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BASIC ELECTRONICS

10 ELN
– 15/25

BASIC ELECTRONICS

Sub Code: 10 ELN – 15/25 IA Marks: 25


Hrs/Week: 04 Exam Hours: 03
Total Hrs: 52 Exam Marks: 100

UNIT – 1

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE AND APPLICATIONS

The branch of engineering which deals with the flow of


Electrons through vacuum, gas or semiconductor is called
Electronics.
Electronics essentially deals with electronic devices and their utilization.

 The flow of electrons is generally termed as electric current.


 Based upon ability to conduct current, all substances can be broadly classified as
follows:
Classification of materials on the basis of electrical conductivity:
1. Good conductors – materials which offers very little resistance to the flow of
current.
E.g.:- Copper, Aluminum, Silver, etc.
2. Insulator – resistance offered to the flow of current is very large.
E.g.:- Wood, Glass, Paper, Mica, Plastic, Etc.
3. Semiconductors – exhibit the properties of both conductors & insulators. At low
temperature, they behave like perfect insulators, but at higher temperature, they
behave like conductors.
E.g.:- Silicon & Germanium.

Properties of Semiconductors:-
1. The conductivity of a semiconductor lies between the conductivities of conductors
& insulators.
2. The conductivity of a semiconductor increases with temperature. Hence, a
semiconductor has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance.
3. The conductivity of a semiconductor increases, when suitable metallic impurity is
added to it.
NOTE: - If the temperature of a good conductor is increased, its resistance increases. This
is known as positive temperature coefficient. But, the resistance of a semiconductor
decreases with increase of temperature.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 1


BASIC ELECTRONICS
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Energy Band Diagrams:-
 The difference in the electrical behavior of good conductors, insulators &
semiconductors can be illustrated on the basis of energy band diagrams.
 All matter is made up of atoms.
 In an individual atom there is a central nucleus & a definite number of planetary
electrons revolving around the nucleus in different orbits.
 The nucleus is composed of protons & neutrons.
 Protons are positively charged particles & they posses mass.
 Neutrons have only mass but no charge.
 Electrons are negatively charged particles. Each electron is associated with
definite quantum of negative charge, i.e., 1.602 * 10-19 Coulomb.
 The entire mass of the atom is practically concentrated in the nucleus. Electrons
possess negligibly small mass, and hence they have high mobility.

Electrostatic force Fundamental Nature of Mass in Kg.


Particle Charge
+ Neutron No charge 1675 * 10-27
Proton Positive 1672 * 10-27
Electron Negative 9.107 * 10-31
Centrifugal force

Atomic structure

 In a normal atom, which is electrically neutral, the number of protons in the


nucleus is equal to the number of electrons.
 Hence, the total positive charge of the nucleus is balanced by the total negative
charge of the electrons.
 The total number of electrons in an atom depends up on the atomic number.
atomic weight = no. of protons + no. of neutrons
atomic number = no. of protons or electrons in an atom
 These electrons are distributed in several orbits or shells around the nucleus.
 The number of electrons which can be accommodated in a shell is fixed; and is
given by 2n2 ,where n = the shell number.

 Thus, the first orbit can accommodate 2*12 = 2 electrons, the second orbit can
accommodate 2*22 = 8 electrons, the third orbit can accommodate 2*32 = 18
electrons, & so on.

 As the atomic number increases, the total number of electrons in the atom
increases; and hence, there would be more number of orbits.
 In any atom, the number of electrons in the last (outermost) orbit is limited to 8.

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 The outermost orbit is called valence orbit & the electrons in this orbit are termed
as valence electrons.
 An electron in any orbit of an atom possess energy. This energy increases as the
distance of the orbit from the nucleus increases. Hence, the valence electrons
possess maximum energy.
 In a given mass of a material, there will be millions of atoms & the valence
electrons of different atoms in the mass have slightly different energies; since,
each atom is surrounded by several other atoms.
 The range of energies possessed by the electrons of any one orbit of all the atoms
is referred as energy band.
 The energy band in relation to valence electrons is termed as valence band.

 The valence electrons possess the greatest energy & they are least attracted
towards the positively charged nucleus.
 Hence, the valence electrons are loosely held to the parent atom; and if sufficient
energy is provided to them, they get detached from the parent atoms.
 Electrons which are thus removed from the valence orbit of atoms are termed as
free electrons.
 These free electrons constitute flow of current on application of voltage.
 The range of energies possessed by the free electrons is termed as conduction
band.

 An electron in the last orbit of an atom is in the valence band.


 When it gets detached from the atom, it becomes a free electron & hence, it enters
the conduction band.
 There is a void (or gap) separating conduction band & valence band, and no
electron can exist in this gap. This is termed as forbidden band.

NOTE:-

The range of energies possessed by valence electrons is called


valence band.

The range of energies possessed by free electrons is called


conduction band.

Valence band and conduction band are separated by an energy


gap in which no electrons normally exist this gap is called
forbidden gap.

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 In a metal, which a good conductor, there are large number of free electrons; and
hence, the conduction band is practically full.
 Also, the energy required to push the electron from the valence band to the
conduction band is quite small, due to the fact that the two bands over lap as
shown in the fig. above.
 In a metal, the number of valence electrons is less than 4.

 In an insulator, the conduction band is empty, whereas the valence band is full.
i.e., valence band is saturated with all 8 electrons it can accommodate.
 Also, enormous energy is needed to remove the valence electrons from the atoms
& push them into the conduction band; since, the forbidden energy gap is quite
large (about 15eV).

 In a semiconductor, the number of valence electrons is 4, and this is less than 8;


and hence, the valence orbit is not saturated.
 The conduction band is almost empty at low temperatures, and the valence band is
partially filled.
 The forbidden energy gap is quite small (about 1eV).
 Hence, at low temperatures, the material behaves like an insulator.
 With increase of temperature, more & more valence electrons are pushed into the
conduction band; and hence, the material behaves like a good conductor.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 4


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Covalent Bonds:-
 We know that, the valence orbit of any atom can accommodate 8 electrons.
 There is a natural tendency for the atoms to complete their valence orbits.
– In an insulator, the valence orbit is full; having all the 8 electrons.
– In a metal, the number of valence electrons is less than 4, and these
electrons can move freely with the material.
– In semiconductors like Germanium (atomic number is 32) and Silicon
(atomic number is 14), the number of valence electrons is 4.
– These are arranged as follows (The number of electrons in any orbit is
2n2):
Germanium (32) Silicon (14)
2
First orbit 2x1 =2 First orbit 2 x 12 = 2
Second orbit 2 x 22 = 8 Second orbit 2 x 22 = 8
2
Third orbit 2 x 3 = 18 Third orbit 4
(Valance orbit)
Fourth orbit 4
(Valance orbit)

 Both germanium & silicon are crystalline in structure; i.e., their atoms are
arranged in an orderly way.
 It is found that, in a given mass of Ge or Si, the atoms so arrange themselves that
each atom is surrounded by four other atoms, and it completes its valence orbit by
taking one electron from these neighboring atoms, as shown in the fig. below.

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 Each atom shares 4 valence electrons with 4 other atoms by forming bonds, so
that all atoms are enabled to complete their valence orbits.
 These bonds are termed as covalent bonds.
 The covalent bonds are the characteristic of all semiconductor materials.

Effect of Temperature:-
 At very low temperatures; the covalent bonds in semiconductors are very strong
& hence, the valence electrons cannot leave the valence band and enter the
conduction band. Thus, the material cannot conduct current.
 At room temperature; due to the thermal energy imparted to them, a few covalent
bonds break & few free electrons are released & can contribute to the current
flow.
 If the temperature is further increased; many more covalent bonds break down,
and a large number of free electrons would become available for conduction of
current. The material would then behave like a good conductor.

Effect of Light:-
 Since light is a form of energy, when it incident on a semiconductor material, it
imparts energy to it, resulting in breaking of many covalent bonds & electrons are
set free. Hence, the conductivity is increased.

Free Electrons & Holes:-


 When thermal energy is supplied to a semiconductor material, some of the
covalent bonds break.
 When a covalent bond breaks, a valence electron is set free; i.e., it escapes from
the valence band into the conduction band.
 At the same time, a vacancy for an electron is created in the covalent bond.
 This is termed as hole.
 A hole represents a missing electron. Holes can be looked upon as positive
charges, and just like free electrons, they also contribute to current flow, in a
semiconductor.
 Such a current is usually termed as hole current.
 The current which results in semiconductor material, due to the movement of
holes, is termed as hole current.

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 Consider a mass of Germanium as shown in the above Fig. If thermal energy is supplied,
a few covalent bonds break, resulting free electrons & equal number of holes.
 Assume that, a hole is created at 1 due to the escape of valence electron from this
position.
 Since, hole are positively charged, they attract negatively charged electrons.
 Thus, an electron at 2 escapes, after breaking the covalent bond, and it fills the hole at 1.
 When a free electron jumps into a hole, the hole disappears & the free electrons becomes
a valence electron. Also, a hole is created at 2.
 This attracts an electron at position 3. Another covalent bond breaks & the electron at 3
escapes, and it fills the hole at 2. At the same time, a hole is created at 3.
 Thus it is seen that holes are created successively at 1,2,3,….
 Also, the hole at 1 disappears when a hole is created at 2. This hole at 2 disappears when
a hole is created at 3, and so on.
 Hence, hole at 1 is moved to 2,3,4,….
 This motion of hole contributes positive current flow in a direction opposite to the
negative current flow due to the motion of electrons.

Conduction in solids
Conduction in any given material occurs when a voltage of suitable magnitude is applied to
it, which causes the charge carriers within the material to move in a desired direction.
This may be due to electron motion or hole transfer or both.

Electron motion
Free electrons in the conduction band are moved under the influence of the applied electric field.
Since electrons have negative charge they are repelled by the negative terminal of the applied
voltage and attracted towards the positive terminal.

Hole transfer
Hole transfer involves the movement of holes.
Holes may be thought of positive charged particles and as such they move through an
electric field in a direction opposite to that of electrons.

I I
+ +
V V
(a) Conductor (b) Semiconductor
Flow of electrons Flow of electrons

Flow of current Flow of holes


Flow of current

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In a good conductor (metal) as shown in fig (a) the current flow is due to free electrons
only.
In a semiconductor as shown in fig (b). The current flow is due to both holes and
electrons moving in opposite directions.
The unit of electric current is Ampere (A) and since the flow of electric current is
constituted by the movement of electrons in conduction band and holes in valence band,
electrons and holes are referred as charge carriers.

Intrinsic & Extrinsic Semiconductors:-


 A semiconductor, in its pure form, is termed as „intrinsic semiconductor‟
 The conduction which takes place, on application of voltage, is not of much
practical utility.
 In order to achieve significance increase of conductivity, even at room
temperature, the normal practice is to add a small quantity of suitable metallic
impurity to the semiconductor material. This process of impurity addition is called
doping.
 It is usual practice to add one impurity atom to 108 atoms of silicon or germanium.
 A semiconductor to which an impurity is added with a view to increase its
conductivity is termed as „extrinsic semiconductor‟.

n – type Semiconductor:-
 If a pentavalent impurity like arsenic or antimony or phosphorus is added to pure
germanium or silicon, an n – type semiconductor results.

 When arsenic is added to germanium, each arsenic atom positions itself inside the
crystal lattice of germanium that it shares four of its five valence electrons with
four germanium atoms, as shown in the fig. below.
 The fifth valence electron is free, since it does not find a place in the covalent
bonds.
 This free electron is readily available for conduction.

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 If a voltage is applied now, conduction readily takes place.
 In this case, the conduction is mainly due to the large number of electrons present
in the material. The electrons are the majority charge carriers.
 It should be noted that, holes are also present in the n – type semiconductor
material; but, they are few in number. Hence, holes are the minority charge
carriers.
 The arsenic atoms added to the pure semiconductor are termed as donor atoms;
since, each arsenic atom donates or contributes one free electron.
 This type of semiconductor is called n – type semiconductor for the simple reason
that, negatively charged electrons are majority charge carriers.

p – type Semiconductor:-
 If a trivalent impurity like gallium or indium or aluminium is added to pure
germanium or silicon, a p – type semiconductor results.
 Consider a trivalent impurity like gallium added to a small mass of pure silicon.
 Each atom of gallium so positions itself inside the crystal lattice of silicon that it
shares all of its valence electrons with three neighboring silicon atoms.
 Thus, three silicon atoms complete their valence orbits; and the fourth silicon
atom cannot complete its valence orbit; since, there is no fourth valence electron
which the gallium can contribute.
 Hence a hole is created in its covalent bond, as shown in the fig. below.

 Now, the silicon has become p – type semiconductor.


 Holes which are present in large number are mainly responsible for the
conduction, and hence they are the majority charge carriers.
 Electrons are also present in the p – type semiconductor material, but they are few
in number, and they are the minority charge carriers.
 The gallium atom added to the pure silicon are termed as acceptor atoms, since
they are ready to accept electrons.
NOTE: - In extrinsic semiconductors, conduction of current is due to both electrons &
holes.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 9


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Fermi Level:-
 In a metal, there are a large number of electrons, and these move about randomly
with in the material.
 They cannot leave the metal surface, since they do not possess the high energy
required to overcome the surface barrier.
 Electrons in the outermost orbits of different atoms of the material possess
slightly different energies.
 These different energies are referred as energy states or energy levels.
 The probability of an energy state being occupied or not is given by the following
relationship, termed as „Fermi-Dirac probability function‟.
f (E) = 1 „
(E – E )/KT
1+e F
where E represents a quantum of state with energy E (in Electron-volts)
occupied by an electron.
0
K is Boltzmann constant in eV/ K
T is the absolute temperature in 0K, and
EF is called „Fermi level‟ or „characteristic energy‟, expressed in Electron-volts.

If we put E = EF in the above expression, we get:


f (E) = 1 „ = 1 = 50%
1 + e0 2
Hence, Fermi level represents the energy state with 50% probability of being filled, if
there were no forbidden energy barrier.

Let the temperature be 00K – Two cases arise.

Case (i): Let E > EF


At T = 00K, we have; f (E) = 1 „=0

1+e
It implies that at absolute zero, there can be no quantum state of energy greater than E F
which is occupied (or filled).

Case (ii): Let E < EF


At T = 00K, we have; f (E) = 1 „= 1 = 100%

1 + e-
This implies that all quantum levels with energies less than E F are filled, at absolute zero.

Hence, Fermi level represents the maximum energy any electron can possess, at
absolute zero.
It is found that, for majority of metals, the Fermi level is less than 10 eV.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 10


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Energy Band Diagrams for Semiconductors

Energy band diagram for Intrinsic semiconductor:-


 In an intrinsic or pure semiconductor material, the number of free electrons
generated by thermal agitation is equal to number of holes.
 This implies that, the Fermi level lies midway between the top of the valence
band & the bottom of the conduction band, as shown in the fig. below.

Energy band diagram for Extrinsic semiconductor:-

n – type semiconductor:-
 In a n – type semiconductor, there are more electrons in the conduction band than
holes in the valence band.
 Hence, the Fermi level tends to move up, towards the conduction band; but it will
be below the donor energy level, as shown in the fig. below.

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p – type semiconductor:-
 In a p – type semiconductor, there are more holes in the valence band than
electrons in the conduction band.
 Hence, the Fermi level tends to move down, towards the valence band; but it will
be above the acceptor energy level, as shown in the fig. below.

NOTE: - Doping an intrinsic semiconductor with trivalent impurity atoms lowers


the Fermi-level, whereas doping with pentavalent impurity atoms raises the Fermi-
level; as shown in the figures.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 12


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Drift and Diffusion current
The flow of current through a semiconductor material is normally referred to as
one of the two types.

Drift current
If an electron is subjected to an electric field in free space it will accelerate in a
straight line form the –ve terminal to the + ve terminal of the applied voltage.
However in the case of conductor or semiconductor at room temperature, a free
electrons under the influence of electric field will move towards the +ve terminal
of the applied voltage but will continuously collide with atoms all the ways as
shown in figure 1.9.

Electron drift due to field

conduction
when electric
field is
present
semiconductor +
Conduction
Applied voltage when no electric
field is applied

Each time, when the electron strikes an atom, it rebounds in a random direction
but the presence of electric field does not stop the collisions and random motion.
As a result the electrons drift in a direction of the applied electric field.
The current produced in this way is called as Drift current and it is the usual kind
of current flow that occurs in a conductor.

Diffusion current
The directional movement of charge carriers due to their concentration
gradient produces a component of current known as Diffusion current.

The mechanism of transport of charges in a semiconductor when no electric field


is applied called diffusion. It is encountered only in semiconductors and is
normally absent in conductors.

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heavy concentration of less concentration


electrons electrons

Diffusion current

Even distribution

Net diffusion current is zero


With no applied voltage if the number of charge carriers (either holes or electrons) in
one region of a semiconductor is less compared to the rest of the region then there
exist a concentration gradient.
Since the charge carriers are either all electrons or all holes they sine polarity of
charge and thus there is a force of repulsion between them.
As a result, the carriers tend to move gradually or diffuse from the region of higher
concentration to the region of lower concentration. This process is called diffusio n
and electric current produced due to this process is called diffusion current.
This process continues until all the carriers are evenly distributed through the
material. Hence when there is no applied voltage, the net diffusion current will be
zero.

HALL EFFECT
If a piece of metal or semiconductor carrying a current I is placed in a transverse
magnetic field B then an electric field E is induced in the direction perpendicular to both I
and B. This phenomenon is known as Hall Effect.

Y(+ve)
Surface-2

+ + + + + + + +
d
I VH
w
X (+ve)
B
Surface -1
Z (+ve)
Hall effect is normally used to determine whether a semi-conductor is n-type or p-type.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 14


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To find whether the semiconductor is n-type or p-type

i) In the figure. above, If I is in the +ve X direction and B is in the +ve Z


direction, then a force will be exerted on the charge carriers (holes and
electrons) in the –ve Y direction.
ii) This force is independent of whether the charge carriers are electrons or holes.
Due to this force the charge carriers (holes and electrons) will be forced
downward towards surface –1 as shown.
iii) If the semiconductor is N-type, then electrons will be the charge carriers and
these electrons will accumulate on surface –1 making that surface –vely
charged with respect to surface –2. Hence a potential called Hall voltage
appears between the surfaces 1 and 2.
iv) Similarly when surface –1 is positively charged with respect to surface –2,
then the semiconductor is of P-type. In this way, by seeing the polarity of Hall
voltage we can determine whether the semiconductor is of P-type or N-type.

Applications of Hall Effect –


Hall effect is used to determine,
carrier concentration, conductivity and mobility.
The sign of the current carrying charge.
Charge density.
It is used as magnetic field meter.

Carrier lifetime (τ)


In a pure semiconductor, we know that number of holes are equal to the number
of electrons. Thermal agitation however, continues to produce new hole electron pairs
while other hole-electron pair disappear as a result of recombination.
On an average, a hole will exist for τp second and an electron will exist for τn
second before recombination. This time is called the carrier lifetime or Mean lifetime.
The average time an electron or hole can exist in the free state is called carrier
lifetime.

Semiconductor Diode

If a p-type semiconductor & n-type semiconductor are suitably joined by kind of


mechanism, the joint or the contact surface so formed is known as p-n junction.

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Some of the properties of p-n junction are:
• In an unbiased p-n junction, there is a barrier potential across the junction.
• A forward-biased p-n junction readily conducts current, offering very little
resistance.
• A reverse-biased p-n junction offers enormous resistance & hence, it does not
conduct current.
• A p-n junction can function as a rectifier.
• A p-n junction can act as an electronic switch.

Un-biased p-n Junction:-


 When a p-n junction is formed by any mechanism, a large number of electrons are
present in the n-region & a large number of holes are present in p-region.
 Also, donor atoms (in the form of + ions) are present in the n-region & acceptor
atoms (in the form of – ions) are present in the p-region.

 Due to the natural attraction, electrons in the n-region diffuse across the junction
into the p-region & holes in the p-region diffuse across the junction into the n-
region.
 When electrons diffuse into the p-region, they combine with holes in the region
near the junction; with the result that, a negative charge is established in this
region.

 Similarly, holes diffuse into the n-region, they combine with electrons in the
region near the junction; establishing a positive charge in this region.
 As more & more electrons from the n-region and holes from the p-region cross
over the junction, more & more potential builds up.

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 The diffusion stops when the negative charge on the p-side repels electrons & the
positive charge on the n-side repels holes.
 The potential built up across the junction, after diffusion has stopped, is termed as
„barrier potential‟.

 The region on either side of the junction (A-B in the fig. below) is termed as
„depletion region‟ or „depletion layer‟.

 In practice, the barrier potential is about 0.3 Volt for Germanium & about 0.7
Volt for Silicon.

 This barrier potential has to be overcome, by the application of external bias


voltage, to cause conduction through the junction.

Forward biasing of p-n Junction:-


 If an external voltage is applied across the p-n junction, such that, it neutralizes
the barrier potential & causes conduction through the junction, the p-n junction is
said to be forward biased.

 Consider a p-n junction whose p-side is connected to the positive terminal of a


battery & n-side is connected to negative terminal, as shown in the fig. above.

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 If the applied voltage is less than the barrier potential, there would be no
conduction.
 If the applied voltage is more than the barrier potential; it neutralizes the barrier
potential; thus, creates a path of low resistance & conduction of current through
the junction results.

 Holes in the p-region are repelled by the positive terminal of the voltage source &
hence, they cross over the junction.
 Similarly, the electrons in the n-region are repelled by the negative terminal of the
voltage source & hence, they cross over the junction.
 This results in conduction.
 If the forward voltage is gradually increased, current through the junction rapidly
rises, as shown in the fig. below.
 The volt-ampere characteristics of forward biased p-n junction is as shown in the
above fig.

Reverse biasing of p-n Junction:-


 If an external voltage is applied across the p-n junction, such that the depletion
layer widens and the barrier potential increases, with the result that no conduction
occurs, the p-n junction is said to be reverse biased.

 Consider a p-n junction whose p-side is connected to the negative terminal of a


battery & n-side is connected to positive terminal, as shown in the fig. above.

 The holes in the p-region are attracted towards the negative terminal of the
voltage source & hence, they move away from the junction.

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 Similarly, the electrons in the p-region are attracted by the positive terminal, and
they move away from the junction.
 Since, the applied voltage establishes an electric field in the same direction as the
field due to the barrier potential, the barrier potential will be increased. Hence, no
conduction occurs.
 The junction develops a very high resistance.
 But, in practice, a small reverse current flows. This is due to the movement of
minority charge carriers through the junction.
 As the reverse voltage is gradually increased, a stage would be reached, when a
very large reverse current flows.
 This reverse voltage which causes breakdown is termed as breakdown voltage.

The breakdown of the p-n junction at the reverse breakdown voltage is due to avalanche
effect.
 When the reverse voltage is increased, the velocity of minority charge carriers
increases & they acquire very large kinetic energy.
 As they move through the depletion region, they cause ionization of the atoms in
the region, which creates more charge carriers.
 At the breakdown voltage, the number of charge carriers is so large that, a very
high reverse current results.

NOTE: - The p-n junction conducts when it is forward biased & it blocks conduction
when it is reverse biased. It can therefore be used as rectifier for converting alternating
current into direct current.

The breakdown of a p-n junction may occur due to one more effect called zener effect.
 When p-n junction is heavily doped the depletion region is narrow.
 So, under reverse bias conditions, the electric field across the depletion layer is
very intense.
 Such an intense field is enough to pull the electrons out of the valence bands.
 Such a creation of free electrons is called zener effect.
 These minority carriers constitute very large current & the mechanism is called
zener breakdown.

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Diode equivalent circuit
It is generally profitable to replace a device or system by its equivalent circuit.
Once the device is replaced by its equivalent circuit, the resulting network can be solved
by traditional circuit analysis technique.
switch Rf
If

VF Vo
VF
Diode circuit symbol Diode equivalent circuit

The forward current If flowing through the diode causes a voltage drop in its internal
resistance Rf. Therefore the forward voltage VF applied across the actual diode has to
overcome
1. potential barrier Vo
2. internal drop If Rf
Vf = Vo + If rf

For silicon diode Vo=0.7V whereas for Germanium diode Vo = 0.3 V.


For ideal diode Rf =0.

V – I Characteristics of p-n Junction Diode

R A

Diode
V V

IF(mA)

Break over
Voltage

VR Knee voltage VF

IR(μA)

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The V-I characteristics of a semiconductor diode can be obtained with the help of
the circuit shown in above fig.

The supply voltage V is a regulated power supply, the diode is forward biased in the
circuit shown. The resistor R is a current limiting resistor. The voltage across the
diode is measured with the help of voltmeter and the current is recorded using an
ammeter.

By varying the supply voltage different sets of voltage and currents are obtained.
By plotting these values on a graph, the forward characteristics can be obtained.
It can be noted from the graph the current remains zero till the diode voltage
attains the barrier potential.

For silicon diode, the barrier potential is 0.7 V and for Germanium diode, it is 0.3
V. The barrier potential is also called as knee voltage or cur-in voltage.

The reverse characteristics can be obtained by reverse biasing the diode. It can be
noted that at a particular reverse voltage, the reverse current increases rapidly.
This voltage is called breakdown voltage.

Basic Definitions
1. Knee voltage or Cut-in Voltage.
It is the forward voltage at which the diode starts conducting.
2. Breakdown voltage
It is the reverse voltage at which the diode (p-n junction) breaks down with
sudden rise in reverse current.
3. Peak-inverse voltage (PIV)
It is the maximum reverse voltage that can be applied to a p-n junction without
causing damage to the junction.
If the reverse voltage across the junction exceeds its peak-inverse voltage, then
the junction exceeds its Peak-inverse voltage, then the junction gets destroyed because of
excessive heat. In rectification, one thing to be kept in mind is that care should be taken
that reverse voltage across the diode during –ve half cycle of a.c. doesnot exceed the
peak-inverse voltage of the diode.
4. Maximum Forward current
It is the maximum instantaneous forward current that a p-n junction can conduct
without damaging the junction. If the forward current is more than the specified rating
then the junction gets destroyed due to overheating.
5. Maximum Power rating
It is the maximum power that can be dissipated at the junction without damaging
it. The power dissipated across the junction is equal to the product of junction current and
the voltage across the junction.

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Diode Current Equation:-


It can be shown that, the general characteristics of an p-n junction are defied by the
following diode current equation:
ID = IS [e (KVD / TK) – 1]
ID = Current through the p-n junction,
IS = Reverse saturation current,
VD = External bias voltage,
TK = Temperature in 0K, given as TK = 0C + 273, and
K = 11,600/η, where η = 1 for Germanium &
η = 2 for Silicon.
For VD = 0, i.e., for an un-biased p-n junction: ID = IS [e0 – 1] = 0.

Effect of Temperature on Diode

RECTIFIERS

“Rectifiers are the circuit which converts ac to dc”

Rectifiers are grouped into two categories depending on the period of conductions.
1. Half-wave rectifier
2. Full- wave rectifier.

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Half-wave rectifier
The circuit diagram of a half-wave rectifier is shown in the following fig. along
with the I/P and O/P waveforms.

Vi

Vo

π 2π t

Half wave rectifier: Circuit diagram and waveforms

The transformer is employed in order to step-down the supply voltage and also to
prevent from shocks.

The diode is used to rectify the a.c. signal while , the pulsating d.c. is taken across
the load resistor RL.

During the +ve half cycle, the end X of the secondary is +ve and end Y is -ve .
Thus , forward biasing the diode. As the diode is forward biased, the current flows
through the load RL and a voltage is developed across it.

During the –ve half-cycle the end Y is +ve and end X is –ve thus, reverse biasing
the diode. As the diode is reverse biased there is no flow of current through RL
thereby the output voltage is zero.

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Efficiency of a rectifier
The ratio of dc output power to the applied ac power is known as rectifier
efficiency.

d .c. power.output
Rectifier efficiency η =
input.a.c. power

Derivation of rectifier efficiency of Half wave rectifier


Let V = Vmsinθ be the voltage across the secondary winding, Vm is the peak
value
rf = diode resistance
RL = load resistance

To find dc output power


1 1 VmSin
Iav = Idc = i.d = d
2 0
2 0
rL R L

Vm
= Sin d
2 (rf RL) 0

2Vm Im
= =
2 (rf RL)

Hence, dc output power Pdc = I2dc * RL


2
Im
= RL ------------------------------ (1)

To find ac power input

The ac power input is given by Pac = I2rms ( rf + RL)

2
1
I rms i 2d
2 0

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Squaring both sides we get

2
1
I 2
rms i 2d But i = Im Sinθ Hence,
2 0

2 1
I rms (Im Sin ) 2 d (current flows through diode only for duration 0 to Π )
2 0

2 I m2
I rms
Im
4 or I rms
2
2
Im
Pac rf RL --------------------------------------------(2)
2

2
Im
Pdc RL
2
*
Pac Im r f RL
2

0.406
η= -------------------------------------------------(3)
rf
1
RL

The efficiency is maximum if rf is negligible as compared to RL

Therefore maximum rectifier efficiency = 40.6 %

Full-wave rectifier
Full-wave rectifiers are of two types –
1. Centre tapped full-wave rectifier
2. Bridge rectifier

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 25


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Centre tapped full –wave rectifier

Vin

Vout

π 2π

Centre tapped Full wave rectifier Circuit diagram and waveforms

The circuit diagram of a center tapped full wave rectifier is shown in fig. 2.6
above. It employs two diodes and a center tap transformer. The a.c. signal to be
rectified is applied to the primary of the transformer and the d.c. output is taken
across the load RL.
During the +ve half-cycle end X is +ve and end Y is –ve this makes diode D1
forward biased and thus a current i1 flows through it and load resistor RL.Diode D2
is reverse biased and the current i2 is zero.
During the –ve half-cycle end Y is +Ve and end X is –Ve. Now diode D2 is
forward biased and thus a current i2 flows through it and load resistor RL. Diode
D1 is reversed and the current i1 = 0.

Disadvantages
Since, each diode uses only one-half of the transformer secondary voltage the d.c.
output is comparatively small.
It is difficult to locate the center-tap on secondary winding of the transformer.
The diodes used must have high Peak-inverse voltage.

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Bridge rectifier

Vout

D1D3 D2D4 D1D4

Full wave bridge wave rectifier Circuit diagram and waveforms

The circuit diagram of a bridge rectifer is shown above. It uses four diodes and a
transformer.

During the +ve half-cycle, end A is +ve and end B is –ve thus diodes D1 and D3
are forward bias while diodes D2 and D4 are reverse biased thus a current flows
through diode D1, load RL ( C to D) and diode D3.

During the –ve half-cycle, end B is +ve and end A is –ve thus diodes D2 and D4
are forward biased while the diodes D1 and D3 are reverse biased. Now the flow
of current is through diode D4 load RL ( D to C) and diode D2. Thus, the
waveform is same as in the case of center-tapped full wave rectifier.

Advantages
The need for center-taped transformer is eliminated.
The output is twice when compared to center-tapped full wave rectifier.
for the same secondary voltage.
The peak inverse voltage is one-half(1/2) compared to center-tapped full wave
rectifier.
Can be used where large amount of power is required.

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Disadvantages
It requires four diodes.
The use of two extra diodes cause an additional voltage drop thereby reducing the
output voltage.

Efficiency of Full-wave rectifier


Let V = Vmsinθ be the voltage across the secondary winding, Vm = peak value
I = Imsinθ be the current flowing in secondary circuit
rf = diode resistance
RL = load resistance

To find dc power output

Pdc I dc2 RL -----------------------------(1)

1
I dc I av 2 i.d
2 0

1
I av 2 Im Sin .d
2 0

2I m
I av -------------------------------------------------------- (2)

2
2I m
Pdc RL ------------------------------------------ (3)

To find input ac power

2
Pac I rms rf RL ---------------------------------------- (4)

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1 2
I rms 2
i d
2 0
Squaring both sides we get

2 1
I rms i2d
0

2 1
I rms (Im Sin ) 2 d
0

2 I m2 Im
I rms or I rms -------------------------------------------- (5)
2 2

2
Im
Pac rf RL --------------------------------------------(6)
2

2
2I m
Pdc RL
2
*
Pac Im r f RL
2
0.812
η = -------------------------------------------------(7)
rf
1
RL

The efficiency will be maximum if rf is negligible as compared to RL.

Maximum efficiency = 81.2 %

This is the double the efficiency due to half wave rectifier. Therefore a Full-wave
rectifier is twice as effective as a half-wave rectifier.

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Comparison of Rectifiers

Particulars Half wave rectifier Centre-tapped Full Bridge rectifier


wave rectifier
1. No. of diodes 1 2 4

2. Idc Im / Π 2Im /Π 2Im /Π

3. Vdc Vm / Π 2Vm / Π 2Vm / Π

4.Irms Im / 2 Im /√ 2 Im /√ 2

5.Efficiency 40.6 % 81.2 % 81.2 %

6.PIV Vm 2Vm Vm

7.Ripple factor 1.21 0.48 0.48

NOTE:-
The relation between turns ratio and voltages of primary and secondary of the
transformer is given by
o N1 / N2 = Vp / Vs
RMS value of voltage and Max. value of voltage is related by the equation.
 Vrms = Vm / √2 ( for full-cycle of ac)
If the type of diode is not specified then assume the diode to be of silicon type.
For an ideal diode, forward resistance rf = 0 and cut-in voltage , Vγ = 0.

Ripple factor
The pulsating output of a rectifier consists of d.c. component and a.c. component
(also known as ripple). The a.c. component is undesirable and account for the pulsations
in the rectifier output. The effectiveness of a rectifier depends upon the magnitude of a.c.
component in the output : the smaller this component, the more effective is the rectifier.

“ The ratio of rms (or effective) value of a.c. component to the d.c. component in the
rectifier output is known as ripple factor”

rms(effective)valueofa.c.components Iac
r= =
d .c.component Idc

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Ripple factor for Half-wave rectification
By definition the effective (ie rms) value of total load current is given by
2
I rms I ac2 I dc2 OR I ac I rms I dc2
Where Idc = value of dc component
Iac = rms value of ac component

Divide both R.H.S and L.H.S. by Idc we get

2
I ac 1 2 2 I rms
I rms I dc OR r= 1 ------------------------------------(1)
I dc I dc I dc
Im
We have, for half-wave rectification, I rms
2
Im
I dc

Substituting above values in equation (1) & simplifying, we get,


Ripple factor, r = 1.21

It is clear that a.c. component exceeds dc component in the output of a half-wave


rectifier.

Ripple factor for full-wave rectification


Im
We have, for full wave rectification, Irms =
2
2I m
Idc =

Substituting above values in equation (1) & simplifying, we get,


Ripple factor, r = 0.48

This shows that in the output of Full-wave rectifier, the d.c. component is more than the
a.c. component

FILTERS
We know that the output of the rectifier is pulsating d.c. ie the output obtained by
the rectifier is not pure d.c. but it contains some ac components along with the dc o/p.
These ac components are called as Ripples, which are undesirable or unwanted. To
minimize the ripples in the rectifier output filter circuits are used. These circuits are
normally connected between the rectifier and load as shown below.

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Vi
Vo pure dc o/p

Rectifier Filter

Pulsating d.c. output

Filter is a circuit which converts pulsating dc output from a rectifier to a


steady dc output. In other words, filters are used to reduce the amplitudes of the
unwanted ac components in the rectifier.
“A filter is an electronic circuit which is interposed between the rectifier
and load and its main function is to filter out the ripples (or pulsations) from the
rectifier output”

Note: A capacitor passes ac signal readily but blocks dc.

Types of Filters
1. Capacitor Filter (C-Filter)
2. Inductor Filter
3. Choke Input Filter (LC-filter)
4. Capacitor Input Filter (Π-filter)

Capacitor Filter (C-filter)

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Vin
a f
e
t

b d

c V1
o/p without
filter

Vo
o/p
with filter a
e

Capacitor filter (C-filter) – Circuit diagram & waveforms

When the Input signal rises from o to a the diode is forward biased therefore it
starts conducting since the capacitor acts as a short circuit for ac signal it gets
charged up to the peak of the input signal and the dc component flows through the
load RL.

When the input signal fall from a to b the diode gets reverse biased. This is
mainly because of the voltage across the capacitor obtained during the period o to
a is more when compared to Vi. Therefore there is no conduction of current
through the diode.

Now the charged capacitor acts as a battery and it starts discharging through the
load RL. Mean while the input signal passes through b, c, d section. When the
signal reaches the point d the diode is still reverse biased since the capacitor
voltage is more than the input voltage.

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When the signal reaches point e, the input voltage can be expected to be more
than the capacitor voltage. When the input signal moves from e to f the capacitor
gets charged to its peak value again. The diode gets reverse biased and the
capacitor starts discharging. The final output across RL is shown in Fig.

The ripple factor for a Half-wave rectifier with C-filer is given by

r= 1/2√3fCRL
where, f-----the line frequency ( Hz)
C-----capacitance ( F)
RL------- Load resistance (Ω)

The ripple factor for full-wave rectifier with C-filter is given by r = 1/ 4 √3 f C RL

Advantages of C-Filter
Low cost, small size and good characteristics.
It is preferred for small load currents ( upto 50 mA)
It is commonly used in transistor radio, batteries eliminator etc.

Zener Diode
The reverse voltage characteristics of a semiconductor diode including the
breakdown region is shown below.
V Vz 0

I
Zener diode characteristics

Zener diodes are the diodes which are designed to operate in the breakdown
region. They are also called as Breakdown diode or Avalanche diodes.

The symbol of Zener diode is shown below

P N

Symbol of Zener diode

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The breakdown in the Zener diode at the voltage Vz may be due to any of the
following mechanisms.

1. Avalanche breakdown
Depletion region charge carriers striking the atoms

( ) ( )
P N
-ve terminal +ve terminal

minority charge carriers


We know that when the diode is reverse biased a small reverse saturation current I 0 flows
across the junction because of the minority carriers in the depletion region.

The velocity of the minority charge carriers is directly proportional to the applied voltage.
Hence when the reverse bias voltage is increased, the velocity of minority charge carriers
will also increase and consequently their energy content will also increase.

When these high energy charge carriers strikes the atom within the depletion region they
cause other charge carriers to break away from their atoms and join the flow of current
across the junction as shown above. The additional charge carriers generated in this way
strikes other atoms and generate new carriers by making them to break away from their
atoms.

This cumulative process is referred to as avalanche multiplication which results in the


flow of large reverse current and this breakdown of the diode is called avalanche
breakdown.

2. Zener breakdown
We have electric field strength = Reverse voltage/ Depletion region
Depletion region

( ) ( )
P N
-ve terminal +ve terminal

electrons pulled out of their covalent bonds because of high intensity electric field

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From the above relation we see that the reverse voltage is directly proportional to the
electric field hence, a small increase in reverse voltage produces a very high intensity electric
field within a narrow Depletion region.

Therefore when the reverse voltage to a diode is increased, under the influence of high
intensity electric filed large number of electrons within the depletion region break the covalent
bonds with their atoms as shown above and thus a large reverse current flows through the diode.
This breakdown is referred to as Zener breakdown.

Zener voltage regulator


The circuit diagram of Zener voltage regulator is shown below
Rs

I IZ IL

Vin VZ RL Vo

Zener voltage regulator

. A zener diode of breakdown voltage VZ is connected in reverse biased condition


across the load RL such that it operates in breakdown region. Any fluctuations in the
current are absorbed by the series resistance Rs. The Zener will maintain a constant
voltage VZ (equal to Vo) across the load unless the input voltage does not fall below the
zener breakdown voltage VZ.

Case (i): When input voltage Vin varies and RL is constant


Rs

I IZ IL

Vin VZ RL Vo

If the input voltage increases, the Zener diode which is in the breakdown region is
equivalent to a battery VZ as shown in figure. The output voltage remains constant at V Z
(equal to Vo) and the excess voltage is dropped across the series resistance R S. We know
that for a zener diode under breakdown region large change in current produces very
small change in voltage, thereby the output voltage remains constant.

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Case (ii): When Vin is constant and RL varies.
Rs

I IZ IL

Vin VZ RL Vo

If there is a decrease in the load resistance RL and the input voltage remains
constant then there is a increase in load current.

Since Vin is constant the current cannot come from the source. This addition load
current is driven from the battery VZ and we know that even for a large decrease in
current the Zener output voltage Vz remains same. Hence the output voltage across the
load is also constant..

Junction Diode as Electronic Switch


A diode readily conducts when forward biased, and blocks conduction when
reverse biased. This is similar to the ON and OFF action of a mechanical switch. Thus,
the diode is ON under forward bias and OFF under reverse bias condition.

If a diode is FB and RB alternately due to the application of an alternating e.m.f.,


it moves from ON state to OFF state, and again from OFF state to ON state; and this
sequence repeats.
But the response of a practical diode to reversal of polarity in not instantaneous;
there is a certain time-lag.

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Most diodes switch rapidly into the FB condition. But, the switch-off time is
somewhat longer. This is due to the diffusion capacitance of the junction diode.
The rate of change of injected charge with applied voltage is called diffusion
capacitance.
dQ
i.e., CD =
dV

The forward recovery time does not pose any problem. It is the reverse recovery
time that needs to be considered carefully.
Consider the diode in ON or conducting state. If RB is applied, say at t = t 1, the
current simply reverses instantaneously as shown; and it is only after a definite lapse of
time that it reaches the reverse saturation level I s.
When FB is applied, electrons from N-side diffuse into P-region and holes from
the P-region diffuse into the N-region. In these new regions they constitute minority
charge carriers. Now, if a RB is applied abruptly, when conduction is ON, since this
applied bias acts as FB for the large number of minority charge carriers; the current
simply reverses. Certain time t s is required or these minority charge carriers to move into
opposite material and become majority charge carriers. Hence during this time interval ts
called storage time, the reverse current says at the same level, as shown. After this
transition has passed off, the reverse current decreases exponentially over a time t t and
eventually becomes equal to Is, the reverse saturation current.
The time interval tt is termed as transition time. The reverse recovery time, trr is
given as the sum of storage time and transition time. i.e., trr = ts + tt.

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UNIT – 2

TRANSISTORS

A transistor is a sandwich of one type of semiconductor (P-type or n-type)


between two layers of other types.

Transistors are classified into two types;


1. pnp transistor
pnp transistor is obtained when a n-type layer of silicon is sandwiched
between two p-type silicon material.

2. npn transisitor
npn transistor is obtained when a p-type layer of silicon is sandwiched
between two n-type silicon materials.

Figure below shows the schematic representations of a transistor which is equivalent


of two diodes connected back to back.
JE JC JE JC
E C E C

p n p n p n

B B
Symbolic representation

pnp npn
Schematic representation

 The three portions of transistors are named as emitter, base and collector. The
junction between emitter and base is called emitter-base junction while the junction
between the collector and base is called collector-base junction.

 The base is thin and tightly doped, the emitter is heavily doped and it is wider when
compared to base, the width of the collector is more when compared to both base and
emitter.

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 In order to distinguish the emitter and collector an arrow is included in the emitter.
The direction of the arrow depends on the conventional flow of current when emitter
base junction is forward biased.

 In a pnp transistor when the emitter junction is forward biased the flow of current is
from emitter to base hence, the arrow in the emitter of pnp points towards the base.

Operating regions of a transistor


A transistor can be operated in three different regions as
a) active region
b) saturation region
c) cut-off region

Active region
E JE B JC C

p n p

VEB VCB
pnp transistor operated in active region

The transistor is said to be operated in active region when the emitter-base


junction is forward biased and collector –base junction is reverse biased. The collector
current is said to have two current components one is due to the forward biasing of EB
junction and the other is due to reverse biasing of CB junction. The collector current
component due to the reverse biasing of the collector junction is called reverse saturation
current (ICO or ICBO) and it is very small in magnitude.

Saturation region
E JE B JC C

p n p

VEB VCB
pnp transistor operated in Saturation region

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Transistor is said to be operated in saturation region when both EB junction and


CB junction are forward biased as shown. When transistor is operated in saturation region
IC increases rapidly for a very small change in V C.

Cut-off region
E JE B JC C

p n p

VEB VCB
pnp transistor operated in Cut-off region

When both EB junction and CB junction are reverse biased, the transistor is said
to be operated in cut-off region. In this region, the current in the transistor is very small
and thus when a transistor in this region it is assumed to be in off state.

Transistor Configurations:-
 A transistor is a semiconductor device having three terminals – emitter, base &
collector.
 If it is to be incorporated in a circuit, four terminals would be required – two input
terminals & two output terminals.
 Therefore, it is common practice to make one of the terminals common to both
input & output circuits.
 Hence, there are three different types of modes of transistor operations:
1. Common Base connection (CB),
2. Common Emitter connection (CE), and
3. Common Collector (CC) connection.
 These configurations, in relation to n-p-n transistor, are symbolically shown in the
fig. below.

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Working of a p-n-p transistor
E JE B JC C
IE IE IC IC

p n p ICBO
ICO
IB

VEB VCB

Consider a pnp transistor operated in active region as shown in above figure.

Since the EB junction is forward biased large number of holes present in the
emitter as majority carriers are repelled by the +ve potential of the supply
voltage VEB and they move towards the base region causing emitter current I E.

Since the base is thin and lightly doped very few of the holes coming from the
emitter recombine with the electrons causing base current I B and all the
remaining holes move towards the collector. Since the CB junction is reverse
biased all the holes are immediately attracted by the –ve potential of the
supply VCB. Thereby giving rise to collector current I C.

Thus we see that, IE = IB + IC -----------------(1) (By KVL)

Since the CB junction is reverse biased a small minority carrier current I CO


flows from base to collector.

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Working of a n-p-n transistor
E JE B JC C
IE IE IC IC

n pn n ICBO

ICO IB

VEB VCB

Consider a npn transistor operated in active region as shown in above figure.

Since the EB junction is forward biased large number of holes present in the
emitter as majority carriers are repelled by the –ve potential of the supply
voltage VEB and they move towards the base region causing emitter current I E.

Since the base is thin and lightly doped very few of the holes coming from the
emitter recombine with the electrons causing base current I B and all the
remaining holes move towards the collector. Since the CB junction is reverse
biased all the holes are immediately attracted by the +ve potential of the
supply VCB. Thereby giving rise to collector current I C.

Thus we see that, IE = IB + IC -----------------(1) (By KVL)

Since the CB junction is reverse biased a small minority carrier current I CO


flows from base to collector.

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Current components of a transistor JE JC
IPE IPC
(hole current) (hole current)
IPB
-
IE INE (e current) ICO
IC

IB

VEB VCB
Figure above shows a transistor operated in active region. It can be noted from the
diagram the battery VEB forward biases the EB junction while the battery VCB reverse
biases the CB junction.
As the EB junction is forward biased the holes from emitter region flow towards
the base causing a hole current IPE. At the same time, the electrons from base region flow
towards the emitter causing an electron current I NE. Sum of these two currents constitute
an emitter current
IE = IPE +INE.

The ratio of hole current IPE to electron current INE is directly proportional to the
ratio of the conductivity of the p-type material to that of n-type material. Since, emitter is
highly doped when compared to base; the emitter current consists almost entirely of
holes.
Not all the holes, crossing EB junction reach the CB junction because some of the
them combine with the electrons in the n-type base. If IPC is the hole current at (Jc) CB
junction. There will be a recombination current I PE - IPC leaving the base as shown in
figure.
If emitter is open circuited, no charge carriers are injected from emitter into the
base and hence emitter current IE =o. Under this condition CB junction acts a a reverse
biased diode and therefore the collector current (IC = ICO) will be equal to te reverse
saturation current. Therefore when EB junction is forward biased and collector base
junction is reverse biased the total collector current I C = IPC +ICO.

Transistor Static Characteristics:-


 A transistor can be visualized as a two port network; – an input port & an output
port.
 It is possible to vary the output current by varying the output voltage, at constant
input current. This provides the date required to plot the static output
characteristics of a transistor.

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 Similarly, it is possible to vary the input current by varying the input voltage, at
constant output voltage. This provides the data required to plot the static input
characteristics of a transistor.

Transistor in CB configuration
A simple circuit arrangement of CB configuration for pnp transistor is shown
below.

IE IC

Vi IB RL Vout

VEB VCB

In this configuration, base is used as common to both input and output. It can be
noted that the i/p section has an a.c. source Vi along with the d.c. source VEB. The
purpose of including VEB is to keep EB junction always forward biased (because if there
is no VEB then the EB junction is forward biased only during the +ve half-cycle of the i/p
and reverse biased during the –ve half cycle). In CB configuration, I E –i/p current, IC –o/p
current.

Current relations

Current amplification factor (α)


It is defined as the ratio of d.c. collector current to d.c. emitter current
I
α= O
IE

Total o/p current


We know that CB junction is reverse biased and because of minority charge carriers a
small reverse saturation current ICO flows from base to collector.
IC = IE + ICO

Since a portion of emitter current I E flows through the base ,let remaining emitter current
be αIE.
IC = αIE + ICo

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Static Input characteristics

IE
VCB=10V VCB=5V

VEB

I/p characteristics is a curve between IE and emitter base voltage VEB keeping VCB
constant. IE is taken along y-axis and VEB is taken along x-axis. From the graph following
points can be noted.
1. For small changes of VEB there will be a large change in IE. Therefore input
resistance is very small.
2. IE is almost independent of VCB
3. I/P resistance , Ri = ΔVEB / Δ IE VCB =constant

Static Output characteristics


IC

Active region
IE=3 mA
IE =2 mA
Saturation IE = 1 mA
region IE = 0

Cut-off region VCB

O/p characteristics is the curve between IC and VCB at constant IE. The collector
current IC is taken along y-axis and VCB is taken along x-axis. It is clear from the graph
that the o/p current IC remains almost constant even when the voltage VCB is increased.
i.e. , a very large change in VCB produces a small change in IC. Therefore, output
resistance is very high.
O/p resistance Ro = ΔVEB / Δ IC IE = constant

Region below the curve IE =0 is known as cut-off region where IC is nearly zero.
The region to the left of VCB =0 is known as saturation region and to the right of V CB =0
is known as active region.

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Transistor in CE configuration
IC

RL Vout
IB

Vi IE

VEB VCE

In this configuration the input is connected between the base and emitter while the
output is taken between collector and emitter. For this configuration I B is input current
and IC is the output current.

Current amplification factor (β)


It is the ratio of d.c. collector current to d.c. base current.
i.e., β = IC / IB

Relationship between α and β


I
We know that α = C
IE

IC
α=
IB IC

Divide both numerator and denominator of RHS by I C, we get;


1
OR
IB
1
IC
1
1 (IC/IB=β)
1

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 47


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Also we have;
(1 )

(1 )

Derivation of Total output current IC


We have I C I E I CBO

IC IE I CBO
1 B

IE (1 ) I CBO
IC
1

Ic = IB (1 ) I CBO

Static Input Characteristics

IB
VCE=10V VCE=5V

VEB
Input characteristics is a curve between EB voltage (VEB ) and base current (IB ) at
constant VCE. From the graph following can be noted.
1. The input characteristic resembles the forward characteristics of a p-n junction
diode.
2. For small changes of VEB there will be a large change in base current IB. i.e., input
resistance is very small.
3. The base current is almost independent of VCE.
4. Input resistance , Ri = ΔVEB / Δ IB V CE = constant

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Output characteristics

IC
(mA)
Active region
30 μA
20 μA
10 μA
IB =0μA
Cut-off region
VCE(volts)

It is the curve between VCE and IC at constant IB. From the graph we can see that,
1. Very large changes of VCE produces a small change in IC i.e output resistance is
very high.
2. output resistance Ro = ΔVCE / ΔIC │IB = constant
Region between the curve IB =0 is called cut-off region where IB is nearly zero. Similarly
the active region and saturation region is shown on the graph.

Transistor in CC configuration
IE

RL Vout

IB
Vi IC

VCB VCE
In this configuration the input is connected between the base and collector while
the output is taken between emitter and collector.
Here IB is the input current and IE is the output current.

Current relations
Current amplification factor (γ)

IE
γ=
IB

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Relationship between α β and γ
I
γ= E
IB

IB IC
γ=
IB

Divide both Numerator and denominator by IB


I
1 C
IB
1

1 (β = IC / IB)

1
1

1
1

Derivation of total output current IE


We know that IC = I E I CBO and IE = IB + I C Hence,

IE = IB + αIE + ICBO or IE(1-α ) = IB + ICBO

IB I CBO
IE = or IE = γIB + γICBO Hence,
1 1

IE = γ (IB + ICBO)

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Comparison between CB, CC and CE configuration
Characteristics CB CE CC
1. Input reistance (Ri) low low high

2. Output resistance (Ro) high high low

3. Current amplification 1
factor 1 1 1

4. Total output current IC IE I CBO Ic = IB (1 ) I CBO IE = γIB + γICBO

5. Phase relationship In-phase in-phase


Out-of phase
between input and output

6. Applications For high frequency For audio frequency For impedance


applications matching
applications

7. Current gain Less than unity Very high


Greater than unity

8. Voltage gain Very high Less than unity


Greater than unity

9. Practical application
For high frequency For audio frequency For impedance
application matching
application

Early Effect:-
 Consider a p-n-p transistor operating in the CE mode.
 EB junction is FB; hence, large number of holes present in the emitter region (p-
material) diffuse into the base region (n-material).
 Since the base is lightly doped, there are few electrons in this region. About 3% of
the holes reaching the base combine with these electrons, forming the base
current.
 CB junction is RB; hence, remaining 97% of holes are collected by the collector
& this results in collector current. If the RB of the CB junction is increased, the
depletion region across the junction widens.
 Since the base is very lightly doped, the depletion layer penetrates deeply into the
base.
 This effectively reduces the width of the base, and more holes from the emitter
region reach the collector, without recombination with the electrons in the base
region. This results in an increase of collector current.

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 The dependence of the effective width of the base on the CB voltage is termed as
early effect.
 Due to this reduction of effective width of the base, there can be slight increase of
collector current, even if the FB voltage of the EB junction is slightly reduced.

Transistor as an amplifier
iC

RL Vout

iB
Vi ` iE

VBB VCC
Consider a npn transistor in CE configuration as shown above along with its input
characteristics.
A transistor raises the strength of a weak input signal and thus acts as an
amplifier. The weak signal to be amplified is applied between emitter and base and the
output is taken across the load resistor RC connected in the collector circuit.
In order to use a transistor as an amplifier it should be operated in active region
i.e. emitter junction should be always FB and collector junction should be RB. Therefore
in addition to the a.c. input source Vi two d.c. voltages VBB and VCC are applied as
shown. This d.c. voltage is called bias voltage. The following waveforms are drawn
according to the circuit diagram.

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Let VBB supplies direct current IB.


Vi causes the alternating current ib.
Total base current, iB = IB + ib, which is alternating in nature as shown.

As the input circuit has low resistance, a small change in the signal voltage Vi
causes a large change in the base current thereby causing the same change in collector
current (because iC = βiB).
The collector current flowing through a high load resistance RC produces a large
voltage across it. Thus a weak signal applied at the input circuit appears in the amplified
form at the output. In this way transistor acts as an amplifier.
Example: Let RC = 5KΩ, Vin =1V, IC =1mA then output V=ICRC =5V
The phase displacement of 1800 between input and output signals can be explained as
follows:
Consider the positive half cycle of input. Since base current iB = IB + ib, the FB on
base-emitter junction increases. This increases the base current. Since, the collector
current is β times the base current, collector current will also increase. This increases the
voltage drop across RC. Since VC = VCC – ICRC, the increase in IC results in a drop in
collector voltage VC, as VCC is constant. Thus, as Vi increases in a positive direction, V0
goes in a negative direction. Similar explanation hold good for negative half cycle of
input signal.
 Transistors can work in CB, CE, and CC modes.
 In CE mode of operation, a transistor has both current gain & voltage gain.
Hence, it has power gain also.
 Therefore, junction transistors are used as both voltage amplifiers & power
amplifiers.

DC Load Line and Operating point selection

IC

RB RC
VCE
IB

VBB VCC
NPN transistor in CE configuration

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IC
(mA) Q-point
A
30 μA
20 μA
10 μA
IB =0μA

B V CE(volts

Output characteristics

Consisder a CE amplifier along with the output characteristics as shown in figure


above. A straight line drawn on the output characteristic of a transistor which gives the
various zero signal values (ie. When no signal applied) of V CE and IC is called DC load
line.

Construction of DC load line


Applying KVL to the collector circuit we get,

VCC –ICRC –VCE =0-------------------1

VCE = VCC –ICRC ----------------------2

The above equation is the first degree equation and can be represented by a
straight line. This straight line is DC load line.

To draw the load line we require two end points which can be found as follows.

1. If IC =0, equn 2 becomes VCE = VCC


2. if VCE = 0, equn 2 becomes VCC = ICRC ie. IC = VCC /RC

Operating point (Q- Point)


A point on the d.c. load line which represent the zero signal values of V CE and IC
in a transistor is called as operating point or silent point or quiescent point or Q-point.

The Q-point is selected where the DC load line intersects the curve of output
characteristics for particular value of zero signal current.

i.e. Q-point = (VCE ,IC)

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UNIT – 3

BIASING METHODS

Biasing of Transistor:-
 The most important application of a transistor is its use in electronic circuits as
amplifier.
 Amplification is the process of strengthening of a weak signal (i.e., increasing its
amplitude), without distortion of its wave shape.
 For faithful amplification, it is essential that the –
 The emitter-base junction remains forward-biased, and
 The collector-base junction remains reverse-biased, throughout the signal
period.
 Hence, if the junctions are not properly biased, there would be distortion of the
output voltage.
 Thus, one must ensure that, emitter diode is forward biased, and the collector
diode is reverse biased. This is termed as transistor biasing.

 There are three basic requirements to be satisfied, in order to achieve faithful


amplification in a transistor amplifier. These are:
 It should have proper zero signal collector current.
 It should have minimum proper emitter-base voltage at any instant, and
 It should have minimum proper collector-emitter voltage at any instant.

Biasing can be brought about by associating a circuit called biasing circuit with the
transistor. The following are the effective and widely used methods of biasing:
1. Fixed current bias method or Base resistor method
2. Collector-to-base bias method
3. Self bias method or Voltage divider bias method

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In this method, a base resistor RB is connected as shown, between the base


terminal and battery VCC, such that the base-emitter junction gets forward biased. RB and
VCC are so chosen that the required base current I B flows, even in the absence of signal.

Applying KVL to the base circuit, we get;


VCC – IBRB – VBE = 0 Solve for IB.
Applying KVL to the collector circuit, we get;
VCC – ICRC – VCE = 0 Solve for IC.

Advantages of Base Bias:-


 This is a simple circuit which uses very few components.
 The operating point can be anywhere in the active region, by simply changing the
value of RB.

Disadvantages of Base Bias:-


 The thermal stability is not provided by this circuit. i.e., circuit does not provide
any check on the collector current, which increases with raise in temperature.
Thus, the operating point is not maintained.
 Since, IC = βIB + ICEO - the collector current, IC depends on the value of β,
which changes unit to unit; and shifts the operating point.
 Since, IC = βIB - the change in IC changes the operating point; hence, fixed
bias circuit is unsatisfactory if the transistor is replaced by another of same type.

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This is an improvement over the previous method. The base resistor R B is


connected to the collector terminal C, and the load resistor/collector resistor R C is
connected to the VCC as shown in the above figure.
This circuit causes a base current IB required under zero-signal condition, to flow
through RB and this current is controlled by collector-base voltage, rather than VCC.

Applying KVL to the base circuit, we get;


VCC – (IB + IC) RC – IBRB – VBE = 0
Or VCC – (IB + βIB) RC – IBRB – VBE = 0 Solve for IB.
Applying KVL to the collector circuit, we get;
VCC – (IB + IC) RC – VCE = 0 Solve for IC.

Advantages of Collector-to-Base Bias:-


 In this method, increase in value of β increases IC. As a result drop across RC also
increases.
 But, supply VCC is constant. Due to increase in ICRC, VCE decreases.
 Hence, IB also reduces.
 As IC depends on IB, decrease in IC reduces the original increase in IC .
 The result is that, the original circuit tends to maintain a stable value of collector
current, which in tern keeps the Q-point fixed.
 In this circuit, a part of output is fed back to the input; and increase in collector
current decreases the base current.
 Thus, negative feedback exists in this circuit. So, this circuit is also called as
Voltage Feedback Bias Circuit.

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In this method of biasing, two suitably chosen resistors R1 and R2 are connected
across the bias battery VCC so that they form a potential divider. The voltage drop VB
across R2 remains fairly constant and provides the necessary fixed bias for the emitter-
base junction. Current IB flows into the base and the emitter diode is always forward-
biased.
This is the most widely used of all biasing methods.

The signal (weak a.c. voltage) to be amplified is applied across the input
terminals, and the amplified output is taken across the load resistor R L.

Advantages of Voltage Divider Bias:-


 In this method, if the collector current increases, due to change in temperature or
change in value of β, the emitter current IE also increases.
 Hence, the voltage drop across RE increases; which reduces the VBE.
 Due to reduction in VBE, base current IB reduces; which in turn reduces the
collector current IC.
 This reduction in collector current IC, compensates for the original change in I C.
 Therefore, we can say that, negative feedback exists in the emitter bias circuit.

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Bias stabilization

The process of making operating point independent of temperature changes or


variation in transistor parameters is called the stabilization.

We know that for transistor to operate it should be properly biased so that we can
have a fixed operating point. To avoid any distortions, the Q-point should be at the center
of the load line.

But in practice this Q-point may shift to any operating region (saturation or cur-
off region) making the transistor unstable. Therefore in order to avoid this, biasing
stability should be maintained.

Causes for Bias instability


Bias instability occurs mainly due to two reasons.
1. Temperature
2. Current gain

1. Temperature (T)
The temperature at the junctions of a transistor depends on the amount of current
flowing through it. Due to increase in temperature following parameters of a transistor
will change.

(a) Base-emitter voltage (VBE)


VBE increases at a rate of 2.4mV/0C. With increase in temperature the base
current IB will increase and since IC= βIB, IC is also increased hence, changing the
Q-point.

(b) Reverse saturation current ( ICBO/ICEO)


We know that IC = βIB + (1+β) ICBO where ICBO is the reverse saturation
current. As the temperature increases ICBO increases thereby increase in IC and
hence changing the Q-point.

2. Current gain (β)


In the process of manufacturing the transistors different transistors of same type
may have different parameters (i.e. if we take two transistor units of same type and use
them in the circuit there is a change in the β value in actual practice). The biasing circuit
will be designed according to the required β value but due to the change in β from unit to
unit the operating point may shift.

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Thermal Stability of Biasing Circuits:-


 Biasing circuit should be designed to fix the operating point or Q-point at the
centre of the active region.
 So, while designing the biasing circuit, care should be taken so that, the Q-point
will not shift into an undesirable region.

Here, two important factors are to be considered –


I. Temperature:
ICEO
 The flow of current in the circuit produces heat at the junction. This
heat increases the temperature at the junction.
 We know that; IC = βIB + ICEO .
 The increase in temperature increases ICEO, which in turn increases IC.
 This increase in IC further raises the temperature, and the same cycle
repeats.
 The increase in the collector current IC, increases the power dissipated
at the collector junction; PD = VCIC .
 This in turn increases the temperature at the junction; and hence,
increases the collector current.
 The excess heat generated at the collector junction even burn and
destroy the transistor. This situation is called Thermal runway of the
transistor.
 So, power dissipation should not cross the maximum power rating of a
transistor.
VBE
 As the temperature increases, VBE also changes.
 As IB depends on VBE , the collector current IC also changes.
 Change in collector current changes the Q-point.
βdC
 The value of β is also temperature dependent.
 As β varies IC also varies; since IC = βIB.
 The change in collector current changes the operating point.
 Thus, thermal stability must be taken care while designing the biasing
circuits.
II. Transistor current gain β :
 The value of β changes from transistor to transistor.
 The biasing circuit is designed according to the required β value.
 But, due to change in β from unit to unit, the operating point may shift.

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UNIT – 5

AMPLIFIERS & OSCILLATORS

Transistor as an amplifier
iC

RL Vout

iB
Vi ` iE

VBB VCC
Consider a npn transistor in CE configuration as shown above along with its input
characteristics.
A transistor raises the strength of a weak input signal and thus acts as an
amplifier. The weak signal to be amplified is applied between emitter and base and the
output is taken across the load resistor RC connected in the collector circuit.
In order to use a transistor as an amplifier it should be operated in active region
i.e. emitter junction should be always FB and collector junction should be RB. Therefore
in addition to the a.c. input source Vi two d.c. voltages VBB and VCC are applied as
shown. This d.c. voltage is called bias voltage. The following waveforms are drawn
according to the circuit diagram.

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Let VBB supplies direct current IB.


Vi causes the alternating current ib.
Total base current, iB = IB + ib, which is alternating in nature as shown.

As the input circuit has low resistance, a small change in the signal voltage Vi
causes a large change in the base current thereby causing the same change in collector
current (because iC = βiB).
The collector current flowing through a high load resistance RC produces a large
voltage across it. Thus a weak signal applied at the input circuit appears in the amplified
form at the output. In this way transistor acts as an amplifier.
Example: Let RC = 5KΩ, Vin =1V, IC =1mA then output V=ICRC =5V
The phase displacement of 1800 between input and output signals can be explained as
follows:
Consider the positive half cycle of input. Since base current iB = IB + ib, the FB on
base-emitter junction increases. This increases the base current. Since, the collector
current is β times the base current, collector current will also increase. This increases the
voltage drop across RC. Since VC = VCC – ICRC, the increase in IC results in a drop in
collector voltage VC, as VCC is constant. Thus, as Vi increases in a positive direction, V0
goes in a negative direction. Similar explanation hold good for negative half cycle of
input signal.
 Transistors can work in CB, CE, and CC modes.
 In CE mode of operation, a transistor has both current gain & voltage gain.
Hence, it has power gain also.
 Therefore, junction transistors are used as both voltage amplifiers & power
amplifiers.

DC Load Line:- In order to illustrate the phase reversal of the amplified output voltage, a
knowledge of load line is essential.

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Consider the circuit set-up shown in the figure above. In the absence of signal, we
have, IE = IB + IC and VCE = VCC – ICRC or IC = (– 1/RC) VCE + VCC / RC
Putting IC = 0; we get, VCE = VCC
Putting VCE = 0; we get, IC = VCC / RC
Hence, we get two points; A (VCC, 0) and B (0, VCC/RC)

The output characteristics of the CE transistor are plotted for different levels of
input current IB. The points A and B are plotted. Line AB is drawn. This line is termed as
DC Load line. Point A is called cut-off point and the point B is called saturation point.
The point of intersection of the load line with an output characteristic is termed as
operating point or quiescent point (point Q in the figure).
Let point Q denote the operating point, corresponding to I B = IB2. If a signal is
applied across the input terminals, there would be variations of base current and
corresponding variations of collector current.
From the graph it is seen that, when the input voltage is passing through a positive
half-cycle, the output voltage is passing through a negative half-cycle. Thus, there is a
phase displacement of 1800 between the input signal and the output voltage.

Decibel (dB)
Many a times it is convenient to represent the gain of an amplifier on a log scale
instead of a linear scale. The unit of this log scale is called decibel.

By definition, we have;
Power gain =log10 (Pout /Pin) bel

Since, 1 bel= 10 decibels, we have;


Power gain in dB =10 log10 (Pout /Pin) dB

Since, power is α current 2 or voltage2, we have;


Voltage gain = 10 log10 (Vout /Vin)2 dB = 20 log10 (Vout /Vin) dB
Current gain = 10 log10 (Iout /Iin)2 dB = 20 log10 (Iout / Iin ) dB

Note: - For a multistage amplifier if AV1, AV2, and AV3 are the voltage gains of amplifier
1, 2, and 3 respectively then the overall voltage gain AV = AV1 x AV2 x AV3.

If it is expressed in dB the AV (dB) = AV1 (dB) + AV2 (dB) +AV3 (dB)

Similarly for four or more stages.

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Frequency Response Curve
The voltage of an amplifier depends upon the signal frequency. Thus if the signal
frequency is gradually increased, it is found that the gain also increases until it attains a
maximum value at a frequency termed as resonant frequency. If the frequency is further
increased, the gain starts decreasing. The graph of voltage gain plotted against signal
frequency is shown in the following figure. This curve is known as frequency response
curve or frequency response characteristic.

The frequency response of an amplifier is a very important parameter, since the


performance of the amplifier can be judged on the basis of its frequency response.

Band-width
Band-width may be defined as the range of frequencies in which the gain is
either equal to or greater than 70.7% of the maximum frequency.
From the frequency response curve shown in the figure above, we have;
Band-width = (f2 – f1) Hz.

It can be seen from the graph that – at f1 and f2, the voltage gain = 0.707 Gm; i.e.,
there is a decrease of gain from maximum value to 70.7% of maximum value.
We have; Gain = 20 log10 (Vout/Vin) = 20 log10 (Av)
Hence; Drop in gain = 20 log10 (Gm/0.707Gm)
= 20 log10 (1.4142) dB = 3 db.
On this basis, band-width may be defined as the range of frequencies at the limit
of which, the voltage gain falls by 3dB.

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Classification of transistor amplifier:-

I. Classification based upon signal frequency –


1) Audio amplifier – can amplify signals of frequency 15Hz to 20KHz.
2) Video amplifier – can amplify signals of frequency far above 20KHz to few MHz.
3) Radio frequency amplifier – can amplify signals of frequency ranging from a few
KHz to several MHz.

II. Classification based on the electrical quantity amplified –


1) Voltage amplifier – voltage level of the input signal is amplified.
2) Power amplifier – the output power is larger than the input power.

III. Classification based upon mode of operation –


1) Class A amplifier – collector current flows throughout the input signal cycle.
2) Class B amplifier – collector current flows only during the +ve half cycles of the
input signal.
3) Class C amplifier – collector current flows for less than half of the period of the
input signal.
4) Class AB amplifier – collector current flows for more than half of the input signal
period, but not throughout the full cycle.

IV. Classification based on coupling elements –


* R-C coupled amplifier,
* Transformer-coupled amplifier, and
* Direct-coupled amplifier.

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An audio amplifier can amplify signals of frequencies lying between 20 Hz and
20 KHz. This amplification is usually achieved in several stages. In the earlier stages, the
voltage level of the weak input signal is progressively raised and in the final stage, there
is considerable increase of power so that the last stage can drive a load like loud-speaker.
During each stage, the input signal gets strengthened and the output of each stage forms
the input to the next stage.
Power amplification is achieved in two stages as shown: the driver stage and the
output stage. In order to ensure maximum power transfer from output stage to the
speaker, impedance matching can be used.

Single stage RC coupled Amplifier

VCC
Vo

R1 RC CC
Vo t

RS
R2 RE RL
Vi

Figure above shows a practical circuit of a single stage RC coupled amplifier. The
different circuit components and their functions are as described below.

a. Input capacitor(Cin)- This capacitor is used to couple the input signal to the base
of the transistor if it is not used, the signal source resistance R S gets in parallel
with R2 thus changing the bias. The capacitor Cin blocks any d.c. component
present in the signal and passes only a.c. signal for amplification.

b. Biasing circuit –The resistances R1, R2 and RE forms the biasing and stabilization
circuit for the CE amplifier. It sets the proper operating point for the amplifier.

c. Emitter bypass capacitor (CE)-This capacitor is connected in parallel with the


emitter resistance RE to provide low reactance path to the amplified a.c. signal. If
it is not used, the amplified a.c. signal passing through RE will cause voltage drop
across it thereby reducing the output voltage of the amplifier.

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d. Coupling capacitor(Cc)- This capacitor couples the output of the amplifier to the
load or to the next stage of the amplifier. If it is not used, the biasing conditions of
the next stage will change due to the parallel effect of collector resistor R C.
i.e. RC will come in parallel with the resistance R1 of the biasing network of the
next stage thus changing the biasing conditions of the next stage amplifier.

Two stage RC coupled amplifier

VCC

R1 RC CC R11 RC1
CC1

RS
R2 RE CE R21 CE 1 RL
Vi RE1

Stage-1 Stage-2

Figure above shows the circuit diagram of a two stage RC coupled amplifier. The
coupling capacitor CC connects the output of the first stage to the input of the second
stage. Since the coupling from one stage to the next stage is achieved by coupling
capacitor along with a shunt resistor the amplifier is called RC coupled amplifier.. The
input signal is first applied to the transistor T 1 and output is taken at the collector of T 1.
The signal at the output will be 1800 out of phase when compared to the input. The output
is taken across RC with the help of a coupling capacitor. This signal is fed as input to the
next stage i.e transistor T2. The signal is amplified further and the amplified output is
taken across Rc1 of T2. The phase of the signal is reversed again. The output is amplified
twice and its is amplified replica of the input signal.

Frequency response curve of RC coupled amplifiers

Frequency response is the curve between the gain of the amplifier (A = V o / Vi )


verses the frequency of the input signal. The frequency response of a typical RC-
coupled amplifier is shown below.

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Frequency response has 3 regions.

1 Low frequency range


2 Mid frequency range
3 High frequency range

Gain in
dB LFR MFR HFR

f1 f2 freq (Hz)

Low frequency range (< 50 Hz)


We have;
1
Xc = where XC ----- reactance of capacitor and
2 fC
f----- frequency
Since frequency is inversely proportional to the reactance, the reactance of the
coupling capacitor CC will be quite high at low frequencies.

Hence very small amount of signal will pass through one stage to the next stage.
Moreover CE cannot shunt the emitter resistance RE effectively because of its large
reactance at low frequency. These two factors causes the fall of voltage gain at low
frequencies.

Mid frequency range (50Hz –20KHz)


In this range of frequencies, voltage gain of the amplifier is constant. The effect of
coupling capacitor in this range is as such to maintain a uniform voltage gain.

High frequency range (> 20 KHz)


In this range of frequency, the reactance of the coupling capacitor C C is very
small and it behaves as a short circuit. This increases the loading effect of next stage ( R C
will comes in parallel with R1) and reduces the voltage gain. This reduces the current
amplification there by the voltage drops at high frequencies.

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Advantages of RC coupled amplifier


1. Low cost-Because only resistors and capacitors are used for biasing and coupling
which are cheap.
2. Compact-Because modern resistor and capacitors are small and light
3. Good frequency response- The gain is constant over the audio frequency range
and hence suitable for audio frequency amplification.
4. The gain of RC coupled amplifier is constant in audio frequency range, and
hence, offers high fidelity.

Demerits of RC coupled amplifier:-


1. Due to the loading effect, the gain of RC coupled amplifier is low.
2. RC coupled amplifier tend to become noisy with age.
3. Impedance matching is not possible, since, the output impedance of RC coupled
amplifier is high.

Feed-back Concept
In a practical amplifier, although voltage gain and power gain are achieved, there
are certain draw-backs which must overcome with view of enhancing the usefulness of
the device. Thus an amplifier suffers from –
i. Distortion
ii. Noise and
iii. Gain instability
In an ideal amplifier, the amplified output voltage wave is an exact replica of the
input signal. But this is not so in practice. There is some amount of distortion – i.e.,
distortion in amplitude or frequency or phase. Distortion of any sort is not desirable and it
must be minimized, if it cannot be totally eliminated.
The percentage of distortion can be minimized, the noise level can be reduced and
the gain can be made independent of transistor parameters by the mechanism of negative
feed-back.
 Feed-back is the process of supplying a part of the output back to the input. In a
transistor amplifier, a fraction of output voltage may be fed back to the input
terminals.

There are two possibilities –


 If the feed-back voltage is so applied to the input port that, it aids the input signal
(i.e., it is in phase with input signal), the process is called positive feed-back.
 If the feed-back voltage is so applied to the input port such as to oppose the input
signal (i.e., it is out of phase with input signal), the process is called negative feed-
back.

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Positive feed-back increases the gain of the amplifier, but it increases distortion
and gain instability. Negative feed-back, on the other hand, decreases the gain, which is
not desirable, but it reduces distortion and noise level, and brings about gain stability
and operation stability. In view of these advantages, negative feed-back is employed in
practical amplifiers.

Consider an amplifier with negative feed-back as shown in the following figure.

Vin Vout
Amp
VS + AV

Vf
Feed-back Network
k

Vout
From the fig., the gain of the amplifier (open-loop gain) is given by; AV
Vin
Vf
And, the feed-back factor is given by; k
Vout

Vout
Also, the closed-loop gain is given by; Af
VS

Since, for negative feed-back, Vin = VS – Vf ; VS = Vin + Vf.

Vout Vout
Therefore; Af (Because, Vf = kVout)
Vin V f Vin kVout

Vout / Vin
(By dividing both Nr and Dr by Vin)
1 kVout / Vin

AV
Or, Af (For negative feed-back circuits)
1 kAV
This is the general feed-back equation.

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Advantages of Negative Feed-back


1. Gain stability
2. Gain control
3. Constant gain for al frequencies
4. Increase in bandwidth

NOTE: - The gain-bandwidth product is always a constant.


Gain * Bandwidth = Constant
i.e., if bandwidth increases, the gain decreases.

Normally for an amplifier, the higher input impedance and lower output impedance are
desired. These are achieved with a voltage-series feed-back. Hence voltage-series feed-
back shown in the following figure is normally used in amplifiers.

THEORY OF SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS

 Oscillator is an electronic device which generates electrical oscillations of


desired frequency and wave form.
 The frequency required for the practical purpose ranges from a few Hz to several
MHz.
 The wave form is either sinusoidal or non-sinusoidal.
 A transistor amplifier with positive feedback generates sinusoidal oscillations & it
is termed as sinusoidal oscillator.

 An oscillator which produces non-sinusoidal oscillations is usually called


relaxation oscillator.
 E.g..:- Multivibrators which generates square-wave oscillations, Voltage sweep
generators, Current sweep generators, etc.

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 An oscillator is a device which mainly converts AC energy of the required
frequency.
 Oscillators find extensive use in various electronic equipments like radio, radar,
television, etc.

Types of Sinusoidal Oscillations


1. Damped Oscillations
2. Un-damped Oscillations

1. Damped Oscillations-The electrical oscillations whose amplitude goes on


decreasing with time are called damped oscillations.
2. Un-damped Oscillations- The electrical oscillations whose amplitude remains
constant with time are called un-damped oscillations.
e e

t t

Damped oscillations Un-damped oscillations

Positive feedback Amplifier-Oscillator

1. A transistor amplifier with proper +ve feedback can act as an oscillator.

S Amplifier
Vout
Av
Vin Vf

t t t

Feedback
AV network, k
Closedloopgain, A f
1 kAV
2. The circuit needs only a quick trigger signal to start the oscillations. Once the
oscillations have started, no external signal source is necessary.

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3. In order to get continuous un-damped output from the circuit, the following
condition must be met;
kAV =1
where AV = voltage gain of amplifier without feedback.
k = feedback fraction.
This relation is also called Barkhausen criterion.

The Barkhausen Criterion states that:


1.] The total phase shift around a loop, as the signal proceeds from input
through the amplifier, feedback network back to input again, completing a loop, is
precisely 00 or 3600 .
2.] The magnitude of the product of the open loop gain of the amplifier (A V)
and the magnitude of the feedback factor (k) is unity. i.e., | k AV | = 1.
 If Barkhausen criterion is satisfied at only one frequency, sinusoidal oscillations
result.
 If the above requirement is met over a band of frequencies, then non-sinusoidal
oscillations would result.

Essentials of Transistor Oscillator


Fig. below shows the block diagram of an oscillator. It‟s essential components are:

1. Tank Circuit: It consists of inductance coil(L) connected in parallel with


capacitor(C ). The frequency of oscillations in the circuit depends upon the values
of inductance of the coil and capacitance of the capacitor.

2. Transistor Amplifier: The transistor amplifier receives d.c. power from the
battery and changes it into a.c. power for supplying to the tank circuit. The
oscillations occurring in the tank circuit are applied to the input the transistor
amplifier. The output of the transistor can be supplied to the tank circuit to meet
the losses.

3. Feedback circuit: The feedback circuit supplies a part of collector energy to the
tank circuit in correct phase to aid the oscillations. ie., provides positive feedback.

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L C Transistor
Amplifier

Feedback
circuit

Block diagram of Transistor Oscillator

Oscillatory circuit
 A transistor amplifier with positive feed-back can function as an oscillator.
 It can generate un-damped oscillations, provided the following conditions are
satisfied.
1) There must be an oscillatory circuit, which generates electrical oscillations.
2) There must be an amplifier, which supplies energy for the loss of power occurring
in the oscillatory circuit.
3) There must be a feed-back circuit, in order to supply energy to the oscillatory
circuit in correct phase & magnitude.
 The simplest form of oscillatory circuit is a tank circuit. A circuit, which produces
electrical oscillations of any desired frequency, is known as an oscillatory circuit
or tank circuit.
 A tank circuit consists of an inductor L & a capacitor C, connected in parallel.

A simple oscillatory circuit consists of a capacitor C and inductance coil L in


parallel as shown in figure below. This electrical system can produce electrical
oscillations of frequency determined by the values of L and C.
S

++ ++
L C __ __

Fig. 1 Fig. 2

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_ _

+ +

Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Circuit operations- Assume capacitor is charged from a d. c. source with a polarity as


shown in figure 1.
When switch S is closed as shown in fig.ii, the capacitor will discharge through
inductance and the electron flow will be in the direction indicated by the arrow.
This current flow sets up magnetic field around the coil. Due to the inductive
effect, the current builds up slowly towards a maximum value. The circuit current
will be maximum when the capacitor is fully discharged. Hence the electrostatic
energy across the capacitor is completely converted into magnetic field energy
around the coil.
Once the capacitor is discharged, the magnetic field will begin to collapse and
produce a counter emf. According to Lenz‟s law the counter emf will keep the
current flowing in the same direction. The result is that the capacitor is now
charged with opposite polarity making upper plate of capacitor –ve and lower
plate +ve as shown in fig. 3.
After the collapsing field has recharged the capacitor, the capacitor now begins to
discharge and current now flows in the opposite direction as shown in fig. iv.
The sequence of charge and discharge results in alternating motion of electrons or
an oscillating current. The energy is alternately stored in the lectric field of the
capacitor C and the magnetic field of the inductance coil L . This interchange of
energy between L and C is repeated over and again resulting in the production of
Oscillations.

Waveform- In practical tank circuit there are resistive and radiation losses in the coil and
dielectric losses in the capacitor. During each cycle a small part of the originally imparted
energy is used up to overcome these losses. The result is that the amplitude of oscillating
current decreases gradually and eventually it become zero. Therefore tank circuit
produces damped oscillations.

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Frequency of oscillations- The expression for frequency of oscillation is given by,
1
fr -------------------------------(1)
2 LC

Un-damped Oscillations from Tank Circuit


A tank circuit produces damped oscillations. In practice we need continuous un
damped oscillations for the successful operation of electronics equipment. In order to
make the oscillations in the tank circuit un-damped it is necessary to supply correct
amount of energy to the tank circuit at the proper time intervals to meet the losses.

The following conditions must be fulfilled;


1. The amount of energy supplied be such so as to meet the losses in the tank and the
a.c. energy removed from the circuit by the load. For example if losses in LC
circuit amount ot 5 mW and a.c. output being taken is 100 mW, then power of
105mW should be continuously supplied to the circuit.
2. The applied energy should have the same frequency as the of the oscillations in
the tank circuit.
3. The applied energy should be in phase with the oscillations set up in the tank
circuit.

Classification of Oscillators:-
 Oscillators may be classified as –
i. Sinusoidal oscillators, and
ii. Non-sinusoidal oscillators.

 Based upon the frequency of oscillations generated –


i. Audio frequency oscillators,
ii. Radio frequency oscillations,
iii. Ultra high frequency oscillators, and
iv. Microwave oscillations.

 Oscillators may be categorized as –


i. Feed-back oscillators, and
ii. Negative resistance oscillators.

 Sinusoidal oscillators which employ different circuit elements for the feed-back
network may be classified into two groups as –
i. R – C oscillators – Low frequency: 20 Hz to 20 KHz, and
ii. L – C tuned oscillators – High frequency more than 300 KHz.

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 Based upon how energy is supplied to the tank circuit to overcome the losses,
practical transistor oscillators are classified as –
i. Tuned collector oscillator,
ii. Wein – bridge oscillator,
iii. Phase shift oscillator,
iv. Hartley oscillator, and
v. Colpitt‟s oscillator.

 In addition to these, we have crystal oscillators, whose operation is based on


piezo-electric effect.

Tuned Collector Oscillator

The circuit shown above, comprising of inductor L1, and capacitor C1 is


incorporated in the collector circuit of the CE transistor. Another inductive coil L 2 is
magnetically coupled to L1. L1 and L2 may be the primary and secondary windings of a
transformer.
Resistors R1, R2 and RE form the biasing and stabilization circuit. CE is the emitter
bypass capacitor and the capacitor C provides a path of low reactance to the electrical
oscillations generated by the tank circuit.
1
The frequency of oscillations is given by; fR
2 L1C1
When the switch S is closed, the capacitor C1 gets charged by the collector
current. After it is fully charged, it begins to discharge through L1. Hence electrical

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oscillations of frequency fR is generated. Since L2 is inductively coupled to L1, an
alternating e.m.f. of the same frequency fR is induced in it. Its magnitude is decided by
number of turns in the coils L1 and L2, and the mutual inductance between them. This
e.m.f. is applied to the input terminals of the transistor.
The transistor amplifier causes a phase shift of 180 0 between input and output
voltages. The output voltage when applied across the primary winding L1, undergoes
further phase shift of 1800 in the secondary winding L2. Thus a total phase shift of 3600 or
00 is achieved; hence, a positive feedback results.

Hartley Oscillator
The circuit diagram of Hartley Oscillator is as shown in figure below. It uses two
inductors placed across common capacitor C and the center of two inductors ins tapped.
The tank circuit is made up of L1 , L2 and C and is given by.
1
f
2 LT C

where LT = L1 + L2 + 2M
M = Mutual inductance between L1 and L2

When the circuit is turned ON, the capacitor is charged. When this capacitor is
fully charged, it discharges through coils L1 and L2 setting up oscillations of
frequency determined by expression 1. The output voltage of the amplifier
appears across L2 and feedback voltage across L1. The voltage across L1 is 1800
out of phase with the voltage developed across L2.

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A phase shift of 1800 is produced by the transistor and a further phase shift of
1800 is produced by L1-L2 voltage divider circuit. In this way feedback is properly
phased to produce continuous un-damped oscillations.

Feedback fraction- In Hartley oscillator the feedback voltage is across L1 and output
voltage is across L2.
vf X L1 L1
Therefore feedback fraction mv
vout X L 2 L2

Colpitt’s Oscillator

The tank circuit is made up of C1, C2 and L. The frequency of oscillations is


determined by:
1
f
2 LC T

C1C 2
where CT
C1 C 2

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When the circuit is turned ON, the capacitor C1 and C2 are charged. The
capacitors discharge through L setting up oscillations of frequency determined by
expression. 1. The output voltage appears across C2 and feedback voltage is
developed across C1. The voltage across C1 is 1800 out of phase with the voltage
developed across C2 (Vout ). A phase shift of 1800 is produced by the transistor and
a further phase shift of 1800 is produced by C1-C2 voltage divider. In this way
feedback is properly phased to produce continuous un-damped oscillations.

Feedback factor
Vf X C1 C2
Feedback factor mv
Vout X C2 C1

Demerits of Oscillator using Tank Circuit


1. They suffer for frequency instability and poor waveform.
2. They cannot be used to generate low frequencies, since they become too-much
bulky and expensive too.

RC Phase Shift Oscillator

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It consists of a conventional single transistor amplifier and a RC phase shift
circuit. The RC phase shift circuit consists of three sections R1C1, R2C2, and
R3C3.At some particular frequency f0 the phase shift in each RC section is 600 so
that the total phase shift produced by the RC network is 180 0. The frequency of
oscillation is given by,
1
fo
2 RC 6

When the circuit is switched ON it produces oscillations of frequency determined


by above equation. The output VO of the amplifier is feedback to RC feedback
network.

Let the voltage drop across R1or R2 or R3 = VR = IR.


Let the voltage drop across C1 or C2 or C3 = VC = IXC.
The total voltage will be the phaser sum given by; V = VR + VC.

It is seen from the phaser diagram that voltage VR leads V by an angle θ where,

XC 1 1
tan θ = Since, X C
R 2 fCR 2 fC

1
Therefore, θ = tan –1
2 fCR

By choosing proper values of R and C, θ can be made equal to 60 0.Thus, since


there are three legs of the ladder network, it produces a total phase shift of 1800
and the transistor gives another 1800 shift. Thereby total phase shift of the output
signal when fed back is 3600.

Merits-
1. They do not require any transformer or inductor thereby reduce the cost.
2. They are quite useful in the low frequency range where tank circuit
oscillators cannot be used.
3. They provide constant output and good frequency stability.
4. The circuit is simple to design.
5. Can produce output over audio frequency range.
6. Produces sinusoidal output waveform.
7. It is a fixed frequency oscillator.

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Demerits –
1. It is difficult to start oscillations.
2. The circuit requires a large number of components.
3. The frequency stability is poor, due to the effect of temperature, aging, etc.
4. They cannot generate high frequencies and are unstable as variable frequency
generators.
5. The frequency of oscillation can be changes by changing the value of R and C.
But the values of R and C of all the three sections must be changed
simultaneously to satisfy the oscillating conditions. This is practically impossible.
Hence, phase shift oscillator is considered as a fixed frequency oscillator.

Transistor Crystal Oscillator


 Certain crystals like Quartz, Rochelle salt, and Tourmaline exhibit a particular
property.
 When an alternating voltage at a certain frequency is applied across such a crystal,
it is observed that the crystal vibrates at the same frequency.
 The converse is also found to be true.
 That is; when the crystal is made to vibrate mechanically by subjecting it to
compression or mechanical strain, it is found to be generate an alternating voltage.
 This phenomenon is termed as piezo-electric effect.

 When a crystal is to be used in an electronic circuit, it is usual to mount a thin


wafer of the crystal in between two metal plates, as shown in the fig.
 Since the crystal is dielectric material, and it is placed between metal plates, the
combination acts as a capacitor.
 Cm denotes the capacitance, which is termed as mounting capacitance.
 When an alternating voltage is applied, the crystal vibrates at the frequency of the
applied voltage.
 The crystal can be visualized as a tuned circuit, having resistance, inductance and
capacitance forming a series circuit.
 The equivalent circuit of the crystal when it is vibrating is shown in the fig.
below.

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The series resonant frequency is given by –
1
fR
2 LC
The parallel resonant frequency is given by –
1 CC '
fR where, Ceq
2 LC eq C C'
The quality factor of the crystal is defined as the ratio of inductive/capacitive reactance
to the resistance of the crystal.
L/C wL 2 fRL
i.e., Q
R R R

Crystal Oscillator Circuit Diagram –

Figure shows the transistor crystal oscillator. The crystal will act as parallel –
tuned circuit. At parallel resonance, the impedance of the crystal is maximum.
This means that there is a maximum voltage drop across C2. This in turn will
allow the maximum energy transfer through the feedback network.

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The feedback is +ve. A phase shift of 1800 is produced by the transistor. A further
phase shift of 1800 is produced by the capacitor voltage divider. This oscillator
will oscillate only at fp.

Where fp = parallel resonant frequency ie the frequency at which the vibrating


crystal behaves as a parallel resonant circuit.

1
fp
2 LC T

CC m
where CT
C Cm

Advantages
1. Higher order of frequency stability
2. The Q-factor of the crystal is very high.

Disadvantages
1. Can be used in low power circuits.
2. The frequency of oscillations cannot be changed appreciably.

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UNIT – 6

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

INTRODUCTION

 An integrated circuit (IC) consists of a single crystal chip of silicon of very small
dimensions, containing both active & passive elements.
 A number of processes are involved in the manufacture of IC‟s. these include –
• Preparing of wafer,
• Epitaxial growth,
• Diffusion of impurities,
• Ion implantation,
• Oxide growth,
• Photolithography,
• Chemical etching,
• Metallization, etc.

 An IC does not have discrete components; instead, all components (both active &
passive) are an integral part of it.
 Whole circuit comprising of various elements are properly interconnected, and
created on a single chip, and no external wiring is required.
 A number of terminals are brought out of the chip, and external connections are
made from these terminals.

 The main advantages of IC’s are –


o Increased reliability,
o Smaller size,
o Increased speed of operation, and
o Reduced cost due to mass production techniques.

 Classification of IC’s –
1. Linear IC’s (Analog IC’s) – outputs are proportional to inputs. Both inputs &
outputs can take continues values.
• Applications:- amplifiers, voltage regulators, operational
amplifiers, etc.
2. Digital IC’s – input & output can take only two vales: 0 or 1 (or low level & high
level).
• Applications:- micro-processors, logic gates, memory
chips, counters, clock chips, flip-flops, etc.

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Types of IC’s –
i. Monolithic circuits,
ii. Thin-film circuits,
iii. Thick-film circuits, and
iv. Hybrid circuits.

 Based on the number of circuits contained in an IC package, integrated circuits


are classified as –
I. Small Scale Integration (SSI) – contains less than 30 circuits.
II. Medium Scale Integration (MSI) – contains about 30 to 100 circuits.
III. Large Scale Integration (LSI) – contains about 100 to 1,00,000 circuits.
IV. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) – a single IC contains more than 1,00,000
circuits.

To study about an operational amplifier, knowledge of differential amplifier is essential.


 A differential amplifier mainly comprises of two transistors with their emitters
connected as shown in the figure below.

 An operational amplifier is basically a differential amplifier with two inputs –


non-inverting & inverting, and one output.
 It is used in analog computers to do several mathematical operations like
summing, differentiation, integration, inversion, etc. it is also used in control
systems.

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 An operational amplifier is basically a very high gain, direct-coupled amplifier
with high input impedance & low output impedance.

The figure below shows the symbol of an Op-Amp.

If a voltage Vi is applied at the inverting input (keeping the non-inverting input at


ground) as shown below.

Vi

VO
t

Vi VO

Op-amp in inverting mode

The output voltage Vo= -AVi is amplified but is out of phase with respect to the input
signal by 1800.

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If a voltage Vi is fed at the non-inverting input (keeping the inverting input at
ground) as shown below.
Vo

VO
t

Vi

Op-Amp in Non-inverting mode

The output voltage Vo= AVi is amplified and in-phase with the input signal.

Note: - Op-Amp is 8 pin IC (named as μA 741) with pin details as shown.

OFFSET NULL 1 8 NO CONNECTION

INVERTING I/P 2 7 +VCC


μA 741

NON-INVERTING I/P 3 6 OUTPUT

-VEE OFFSET NULL


4 5

3 6
Pin details of Op-Amp

Block Diagram of an Op-AMP

4 5

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 88


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An Op-Amp consists of four blocks cascaded as shown above.

Input stage: It consists of a dual input, balanced output differential amplifier. Its
function is to amplify the difference between the two input signals. It provides high
differential gain, high input impedance and low output impedance.
Intermediate stage: The overall gain requirement of an Op-Amp is very high. Since the
input stage alone cannot provide such a high gain. Intermediate stage is used to provide
the required additional voltage gain.
It consists of another differential amplifier with dual input, and unbalanced (single
ended) output
Buffer and Level shifting stage: As the Op-Amp amplifies D.C signals also, the small
D.C. quiescent voltage level of previous stages may get amplified and get applied as the
input to the next stage causing distortion the final output.
Hence the level shifting stage is used to bring down the D.C. level to ground
potential, when no signal is applied at the input terminals. Buffer is usually an emitter
follower used for impedance matching.
Output stage: It consists of a push-pull complementary amplifier which provides large
A.C. output voltage swing and high current sourcing and sinking along with low output
impedance.

Characteristics of an ideal OP-AMP:-


 The voltage gain is infinity.
 The input impedance is infinity.
 The output impedance is zero.
 The band-width is infinity.
 When equal voltages are applied at the two input terminals, the output is zero.
 There is no change in the characteristic feature, with changes of temperature.

Practical OP-AMPs have –


 Large voltage gain.
 Very high input impedance.
 Very low output impedance.
 A small output voltage appears even when equal voltages
are applied at the two input terminals.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 89


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Some Important Definitions:-
 Common mode rejection ratio [CMRR] is defined as the ratio of differential gain
of the amplifier to the common-mode gain.
CMMR = |Ad/AC| or CMMR = 20 log |Ad/AC|

 Slew rate [SR] is defined as the maximum rate at which an OP-AMP output can
change, and it is expressed in terms of Volts/µsec. SR = ΔV0/Δt
 The SR represents the ability of an amplifier to handle the varying
signals like large step-input signals.
 Input bias current [IIB]
A difference amplifier mainly consists of two identical transistors which are
direct-coupled. During normal operation, transistors are biased properly using d.c.
voltage sources. Ideally, in an OPAMP, there should be equal d.c. bias currents at
both non-inverting and inverting input terminals. But in practice, the transistors may
not match perfectly, with the result that the d.c. bias currents at + and – inputs are not
exactly equal.
The bias currents are denoted as IIB+ and IIB–. The average of these two
currents is termed as input bias current given as;
IIB = ½ (IIB+ + IIB-)

 The DC voltage which makes the output voltage zero, when the other terminal is
grounded is called input offset voltage.

 The voltage existing at the output, when the inputs are zero, is called output offset
voltage. It is usually caused by input bias current & the input offset voltage.

 Power supply rejection ratio [PSRR] is defined as the ratio of the change in the
input offset voltage due to the change in supply voltage producing it, keeping the
other power supply voltage constant. It is also called power supply sensitivity.
PSSR = ΔVios /ΔVCC | VEE constant.

 Open Loop Voltage Gain (AV) is the ration of output voltage to input voltage in
the absence of feedback. It‟s typical value is AV = 2x105

 Input Impedance (Ri) is defined as “The impedance seen by the input (source)
applied to one input terminal when the other input terminal is connected to
ground”. Ri ≈ 2MΩ

 Output Impedance (RO) is defined as “ The impedance given by the output (load)
for a particular applied input”. Ro ≈ 75Ω

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 90


BASIC ELECTRONICS
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 Typical values of several parameters for A741 OP-AMP –
• Input offset voltage 1 mV.
• Input bias current 80 nA.
• Slew rate at unity gain 0.5 V/µsec.
• CMRR 90 dB.

Virtual ground concept


We know that, an ideal Op-Amp has perfect balance (i.e., output will be zero
when input voltages are equal).
Hence when output voltage Vo = 0, we can say that both the input voltages are
equal ie V1 = V2.

V1
Ri VO

V2

Since the input impedances of an ideal Op-Amp is infinite (Ri = ∞). There is no
current flow between the two terminals.
Hence when one terminal (say V2) is connected to ground (i.e., V2 = 0) as shown.

VCC

V1 =V2 =0
Ri VO

V2=0

VEE

Then because of virtual ground V1 will also be zero.

Example: Assuming that the input impedance of an OPAMP to be very large and output
impedance to be very small, the equivalent circuit of the OPAMP is shown in the
following figure.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 91


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From the figure; VO = – A Vi where, A is the gain of OPAMP (open loop gain)

Also, overall gain = VO/V1 where, overall gain is the gain of the circuit (closed loop gain)

In practice, the voltage gain A is very high, say A = 10,000

Let VO = – 5V. ( – sign is used since output is out of phase with the input)

Therefore, Vi = – VO/A = 5/10,000 = 0.5 mV.

Now, let the overall gain VO/V1 be unity. (This can be set by adjusting the values of
resistances R1 and Rf).

Then, V1 = VO = 5V.

Now, it can be seen that the voltage Vi is quite small, as compared to all other
voltages. If the assumption is made that Vi = 0, it means that there is a short-circuit at the
input terminals of the OPAMP. But, since the input impedance is infinite, there can be no
flow of current through the short. Hence, the short is not true short-circuit, but it is only a
virtual short-circuit or virtual ground. As a result, the current I flowing through R1
also flows through Rf.

Applications of Op-Amp – An OPAMP can be used as


1. Inverting Amplifier
2. Non-Inverting Amplifier
3. Voltage follower
4. Adder ( Summer)
5. Integrator
6. Differentiator

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 92


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Inverting Amplifier
An inverting amplifier is one whose output is amplified and is out of phase
0
by 180 with respect to the input.
Rf

i2
R1

V1 i1 G
VO

The point “G” is called virtual ground and is equal to zero.


By KCL we have
i1 i2

Vi 0 0 Vo
R1 Rf

Vi Vo
R1 Rf

Rf
VO Vi
R1

Rf
Where is the gain of the amplifier and negative sign indicates that the output is
R1
inverted with respect to the input.
VO
Vi

t t

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 93


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Non- Inverting Amplifier
A non-inverting amplifier is one whose output is amplified and is in-phase with
the input.
Rf

i2
R1

V1 i1 G=Vi
VO

Vi
By KCL we have

i1 i2

Vi 0 Vi VO
R1 Rf

Vi VO Vi
R1 Rf

V0 Vi Rf
Vi R1

VO Rf
1
Vi R1

VO Rf
1
Vi Ri

Rf
V0 1 Vi
R1

Rf
Where 1 is the gain of the amplifier and + sign indicates that the output is
R1
in-phase with the input.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 94


BASIC ELECTRONICS
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Voltage follower
A voltage follower is one whose output is equal to the input.

VO

Vi VO
Vi

t t

The voltage follower configuration shown above is obtained by short circuiting


“Rf” and open circuiting “R1” connected in the usual non-inverting amplifier.
Thus all the output is fed back to the inverting input of the op-Amp.

Consider the equation for the output of non-inverting amplifier


Rf
V0 1 Vi
R1
When Rf = 0 short circuiting
R1= ∞ open circuiting

0
VO 1 Vi

VO Vi

Therefore the output voltage will be equal and in-phase with the input voltage.
Thus voltage follower is nothing but a non-inverting amplifier with a voltage gain of
unity.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 95


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Inverting Adder
Inverting adder is one whose output is the inverted sum of the constituent inputs.
R1
Rf
V1 i1
If
R2

V2 i2 G=0
VO

V3 R3 i3

By KCL we have, if i1 i2 i3

0 VO V1 0 V2 0 V3 0
i.e.,
Rf R1 R2 R3

VO V1 V2 V3
or,
Rf R1 R2 R3

V1 V2 V3
Hence, VO Rf
R1 R2 R3

If R1 = R2 = R3 =R, then ;

Rf
VO V1 V2 V3
R

If Rf = R, then ;

VO = – [V1 + V2 + V3]

Hence it can be observed that the output is equal to the inverted sum of the inputs.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 96


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Integrator
An integrator is one whose output is the integration of the input.
C

i2
R1

V1 i1 G=0
VO

By KCL we have,
i1 i2 1
From the above figure we have
Vi 0 Vi
i1 2
R R

and similarly we have


1
0 VO i2 dt
C

1
VO i2 dt
C

dVO 1
i2
dt C

dVO
i.e. i2 C 3
dt

Substituing 2 and 3 in 1 we have

Vi dVO
C
R dt

dVO 1
Vi
dt RC

1
VO Vi dt
RC

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 97


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Differentiator
A differentiator is one whose output is the differentiation of the input.
R

i2

V1 i1 G=0
VO

By KCL we have,

i1 i2 1

From the above figure we have

1
Vi i1 dt
C

dVi 1
i1
dt C

dVi
i1 C. 2
dt

and similarly we have

0 VO VO
i2 3
R R

substituting 2 and 3 in 1 we have

dVi VO
C
dt R

dV
VO RC
dt

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 98


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Non-inverting Adder
Non-inverting adder is one whose output is the sum of the constituent inputs.

Let the voltage at the inverting input terminal be Vm. Because of virtual ground at
the input terminals, the voltage at G is also Vm.

Applying KCL at the node G, we have;

The OPAMP along with the resistors R and R f acts as a non-inverting amplifier.

Hence, closed loop voltage gain =

Therefore,

Substituting for Vm, the expression (1) becomes;

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 99


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Let R1 = R2 = R3 = R = Rf/2; then we have, VO = V1 + V2 + V3, on simplification.

The output is the sum of the input voltages, without change of sign. Hence, the
name non-inverting adder.

Subtractor
An OPAMP can function as a subtractor, giving an output voltage which is the
difference of two input voltages. The circuit is mainly a basic differential amplifier in
which all resistors are of equal magnitude.
The output of the amplifier can be computed on the basis of the principle of
superposition. – The waited sum of the output is equal to the sum of the outputs when
separate inputs are considered.
Consider the following subtractor figure.

V1 and V2 are the input voltages at the non-inverting and inverting terminals
respectively. R is the resistor in the feedback path.

Case(1): V01 denote the output with V1 applied and V2 set equal to zero, as shown below.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 100


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Let the potential at node M be VM. We have;

The circuit is non-inverting amplifier with an input V1/2 at the non-inverting input
terminal, and the inverting terminal is grounded through resistance R. Hence, the outpot
may be directly obtained as;

Case(2): Let V02 denote the output with V2 applied and V1 set equal to zero, as shown
below.

This circuit is basically an inverting amplifier whose output is given as;

Hence, when both inputs V1 and V2 are applied, we have the output given by the
principle of superposition as;
V0 = V1 – V2
Hence, the circuit is subtractor.

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Problems

1. For an inverting amplifier Ri=100KΩ and Rf=600KΩ. What is the output


voltage for an input of -3V?

Soln:
Given: R1=100KΩ
Rf=600KΩ
Vi=-3V
VO =?

We have,
Rf
VO Vi
R1
600 103
3
100 103

VO 18 V

2. Design an inverting amplifier for output voltage of -10V and an input voltage
of 1V.

Soln:
Given: Vi =1 V
VO= -10V
We Have,

Rf Rf
VO Vi i.e., 10 1
R1 R1
Rf
10 or R f 10R1
R1

Assu min g R1 1K we have Rf 10K Rf

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Rf

i2
R1

V1 i1
VO

3. For an inverting amplifier R1=10KΩ and Vi =1V. Calculate i1and VO.

Soln:
Given: R1 = 10KΩ, Rf=100KΩ Vi =1 V

We have,

Rf

i2
R1

V1 i1
VO

Vi 0 1
i1 0.1 mA
R1 10 10 3

Rf 100 10 3
VO Vi 1 10 V
R1 10 10 3

4. Design an amplifier with a gain of +9 and Rf =12 KΩ using an op-Amp

Soln:
Since the gain is positive:
Choose a non-inverting amplifier

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Then we have,
Rf
VO 1 Vi
R1
Gain is,
Rf
1 9
R1

Rf
8
R1
Rf 12 103
R1
8 8

R1 1.5 K

5. In the figure shown if V1=+1V, V2=+3V and V3=+2V with R1=R2=R3=2KΩ.


Determine the output voltage.
R1
Rf
V1 i1
If
R2

V2 i2 G=0
VO

V3 R3 i3

Soln: We have ,

Rf
VO V1 V2 V3
R

3 103
VO 1 3 2
2 103

VO 9V

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6. Design an Adder using Op-Amp to give the output voltage VO= -
[2V1+3V2+5V3]

Soln:
Given VO 2V1 3V2 5V3 1

We Have,
V1 V2 V3
VO Rf
R1 R2 R3

Rf Rf Rf
VO V1 V2 V3 2
R1 R2 R3

Equating eqn 1 and 2 we get,

Rf Rf Rf
2 ; 3 ; 5
R1 R2 R3

Assuming Rf =100KΩ, We get,

Rf
R1 R1 50K
2

Rf
R2 R2 33.33K
3

Rf
R3 R3 20K
5

Note: If design is asked after finding the values of R f and R1 circuit diagram should be
written.

7. Design a summing amplifier to add three input voltages. The output of the
amplifier should be twice the negative sum of the inputs.

Soln:

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 105


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VO 2 V1 V2 V3
Rf
we have VO V1 V2 V3
R

Equating we get,

Rf
2 Rf 2R
R

Let R 10K then R f 20K

8. A 5 mV peak voltage, 1 KHz signal is applied to the input of an Op-Amp


integrator for which R=100KΩ and C=1μF. Find the output voltage.

Soln: Given: R=100KΩ, C=1μF, Vm =5mV, F=1KHz, V0 =?

We have Vi = Vm Sinwt = VmSin2пft or Vi=5sin200пt mV

For an integrator,
1
VO Vi dt
RC

on solving,

1
VO cos 200 t mV
40

9. The input to a differentiator is a sindusoidal voltage of peak value 5mV and


frequency 2KHz . Find the output if R = 100KΩ and C=1μF.

Soln: Given:
Vi 5 sin 400 t mV

dVi
for differentiator VO RC
dt

on solving VO 2000 cos 4000 t mV

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 106


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CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE

Cathode Ray Tube

Horizontal
Focusing Deflection
Screen
anode Plates

Accelerating
Grid anode
Base

Vertical
 Cathode Deflection
Electron gun Plates

 Aquadag

 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

 MP, ECE, AIET 3

 The cathode ray tube (CRT) is the heart of CRO. The CRT generates the electron
beam, deflects the beam & also has a screen where beam becomes visible as a
spot. The main parts of CRT are –
– Electron gun
– Deflection system
– Fluorescent screen
– Glass tube or envelope
– Base

1.] Electron Gun:-


● Provides a sharply focused electron beam directed towards the fluorescent
screen. The thermally heated cathode emits the electrons.
● The control grid controls the number of electrons in the beam, going to the
screen.
● The movement of electrons determines the intensity, or brightness of the
light on the screen.
● Since the electron beam consists of many electrons, the beam tends to diverge.
The focusing anode is used to compensate this.

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2.] Deflection System:-
● The deflection system consists of two pairs of parallel plates, called as vertical
& horizontal deflection plates.
● One of the plate is connected to zero volts & the other plate is applied with an
external deflection voltage.
● As the electron beam passes though these plates, it gets deflected vertically &
horizontally, as per the voltage applied.

3.] Fluorescent Screen:-


● The screen is coated with a fluorescent material called phosphor (like
Willemite), which emits light when bombarded by electrons.
● The light produced by the screen does not disappear immediately when the
bombardment by the electrons ceases.
● The time period for which the trace remains on the screen after the signal
becomes zero is known as “persistence” or “fluorescence”. It depends upon the type of
phosphor used.

4.] Glass Tube:-


● All the components of a CRT are enclosed in an evacuated glass tube called
envelope. This allows the emitted electrons to move about freely from one end of the tube
to the other end.

5.] Base:-
● The base is provided to the CRT through which the connections are made to
the various parts.

Block Diagram of CRO

Input Vertical Delay


Signal amplifie line Screen
r
CRT
V H
Electron V H
gun

Trigger Time base Horizontal -ve


Circuit Generator amplifier High Voltage Power
Low Voltage Supply
+ve
Block Diagram of CRO To all circuits
MP, ECE, AIET 7

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 108


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 The various blocks of block diagram of CRO are –
1.] CRT:-
● The CRT generates the electron beam, deflects the beam & also
has a screen where beam becomes visible as a spot.

2.] Vertical Amplifier:-


● The input signals are generally not strong to provide measurable
deflection on the screen. Hence, the vertical amplifier stage is used to
amplify the input signals.

3.] Delay Line:-


● The delay line is used to delay the signal for some time;
otherwise, a part of the signal gets lost.

4.] Trigger Circuit:-


● To synchronize horizontal deflection with vertical deflection, a
synchronizing or triggering circuit is used.

5.] Time Base Generator:-


● It is used to generate the saw-tooth voltage, which is required to
deflect the beam in horizontal section. This voltage deflects the spot at a
constant time dependent rate; thus, the X-axis on the screen represents
the time.

6.] Horizontal Amplifier:-


● The saw-tooth voltage produced by the time base generator may
not be of sufficient strength. Hence, it is amplified by using
horizontal amplifiers.

7.] Power Supply:-


● The power supply block provides the voltage required by CRT to
generate & accelerate the electron beam and the voltages required
by the other circuits of the oscilloscope like horizontal amplifier,
vertical amplifier, etc.

ABSTRACT:
The cathode ray oscilloscope [CRO] is an electronic device, which is capable of giving a
visual indication of a signal waveform. It is widely used for trouble shooting radio and
television receivers as well as laboratory work involving research and design. In addition
the oscilloscope can also be used for measuring voltage, frequency and phase shift.

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Cathode Ray Tube
A cathode ray tube is the heart of the oscilloscope. It is a vacuum tube of special
geometrical shape and converts an electrical signal into visual one. A cathode ray tube
makes available plenty of electrons. These electrons are accelerated to high velocity and
are brought to focus on a fluorescent screen. The electron beam produces a spot of light
wherever it strikes. The electron beam is deflected on its journey in response to the
electrical signal under study. The result is that electrical signal waveform is displayed
visually.

Electron Gun Assembly- The arrangement of electrodes which produce a focused


beam of electrons is called the electron gun. It essentially consists of an indirectly
heated cathode, control grid, a focusing anode, and an accelerating anode. The control
grid is held at negative potential with respect to cathode whereas the two anodes are
maintained at high potential with respect to cathode.

The cathode consists of a nickel cylinder coated with oxide coating and provides
plenty of electrons. The focusing anode focuses the electron beam into a sharp pin –
point by controlling the positive potential on it. The positive potential ( about 10,000
V) on the accelerating anode is much higher than on the focusing anode. Therefore
this anode accelerates the narrow beam to a high velocity.

Deflection plate assembly-


1. Vertical deflection plates
2. Horizontal deflection plates

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The vertical deflection plates are mounted horizontally in the tube. By applying
proper potential to these plates, the electron beam can be made to move up and down
vertically on the fluorescent screen. An appropriate potential on horizontal plates can
cause the electron beam to move right and left horizontally on the screen.

Screen-The screen is the inside face of the tube and is coated with some fluorescent
material such as Zinc Orthosilicate, Zinc oxide etc. When high velocity electron beam
strikes the screen, a spot of light is produced at the point of impact.

Action of CRT

O1
++++++

___ _ __ O

O2

When the cathode is heated, it emits plenty of electrons. The control grid
influences the amount of current flow. As the electron beam leaves the control
grid, it comes under the influence of focusing and accelerating anode. As the two
anodes are maintained at high potential, therefore they produce a field which acts
as an electrostatic lens to converge the electron beam at a point on the screen.

As the electron beam leaves the accelerating anode, it comes under the influence
of vertical and horizontal deflection plates. If no voltage is applied to the
deflection plates, the electron will produce spot of light at the center (point O ) of
the screen. If the voltage is applied to vertical plates only, the electron beam and
hence the spot of light will be deflected upwards (point O1 ). The spot of light will
be deflected downwards (O2) of the potential on the plate is reversed. Similarly
the spot of light can be moved horizontally by applying voltage across the
horizontal plates.

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Signal Pattern on Screen

CRO Screen
2 2

1 3 5
t 1 3 5

4
_ +

Saw-tooth wave applied across horizontal plate

If the signal voltage is applied to the vertical plates and saw tooth wave to the
horizontal plates, we get the exact pattern of the signal as shown in figure.
When the signal is at instant 1, its amplitude is zero. But at this instant, maximum
voltage is applied to the horizontal plates. The result is that the beam is at the
extreme left on the screen as shown. When the signal is at instant 2, its amplitude
is maximum. However the –ve voltage on he horizontal plate is decreased.
Therefore the beam is deflected upwards by the signal and towards the right by
the saw tooth wave. The result is that the beam now strikes the screen at point 2.
On similar reasoning, the beam strikes the screen at points 3,4 and 5. Therefore
exact signal pattern appears on the screen.

Various controls on CRO


In order to facilitate the proper functioning of CRO, various controls are provided
on the front panel of the CRO.

1. Intensity Control-The knob of intensity control regulates the bias on the control
grid and affects the electron beam intensity.If the negative bias on the grid is
increased, the intensity of electron beam is decreased, thus reducing the
brightness of the spot.

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2. Focus Control- It regulates the positive potential on the focusing anode. If the
positive potential on this anode is increased, the electron beam becomes quite
narrow and the spot on the screen is a pin-point.
3. Vertical position control- The knob of vertical position control regulates the
amplitude of d.c. potential which is applied to the vertical deflection plates in
addition to the signal. By adjusting this control, the image can be moved up or
down as required.

Applications of CRO
1. Examination of waveforms
2. Voltage measurements
3. Frequency measurements

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 113


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UNIT – 7

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Radio Broadcasting, Transmission and Reception

Radio communication means the radiation of radio waves by the transmitting station, the
propagation of these waves through space and their reception by the radio receiver.

Fig. below shows the general principle of radio broadcasting, transmission and reception.
It essentially consists of transmitter, transmission of radio waves and radio receiver.

Receiving
Audio Transmitting Antenna
Amplifiers Antenna

Oscillator Modulator Radio


receiver

Block diagram of Radio Communication system

Transmitter-
It essentially consists of microphone, audio amplifiers, oscillator and modulator.

A microphone is a device which converts sound waves into electrical waves. The
output of microphone is fed to multistage audio amplifier for raising the strength of weak
signal.
The job of amplification is performed by cascaded audio amplifiers. The
amplified output from the last audio amplifier is fed to the modulator for rendering the
process of modulation.
The function of the oscillation is to produce a high frequency signal called a
carrier wave. Usually crystal oscillator is used for the purpose.

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The amplified audio signal and carrier waves are fed to the modulator. Here the
audio signal is superimposed on the carrier wave in suitable manner. The resultant waves
are called modulated waves, and the process is called modulation. The process of
modulation permits the transmission of audio signal at the carrier signal (frequency). As
the carrier frequency is very high, therefore the audio signal can be transmitted to large
distances. The radio waves from the transmitter are fed to the transmitting antenna or
aerial from where these are radiated into space.
The transmitting antenna radiates the radio waves in space in all directions. These
radio waves travel with the velocity of light 3x10 8 m/sec. The radio waves are
electromagnetic waves and possess the same general properties.

Receiver-
On reaching the receiving antenna, the radio waves induce tiny emf in it. This
small voltage is fed to the radio receiver. Here the radio waves are first amplified and
then signal is extracted from them by the process of demodulation. The signal is
amplified by audio amplifiers and then fed to the speaker for reproduction into sound
waves.

Need for modulation


1. Practical Antenna length- Theory shows that in order to transmit a wave effectively
the length of the transmitting antenna should be approximately equal to the
wavelength of the wave.
Velocity 3 108
wavelength metres
frequency frequency ( Hz )

As the audio frequencies range from 20 Hz to 20 KHz, if they are transmitted


directly into space, the length of the transmitting antenna required would be extremely
large. For example to radiate a frequency of 20 KHz directly into space we would need
an antenna length of 3x108 /20x103 ≈ 15,000 meters. This is too long to be constructed
practically. However, if the audio-signals are transmitted, after modulation using carrier
waves, at 1MHz frequency, the height of the antennas needed is only 75 meters.

2. Operating Range- The energy of a wave depends upon its frequency. The greater
the frequency of the wave, the greater the energy possessed by it. As the audio signal
frequencies are small, therefore these cannot be transmitted over large distances if
radiated directly into space.

3. Wireless communication- Radio transmission should be carried out without wires.

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4. Audio signals (20 Hz to 20 KHz) cannot be directly transmitted over long distances,
because it would require enormous power.

5. If several audio frequencies within 20 KHz, are transmitted directly without


modulation, then they get mixed-up, and proper reception of the signals at the
receiving end would pose problem. On the other hand, if these signals are transmitted
at radio frequency with due modulation, separation of the signals at the receiving end
is quite easy, with the use of proper tuned circuits.

The process of controlling the radio-frequency carrier wave by altering its


amplitude or frequency in accordance with the strength of an audio signal is called as
modulation.

 Types:-
1. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave is altered in
accordance with the strength of the modulating signal.
2. In frequency modulation, the frequency of the carrier wave is altered in
accordance with the strength of the modulating signal.

The process of getting back the modulating signal from the modulated carrier
wave is termed as demodulation or detection.

Amplitude modulation
When the amplitude of high frequency carrier wave is changed in accordance with
the intensity of the signal, it is called amplitude modulation.

The following points are to be noted in amplitude modulation.


1. The amplitude of the carrier wave changes according to the intensity of the signal.
2. The amplitude variation of the carrier wave is at the signal frequency fS.
3. The frequency of the amplitude modulated wave remains the same i.e., carrier
frequency fC.

Modulation factor
The ratio of change of amplitude of carrier wave to the amplitude of normal
carrier wave is called modulation factor.

M = {amplitude change of carrier wave} / {normal carrier wave (unchanged)}

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vm

vc

vAM

AM waveforms

A
+ No signal =

Carrier m = 0/A = 0%

2A
+ =

Carrier Signal

m = (2A-A)/A = 1
Illustration of modulation factor (modulation index)

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Modulation factor is very important since it determines the strength and quality of
the transmitted signal. The greater the degree of modulation, the stronger and clearer will
be the audio signal. It should be noted that if the carrier is over modulated (i.e., m > 1)
distortion will occur at reception.

Analysis of amplitude modulated wave

Signal

mVc

Vc Vc

Carrier
AM Wave

A carrier wave is represented by, vc = Vc sin wct


A modulating signal is represented by, vm = Vm sin wmt
Note that Vm < Vc
Where vc ------instantaneous voltage of carrier,
Vm____ instantaneous voltage of signal,
Vc____ amplitude of carrier,
Vm____ amplitude of modulating signal.

In amplitude modulation, the amplitude Vc of the carrier wave is varied in


accordance with the instantaneous amplitude vm (= Vm sin wmt) of the modulating signal.

Let A be the amplitude of the modulated wave. It is evident that A = V C + vm, since VC is
made proportional to instantaneous value vm of the modulating signal. Hence,

A = Vc + Vm sin wmt (since, vm = Vm sin wmt)

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A=

Now, the instantaneous value of the amplitude modulated wave v AM is given by;
vAM
A sin wc t

VC (1 m sin wm t ) sin wc t

VC sin wc t mVC sin wm t sin wc t

mVC
VC sin wc t [2 sin wm t sin wc t ]
2

mVc
VC sin wc t [cos(wc wm )t cos(wc wm )t ]
2

mVc mVc
VC cos wc t cos(wc wm )t cos(wc wm )t (1)
2 2

The AM wave is equivalent to the summation of three sinusoidal waves: one


having amplitude Vc and frequency fc, the second having amplitude mVc/2 and
frequency (fc + fm) and the third having amplitude mVc/2 and frequency fc – fm.
The AM wave consists three frequencies viz, fc, fc + fm and fc – fm. The first
frequency is the carrier frequency. Thus the process of modulation does not
change the original carrier frequency but produces two new frequencies fc + fs
and fc – fs. which are called side-band frequencies.
In amplitude modulation the bandwidth is from fc – fm. to fc + fm i.e., 2fm i.e.,
twice the signal frequency.
Frequency spectrum of an amplitude modulated wave is shown in figure below.

` Vc

mVc/2

fC-fm fC fC+fm frequency

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Transistor AM modulator

A circuit which does amplitude modulation is called AM modulator.

Fig. above shows the circuit of a simple AM modulator. It is essentially a CE


amplifier having a voltage gain of A. The carrier signal is the input to the amplifier. The
modulating signal is applied in the emitter resistance circuit.

The amplifier circuit amplifies the carrier by a factor “A” so that the output is Ae c.
Since the modulating signal is part of the biasing circuit it produces low-frequency
variations in the circuit. This in turn causes variations in “A”. The result is that the
amplitude of the carrier varies in accordance with the strength of the signal. The
amplitude modulated output is obtained across RL.

Power in AM wave
We have, from equation (1);
mVc mVc
v AM VC cos wc t cos(wc wm )t cos(wc wm )t
2 2
Hence,

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2
Vc
2 VC2
Carrier power P C (2)
R 2R

2 2
mVC mVC
2 2 2 2 m 2VC2
Total power of sidebands PS (3)
R R 4R

Total power of AM wave PT PC PS


VC2 m 2VC2 VC2 m2
1
2R 4R 2R 2

VC2 2 m 2
2R 2
m2
or, PT PC 1 (4)
2

PT
or, mod ulationindex, m 2 1 (5)
PC

Transmission Efficiency of AM

PS equn (3) m2 m2
*100% (6)
PT equn (4) 2 m2 2 m2
Vc + Vm sin wmt
Equation for Modulation Index Vm
Vmin Vmax
Vc Vm

- (Vc + Vm sin wmt)

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From the figure shown above;

We know that; the modulation index

Limitations of Amplitude Modulation


1. Noisy Reception- In an AM wave, the signal is in the amplitude variations of the
carrier. Practically all the natural and man-made noises consist of electrical
amplitude disturbances. As a radio receiver cannot distinguish between amplitude
variations that represent noise and those that contain the desired signal. Therefore
reception is very noisy.
2. Low efficiency- In AM useful power is in the sidebands as they contain the
signal. An AM wave has low sideband power.
For example even if modulation is 100 % ie m=1.
PS m2 1
2
0.33 or, PS=33% of PT
pT 2 m 2 1
Sideband power is only one-third of the total power of AM wave. Hence
efficiency of this type of modulation is low.
3. Lack of audio quality- In order to attain high fidelity reception, all audio
frequencies up to 15 KHz must be reproduced. This necessitates a bandwidth of
30 KHz since both sidebands must be reproduced (2fs). But AM broadcasting
stations are assigned with bandwidth of only 10 KHz to minimize the interference
from adjacent broadcasting stations. This means that the highest modulating
frequency can be 5 KHz which is hardly sufficient to reproduce the music
properly.

Frequency modulation
“When the frequency of carrier wave is altered in accordance with the intensity of
the signal, it is called frequency modulation”.
Here the amplitude of the modulated wave remains the same. i.e., carrier wave
amplitude.
The frequency variations of carrier wave depend upon the instantaneous
amplitude of the signal.

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When the signal approaches positive peaks as the B and F, the carrier frequency is
increased to maximum and during negative peak; the carrier frequency is reduced
to minimum as shown by widely spaced cycles.
Signal
b f

a c e g t

t
Carrier

t
FM wave

Let the un-modulated carrier wave be represented as; vc = Vc cos (wct + φ)


Where, Vc = amplitude of the carrier wave,
wc = angular frequency of the carrier, and
Φ = the phase of the carrier wave.

When a sinusoidal modulating wave is superimposed on the carrier wave, the


frequency of the carrier wave changes – the change in the carrier frequency is termed as
frequency deviation, and is denoted as Δf.

Let vm = Vm cos wmt be represent the modulating signal.


The instantaneous angular frequency of the modulated wave is given as;
w = wc + wcKvm where, K is a constant.
= wc + wcKVm cos wmt
= wc[1 + KVm cos wmt]
Putting w = 2∏f and wc = 2∏fc, the above expression becomes;
f = fc[1 + KVm cos wmt]

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Also, for maximum frequency deviation, i.e., when cos w mt = 1; we have,
f = fc[1 KVm]
From the above expression, we get the frequency deviation Δf = KVmfc

The modulated signal may be represented in the general form as, vFM = Vc cos θ
where, Vc = amplitude of the carrier wave,
θ = an angle to be evaluated.

It is obvious that θ depends upon the angular frequencies w c and wm.


i.e., θ = F(wc, wm)

Hence, we have; θ =

Or, θ =

Putting KVmfc = Δf; θ =

Where the ratio is termed as modulation index, and is denoted as mf. It is defined as
the ratio of maximum frequency deviation to the frequency of the modulating signal.

Therefore; θ=

Now, the modulated carrier wave is represented as; vFM = Vc cos θ

Or, vFM = Vc cos

Band-width (BW)
In AM, there are only two side-bands. But, in FM, we can show that, there are
infinite side-bands in the frequency spectrum of FM carrier-wave.
The band-width of a FM wave is usually obtained on the basis of Carsen’s Rule;
given as – (BW)FM = 2(Δf + fm) = 2(mf + 1)fm

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Advantages of Frequency Modulation:-


1. The amplitude of FM wave is constant; and hence, the transmitted power is also
constant; independent of modulation depth. Hence, low level modulation can be
employed in FM transmitters.
2. All the transmitted power is useful in FM.
3. FM reception is more immune to noise as amplitude limiter circuits are used.
4. The signal-to-noise ratio can be increased in FM by increasing the frequency
deviation.
5. Adjacent channel interference is less in FM, as guard band is provided in
commercial FM transmitters.
6. Since FM operates in VHF & UHF range, the propagation is line of sight
propagation by space wave. Also, the noise effect will be less in this range.

Disadvantages of Frequency Modulation:-


1. A much larger bandwidth is required for the FM transmission.
2. The service area of FM transmitter is much less as FM reception is limited to
radio horizon up to line of sight.
3. FM transmitter & receiver are complicated.

Comparison – AM & FM

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Demodulation
The process of recovering the audio signal from the modulated wave is known as
demodulation or detection.

At the broadcasting station, modulation is done to transmit the audio signal over
larger distances. When the modulated wave is picked up the receiver, it is necessary
to recover the audio signal from it. This process is accomplished in the radio receiver
and is called demodulation.

AM diode detector
The fig. below shows a simple diode detector employing a diode and a filter
circuit. A detector circuit performs the following two functions.
1. It rectifies the modulated wave.
2. It separates the audio signal from the carrier.

Speaker

Audio output

Rectified
Wave

AM Wave

The modulated wave of desired frequency is selected by the parallel tuned circuit
L1C1 and is applied to the diode. During positive half cycles of the modulated
wave the diode conducts, while during negative half cycles it does not. The result
is the output of diode consists of positive half cycle of modulated wave as shown
in figure.

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The rectified output consists of r.f. component and the audio signal which cannot
be fed to the speaker for sound reproduction. The r.f. component is filtered by the
capacitor „C‟ shunted across the speaker. The value of „C‟ is large enough to
present low reactance to the r.f. component. fc+fs Therefore signal is passed to the
speaker.

AM Radio Receiver
In order to reproduce the AM wave into sound waves, every radio receiver must
perform the following functions.
1. The receiving aerial must intercept a portion of the passing radio waves.
2. The radio receiver must select the desired radio from a number of radio
waves intercepted by the receiving aerial. For this purpose tuned parallel
LC circuits must be used. These circuits will select only that radio
frequency which is resonant with them.
3. The selected radio wave must be amplified by the tuned frequency
amplifiers.
4. The audio signal must be recovered from the amplified radio wave.
5. The audio signal must be amplified by suitable number of audio-
amplifiers.
6. The amplified audio signal should be fed to the speaker for sound
reproduction.

Types of AM radio receivers


1. Straight Radio receiver
2. Superhetrodyne radio receiver

Straight Radio Receiver


Receiving antenna

RF amplifier

Detector AF
amplifier

The Receiving antenna is receiving radio waves from different broadcasting


stations. The desired radio wave is selected by the tuned RF amplifier which

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employs tuned parallel circuit. The selected radio wave is amplified by the rf
amplifier.
The amplified radio wave is fed to the detector circuit. This circuit extracts the
audio signal from the radio wave. The output of the detector is the audio signal
which is amplified by one or more stages of audio-amplifications. The amplified
audio signal is fed the speaker for sound reproduction.

Limitations-
1. In straight radio receivers, tuned circuits are used. As it is necessary to change the
value of variable capacitors (gang capacitors) for tuning to the desired station,
there is a considerable variation of Q between the closed and open positions of the
variable capacitors. This changes the sensitivity and selectivity of the radio
receivers.
2. There is too much interference of adjacent stations.

Superhetrodyne Receiver
Here the selected radio frequency is converted to a fixed lower value called
intermediate frequency (IF). This is achieved by special electronic circuit called mixer
circuit. The production of fixed intermediate frequency (455 KHz) is an important feature
of superhetrodyne circuit. At this fixed intermediate frequency, the amplifier circuit
operates with maximum stability, selectivity and sensitivity.
The block diagram of superhetrodyne receiver is a shown in figure below.

Receiving antenna

RF amplifier Mixer 455KHz

IF Detector AF amplifier
C1 L1 L2
Amplifier
c2

Speaker

C3 L3
Ganged to a common shaft Local Oscillator

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Working: The following are the stages involved in the working of superheterodyne
receiver.
1. RF amplifier stage- The RF amplifier stage uses a tuned parallel circuit L1C1
with a variable capacitor C1. The radio waves from various broadcasting stations
are intercepted by the receiving aerial and are coupled to this stage. This stage
selects the desired radio wave and raises the strength of the wave to the desired
level.
2. Mixer stage- The amplified output of RF amplifier is fed to the mixer stage
where it is combined with the output of a local oscillator. The two frequencies
beat together and produce an intermediate frequency (IF).

IF= Oscillator frequency –radio frequency

The IF is always 455 KHz regardless of the frequency to which the


receiver is tuned. The reason why the mixer will always produce 455 KHz
frequency above the radio frequency is that oscillator always produces a
frequency 455 KHz above the selected frequency. In practice, capacitance of C3 is
designed to tune the oscillator to a frequency higher than radio frequency by 455
KHz.
3. IF amplifier stage- The output of mixer is always 455 KHz and is fed to fixed
tuned IF amplifiers. These amplifiers are tuned to one frequency (i.e., 455 KHz).
4. Detector stage- The output from the last IF amplifier stage is coupled to the input
of the detector stage. Here the audio signal is extracted from the IF output.
Usually diode detector circuit is used because of its low distortion and excellent
audio fidelity.
5. AF amplifier stage- The audio signal output of detector stage is fed to a
multistage audio amplifier. Here the signal is amplified until it is sufficiently
strong to drive the speaker. The speaker converts the audio signal into sound
waves corresponding to the original sound at the broadcasting station.

Advantages of Superhetrodyne Circuit –


1. High RF amplification
2. Improved selectivity-losses in the tuned circuits are lower at intermediate
frequency. Therefore the quality factor Q of the tuned circuits is increased. This
makes amplifier circuits to operate with maximum selectivity.
3. Lower cost.

Radio Telegraphy & Radio Telephony

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NUMBER SYSTEMS

Comparison between Analog (Linear) IC’s & Digital IC’s:-

Analog IC / Electronics Digital IC / Electronics


1. The inputs & outputs can assume 1. The input & output voltages
continuously varying values. can take only two possible
values – a low voltage & a
high voltage.
2. Outputs are proportional to 2. Output need not be
inputs. proportional to input.
3. With reference to a load line, 3. Only two non-adjacent
adjacent points on the load line points on the load line,
are used, so that the output preferably cut-off &
voltage is continuous. saturation, are chosen for
operation.
4. Continuous variation of output 5. Digital operation results if
results if the input is sinusoidal. the input is a square wave.

Binary Number System:-


 Digital operation implies two stages – a high state or a low state of
voltage.
 A high voltage is represented by a 1, and a low voltage is represented
by a 0.
 Since only two states – a high voltage level & a low voltage level – are
involved, the operation is binary in nature.
 The digits 0 & 1 are accordingly termed as binary digits or bits.

 Some examples of binary operation are –


– A mechanical switch: Either closed or open,
– A lamp: Either lighted or dark,
– A statement: Either true or false,
– Punched cards: A hole in the card stands for 1 & absence of hole
represents 0,
– The presence or absence of a signal.

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Decimal, Binary, Octal & Hexadecimal Numbers:-

Binary to Decimal Conversion:-


 In decimal system, any number can be expressed as a string of ten
digits – 0 through 9. Since, the system uses 10 digits, it is called base
10 system.
 Similarly a binary system uses only two symbols or bits – 0 & 1.
hence, it is termed as base 2 system.
 In any system, each digit has two values – its intrinsic value & the
positional value.
4
 For the base 10 system, the positional values of the digits are – … 10 ,
3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4
10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 …

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4
 For the base 2 system, the positional values of the digits are – … 2 ,
3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4
2, 2, 2 , 2, 2 , 2 , 2 , 2 …
 Each digit is multiplied with its positional value & the sum of all the
products gives the equivalent decimal number.

 Examples:-
1. Consider the decimal number 34568. we have;
4 3 2 1 0
34568 = 3 * 10 + 4 * 10 + 5 * 10 + 6 * 10 + 8 * 10 .
= 30,000 + 4,000 + 500 + 60 + 8.

2. Consider the binary number 1110. We have;


3 2 1 0
1110 = 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 0 * 2 .

 Problems:-
1) Show that 11011 = 27 .
2 10
4 3 2 1 0
11011 = 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 0 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 .
2
= 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 27.

2) Convert binary 0.11011 to equivalent decimal fraction.


-1 -2 -3 -4 -5
0.11011 = 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 0 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 .
2
= ½ + ¼ + 0 + 1/16 + 1/32 = 27/32 = 0.84375.

3) Convert binary 111011.1011 to equivalent decimal fraction.


5 4 3 2 1 0
111011.1011 = (1 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 0 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 ) +
2
-1 -2 -3 -4
(1 * 2 + 0 * 2 + 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 ).

= (32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 1) + (1/2 + 0 + 1/8 + 1/16).


= (59) + (11/16) = 59.6875 .
10

 Homework:-
1. Show that 101101 = 45 .
2 10
2. Show that 1110 = 14 .
2 10
3. Convert binary 0.1011 to equivalent decimal fraction.
4. Convert 10000011.1001 into equivalent decimal number.

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Decimal to Binary Conversion:-

 (A) Integers:-
 The given decimal number (i.e., integer) is repeatedly divided by 2,
which is the base number of binary system, until the remainder
becomes 0 or 1.
 The string of remainders from bottom to the top is the binary
equivalent of the decimal integer.

 (B) Fractions:-
 In order to convert a decimal fraction to its binary equivalent, the
-1
fraction is repeatedly multiplied by 2 (i.e., divided by 2 ) until the
fraction becomes zero, or to the desired number of places after the
binary point.
 The string of integers obtained from top to the bottom gives the
equivalent fraction in the binary number system.

 Problems:-
1) Convert decimal 127 into equivalent binary number.
2) Find the binary equivalent of the decimal fraction 0.375.
3) Convert 131.5625 into equivalent binary number.
10

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 Homework:-

1. Convert decimal 64 into equivalent binary number.


2. Convert decimal 43 into equivalent binary number.
3. Convert the decimal fraction 0.4375 to its binary equivalent.
4. Convert 5.4 to equivalent binary number.
10
5. If 4096 = X , find X.
10 2

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Binary Addition:-

 Basic rules of binary addition are –


a) 0+0=0
b) 0+1=1
c) 1+0=1
d) 1 + 1 = 10 (0, with carry 1)

 Problems:-
1) Add 1011 and 1110. 2) Add 101.10 and 111.11.

 Homework:-
1. Add (a) 101101 and 110101, & (b) 101.10 and 111.11.
2. Convert decimal numbers 25 and 37 to equivalent binary numbers,
add them, and express the sum in binary form. Check your answer.

Binary Subtraction:-

I method:- The sign of the number to be subtracted (i.e., subtrahend) is


changed & it is added to the other number (i.e., minuend).

 Example:-
1) 11 1011 2) 6.625 110.101
- 07 - 0111 - 4.875 - 100.111
04 0100 1.750 001.110

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II method [2’s Compliment]:-

Case 1: If the subtrahend is less than the minuend: The 2’s


compliment of the subtrahend is added to the minuend, and the carry
at the leftmost position (i.e., the most significant digit) is disregarded.

 Example:-
{ 10’s Complement }
1) 49 – 24: 49
+ 76 Replace 24 by 10’s compliment (99 – 24 + 1).
1 25 Ignore the carry.

{ 2’s Complement }
1010 – 111 : 1000 1’s compliment of 111.
2 2

+ 1 Add 1 to get 2’s compliment.


1001
+ 1010 Add the minuend.
1 0011 Ignore the carry.

II method [2’s Compliment]:-

Case 2: If the subtrahend is greater than the minuend: The 2’s


compliment of the subtrahend is added to the minuend. Now, take 2’s
compliment of the sum obtained & assign the – sign.

 Example:-

{ 10’s Complement }
1) 24 – 49: 24
+ 51 Replace 49 by 10’s compliment (99 – 49 + 1).
0 75 Take 10’s compliment & assign – sign.
- 25 Answer

{ 2’s Complement }
111 – 1010 : 0101 1’s compliment of subtrahend.
2 2

+ 1 Add 1 to get 2’s compliment.


0110
+ 0111 Add the minuend.
1101 Take 2’s compliment & assign – sign.
- 0011 Answer.

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III method [1’s Compliment]:-

Case 1:If the subtrahend is less than the minuend: The 1’s
compliment of the subtrahend is added to the minuend, and the carry
1 at the extreme left is carried to the extreme right, and it is added.

 Example:-
{ 9’s Compliment }

1) 49 – 24: 49
+ 75 Replace 24 by 9’s compliment: (99 – 24).
1 24
+ 1 Add the carry here.
25

{ 1’s Compliment }
1010 – 111 : 1000 1’s compliment of 111.
2 2

+ 1010 Add the minuend.


1 0010
+1 Add the carry here.
0011

III method [1’s Compliment]:-

Case 2:If the subtrahend is greater than the minuend: The 1’s
compliment of the subtrahend is added to the minuend, and then get
the 1’s compliment of sum, and assign a – sign to it.

 Example:-
{ 9’s Compliment }
1) 24 – 49: 24
+ 50 Replace 49 by 9’s compliment: (99 – 49).
0 74 Compliment the sum & assign - sign, since the
- 25 subtrahend is greater.

{ 1’s Compliment }
111 – 1010 : 0101 1’s compliment of 1010.
2 2

+ 0111 Add the minuend.


0 1100 Compliment the sum & assign – sign, since
- 0011 the subtrahend is greater.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 138


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 Problems:-
1) Subtract 100100 from 1010010 in 2’s & 1’s compliment methods.

1011011 1’s compliment of 100100.


+ 1 Add 1 to get the 2’s compliment.
1011100
+1010010 Add the minuend.
1 0101110 Ignore the carry. { 2’s compliment method }

1011011 1’s compliment of 100100.


+ 1010010 Add the minuend.
1 0101101
+ 1 Add the carry generated.
0101110 { 1’s compliment method }

2) Subtract 1010010 from 100100 in 2’s & 1’s compliment methods.

0101101 1’s compliment of 1010010 (subtrahend).


+ 1 Add 1 to get the 2’s compliment.
0101110
+ 0100100 Add the minuend.
1010010 Take 2’s compliment & assign – sign.
- 0101110 Answer. {2’s compliment}
0101101 1’s compliment of 1010010 (subtrahend).
+ 0100100 Add the minuend.
1010001 Take 1’s compliment & assign - sign,
- 0101110 since subtrahend is greater. {1’s compliment}

 Note:-
 1’s Compliment Method:-
o If Carry is 1: Add it to LSB.
o If Carry is 0: Take 1’s compliment & Assign –ve sign.

 2’s Compliment Method:-


o If Carry is 1: Ignore that.
o If Carry is 0: Take 2’s compliment & Assign –ve sign.

 To Convert from Base N to Decimal:-


o Multiply Position Value.

 To Convert from Decimal to Base N:-


o Divide by N.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 139


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 Homework:-
1. Subtract 36 from 82, putting both numbers in binary form & check the
result.
2. Subtract 246 from 213 by expressing them in binary form & check
your answer.
3. Find, using 2’s compliment method, 1111 – 101 .
2 2

Octal to Decimal Conversion:-


 In decimal system, any number can be expressed as a string of ten
digits – 0 through 9. Since, the system uses 10 digits, it is called base
10 system.
 Similarly a octal system uses only eight symbols – 0 through 7.
 In any system, each digit has two values – its intrinsic value & the
positional value.
 For the base 10 system, the positional values of the digits are – … 104,
103, 102, 101, 100, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4 …
 For the octal system, the positional values of the digits are – … 84, 83,
82, 81, 80, 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, 8-4 …
 Each digit is multiplied with its positional value & the sum of all the
products gives the equivalent decimal number.
 Problems:-
1) Convert 158 to decimal.
158 = 1 * 81 + 5 * 80.
= 8 + 5 = 1310.

2) Convert octal 15.6 into equivalent decimal number.


15.68 = (1 * 81 + 5 * 80 ) + (6 * 8-1 ).
= (8 + 5) 0 + 6/8 = 13.7510.

 Homework:-
1. Find the decimal equivalent of octal number 72.
2. Convert the octal number 2376 into decimal number.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 140


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
Decimal to Octal Conversion:-

 (A) Integers:-
 The given decimal number (i.e., integer) is repeatedly divided by 8,
which is the base number of octal system, until the remainder
becomes 0 through 7.
 The string of remainders from bottom to the top is the binary
equivalent of the decimal integer.

 (B) Fractions:-
 In order to convert a decimal fraction to its octal equivalent, the
fraction is repeatedly multiplied by 8 (i.e., divided by 8 -1), until the
fraction becomes zero, or to the desired number of places after the
binary point.
 The string of integers obtained from top to the bottom gives the
equivalent fraction in the octal number system.

 Problems:-
1) Convert 47 to equivalent octal number.
2) Convert the decimal number 4429.625 into equivalent octal number.

 Homework:-
1. Convert 93210 to equivalent octal number.
2. If 33210 = X8, find X.
3. If 632.9710 = X8, what is the value of X.

Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion:-


 In decimal system, any number can be expressed as a string of ten
digits – 0 through 9. Since, the system uses 10 digits, it is called base
10 system.
 Similarly a hexadecimal system uses sixteen symbols – 0 through 9 &
A through F.
 In any system, each digit has two values – its intrinsic value & the
positional value.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 141


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 For the base 10 system, the positional values of the digits are – … 104,
103, 102, 101, 100, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4 …
 For the hexadecimal system, the positional values of the digits are – …
164, 163, 162, 161, 160, 16-1, 16-2, 16-3, 16-4 …
 Each digit is multiplied with its positional value & the sum of all the
products gives the equivalent decimal number.

 Problems:-
1) Convert 1516 to decimal.
1516 = 1 * 161 + 5 * 160.
= 16 + 5 = 2110.

2) Convert B816 to decimal.


B816 = B * 161 + 8 * 160.
= 11 * 16 + 8 = 18410.

3) Convert 9.1A16 into equivalent decimal number.


9.1AH = (9 * 160 ) + (1 * 16-1 + A * 16-2).
= (9) + (1/16 + 10/256) = 9.101562510.

 Homework:-
1. Find the decimal equivalent of AB416 & B6C7H.
2. Convert into decimal equivalent of FACEH & CAD.BFH.

Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion:-

 (A) Integers:-
 The given decimal number (i.e., integer) is repeatedly divided by 16,
which is the base number of hexadecimal system, until the remainder
becomes 0 through 15.
 The string of remainders from bottom to the top is the binary
equivalent of the decimal integer.

 (B) Fractions:-
 In order to convert a decimal fraction to its hexadecimal equivalent,
the fraction is repeatedly multiplied by 16 (i.e., divided by 16 -1), until
the fraction becomes zero, or to the desired number of places after the
binary point.
 The string of integers obtained from top to the bottom gives the
equivalent fraction in the octal number system.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 142


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 Problems:-
1) Convert 24 to equivalent hexadecimal number.

 Homework:-
1. Convert 51310 to equivalent hexadecimal number.
2. If 134310 = XH, find X.
3. Convert 2604.10546875 to hexadecimal number.

Addition & Subtraction in Octal Arithmetic:-

 Addition:-
 The sum of two octal digits is the same as their decimal sum, provided
the decimal sum is less than 8.
 If the decimal sum is 8 or greater, subtract 8 to obtain the octal digit.
 A carry of 1 is produced when the decimal sum is corrected this way.

 Problems:-
1) Add (a) 6478 and 5668, & (b) 27.348, and 11.768.
647 27.34
+566 + 11.76
1 4 3 58 4 1 . 3 28

 Subtraction:-
1. Using 8’s Compliment:-
 Find the 8’s compliment of the subtrahend & then add it to the
minuend.
 If the carry is produced, discard it & the answer is positive.
 If the carry is 0, find the 8’s compliment of the sum & assign a – sign.

2. Using 7’s Compliment:-


 Find the 7’s compliment of subtrahend & then add it to the minuend.
 If carry is produced in the addition, add carry in the LSB of the sum.
 If the carry is zero, find the 7’s compliment of the sum & assign –
sign.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 143


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 Problems:-
1) 3648 – 1268 .
652 8’s compliment of 126 (777-126+1).
+364 Add to the minuend.
1 2 3 68 Discard the carry.

2) 34.228 – 417.548.
360.24 8’s compliment of 417.54 (777-417.54+1).
+034.22 Add to the minuend.
4 1 4 . 4 68 No carry – hence, take 8’s compliment.
777.00
-414.46
362.32 +1=-363.32

 Problems:-
1) 3648 – 1268 .
651 7’s compliment of 126 (777-126).
+364 Add to the minuend.
1 2 3 58 Add the carry generated.
+ 1
236

2) 34.228 – 417.548.
357.24 7’s compliment of 417.54 (777-417.54).
+034.22 Add to the minuend.
4 1 3 . 4 68 No carry – hence, take 7’s compliment.
- 3 6 3 . 3 28 (777.00 - 413.46 = 363.32)

 Homework:-
1. Add (a) 1678 and 3258, & (b) 3418, 1258, 4728, and 5778.
2. (a) 2418 – 6538, & (b) 250.458 – 415.158.

Addition & Subtraction in Hexadecimal Arithmetic:-

 Addition:-
 The sum of two hexadecimal digits is the same as their decimal sum,
provided the decimal sum is less than 16.
 If the decimal sum is 16 or greater, subtract 16 to obtain the octal
digit.
 A carry of 1 is produced when the decimal sum is corrected this way.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 144


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 Problems:-
1) Add (a) 3F7H and 5B4H.
3F7
+5B4
9 A BH

 Subtraction:-
1. Using 16’s Compliment:-
 Find the 16’s compliment of the subtrahend & then add it to the
minuend.
 If the carry is produced, discard it & the answer is positive.
 If the carry is 0, find the 16’s compliment of the sum & assign a –
sign.
2. Using 15’s Compliment:-
 Find the 15’s compliment of subtrahend & then add it to the minuend.
 If carry is produced in the addition, add carry in the LSB of the sum.
 If the carry is zero, find the 15’s compliment of the sum & assign –
sign.

 Problems:-
1) C9B4H – AC4FH.
53B1 16’s compliment of AC4F (FFFF-AC4F+1).
+C9B4 Add to the minuend.
1 D 6 5H Discard the carry if any.

2) B4D.A2H – 7C9.EDH.
836.13 16’scompliment of 7C9.ED (FFFF-7C9.ED+1).
+ B 4 D. A 2 Add to the minuend.
1 3 8 3 . B 5H Ignore carry.

 Problems:-
1) C9B4H – AC4FH.
53B0 15’s compliment of AC4F (FFFF-AC4F).
+C9B4 Add to the minuend.
1 1 D 6 4H Add the carry to LSB.
1 D 6 5H

2) B4D.A2H – 7C9.EDH.
835.13 15’scompliment of 7C9.ED (FFFF-7C9.ED).
+ B 4 D. A 2 Add to the minuend.
1 3 8 2 . B 5H Add the carry to the LSB.
3 8 3. B 5H

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 145


BASIC ELECTRONICS
10 ELN
– 15/25
 Homework:-
1. 4D7H – B9EAH.

Conversion from Binary to Octal:-


 The binary digits are arranged in groups of three (on both sides of
decimal point).
 Each group of binary digit is replaced by its octal equivalent.

 Problem:-
1) Convert 111101101110.100111101 2 to octal.
111 101 101 110 . 100 111 101 2 = 7 5 5 6 . 4 7 58.

Conversion from Octal to Binary:-


 Each of octal digits is replaced by the equivalent group of three binary
digits.

 Problem:-
1) Convert 3146.528 to binary.
3 1 4 6 . 5 2 8 = 011 001 100 110 . 101 0102.

Conversion from Binary to Hexadecimal:-


 The binary digits are arranged in groups of four (on both sides of
decimal point).
 Each group of binary digit is replaced by its hexadecimal equivalent.

 Problem:-
1) Convert 111.112 to hexadecimal.
0111 . 11002 = 7 . C16

Conversion from Hexadecimal to Binary:-


 Each hexadecimal digits are replaced by the equivalent group of four
binary digits.

 Problem:-
1) Convert AA.1A16 to binary.
A A . 1 AH = 1010 1010 . 0001 1010 2

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD): - Self Study.


By – Mahesh Prasanna K.,
Dept. of E & C,
AIET, Moodbidri.

MAHESH PRASANNA K., AIET, MOODBIDRI 146