetings with your assistants. status. 3. Now enter the category name as “Time & Expenses” and click “OK”. You may make changes as per your requirements. Meeting at the Yoga Club.A task is a personal work related action item. Let us enter the category name as “Personal”. A task can occur only once or happen on a recurring basis. Enter today’s date as the “Start date”. This view shows detailed information about each task. To change the view to a detailed list. due date. From the “Priority” drop-down menu choose the option “High”. The “Task” window is displayed. Type ‘Create presentation displays for Product Promotion’. Outlook 2007 offers you Color categories that allow you to group information in a way that allows you to find and track all information most effectively. subject. Create the following tasks in a similar way: 1. Outlook has certain predefined categories. Meeting with the Accounts Department. Press “Enter”. It includes different columns for priority. you have several tasks that need to be completed. Click on “Save & Close”. Set the “% Complete” to 25%. if necessary. To change the view to a simple list. such as a weekly report. To set up your categories. select “Actions → Categorize → All Categories”. choose the option “In Progress”. percentage complete and categories. From the “Status” drop-down menu. Updating the status of a task: Double-click on a task’s “Subject”. 2. Select the Yellow Category and click “Rename”. Meeting with the maintenance staff. 164 | P a g e . If there are any tasks that have been entered previously. Click “OK” Renaming a category: You may rename an existing color category to make it more meaningful. Click in the “Click here to add a new Task” text box. Creating a new category: Click “New” in the “Color Categories” window. they are displayed. Your task has now been recorded.

Now the task has been assigned to the “Personal” category. You may sort your tasks according to Subject by selecting “View → Arrange By → Subject”. You see that the tasks are sorted in ascending order by Categories. To update the status of the task. From the available categories list. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. Sorting tasks Sorting tasks is the process of rearranging items in ascending or descending order. 165 | P a g e . In this view. In the “Detailed list” view. select “Completed” and press “Enter”. they are sorted in descending order. assign the following categories to the tasks as follows: 1. the tasks are arranged according to their due dates.Categorizing tasks: Select the task “Meeting at the Yoga Club” from the list. You may also sort tasks by using the “Arrange By” option from the View menu. Similarly. The subject of the task is also displayed. select “View → Current View → Task Timeline”. Meeting with the Accounts Department – Blue Category 2. Meeting with the maintenance staff – Orange Category You can use the same categorization techniques for other Outlook item like appointments and mails. From the drop-down list. each task will be represented by a task symbol. Clicking in a column heading other than “Task Subject” sorts the list according to that column. select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. select “Personal”. To change the view to “Task Timeline”. To assign a category to this task. right-click in the “Categories” column. Select “View → Current View → Detailed List”. For example. you might want to sort your tasks by Status or Due Date. You can now see that this task appears crossed out with “% Complete” as 100%. the “Status” column must be visible. Scroll the time line window to view all the tasks. Updating the task status You can update the status of the task at any time and specify the status and percentage completed. Now to return to the “Detailed list” view. Using a task timeline In the Tasks Timeline view. To switch to the “Detailed List” view. You may click on the “Delete” icon on the Standard toolbar to delete a completed task from the list. The next time you click. you can see this column in the “Detailed List” view. Click in the “Status” column next to a task. click on the column heading “Categories”. For example.

Let us assume that you need to create a note to remind you to send an email message for an event. Confirm that the “Notes” view is set to “Icons”. select “Calendar” in the Navigation pane. select “File → Print”. Here two styles are available. If necessary. which includes detailed information of all the people with whom you communicate. You can reopen the note and make changes to it by double-clicking on it. The “Print” window is displayed. Notes are an electronic version of paper notes that you use to jot down quick reminders.Printing tasks and calendar items Many times you may need to print out your task list and appointment calendar so that it is available during a meeting. Type your name in the left header text box. Click “OK”. Click “OK” in the “Print” window. You can choose to enter 166 | P a g e . Click on the “Page Setup” button. Let us make some changes. Click on the “New” icon on the Standard toolbar. select the appropriate printer for your system from the “Name” drop-down list. The “Print range” section allows you to specify the rows in the table that are to be printed. Similarly. Select “File → Print”. click on the “Actual Size” icon in the toolbar. Click on the “Header/Footer” tab. Now. To display the preview in actual size. Before printing it is always a good idea to take a preview of the document you want to print. Click the button corresponding to “Notes” in the navigation pane. Using the Address Book What is an Address Book in Outlook The Address Book is an electronic book. to print the appointments. the Print style. Print range and Copies. Select “View → Current View → Active Appointments”. click on the “Print” button in the preview window. If everything is OK. The “Print style” section specifies the format in which you want to print your task list. The “Copies” section allows you to enter the number of pages and copies. Click on the “Preview” button. Type the required message and then close the window. Here you need to specify details about the Printer. A blank yellow colored note window is displayed. Select and delete the user name from the left footer box. Creating Notes The “Notes” tool is used to create a reminder for yourself. “Table” or “Memo”.

“By Company” and others.Contact” window is displayed. You can view the entire contact list in the “Business Cards” format. “By Category”. The names are automatically listed in ascending alphabetical order. Specify the location where you wish to save the exported file in the “Open Personal Folders” window. Like other outlook tools. “Contacts” has several views like “Business Cards”. email addresses. On the “Contact” tab. Here. “Addresses”. Click the “New” button from the Standard toolbar. “Address Cards”. Click “Next”. If you want to delete a particular contact from the contacts list. Click “Next”.pst)” from the “Create a file of type” list box. Several of the fields include drop-down lists that allow you to further customize the information for each contact. Importing & Exporting Contacts You may need to save your contacts to a file so that they are available for use in the future. Click “OK”. By referring to your address book you can contact or communicate quickly with any individual from the contact list. you can see the “General” button of the “Show” group highlighted. “Phone numbers” etc. This wizard guides you through the complete procedure. phone numbers. By doubleclicking on the contact you may edit the information. click “Contacts” in the navigation pane. This file can then be used to copy details of your contacts to another location or another computer. “Phone List”. Click “Next”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to export from” list. nick names. Type ‘Contacts’ in the “File name” text box. Choose “Personal Folder File (. birth-dates and anniversaries. Exporting contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. Choose “Export to a file”. The “Untitled . right-click on the contact and select “Delete”. 167 | P a g e . This is called “Exporting”. you can enter the basic contact information such as “Full Name”. Click on the “Browse” button. Enter the required information in the appropriate fields. This is called “Importing”. You may also delete a contact by selecting “Edit → Delete” or pressing the “Delete” key after selecting the contact. Adding and Removing Contacts To add a contact. The “Import and Export Wizard” window is displayed. “Company”. Click on the "Save & Close" button in the “Actions” group.different types of information such as business and home address.

This list is saved with a name. Now click “Finish”. The contacts you entered are now saved in a file and will be available when you want to import them later. Choose “Personal Folder File (. Under “Address Book”. first or last name. and then select the appropriate name. You may add contacts from different address books into your list. Importing contacts: Select “File → Import and Export”. e-mail address and company name. Click “Next”. you may select from three possibilities with regards to duplicates. Outlook will search all the available address books. To quickly open a contact you have previously searched for. select the 168 | P a g e . In the “Create Microsoft Personal Folders” window. Since there is a possibility that your imported file may contain contacts which you already have. You can enter a partial name (such as “Hyosuke”). In the “Name” field. In the “Import and Export Wizard” window. select the address book that contains the e-mail addresses you want in your distribution list. click “Select Members”. type the name of the contact you want to find and press “Enter”. Creating a mailing list: To create a mailing list. In the list below. choose “Import from another program or file”. Click “Next”. Select the appropriate option and click “Next”. Select the “Contacts” folder from the “Select the folder to import from” list. You can also enter new contacts. type a name for the mailing list. click the arrow in the “Find a contact” drop-down list. In the “Find a contact” box on the Standard toolbar. It provides an easy way to send messages to a group of people. Searching Address Books You can search for an address and the information associated with it in the address book. Select the file from the appropriate location and click “Open”. On the “Distribution List” tab. in the “Members” group. Creating and editing mailing lists A mailing list is a collection of contacts. Click on the “Browse” button. The new contacts will be incorporated into the existing list.pst)” from the “Select file type to import from” list.Now click “Finish”. click “OK”. select “File → New → Distribution List”.

The mailing list is saved in your “Contacts” folder by the name you give it. You can now make the changes you require. Then click on the name of the mailing list and after that click “To”. Click “Mail” in the navigation pane. Select “Tools → Account Settings”. Creating Mails: To create a mail to send to all members of a mailing list. Additionally. simply click “Remove” in the “Members” group. Adding other members: You may also add members that do not exist in your address books to your mailing list. and then click “OK”. The “Untitled Message” window is displayed. enter your name and email address. Under “Choose E-mail Service”. This mail can then be sent to all members of the list after completing other details. and then click “Members”. For this. You may disconnect from the Net and read your mails at leisure. You can see the name of the mailing list in the message window.name. either POP3 or IMAP depending on the type of mailbox you use. check the box beside “Manually configure server settings or additional server types” and click “Next”. You are holidaying in Malaysia and you want to send an e-mail to your friends back home. Enter details in the “Add New Member” window and click “OK”. Now click “Save & Close” in the “Actions” group. POP3 is generally used. Let us delete a member from this list. under “User Information”. double-click on the list name in the “Contacts” folder. Editing a Mailing List: To make changes to your mailing list. Now click “Save & Close”. Using Outlook for E-Mailing Setting up a Mail Account A very important feature of Outlook is sending and receiving e-mail. 169 | P a g e . Under “Server Information”. On the “E-mail” tab. ensure that “Internet E-Mail” is selected and then click “Next”. On the “Auto Account Setup” screen. Click the “New” button on the Standard toolbar. In the “Internet E-mail Settings” screen. click “Add New” in the “Members” group in the “Distribution List” window. Now click “OK”. For this. click “New”. select Account type. Click on “To” to display the “Select Names” window. You may create your mails offline and connect to the Internet only when you are ready to send them. click “Mail” in the navigation pane. You first need to set up your mail account. Do this for each person you want to add to the distribution list. The “Distribution List” window is displayed. all incoming mail can be stored on your hard disk.

Use the “Cc ->” and “Bcc ->” buttons in the same way for entering the addresses to which you wish to send copies to. Attachments do not form part of your e-mail message but they can be opened and viewed or edited by the e-mail recipient. click on the "To:" button. All files in a folder can also be selected by clicking “Organize” on the toolbar and then clicking “Select All”. the name is not visible to other recipients of the message. and then click “Finish” on the “Congratulations!” screen. This brings up the “Select Names” window. Select the appropriate “Address Book”. click “Insert”. You may add multiple names to any of the fields. Click the “More Settings” button. If you add a recipients name using “Bcc”. enter your email address in the “User Name” field and the password for that account. check the box “My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication” and click “OK”. including spreadsheets. the subject and the content of the mail. You may also directly type in e-mail addresses not included in your address book. Now click “Close”. The list of files attached is 170 | P a g e . database files. While composing the message. Under “Logon Information”. They can be compared to a covering letter sent with a parcel or a birthday card sent along with a present. Creating an E-mail Message Creating a Mail message: This is also known as “Composing” a mail. To send an e-mail. Attaching a file: You now want to send some digital pictures of Malaysia along with your message. You can attach all sorts of files to an e-mail. Then click on a name from the list to whom you wish to send the mail and click the “To ->” button.Enter the respective server names provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) in the “Incoming mail server” and “Outgoing mail server (SMTP)” fields. In the “Untitled Message” window. On the “Outgoing Server” tab. Click “Next”. Click the arrow next to the "New" button on the Standard toolbar and select "Mail Message". Now enter the subject and in the large white box below the subject field. Using Attachments Attachments are separate files that are sent along with your e-mail message. even sound recordings and graphic images. Ensure that the “Remember password” box is checked. “Cc” stands for carbon copy and “Bcc” stands for blind carbon copy. You may select multiple files by holding down the “Ctrl” key while you click each file. Now. you must enter details such as the e-mail address of the recipient. type your message. click on the Paperclip Icon in the “Include” group. Specify the location and name of the picture files on your computer that you would like to attach. Click “OK”. word processor documents.

when you start Microsoft Outlook. click the “Send” button. If you are not connected to the Internet. Click on it to see a list of all mails received in the center panel. the recipient needs to have a copy of the software application that was used to create the attachment initially. You may remove incorrect file attachments by clicking them and pressing the “Delete” key. Your mail is now stored in the “Drafts” folder. You may edit your message at any time by clicking on the “Drafts” folder in the left panel and then double-clicking on the related message in the right panel. For this. you can preview it. She has attached a picture of her visit to Malaysia last year. create a mail as described earlier. You can see this folder in the left panel. Here you can see details such as the sender’s name and the subject of the mail. You may also use the “Send/Receive” button to send and receive mail.displayed just below the Subject Field. 171 | P a g e . Receiving Mail Receiving Mail: By default. In order to view an attached file. if you have received a picture as an e-mail attachment. A copy of all sent messages will be kept in your “Sent Items” folder. and want to quickly see what the attachment contains without opening it. Reading Mail: In the center panel. right click on the attachment name and select “Open”. You may also click the “Send/Receive” button when connected to send mails which are in the Outbox. Drafts: You may create a draft of a mail and send it at a later stage. Viewing and Saving an Attachment Viewing an attachment: You may also receive attachments from your friend like the ones you sent. One of your friends has written to you that she has paid your college fees since you are out of town. mails from the Outbox are sent to the intended recipients. Sending Mail After you have finished entering all information. To return to the message body. click on the mail whose content you wish to see. click the “Message” button. When you connect. When you receive an attachment in a message. your mail is stored in the “Outbox”. simply click the attachment In the Reading Pane. For example. To open an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. It is very important to know how to view them. You can now read the message displayed in the right panel which is the Reading Pane. click the “Save” icon on the Quick Access toolbar. She has also written about submission dates for your projects. Instead of clicking the “Send” button. For this. all mails that you have received are deposited in your “Inbox”. then you must have the related software installed in order to see it.

the original mail that you had received is appended at the end. You may forward the mail that you have received. click on it and select “File → Save As” from the menu bar. right-click on the folder name and select “Empty Deleted Items Folder” and then click “Yes” in the window that comes up. right click on the attachment name and select “Save As”. You can see that the recipients e-mail address and subject with the words “RE:” before it are already filled in. You may make any changes you require. Forwarding a mail: You might want to convey the information related to the project submission dates to another friend. click on it and then click on the “Delete” button on the Standard toolbar. 172 | P a g e . For this. enter details regarding the location where you wish to save the mail and click “Save”. The “Subject” field displays the words “FW:” followed by the original subject. The message will be deleted and moved to your “Deleted Items” folder. Now click the “Reply” button. For this. enter the e-mail address of the person you wish to send it to in the “To:” field. A new mail message window is displayed with the original mail content and the subject.Saving an attachment: To save an attachment of a mail in your Inbox. Also. You may click on the box to the right of the “Arranged By:” field to reverse the sort order. sender’s name etc. You may sort your mails by date received. Saving Messages: To save a mail that you have received to another place on your hard disk. subject. click on the mail from the Inbox and then click the “Forward” button. Replying to and Forwarding a Mail Replying to a mail: You now want to thank your friend for paying your fees. A new mail message window is displayed. Now. This may be changed if required. click on the Inbox folder and then click on the mail in the center panel. Enter your mail content and send it like any other mail. Specify the location to save the file and then click “Save”. Let us edit the content to remove the statement regarding the payment of fees. To reply to her mail. You may also make any other changes to the message that you wish. Printing Messages: To print a mail. click on it and then click on the “Print” button on the Standard toolbar. You may want to empty the Deleted Items folder to make free space for additional storage. You can also see the original sender’s name and e-mail address as well as the date and time it was originally received. Deleting Messages: To delete a mail. Handling mails in the Inbox Sorting Mails: You may sort the mails in your Inbox by selecting a suitable option by clicking on the “Arranged By:” button in the center panel. Now send it like any other mail. In the “Save As” window.

also known as CD-RW On CD-R disks. Body. in your Inbox. It is replaced by a tick and is removed from the To-Do Bar. click “Add Criteria”. Windows Vista comes with software that will burn your CDs for you. the related mail is displayed. Calendar and Contacts. such as Mail. The moment a match is found. Using Flags Flags are very useful throughout Outlook. All flagged mail items get added to the to-do bar making it easy for you to keep track of the tasks and mail that you need to reply to or act upon. Subject. You can use a flag to quickly create a follow-up item that can be tracked in the To-Do Bar. Let us use it to find a message in your Inbox. You can see that it gets added in the To-Do Bar. The Instant Search pane is always available in all of your Outlook views. A burned CD is a CD that has been written by using a process that involves using a device called a “CD Writer” or “CD Burner” to burn indentations into the CD. the space can only be used once. Click on the flag symbol next to an important mail.also known as CD-R 2) Rewriteable CDs . Type your search text in the From. and even in the Calendar. Let us flag a mail in the Inbox.Using Instant Search The “Instant Search” feature helps you to quickly find items in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. You can use the same search techniques to find any Outlook item. There are two types of CDs: 1) Recordable CDs . and then select the search fields you want from the list. Simply type a word in the search box. The reasons for burning a CD might be to create a backup of your files or simply to backup frequently used CDs. To display more search fields in the Query Builder. you can click the flag once again. MAKING IT WORK CD Writing What is CD Writing? FOR YOU CD Writing is also known as “Burning of a CD”. You can make your search more focused by clicking the “Expand the Query Builder” arrow. When you have taken the necessary action. On CD-RW disks. although you may add files over multiple sessions until the total space has been used. 173 | P a g e . or To fields. To burn a CD you need both a CD burner and CD burning software.

174 | P a g e . click “Burn files to disc”. This is the “Source Drive”. In the window that appears. Using the Mastered format: To write a CD using the Mastered format. Mastered discs enable you to burn multiple files to a disc at one time. By default. enter a name for this disc. Re-size and arrange the windows in such a way that both the “Source Drive” and the “Destination Drive” are visible on the screen. Open the folder that contains the files you want to burn. You may format a CD using either the “Live File System” or “Mastered” format. However. Click “Mastered” and then click “Next”. and then drag the files into the empty disc folder. This is a convenient format if you need to copy a few files at a time. an empty disc folder opens. Open the folder that contains the files you want to write to the CD in another window. In the window that appears. Windows burns discs in the Live File System format. Live File System discs enable you to copy individual files immediately to a disc. An empty disc folder opens. the disc must first be prepared using a process called formatting. Creating such a disk requires as much free space on your hard disk as the capacity of the disc you are burning. such as a music CD. In the “Burn a disc” window.the space can be erased and re-used many times. This is the “Destination Drive”. When the formatting is complete. In the “Burn a disc” window. Let us delete one of the files. CD-RW disks are also more expensive. they are copied automatically to the disc. You may delete individual files or reformat the disc to create additional disc space when you use a rewriteable disc. CD-RW disks can only be used on CD-RW drives and not on ordinary CD-ROM read-only drives. You may change the files in this folder if you wish. click “Burn files to disc”. Burning a CD using Windows Vista Using the Live File System format: To write a CD using the Live File System format. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. and click “Next”. Now drag the files to be copied into the empty disc folder. As you drag files into the disc folder. This format is advisable if you need to burn a large collection of files. It takes several minutes for the disc to be formatted in the Live File System format. The files are copied to a temporary folder on your hard drive. perform the following steps: Insert a writeable CD into your computers CD Writer. Before you can copy files to a CD. enter a name for this disc and then click “Show formatting options”.

The insertion of a virus into the program is termed as an "infection". a worm is self-contained and does not need to be part of another program to spread itself. COM or EXE file. as their malicious activities are mostly confined within the target computer itself. Worms harm the network and add to network traffic. click on the file name. Viruses generally do not affect network performance. for example.After you are sure about the files to be written to the CD. Virus Protection What is a Computer Virus? A computer virus is a self-replicating computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. When the disc burning is complete. To delete a specific file on a disk. click “Erase this disc”. To erase all files on a disc. A virus can infect different parts of the computer’s operating and file system. In the window that is displayed. many other viruses are fairly benign or merely annoying. hold down the “Ctrl” key while you click the files you want. “Adware” is a software package that 175 | P a g e . While viruses can be intentionally destructive. A virus attaches itself to. Trojan horses and other such software. which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. The term “virus” is often extended to refer to worms. by destroying data. using someone else’s credit card. click “Next” Erasing a CD A rewriteable CD may be erased and written many times. burn these files to another disc”. the disc burner tray will open and you can remove the disc. on the toolbar. click “Burn to disc”. An example of an executable file is a program. you can delete one or more files to make more room on the disc. and the infected file. Viruses are one of the several types of malicious software. You may write the same files to another CD by checking the box against “Yes. A computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus. for example. Now. whereas viruses infect or corrupt files on a targeted computer. If you use the Live File System format. is called a "host". press the “Delete” key. and becomes part of. The selected files are copied to the disc. Now. An “Identity Theft” is a harmful act by deliberately impersonating a person. Click “Finish” when the process is complete. another executable program. or executable code that is not part of a file. To select more than one file. “Spyware” is software designed to take control of another computer system without the consent of the owner. A “Trojan Horse” is a malicious program that is disguised as or embedded within legitimate software. click “Next”. However. on the toolbar.

Even if CDs are read only. identity theft and adware. An infected file is either deleted or quarantined (i. Internet security suites are available to protect you against all these hazards. The first is scanning all files to look for known viruses matching definitions in a virus dictionary. Always scan floppies and CDs for viruses. You are alerted when any possible threat is detected. Anti-virus software. Such analysis may include data captures. This software typically uses two different techniques to accomplish this. It continually works to ensure your security and privacy. You must keep your antivirus program updated by downloading the latest releases by your antivirus program vendor. has in turn expanded to cover worms and other threats such as spyware. network-borne worms are more common than viruses. with an emphasis on the virus dictionary approach.automatically plays. AVG Antivirus and Quick Heal. displays. It controls how frequently your computer is scanned for viruses. Once installed. the files on them may already be infected. moved into a protected area where it won’t cause any more harm). Virus Protection Are you worried that the precious data computer on your computer could be destroyed due to a virus attack? Did you know that your private e-mail could also be intercepted by unauthorized persons? It is even possible for others to gain control over your computer system. Onscreen instructions guide you through the installation process. port monitoring and other methods. Antivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. MacAfee. Some of the popular antivirus packages are Norton Antivirus. the software is automatically activated each time you start your computer. “VirusScan” is one of the programs included in an Internet security suite. originally designed to protect computers from viruses. When a file is checked. or downloads advertising material to a computer. before copying data to your hard disk. The second is identifying suspicious behavior from any computer program which might indicate infection. It is important to regularly scan your computer using a good anti-virus program. Fortunately.e. Today. The first step towards making your computer safe while you are on the Internet is to install an Internet security suite. This can be installed either by downloading from the Internet or from a disc provided by the vendor. 176 | P a g e . Most commercial antivirus software uses both of these approaches. it is compared to the profile of known viruses. due to the popularity of the Internet.

First. you may use your Windows Media Player or download other players such as Winamp and Real Player from the Internet. you can choose to purchase individual songs. buying online is fast and convenient. after the music has finished playing. Using Windows Update: “Windows Update” is software designed to keep your computer current and more secure by automatically downloading and installing the latest security and feature updates from Microsoft. you can log onto one of the music sites and download it within seconds. You can use it to block certain Web sites. prevent sensitive information from being sent over the Internet and block unwanted advertisements. Streaming has two advantages over downloading. you can always copy music to a CD to free up space. You may also listen to music online. To listen to music. only to find it’s the only good song in the album. if so desired. Getting More from Your Computer Listening to Music You can use your computer for lots more than just computational activities. Because these music files are compressed. a large hard drive is not required to store them. However. It allows access only to authorized users and applications. Playing video or sound in real time as it is transferred to your computer over the World Wide Web is called “Streaming”. A sound card and speakers (or earphones) are also required to hear audio.A “Personal Firewall” is a program that controls network traffic to and from a computer system. 177 | P a g e . no files are left on your computer to take up space. Audio files in mp3 and Windows Media Audio (WMA) format are optimized for storing music in compressed format. If you hear a great song on the radio. All done Downloading Music Rather than traveling to a store to buy a music CD. There’s nothing worse than buying a CD after you have heard a good song. This means you can store thousands of songs without running out of hard drive space. Streaming requires a powerful computer and a fast connection since the file is not stored on your computer. By downloading from the Internet. You can hear the music as soon as your player starts receiving the stream. You may run Windows Update by connecting to the Internet and selecting “All Programs → Windows Update” from the Start menu. “Privacy Service” is another program included in an Internet security suite that helps protect your privacy online. Second. there is no download wait when streaming.

you could be subject to steep fines or other penalties. spyware and other unwanted software. For this.lycos. Then click the “Record” button to start recording. click the “Stop” button. There are many popular sites for music lovers such as MusicSites. specify the location on your computer in which you wish to save the video clip by clicking the “Properties” button. You may include video clips from television as part of a presentation. Most internal tuners do all the low level demodulation needed to convert a radio signal into an on-screen image using a hardware chip and do not need to use the CPU. While downloading music. Like TV sets. or distribution to other computer users. 178 | P a g e . Some cheaper tuners cannot do much of the signal processing and rely on the systems CPU for that task. double-click the file to play it. You must specify the location on your computer to store the downloaded file. A Download Manager window shows the progress of the download. you may create a large music collection on your computer. To stop recording. For this. You may capture a video playing in the TV window into a digital file. you must respect copyright laws. Many TV tuners can function as FM radios. click the “TV” icon on the desktop.com. The card contains a receiver. listen to a sample to make sure it’s the one you want before downloading it. Broadcasts can also be digitally recorded by the computer for later replay. demodulator. This means that your computer can serve both as a computing device as well as a television. each version is designed for the radio frequencies and video formats used in each country. even while running other applications. you may view your favorite TV shows. you will be prompted to type in a valid credit card number to pay for the music. and an analog-to-digital converter for analog TV. TV Tuner Card A “TV tuner card” is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. there are others from which you can download legal music. It can be copied on CDs or a digital MP3 player so that you can take it wherever you wish. By downloading music. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards. If it is not a free download. Once a song is found. If you are downloading pirated digital files. Then select the channel. Once downloaded. and they could be exposing your computer to viruses.The best way to find the music you want on the internet is to use a search engine. Size and move the television window and control box window. Although many sites offer pirated music. enabling the recording of television programs onto a hard disk.net and music. tuner. Once a TV tuner card has been installed.

These programs use a variety of approaches to identify and eliminate spam. you may click on its image anytime during the presentation. you may use it in any way you like. The Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail 179 | P a g e . This has limited impact because a lot of spam originates from other countries as well. particularly among young people. paging. There are numerous sites providing paid SMS services. Let us insert the clip in a presentation. sports news and much more. click the “Movie” icon. current events. Spam Blocking Software In an attempt to control spam. You may add it to a Web page. using an "SMS gateway" website. SMS is a very popular service. Navigate to your clip and press “OK”. A more effective approach has been the development and use of “Spam Blockers”. Choose “When Clicked” in the window displayed. You require Internet connectivity and an SMS service provider to be able to send an SMS from your PC to a mobile phone. information about flight delays. This service is available on digital Global System for Mobile (GSM) networks allowing text messages to be sent and received via the network operators’ message center to your mobile phone. We often receive many unwanted e-mails. messages are stored in the network and are delivered at the next available opportunity. or from the Internet. as well as for providing value-added services such as reminders for payments. Now in the “Media Clip” group. Today. What is Spam? E-mail. often for products of questionable quality. or something similar. These are mostly related to commercial advertising. To play the video clip. and voice mail systems. For this open the presentation file and click on the “Insert” tab. There are others that provide this service free of cost as well. like many other valuable technologies does have some drawbacks. Then size and move the image of the clip as required. It is a globally accepted wireless service for sending messages of up to 160 alphanumeric characters between mobile subscribers and external systems such as email. get-richquick schemes. some countries have anti-spam laws as part of their legal system. This unwelcome junk mail is called “spam”. PC to Mobile: Sending SMS SMS is an abbreviation for “Short Message Service”. SMS is used by organizations for marketing.Once you have saved the video clip. mail it as an attachment or include it in a presentation. If the phone is powered off or out of range. You have to register with a site in order to send SMS using the interface provided.

click “Junk Settings”. and you can dictate text to the computer. such as those of family and friends. all you need to do is click the "Show Images" or "Load Images" button that appears to the right of the alert message.e. 180 | P a g e . simply select it and click the “Not Junk” icon.com” comes with built-in spam blocking software. click “Junk Settings”. In the left panel. By default.mozilla. Now click “OK”. Thunderbird displays an alert stating that remote images have been blocked.program which is available for free download at “www. Blocking Images: Some e-mail messages contain images that let spammers know that you have received them. Training Spam Blocking Software: After you install Mozilla Thunderbird. and the images in the message body are replaced with simple place-holders. Similar messages will be marked as spam in future. learn how to talk to your computer. To set up your computer for Windows Speech Recognition. The spam indicator is then removed. you need to have a microphone connected to your computer. In the left panel. If at any time you decide that the message is not spam. Once spammers know that your e-mail address is valid. you need to train it to recognize unwanted messages. you need to do three things: set up your microphone. Thunderbird blocks remote images in messages. select it and then click the “Junk” icon on the toolbar. An icon appears between the Sender and Date fields indicating that the message is spam. You can use your voice to control your computer. a list of e-mail addresses that should never be blocked. Check the box against “Move new junk messages to:”. they will continue to send mails. you have an alternative. When you receive a message with remote images. After reviewing your actions for several weeks. Creating a Junk Folder: You may choose to move new junk messages to a separate folder. select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. For this select “Tools → Account Settings” from the menu. When you have received a message in your Inbox which you consider to be spam. What is Speech Recognition? Are you tired of typing lengthy documents using your keyboard? Now. To specify a white list. Then make a selection from “Personal Address Book” or “Collected Addresses” which contains the addresses of all viewed mail messages. This ability to accept voice input is called “Speech Recognition”. Specifying Friends: You may create a “White List” i. Mozilla Thunderbird will become more efficient in recognizing spam and taking appropriate action. For this. under “Local Folders”. Check the box against “Do not mark mail as junk if the sender is in:”. If you do want to view the remote images. You can verbally say commands that the computer will respond to. under “Local Folders”. Then make a selection for the location of the Junk folder and click “OK”.

and train your computer to understand your speech. Speech Recognition is available only in English and a few other languages. Setting up your microphone: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Set up microphone” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Learning to talk to your computer: Windows comes with a speech training tutorial to teach you the commands used with Speech Recognition. To run the tutorial, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Take Speech Tutorial” and follow the instructions in the tutorial. Training your computer to recognize your speech: Click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Ease of Access”. Now select “Speech Recognition Options → Train your computer to better understand you” and follow the instructions in the wizard. Controlling your computer: Speech Recognition listens and responds to your spoken commands. You can use Speech Recognition to run programs and interact with Windows. There are various commands you can use with Speech Recognition such as selecting a menu option, clicking or doubleclicking an item, switching to an open program, scrolling up and down and many more. Dictating text: You can use your voice to dictate text to your computer. For example, you can dictate text to fill out online forms or dictate text to a word processing program to type a letter. Click the “Start” button and select “All Programs → Accessories”. Now select “Ease of Access → Windows Speech Recognition”. A window appears at the top of the screen which shows you the working of the speech recognition software. To start dictating, open the program you want to use or select the text box you want to dictate text into and then begin speaking. What is Digital Video Editing? In the past, when you needed to compile movies or required professionalquality editing of home videos, you required the services of photo labs or studios. You can now manage this on your own using special software. “Digital Video Editing” is the process of editing videos on a computer using digital video editing software. The process of Digital Video Editing involves three steps. 1. Input: Captured video and audio files are sent to the system unit for processing. 2. Editing: The files are subdivided into a series of clips that can be merged to form a new file and special effects can be added.

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3. Output: The edited video is stored on hard disks or optical disks for later viewing or additional editing. Windows Movie Maker Windows Movie Maker is a feature of Windows Vista that enables you to create home movies and slide shows on your computer, complete with professional-looking titles, transitions, effects, music, and even narration. You can also use Windows Movie Maker to publish your movies and share them with your friends and family. Start the application by clicking the “Start” button and selecting “All Programs → Windows Movie Maker”. On the left is the “Tasks pane” which you can use to perform common tasks related to Digital Video Editing. Capturing Video: You may import a video from your digital video camera to your computer. First, connect your camera in playback mode to your computer. Then, from the “Import” group in the Tasks pane, click “From digital video camera” and follow the on-screen instructions. The video on the camera tape is encoded into a video file and saved to your computer’s hard disk. The “Contents pane” in the center shows clips, effects, or transitions youre working with while you create your movie. The area at the bottom where you create and edit your movie is displayed in two views, the “Storyboard” and the “Timeline”. To switch views, use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl + T”. The storyboard is the default view. You can use this to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips and easily rearrange them. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. Audio clips are not displayed on the storyboard, but you can see them in the timeline view. Editing a Movie: Each movie is stored as a separate project. If you make changes to a clip, those changes are only reflected in the current project; they do not affect the source file. You can drag clips and pictures from the Contents pane to the storyboard and arrange them for your current project. To add a special effect, click on “Effects” in the Task pane and drag the effect you require to the storyboard. A transition controls how your movie plays from one video clip or picture to the next. To add a transition, click on “Transition” and drag the transition to the transition cell between two clips or pictures. The preview monitor on the right enables you to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the preview monitor, you can preview your project before publishing it as a movie. You can also drag clips to the preview monitor to play them. You can use the buttons underneath the preview monitor to play or pause a clip, or to move a clip frame-by-frame. The “Split”
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button allows you to split a clip into two parts at the point displayed in the preview monitor. Publishing a Movie: Once you movie is complete, you may create a DVD to share it with others. For this you would need a DVD writer and some special software such as Sonic MyDVD or Windows DVD Maker. Insert a recordable DVD into your DVD writer. Then, from the “Publish to” group in the Tasks pane, click “Recordable CD” and complete the steps to publish your movie. Understanding Terms and Technologies Netizens Today, the Internet is an integral part of our lives. As a powerful communications medium, the Internet offers great possibilities for social change. The term “Netizen” is now used regularly. This word has been created using the two words “Net” and “Citizen”. So a Netizen is a citizen of the world, thanks to the global connectivity that the Internet offers. A Netizen is also known as a “Cybercitizen”. Netizens physically live in one country but are in contact with much of the world via the global computer network. Virtually, they live next door to every other single netizen in the world. Geographical distances do not have much significance since everyone exists in the same virtual space - Cyberspace. The term “Netizen” indicates civic responsibility and participation. Netizens try to be conducive to the Internets use and growth. They use the Internet to engage in various intellectual and social activities such as giving and receiving viewpoints and furnishing information. Blogs The term "blog" is a contraction of "Web log." A weblog is a journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for general public use. Blogs have reshaped the web and enabled millions of people to have a voice and connect with others. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other related media. Most blogs are primarily textual although some focus on photographs (photoblog), videos (vlog), or audio (podcasting) and are part of a wider network of social media. A blog gives you your own voice on the web. Its a place to collect and share things that you find interesting — whether its your political views, a personal diary, or links to web sites you want to remember. Blogs often provide commentary or news on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as personal online diaries. Journalists often use blogs to publish breaking news, while others reveal inner thoughts through blogs. There are three main features of a blog. The first is reverse chronological order. This means that latest entries are displayed at the top. The second feature is unfiltered content. Opinions are given freely without any
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Other stories may deal with current trends such as a shift in political views or a change in the attitudes of teenagers. travel or shopping that are not actually "news" at all. Edutainment is normally used to provide education related to one or more specific subjects. The term “Edutainment” is used to distinguish regular computer games from more educational software. Netiquette “Netiquette” or Network etiquette is etiquette on the Internet. It attempts to minimize the dryness of regular news coverage by adding a certain amount of light-hearted or sensational style. Examples include educational software for children that teach them to spell or count while playing games and CD-ROMs about machines that contain animations showing how the machines work. Edutainment “Edutainment” refers to educational entertainment or entertainmenteducation. Infotainment or “soft news” refers to a part of the news trade that provides information in a way that is considered entertaining to its viewers. etc. Infotainment may include information related to topics such as health tips or gardening tips. Edutainment is also used to refer to the use of elearning modules to put across concepts in an entertaining manner. multimedia software. Infotainment is a combination of information and entertainment. Fast moving shooting games are not edutainment. It refers to a general type of broadcast program which consists of both "hard news" segments and interviews. games which involve problem solving experiences with gentle intelligent creatures may be referred to as edutainment. The third feature is comments. computer and video games. Many non-fiction CD-ROM titles are classified as infotainment. legal or otherwise. Edutainment seeks to instruct by using some familiar form of entertainment such as television programs. films. They have videos and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. There are also blogs on edutainment that give the latest news and updates on available software. Infotainment “Infotainment” is a term applied to software that seeks to inform and entertain simultaneously. Cyberspace 184 | P a g e . On the other hand. along with celebrity interviews and human drama stories.restrictions. music. websites. It consists of an informal group of rules and ways of behaving on the Internet. Comments can be made on any issue discussed on the blog or from outside. Edutainment makes learning enjoyable. It is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse. such as multimedia encyclopedias or reference disks.

naturally you wouldn’t read anyone’s email. mechanics can know what parts needed to be replaced even before the car has come in for servicing. Give people the benefit of the doubt. 185 | P a g e . Be tolerant and if you do decide to inform someone of a mistake. Reading is not what it used to be in the past. under-the-hood diagnostics can be performed while a car is speeding along a track. you may make use of a gadget to make your off-key singing sound really melodious! These are just a few of the huge advancements in technology. Even if you are not a great singer. Respect the privacy of others: In the same way as you wouldn’t wish to snoop through your colleagues desk drawers. Digital versions of books are available complete with pictures. You must remember that your communication via email or on discussion groups involves written words. you would wasting both bandwidth and the time of the people who have to check all copies of the posting. There are chances that theyre stored at the other end and may be used for purposes that you did not intend. For example. and sound. Not knowing the rules for behaving properly online might result in unintentionally offending or misunderstanding someone. always be cautious with your words. Technology Today Today. Let us have a look at some of the core rules of Netiquette.has its own culture.whether it involves a spelling error or asking a stupid question or giving an unnecessarily long answer. Always try to be polite: You may stand up for yourself when you have been wronged. video clips. Think before writing: The most important rule relevant to e-mail marketing is not to send promotional messages to anyone who has not agreed to receive them. Some people in cyberspace such as system administrators have more power than others. It now has an additional dimension. As a result. They should not misuse this to read private email. there are loads of gadgets and new technologies that can equip you to deal with nearly every personal or business contingency. when you accidentally post a note to a newsgroup five times. Be tolerant: Everyone makes mistakes -. There’s a limit to the amount of data that can be carried at a given moment. Follow the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life. For example. Respect the time and bandwidth of others: “Bandwidth” is the informationcarrying capacity of the channels that connect everyone in cyberspace. point it out politely and preferably by private email rather than in public. So. but try not to hurt people’s feelings.

click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar and select “File → Send a single file”. Chatting and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Google talk etc. it is possibly the best-selling digital 186 | P a g e . Before you can share files with a contact. click the “Add Files” button. When your contact agrees to share the file. both you and your contact can access it. the video conference begins. we learnt to send instant messages using Windows Live Messenger. Using a Webcam: In addition to text communication. When he does so. There are different instant messengers available such as Yahoo messenger. both you and your contact need to have a microphone and speakers. Instant Messaging enables you to have a conversation with another person or a group of people concurrently. You and your contact can access all the files in the shared folder at any time. Windows Live Messenger. In the displayed window. browse to the file you wish to share and press “Open”. iPods. Transferring files: In the “Internet” topic. even if one of you is offline. You may also drag the files you wish to share with your contact into the “Sharing Folders” window. For this. both you and your contact must agree to share files with each other by creating sharing folders. In the “Sharing Folders” window. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Video → Start a Video Call”. To create a sharing folder. Your contact is given an option to accept the video conference. Sharing Files: You can share files with your contacts by using the “Sharing Folders” feature. Messenger allows you to have a voice or video conversation with an online contact. When he does so. In the Conversation window. as well as Web cameras for video conferencing. This enables you to see and hear your contact. click the “Show Menu” icon at the right end of the toolbar in the Conversation window and select “Actions → Create a sharing folder”. ICQ. 2001. you can have a complete conversation. Browse for the file you would like to share and click “Open”.It is possible to easily contact and communicate with people you do not even know using technologies such as Instant Messaging (IM). Till date. It is similar to e-mail. If both parties are online at the same time. VoIP allows users to not only talk but also broadcast video conferences via the Web. The difference is that you can send and receive messages as soon as they are typed. Your contact is given an option to accept the file. You may also exchange files with your contacts in the course of your conversation. To hold a video conference. the file is transferred to him. Podcasting and RSS iPod: iPod is a brand of portable media players created by Apple and launched on October 23.

or any portable music player . The term “Podcast” is derived from the words ‘iPod and ‘broadcast. you may create a custom CD. but to create a podcast or even to listen to one. it is not mandatory to possess an iPod.com” and follow the on-screen instructions for downloading and installing the iTunes software. “iPod classic” is a model which has a hard-drive. Creating a Custom CD: Using iTunes. Devices in the iPod family are designed according to the latest demands and technology. Connect your iPod to your computer. They vary in size and features. iTunes stores a music library on the users computer and can play and write music from a CD. Uploading to a Digital Media Player: Another way to carry your favorite tunes is to upload them to your iPod using iTunes. First. Digital media players are lightweight digital storage devices that do not require cassettes or disks. other than the iPod touch. Put simply. Apples “iTunes” software is used to transfer music to the devices. You would need to have a CD Writer on your computer for this. They store music files internally. videos. To transfer individual music files. You can also purchase digital music files from within iTunes. and calendars to those iPod models that support them. games. Click the “Create a playlist” button at the bottom-left corner and enter a name for your playlist. This is one of the ways in which you can take your favorite tunes with you. An important feature about podcasting is that you can subscribe to a series so that it automatically downloads on to your computer and MP3 player. Drag songs you would like to hear to your playlist.audio player series in history. The smaller iPods like “nano” and “shuffle” use flash memory which is a non-volatile memory device. Insert a blank CD into your CD drive. iPod is a music player and more. Using iTunes: Let us learn how to use Apple’s iTunes software. Now click on the “Burn Disc” button once more. Select your playlist and click the “Burn Disc” button at the bottom right. Podcasting: “Podcasting” is a new type of online media delivery which consists of free audio and video broadcasts. 187 | P a g e . click “Music” in the “Library” list and drag them to “iPod” in the left panel. can also serve as external data storage devices. “iPod touch” is a model which has a touch screen. Now select your playlist and click the “Play” button at the top to hear your music. Finding Music: Select “iTunes Store” in the left panel and follow the onscreen instructions to locate and purchase music files. Click “Music” in the “Library” list in the left panel to view your songs. you need to connect to “www. talk shows or anything else. iPods. podcasting allows you to download files onto your computer and MP3 player which can contain music. iTunes starts automatically.apple. It also transfers photos.

and. It was originally developed for use by wireless devices and local networks but it is now used for Internet access as well. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have slightly different applications. for Commentaries. Bluetooth & Wi-Fi Technology “Bluetooth” is the name of a new technology that promises to change the way we use machines. which will then be automatically downloaded for you. It aims to simplify data synchronization between Internet devices and other computers. etc. homes and everywhere else. Sportscasts and lots more. Podcasts can be used for a number of different things such as creation of informational. film reviews. Odeo. 188 | P a g e . users of cellular phones can buy a multi-purpose phone that can serve as a portable phone and also be used to get information from a computer. printers. mobile phones. We see a large number of cables in our offices. Using this technology. Short for Really Simple Syndication (or Rich Site Summary). radio programs and news stories and you may listen to them whenever and wherever you wish. Conceived initially by Ericsson. technologies like Podcasting empower you with a voice that can literally reach around the world. in general. Podnova and Feedburner to subscribe to your favorite podcasts. Users access headlines and see web site updates via an RSS reader which is an application that displays a short summary and provides links to the full article on the Web site. This allows users to "subscribe" to a site so that they can quickly scan the updated headlines and then go to specific articles of interest. Such software is available for free download from the Internet. Today. It is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. Juice. with a short range. Wi-Fi: “Wi-Fi” is short for "Wireless Fidelity" and is a set of standards for wireless local area networks. Podcasts are downloaded via a feed such as RSS. We often have a hard time trying to figure out which cable needs to go where. RSS Feeds: A “web feed” is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content. instructional and promotional material. cheap radio chip to be plugged into computers. Bluetooth is essentially a cable-replacement technology which tries to solve this problem. RSS is a method of publishing content on frequently updated web sites. Some browsers also include the RSS reading functions.Podcasting enables you to compile all your favorite music. have all mobile and fixed computer devices in total co-ordination. Bluetooth vs. It creates a wireless personal area network (PAN) and provides a way to connect and exchange information between two devices over distances of about 30 feet. using the Internet. They may also be used in story telling for children or the visually-impaired. You can use podcasting software such as iTunes. Bluetooth is a small.

but requires more expensive hardware and higher power consumption. 1) Install the Hardware: Install network adapters in the computers that need them by following the installation instruction manuals that come with the adapters. computers are commonly found in homes. run the “Set up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard on the computer attached to the router. printers and Internet access as well as to run multiplayer computer games. 189 | P a g e . you may use it to share different resources. and Internet connection that you have. Since its creation in 2001. 4) Run the “Set Up a Wireless Router or Access Point” wizard: If your network is wireless. modem. It offers quick understanding on various issues and current affairs. It is a web-based free content. and offers better security than Bluetooth.Wi-Fi uses the same radio frequencies as Bluetooth. It is the result of the combined efforts of an online community of people interested in building a high-quality encyclopedia in a spirit of mutual respect. you need a cable or DSL modem and an account with an Internet service provider (ISP). Open the “Connect to the Internet” wizard and follow the instructions. It enables a faster connection. but with higher power resulting in a stronger connection. Popular Websites Wikipedia “Wikipedia” is one of the most popular reference sites on the Internet. you can use a home network to share files and printers and play multiplayer computer games. A home network is commonly used to share files. If you have more than one computer. Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference Web sites. Installing the Network: The steps to install the network are as follows. Using the Network: Once your network has been installed. 2) Set up an Internet connection: If you want to use your network to share an Internet connection. 3) Connect the computers: There are several ways to connect computers depending on the type of network adapters. Home networks allow multiple users to access the Internet at the same time. Home Networking Today. multilingual encyclopedia written by contributors around the world. It consists of 195 independent language editions sponsored by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. For this. It also depends on whether or not you want to share an Internet connection among all the computers on the network. It covers greater distances. you need to set up the connection first.

The visitors to this site are mostly teenagers and young adults. if you add information to an article. click “Search” after you have entered your keyword. Let us click on “English”. It is one of the top ten most popular websites on the Internet. Select the language of your choice to go to the Main Page. It can be found at www. There are a number of other video sharing sites but so far. Browsing through the loads of available videos is simple and uploading your own video is almost as simple. you can research on any topic with great ease.youtube. This encyclopedia can be found at www. and in other creative ways. Let us look for information related to the great scientist Albert Einstein. while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Repeat offenders may be blocked from editing. Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site. Various people have used YouTube to achieve celebrity status by dancing. you must include appropriate references. So. preferring that they watch videos online. Anyone is welcome to add information as long as they do so within Wikipedias editing policies. the site was purchased one year later by Google. called a “Wiki” where anybody can edit and add to an article. While much of the content consists of original amateur videos. For example. YouTube discourages users from downloading videos to their own computers. posting video resumes. This will take you directly to Wikipedias most relevant article on the entered keyword. Content is meticulously appraised and inappropriate changes are removed. Started in 2005. You see a page which displays links to other pages. professional content is now being provided by some advertisers and media producers. using Wikipedia. YouTube’s phenomenal appeal lies in its simplicity and global reach. Many people are constantly improving Wikipedia content. On the lefthand side of the screen you can see a “search” box with two buttons under it labeled "Go" and "Search". and press enter or click “Go”. 190 | P a g e . singing. none of them have been able to match the cultural impact or enormous volumes of YouTube. Here you will most likely find all the information you need. Its slogan is “Broadcast Yourself” meaning that everyone is free to broadcast whatever they wish. If you wish to look up additional Wikipedia pages. YouTube YouTube is a website that specializes in publishing user-posted video clips. Simply click a link to view the related page. Type “Einstein” into the box.com.com.This is a special type of website. provided it is not potentially offensive.wikipedia.

Because of this.Like most other social-networking sites. *****THE END**** 191 | P a g e . YouTube has been the focus of controversies related to some sensitive political and personal issues. the site has been banned in a few countries.

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