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Crippa and a team of Brazilian investigators confirms that symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder can be reduced by treatment with CBD —and identifies areas of the brain involved in the process. The paper by Crippa et al, "Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report," was published online Sept. 9 in the Journal of Psychopharmacology. Ten men with severe Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), ages 20 to 33, participated in the study, which was conducted at the University of Sao Paulo. Crystalline CBD from THC Pharm in Frankfurt was used. Prior to undergoing a neuroimaging procedure to measure blood flow in the brain, the subjects were given either 400 mg of CBD dissolved in corn oil and packed in a gel cap, or a placebo gel cap. A week later they were given the alternative treatment. The investigators assumed that the neuroimaging —Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), which involves insertion of an intravenous tube and observation by a technician deploying a high-tech apparatus— was in itself an anxiety-producing event. Subjects recorded their anxiety levels before, during, and after the neuroimaging by means of a "Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS)." The researchers were able to correlate these subjective reports with blood-flow activity measured in the brain. "CBD was associated with significantly decreased anxiety," they concluded. They observed reduced radioactive tracer intake in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. They saw increased uptake in the right posterior cingulated gyrus. "These results suggest that CBD reduces anxiety in SAD and that this is related to its effects on activity in limbic and paralimbic brain areas," according to Crippa. If CBD-rich cannabis exerts similar effects, Crippa's findings suggest that it can be useful in decreasing anxiety.