PROJECT REPORT ON

(RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION) J K TYRES, BANMORE

By Name of the student Roll. No Batch 2009-11

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (PGDM) APPROVED BY AICTE, MINISTRY OF HRD & GOVT. OF INDIA, NEW DELHI

SBES¶s INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT& HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (W) PUNE

PROJECT REPORT ON
(RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION) J K TYRES, BANMORE

SUBMITTED TO SBES¶s INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (W) BY (PRIYANKA KUMARI) Roll No. IIMHRD/09/11/025 Batch 2009-11

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (PGDM) APPROVED BY AICTE, MINISTRY OF HRD & GOVT.OF INDIA, NEW DELHI

SBES¶s INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (W) PUNE

CERTIFICATE FROM SPONSORING COMPANY

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT(IIMHRD)( W)
Survey No.54(1+2/1), Dattawadi(Nere) Kasarsai Road, Near Hinjewadi IT Park,Pune-411033

SUMMER PROJECT CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Ms. Priyanka Kumari of SBES¶s International Institute of Management and Human Resource Development for Women, IIMHRD (W) has successfully completed the project titled Recruitment and Selection in partial fulfillment of requirement for the completion of PGDM course approved by AICTE, Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India, and New Delhi. This project report is the record of authentic work carried out by her during the period from 3 May to 3 July. She has worked under our guidance.

Internal Guide Signature Name

Dr. Mrs. Surya Ramdass Director IIMHRD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Foremost, I would like to thank my project guide, Dr. Surya Ramdass for accepting to be my guide. No words are enough to express my gratitude to her for taking out time from her hectic schedule for being my mentor. Mr. Onkar Sir has been a wonderful guide and a counselor. He has shown immense patience in dealing with all my queries, however petty they may have been. I fall short of words in thanking him. My sincere thanks to all the respondents who spared their valuable time in giving me the required information and my apology for testing their patience. I also wish sincere and humble thanks to all my friends and colleagues who encouraged and inspired me from time to time. It is only because of them that I did not lose the sight of my track and completed the research. I thank my parents who supported me and provided me with all the help required during my summer training period and the preparation the project report. Thank you all so much

DECLARATION

T his is to declare that the P ro ject tit led ³R ec ru itm en t an d S election ´ has been acco m p lished and be ing su bm itted fo r the partial fu lfillm e nt o f the aw ard o f M .B .A fro m IIM H R D (W ), P u n e.

T his w o rk has no t been su bm itted by m e a nyw here else fo r the aw ard o f any degree o r dip lo m a. A ll the so urces o f info rm atio n and he lp ha ve been du ly m e ntio ned and ackno w ledge.

Submitted by: Priyanka Kumari

CONTENTS

1). ABSTRACT.
2).COMPANY PROFILE. 3).COMPANY HISTORY. 4).RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION. (I) RECRUITMENT: 1.1 MEANING. 1.2 NEED FOR RECRUITMENT. 1.3 RECRUITMENT PROCESS. 1.4 EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS. 1.5 SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT. 1.6 60-SECONDS GUIDE TO HIRING THE RIGHT PEOPLE. (II) SELECTION: 2.1 SELECTION PROCESS. STEP 1:-PRILIMINARY ITERVIEW. STEP 2:- SELECTION TESTS STEP 3:- INTERVIEW. STEP 4:-REFRENCE CHECK. STEP 5:-SELECTION DECISION. STEP 6:-PHYSICAL EXAMINATION. STEP 7:-JOB OFFER. STEP 8:-CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT. STEP 9:-CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS. STEP 10:-EVALUATION OF SELECTION. 2.2 FOUR APPROCHES TO SELECTION. 2.3 PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTIONS. 2.4 DIFFERENCE (RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION). 5).RECCOMMADATION AND SUGGESSTION. 6).CONCLUTION. 7). QUESTIONNAIRE 7).BIBLOGRAPHY.

ABSTRACT
JKO is a mega corporate entity that is emblematic of excellence, diversification and pioneering new technologies. A part of JK Organization which ranks among the leading private sector groups in India, JK Tyre and Industries is committed to self reliance and follows an ethic that views customer satisfaction as an index of achievement Leaders in the Indian Tyre Industry. The name J.K. Organization, which today is one of the leading Private Sector Groups in India, was founded over 100 years ago. For J.K. Organization it's been a century of multi-business, multi-product and multi-location business operation. The companies in the Group have a diverse portfolio, including Automotive Tyres & Tubes, Paper & Pulp, Cement, V-Belts, Oil Seals, Power Transmission Systems, Hybrid Seeds, Woolen Textiles, Readymade Apparels, Sugar, Food & Dairy Products, Cosmetics, etc. 

J. K. Organization

y y y y y y y y y

JK Tyre JK Paper JK Lakshmi Cement Fenner (India) JK Seeds JK Sugar Umang Dairies CliniRx Research JK Insurance Brokers

y y

Other JK companies µµInnovation and passion to perform has always been the driving force at J.K. Organization¶¶

y

There are different companies for different businesses. Most of these are public limited companies and are quoted on the stock exchanges with large number of public shareholders

y y y

All products of the Group are not only strong brand names but also reputed market leaders in their respective segments. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT The will to innovate signifies the ethos at J.K. Organization. The J.K. Organization is continuously striving to achieve excellence in its products and processes. It has set up highly reputed Research and Development Institutes in India. 

HASETRI««.. HARI SHANKAR
SINGHANIA ELASTOMER AND TYRE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (HASETRI) 

PAPRI«««.. PAPER AND PULP
RESEARCH INSTITUTE (PAPRI)

y

y

The Group's exports span over 60 countries across 6 continents comprising of products like tyres, paper, woolen textiles, readymade apparels, rubber products, engineering products etc. It has global presence with manufacturing operations and outsourcing arrangement in different parts of the world. Most of the Group's plants have ISO 9001 certification and some also have earned QS 9000 and ISO 14001 certifications, which include caring for environment. it's no surprise that the Group has bagged various awards for betterment of the environment and exports.

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main objective of our study is to ensure the quality of company¶s selection and recruitment process. Along with we consider the following point as an object during our studies:

1: To identify company¶s sources of recruitment.

2: To take feedback from employees on existing system

COMPANY PROFILE

OUR VISION
³TO BE AMONGST THE MOST ADMIRED COMPANIES IN INDIA COMMITED TO EXCELLENCE.´

OUR MISSION
y y y y y y

BE A CUSTOMER OBSESSED COMPANY NO.1 TYRE BRAND IN INDIA DELIVER ENHANCED VALUE TO ALL STAKEHOLDERS MOST PROFITABLE TYRE COMPANY IN INDIA ENCHANCE GLOBAL PRESENCE THROUGH ACQISITION MOTIVATED AND COMMITTED TEAM DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION

JK ORGANISATION - A CENTURY OF TRUST
Innovation and passion to perform have always been the driving forces at J K Organization. JK Organization, is one of the leading Private Sector Groups in India, was founded over 100 years ago - it's been a century of multi-business, multi-product and multi-location business operation.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION - OUR CREDO
Customer Satisfaction has always been our prime focus. We are indeed proud of our highly experienced and professional team for winning the trust of customers and building strong relationships with them. Our 115 company owned stocking points serve over 4000 dealers across the country. We have set up 130 JK Tyre Steel Wheels - a unique concept in car tyre retailing which provides value added services like wheel balancing, alignment and tyre

care to customers. Our Truck Radial Care Centers offer after-sales service for Truck/Bus Radials, which operate on 365 days / 24 hours basis. A large number of such centers have been set up along all major National Highways. JK Tyre has been among the top two tyre companies in respect of Customer Satisfaction, as per JK Power Asia Pacific Study, for many years. First Indian tyre company to introduce All Steel Truck & Bus Radials in India in 1999 Pioneered Radial technology in India by introducing passenger radials in 1977 First Indian tyre company to be recognized as 'SUPERBRAND' by Global Advertising Professionals

R & D - TECHNOLOGY OUR DRIVING FORCE
We have always been pushing the limits of possibilities. Our research centers have been our nerve centers for extensive research and development. These are: Mr. Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI) Jaykaygram, Kankroli (Rajasthan) and Faridabad (Haryana) Dr. Raghupati Singhania Center of Excellence for Tyre and Vehicle Mechanics Chennai (Tamil Nadu)

FUTURE PLANS
India is fast emerging as a global automobile hub particularly for small cars. It offers immense opportunities for JK Tyre to grow its business both organically and inorganically. We have been constantly exploring ways of increasing our presence in different world markets, through alliances and acquisitions in tyre and related business. In all our Endeavour¶s, our core focus is on customer delight. Enlarging the customer base, providing them with better quality of services and more value added products, will continue to be the key areas of our thrust.

OUR FIRSTS - LEADING THE WAY

Ever since its inception, JK Tyre has been a leader rather than a follower. We have garnered many Firsts to our credit like; First in India to launch 'Eco-friendly - Green tyre' First in India to launch 'Dual Contact' - Aquasonic tyre First to launch 'Asymmetric' tyre First in India to launch high performance tyre H rated - Speed of above 190 kms upto 210 kms V rated - Speed of above 210 kms upto 240 kms Z rated - Speed of above 240 kms upto 300 kms. World's first tyre manufacturer to get QS 9000 certification for all its multilocation operations World's first tyre manufacturer to get ISO 9001 certification for its entire operations.

MOTORSPORTS - PUTTING INDIA ON THE FAST TRACK
JK Tyre is synonymous with Motorsports in India. By investing in infrastructure and instituting championship, JK Tyre has taken upon itself to put India on the world motorsports map.

COMPANY LOGO

COMPANY HISTORY

YEAR EVENTS 1951 - The Comp. was incorporated as a private limited Comp. in West Bengal in 14th February, 1951. Until 31st March 1970, the Comp. was engaged in the managing agency business. Thereafter, the Comp. decided to undertake manufacturing activities and obtained a letter of intent in February 1972 for manufacture of automobile tyres & tubes.
- The letter of intent was converted into an industrial license in February 1974 for manufacture of 4 lakh nos. each automobile tyre & tubes per annum. The Comp. was converted into a public limited Comp. on 1st April 1974. The manufacturing project was promoted by Straw Products Ltd & J.K. Synthetics Ltd. - The Comp. entered into technical collaboration with General Tire International Co., U.S.A., [a subsidiary of General Tire & Rubber Co., U.S.A.s] for technical services for a period of 5 years & sales agreement for supply of technical knowhow, engineering & documentation for operational facilities [for a period of 8 years from 23.8.73s]. - Under the collaboration agreement, the Comp. has the right to use on its products the wording 'Made in collaboration with General Tire International Co., USA'.

YEAR EVENTS 1982 - The company technical collaboration agreement
with General Tire International Co., was renewed for a further period of 5 years.

YEAR EVENTS 1987 - The overall working resulted in substantial profits despite a 51-days strike as well as go-slow from 14th October. The strike had since then been resolved & amicable settlement was reached. Efforts were on to launch a new pattern in steel belted radial tyres. YEAR EVENTS 1988 - New steel radial tyres for Maruti Gypsy & Tata
mobile were introduced. The Comp. proposed to incur an expenditure of Rs 300 lakhs for installation of latest & sophisticated R&D equipment.

YEAR EVENTS 1989 - Several new patterns & sizes of tyres were
introduced including a semi-lug Nylon Truck tyre, all of which were well received in the market. 1991 - Handeep Investment, Ltd., Hidrive Finance Ltd., Panchanan Investment Ltd., & Radial Finance Ltd., J. K. International Ltd., Shivdham Properties Ltd., & J.K. Asia Pacific, Ltd., are subsidiaries of Company.

YEAR EVENTS 1992 - The J.K. International division expanded its
activities by opening its office in Moscow besides starting Company's subsidiaries

in U.K. and Honkong. The radial tyres for tractors & business launched in the previous year were well received.

YEAR EVENTS 1993 - New radial tyres `Brute' & `Ultima' were introduced.
The Comp. was in the process of developing steel belted radial tyres for prestigious cars in the Mercedes Benz, Peugeot, Daewoo race & Opel Astra. A new pattern developed for bus and trucks `PE-T8' was well received in the market.

YEAR EVENTS 1994 - The Comp. maintained its pace of growth, despite
steep rise in raw material & input costs & competition. The Company effected an all round cost reduction & attained higher capacity utilization at both the tyre plants at Jaykaygram and Banmore. - The T-rated Ultima tyres launched for new generation cars found its acceptance in DCM Daewoo `Ceilo'. Also J.K. Steel radial was chosen for Mercedes Benz India. - The Comp. undertook to develop steel radials for GM `Astra'. PAL `Peugekot' FIAT's, `UNO' & M and M `Ford'. - The Comp. launched a premium truck tyre `Jet Trak' - 39 which was introduced to meet the need of the heavy load market. The new tractor rear tyre `SONA' was well received in the market.

YEAR EVENTS 1996 - During this period, a new Car tyre 'Jet Drive XS', the widest nylon car tyre for Maruti 800 was launched. Along with new semi-lug & heavy duty lug tyre for trucks, a new lug tyre for super heavy load applications 'Jet Trak 39' was also introduced. In the Radial category, 'Ultima XR Radial', a terrain tyre was introduced. All these products were well received in the market.
- Both the tyre plants operated to full capacity. In line with JK tyre, the radials unit introduced the dual contact high traction & high performance Aquasonic steel radial car tyre. The unit also developed India first & only H-rated ultima Xs' especially for Mercedes - Benz Cars.

YEAR EVENTS 2000 - The Comp. proposes to reduce its debt by Rs 125
crore in the current fiscal from the current level of Rs 635 crore by way of loan repayment. - The Comp. & Indian Oil Corporation have entered into a marketing alliance for installing digital air pressure gauges and setting up sales & services outlets at IOC petrol stations throughout the country.

YEAR EVENTS 2001 - Raghupati Singhania managing director of J K
Industries has been appointed the 19th Chairman of Automotive Tyre Manufacturers Association, the representative body of tyre industry in India.

YEAR EVENTS 2002- J.K.Industries Ltd has informed BSE that CRISIL
has assigned a P1+ rating to the Commercial Paper programme of company.

YEAR EVENTS 2003 - J.K. Industries Ltd [JKIs] has a new Marketing
Director in Mr. Ajay Kapila. Before joining JKI, Mr Kapila was Senior VicePresident [Sales & Marketing¶s] at Kinetic Engineering limited He was also Director on board & operational head of Kinetic direct selling arm - Kinetic Marketing Services Ltd. -Completes its comprehensive restructuring exercise of businesses that leads to its emergence as a pure automotive tyre company. Along with the de-merger of its non-tyre business, Sugar & Agri Seeds, into separate companies namely JK Sugar Ltd & JK Agri-Genetics Ltd, JKI also completes the merger of Vikrant Tyres Ltd with itself -J.K.Industries delists from Jaipur Stock Exchange -divested its wholly-owned subsidiary called J.K. Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Ltd to TEVA Pharmaceuticals of Israel.

YEAR EVENTS 2004 -JK Industries Ltd has informed that its securities are
delisted from Delhi Stock Exchange Association Ltd [DSEs] w.e.f. January 29, 2004.

YEAR EVENTS 2007 - JK Industries Ltd has informed that the name of
Comp. has been changed from 'J K Industries Ltd' to 'JK Tyre and Industries Ltd' w.e.f. April 02, 2007. - Comp. name has been changed from JK Industries Ltd to JK Tyre and Industries Ltd.

YEAR EVENTS 2008 -The Comp. has issued rights in the ratio of 1:3 at a
premium of Rs.75 per Share.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

Recruit ment and S elect io n ar e simu lt aneous process and ar e inco mp let e wit hout each ot her. T hey ar e impo rt ant co mpo nent s o f t he organizat io n and ar e differ ent fro m each ot her. S ince all t he aspect needs pr act ical examp le and explanat io n t his pro ject inc ludes Recr uit ment and select io n P rocess o f I nfo sys. And a pr act ical case st udy. It also co nt ains addresses o f var io us and t op place ment co nsult ant s and t he pr icelist o f advert iseme nt s in t he magaz ine.

H U M A N R E S O U R C E D E P A R T M E N T (J.K .T Y R E BAN M ORE)

MR. B.D.ROY (CHIEF MANAGER)

MR. PARFULL C. DHAR (MANAGER PERSONNEL )

MR. ONKAR SINGH (OFFICER HRD)

MR. VISHNU BANDIL (CORDINATOR)

INTRODUCTION:

Recruit ment and select io n are t wo o f t he mo st import ant funct io ns o f per so nnel ma nageme nt . Recruit ment precedes select io n and helps in select ing a r ight cand idat e. Recruit ment is a process t o disco ver t he sour ces o f ma npo wer t o meet t he requir ement o f t he st affing schedule and t o emp lo y e ffect ive measur es for at t ract ing t hat manpo wer in adequat e number s t o facilit at e effect ive select io n o f effic ient per so nnel. St affing is o ne basic fu nct io n o f manageme nt . All manager s have r espo nsibilit y o f st affing funct io n by se lect ing t he chie f execut ive and even t he fo remen and super viso r s have a st affing r espo nsibilit y when t hey select t he r ank and file worker s. Ho wever, t he per so nnel manager and his per so nnel depart ment is ma inly co ncer ned wit h t he st affing funct io n.

Every organization needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activities. µRight person for the right job¶ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever organization should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise. Every business organization/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates are essential. Human resource management in an organization will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit.

1.1 MEANING:
Recruit ment means t o est imat e t he availa ble vacanc ies and t o mak e suit able arr angement s fo r t heir select io n and appo int ment . Recruit ment is under st ood as t he process o f searching fo r and o bt aining applicant s for t he jo bs, fro m amo ng who m t he r ight peo ple can be select ed. A for ma l definit io n st at es, ³It is t he pro cess o f find ing and at t r act ing capable applicant s for t he emp lo yment . T he pro cess begins w hen new r ecr uit s ar e sought and ends when t heir

applicant s ar e submit t ed. T he r esult is a poo l o f applica nt s fro m which new e mp lo yees ar e select ed´. In t his, t he available

vacanc ies ar e give n wide public it y and suit able candidat es are encouraged t o submit applicat io ns so as t o have a poo l o f e lig ible candidat es for scient ific select io n. I n r ecr uit ment , info r mat io n is co llect ed fr o m int er est ed candidat es. For t his d iffer ent source such as newspaper

advert iseme nt , emp lo yme nt exchanges, int er nal pro mot io n, et c. ar e used. I n t he r ecruit ment , a poo l o f elig ible and int er ested

candidat es is cr eat ed fo r select io n o f mo st suit able ca nd idat es. Recruit ment r epresent s t he fir st co nt act t hat a co mpany makes w it h pot ent ia l emp lo yees.

Definition:
Accor ding t o EDWI N FLIP PO, ³Recruit ment is t he pro cess o f sear ching fo r prospect ive emplo yees and st imu lat ing t hem t o apply fo r jo bs in t he organizat io n. ´

1.2 Need for recruitment:
T he need for recr uit ment ma y be due t o the fo llo wing r easo ns/ sit uat io n: a) Vacancies due t o pro mot io ns, t ransfer , r et ir ement , t er minat io n, per manent disabilit y, deat h and labor t urno ver. b) Cr eat io n o f new vacancies due t o t he growt h, expansio n and diver sificat io n o f business act ivit ies o f an ent er pr ise. I n addit io n, new vacancies ar e po ssible due t o jo b specificat io n.

Purpose and importance of Recruitment:
1. Det er mine t he pr esent and fut ur e requir ement s of t he organizat io n o n co njunct io n w it h it s per so nnel- p lanning and jo b ana lys is act ivit ies. 2. I ncrease t he poo l o f jo b candidat es at minimu m co st . 3. Help incr ease t he success r at e o f t he select io n process b y r educing t he number o f vis ibl y under qualified or o ver qualified jo b applicant s. He lp r educe t he pro babilit y t hat jo b applicant s, o nce recr uit ed and select ed, will leave t he or ganizat io n o nly a ft er a short per iod o f t ime. 5. Meet t he organizat io n¶s legal and so cial o bligat io ns r egarding t he co mpo sit io n o f it s wor k fo r ce. 6. Begin ident ifying and pr epar ing pot ent ia l jo b applica nt s who will be appropr iat e candidat es. 7. I ncrease organizat io nal and ind ividua l effect ive ness in t he short t er m and lo ng t er m. 8. E valuat e t he effect iveness o f var io us recruit ing t echniques and sour ces for all t ypes o f jo b applicant s.

Recruit ment is a po sit ive funct io n in which public it y is given t o t he jo bs available in t he organizat io n and int erest ed candidat es ar e enco ur aged t o submit applicat io ns fo r t he pur pose o f select io n. Recruit ment r epr esent s t he fir st co nt act t hat a co mpany makes w it h pot ent ia l e mp lo yees. It is t hrough r ecr uit ment t hat ma ny ind ividua ls will co me t o kno w a co mpany, and event uall y decided whet her t hey w ish t o wor k for it . A we ll- p lanned and wellma naged r ecruit ing e ffo rt will r esult in high qua lit y app licant s, wher eas, a haphazard and piece mea l e ffo rt s will r esult in med io cr e o nes.

Unscientific Recruitment and Selection:
P revio usly, t he select io n o f candidat es was influe nced by super st it io ns, belie fs, per so nal pr ejudices o f manager s looking aft er t he recr uit ment and select io n o f t he st aff. T he net result o f such unscient ific r ecr uit me nt and select io n ar e: ( a) Lo w product ivit y o f labo r ( b) High t ur no ver ( c)E xcessive wast age o f r aw mat er ia ls ( d) Mor e accident s and corr espo nding lo ss t o t he or ganizat io n ( e)I neffic ient working o f t he who le or ganizat io n and fina ll y ( f) I neffic ie nt execut io n o f t raining and management develo pment progr ams.

Scientific recruitment and selection:
T he impo rt ance o f select io n r ecr uit ment and select io n o f st aff is no w accept ed in t he business wor ld. S elect io n is impo rt ant as it has it s impact o n work per for mance and emp lo yee co st . As r esult scie nt ific met ho ds o f r ecruit ment and select io n ar e ext ensive ly fo r t he select io n o f manager s and t he super visor y st aff. T he assist ance o f expert s such as indust r ia l psyc ho lo gist and manage ment co nsult ant s ar e also t aken fo r t he purpo se o f scient ific select io n. As a r esult , t he o bject ive o f ³r ight man for t he r ight jo b´ is achieved in many o rganizat io ns. Mor eo ver, ³r ight jo b´ is t he basic pr inc ip le in man po wer procur ement .

1.3 RECRUITMENT PROCESS:
Recruit ment r efer s t o t he process o f ident ifying and at t ract ing jo b seeker s so as t o build a poo l o f qualified jo b applicant s. T he process co mpr ises five int err elat ed st ages, viz,

1. P lanning. 2. St r at egy develo pment . 3. S ear ching. 4. S cr eening. 5. E valuat io n and co nt ro l.

T he idea l r ecruit ment pro gr amme is t he o ne t hat at tract s a r elat ive ly lar ger number o f qualified applica nt s who will sur vive t he scr eening pro cess and accept posit ions w it h t he or ganisat io n, when o ffer ed. Recruit ment pro gr ammes c an miss t he ideal in man y ways i. e. by fa iling t o at t ract an adequat e applica nt poo l, b y under/o ver selling t he or ganisat io n or by inadequat e screening applicant s befo re t hey ent er t he select io n process. T hus, t o appro ach t he ideal, ind ividua ls r espo ns ible fo r t he r ecruit ment process must kno w ho w many and wha t t ypes o f e mp lo yees ar e needed, wher e and ho w t o look for t he ind ividua ls w it h t he appropr iat e qualificat io ns and int er est s, what induceme nt t o use fo r var io us t ypes of applicant s groups, ho w to dist inguis h

applicant s who ar e qualified fr o m t ho se who have a r easo nable chance o f success and ho w t o evaluat e t heir wor k.

STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING:
T he fir st st age in t he r ecruit ment process is p lanning . P lanning invo lves t he t r anslat io n o f like ly jo b vacanc ies and info r mat io n abo ut t he nat ur e o f t hese jo bs int o set o f o bject ives o r t ar get s t hat specify t he ( 1) Number s and ( 2) T ypes o f applicant have t o be co nt act ed.

Numbers of contact:
Organizat io ns, near ly a lwa ys, plan t o attr act mor e applicant s t han t hey will hir e. So me o f t ho se co nt act ed will be unint er est ed, unqualified or bot h. E ach t ime a r ecr uit ment Progr amme is co nt emp lat ed, o ne t ask is t o est imat e the nu mber o f applicant s necessar y t o fill a ll vacanc ies wit h t he qualified people. T ypes o f co nt act s: It is bas ica ll y co ncer ned wit h t he t ypes o f peo ple t o be info r med abo ut jo b o penings. T he t ype o f peo ple depends o n t he t asks and r espo nsibilit ies invo lved and t he qualificat io ns and exper ience expect ed. T hese det ails ar e available t hrough jo b descr ipt io n and jo b specificat io n.

STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT:
Whe n it is est imat ed t hat what t ypes o f r ecruit ment and ho w ma ny ar e requir ed t hen o ne has co ncent r at e in ( 1). Make or Buy emp lo yees. ( 2). T echno logica l so phist icat io n of r ecr uit ment and

select io n devices.

( 3). Geo gr aphica l d ist r ibut io n o f la bo r mar ket s co mpr is ing jo b seeker s. ( 4). Sour ces o f r ecruit ment . ( 5). Sequencing t he act ivit ies in t he r ecruit me nt process.

µMake¶ or µBuy¶:
Organizat io n must decide whet her to hir e le skilled emp lo yees a nd invest o n t r aining and e ducat io n progr ammes, o r t hey can hir e skilled labo r and pro fessio nal. E ssent ia lly, t his is t he µ make¶ or µbuy¶ decis io n. Organizat io ns, whic h hir e skilled and pro fessio nals sha ll ha ve t o pay mo r e for t hese emp lo yees.

Technol ogical Sophistication:
T he seco nd decis io n in st r at egy deve lo pme nt r elat es t o t he met hods used in r ecru it ment and select ion. T his decis io n is ma inl y influe nced by t he available t echno lo gy. T he advent o f co mput er s has made it po ssible applica nt fo r emp lo yer s to scan nat io nal and

int er nat io nal

qualificat io n.

Alt ho ugh

imper so nal,

co mput er s have given e mp lo yer s and jo b seeker s a wider scope o f opt io ns in t he init ia l scr eening st age.

Where to look:
I n order t o reduce t he co st s, or ganizat io ns look in t o labor mar ket s mo st like ly t o o ffer t he r equir ed jo b seeker s. Gener ally, co mpanies look in t o t he nat io nal mar ket fo r manager ia l and pro fessio nal e mp lo yees, r egio nal or lo cal mar ket s fo r t echnica l emp lo yees and lo cal mar ket s fo r t he cler ical and blue- co llar emp lo yees.

When to look:
An effect ive r ecruit ing st r at egy must deter mine when t o lo ok- decide o n t he t imings o f event s besides kno wing wher e and ho w t o look for jo b applicant s.

STAGE 3: SEARCHNG:
Once a r ecruit ment plan and st r at egy ar e wor ked out, t he sear ch process can begin. S earch invo lves t wo st eps A) . So ur ce act ivat io n and B). Selling.

A). SOURCE ACTIVATION:
T yp ica lly, sour ces and sear ch met ho ds are act ivat ed by t he issuance o f an emp lo yee requis it io n. T his means t hat no act ual r ecr uit ing t akes place unt il lo ne managers have ver ified t hat vacanc y do es exist or will exist . I f t he or ganizat io n has planned well and do ne a good jo b o f develo ping it s sources and sear ch met ho ds, act ivat io n soo n r esult s in a flood o f applicat io ns and/or resumes. T he applicat io n r eceived must be scr eened. T ho se who pass have t o be co nt act ed and invit ed for int erview. Unsuccessful applicant s must be sent let t er o f r egret .

B). SELLING:
A seco nd issue t o be addr essed in t he sear ching process co ncer ns co mmunicat io ns. Her e, organiza t io n walks t ight rope. On o ne hand, t hey want t o do what ever t hey can t o at t ract desir able

applicant s. On t he ot her hand, t hey must r esist t he t empt at io n o f o ver selling t heir vir t ues. I n selling t he or ganizat io n, bot h t he mess age and t he media deser ve at t ent io n. Message r efer s t o t he emp lo yment advert iseme nt . Wit h r egar ds t o media, it ma y be st at ed t hat effect ive ness o f any r ecr uit ing message depends o n t he media. Media are sever al- so me have lo w cr edibil it y, while ot her s enjo y high cr edibilit y. Select io n o f mediu m or med ia needs t o be do ne wit h a lot o f car e.

STEP 4: SCREENING:
S cr eening o f applicant s can be regar ded as an int egral part o f t he r ecr uit ing process, t ho ugh many view it as t he fir st st ep in t he select io n process. E ven t he definit io n o n r ecr uit ment , we quot ed in t he beginning o f t his chapt er, excludes scr eening fr o m it s scope. Ho wever, we have inc luded screening in r ecr uit ment for valid r easo ns. T he select io n process will begin aft er t he applicat io ns have been scrut inized and short - list ed. Hir ing o f pro fessor s in a univer s it y is a t ypica l s it uat io n. Applicat io n r eceived in r espo nse t o advert iseme nt s is scr eened and o nly e lig ible applicant s ar e called fo r an int er view. A select io n co mmit t ee co mpr is ing t he Vice- chancello r, Regist rar and subject expert s co nduct s int er view. Here, t he r ecruit ment pro cess ext ends up t o scr eening t he applicat io ns. T he select io n process co mmences o nly lat er.

Purpose of screening:
T he pur pose o f scr eening is t o remo ve fro m t he r ecr uit ment process, at an ear ly st age, t hose applicant s who ar e vis ibly

unqualified for t he jo b. E ffect ive screening can save a gr eat deal o f t ime and mo ney. Car e must be exercis ed, however, t o assure t hat pot ent ia lly good emplo yees ar e not reject ed wit ho ut just ificat io n. I n scr eening, clear jo b specificat io ns ar e inva luable. It is bot h good pr act ice and a lega l necessit y t hat applicant ¶s qualificat io n is judged o n t he basis o f t heir knowledge, skills, abilit ies and int er est r equir ed t o do t he job. T he t echniques used t o scr een applicant s var y depending o n t he candidat e sour ces and r ecruit ing met hods used. I nt er view and applicat io n blanks ma y be used t o scr een walk- ins. Campus r ecr uit er s and agency r epresent at ives use int er views and r esumes. Refer ence checks are also useful in scr eening.

STAGE 5: EVALUATION AND CONTROL:
E valuat io n and co nt ro l is necessar y as co nsider able co st s are incurr ed in t he r ecr uit ment process. T he co st s gener ally incur r ed are: 1. Salar ies fo r recr uit er s. 2. Management and pro fessio na l t ime spent o n prepar ing jo b descr ipt io n, jo b specificat io ns, advert iseme nt s, agency lia iso n and so fort h. 3. T he co st o f advert ise ment s or ot her r ecr uit ment met ho ds, t hat is, agency fees. 4. Recruit ment o ver heads and administ r ative expenses. 5. Co st s o f o vert ime and out sourcing while t he vacancies rema in unfil led. 6. Co st o f r ecr uit ing u nsuit able candidat es for t he select io n process.

1.4 EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS
T he r ecruit ment has t he o bject ive o f sear ching fo r and o bt aining applicat io ns for jo b seeker s in suffic ie nt number and qualit y. Keeping t his o bject ive in t he mind, t he eva luat io n might inc lude: 1. Ret ur n r at e o f applicat io n sent out . 2. Number o f suit able candidat es fo r select io n. 3. Ret ent io n and per fo r mance o f t he candidat es select ed. 4. Co st o f t he r ecr uit ment process 5. T ime lapsed dat a 6. Co mment s o n image pro ject ed.

1.5 SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:
(I)INTERNAL SOURCES:

(II)EXTERNAL SOURCES:

1) Promotion 1) Campus recruitment 2) Transfers 2) Press advertisement 3) Internal notification 3) Management consultancy service (Advertisement) & private employment exchanges 4) Retirement 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer from one enterprise to another 5) Recall 5) Management training schemes 6) Former employees 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins 7) Miscellaneous external sources

T he sour ces o f r ecruit ment can be broadly cat egor ized int o int er nal and ext er nal so ur ces- E valuat io n and co nt ro l is necessar y as co nsider able co st s are incurr ed in t he r ecr uit ment process.

T he co st s gener ally incur red ar e: 1. Salar ies fo r recr uit er s. 2. Management and pro fessio na l t ime spent o n prepar ing jo b descr ipt io n, jo b specificat io ns, advert iseme nt s, agency lia iso n and so fort h.

3. T he co st o f advert ise ment s or ot her r ecr uit ment met ho ds, t hat is, agency fees. 4. Recruit ment o ver heads and administ r ative expenses. 5. Co st s o f o vert ime and out sourcing while t he vacancies rema in unfil led. 6. Co st o f r ecr uit ing u nsuit able candidat es for t he select io n process.

(I) Internal Recruitment ±
I nt er nal r ecruit ment seeks applicant s for po sit io ns fro m wit hin t he co mpany. T he var io us int er nal sources inc lude:

Promotions and Transfers ±
P ro mot io n is an effect ive means using jo b po st ing and per so nnel r ecor ds. Jo b po st ing r equir es not ifying vacant posit io ns by po st ing not ices, cir culat ing publicat ions o r anno uncing at st aff meet ings and invit ing emp lo yees t o apply. Per so nnel r ecor ds help disco ver emplo yees who ar e do ing jo bs belo w t heir educat io nal qualificat io ns or skill leve ls. Pro mot io ns has many advant ages lik e it is good public r elat io ns, builds mo r ale, encourages co mpet ent ind ividua ls who are ambit io us, impro ves t he pro babilit y o f good select io n since info r mat io n o n t he ind ivi dual¶s per for mance is r eadily ava ilable, is cheaper t han go ing out side t o recr uit , t hose cho sen int er nally ar e famil iar wit h t he organizat io n t hus r educing t he or ient at io n t ime and energy and also act s as a t raining device fo r develo ping midd le- le ve l and t op- leve l manager s. However, pro mot io ns r est r ict t he fie ld o f select io n pr event ing fr esh blood & ideas fr o m ent er ing t he organizat io n. It also leads t o inbr eeding in t he organizat io n. Tr ansfer s ar e also import ant in pro viding

emp lo yees wit h a broad- based view o f t he organizat io n, necessar y fo r fut ur e pro mot io ns.

Employee referralsE mp lo yees can develo p good pro spect s for t heir famil ies and fr iends by acquaint ing t hem wit h t he advant ages o f a jo b wit h t he co mpany, fur nishing t hem wit h int roduct io n and enco ur aging t hem t o apply. T his is a ver y effect ive means as many qualified people can be r eached at a ver y lo w co st to t he co mpany. T he ot her advant ages ar e t hat t he emplo yees would br ing o nly t ho se refer r als t hat t hey fee l wo uld be able t o fit in t he organizat io n based o n t heir own exper ience. T he organizat io n can be assured o f t he r eliabil it y and t he char act er o f t he r eferr als. I n t his way, t he organizat io n can also fulfi ll so cia l o bliga t io ns and cr eat e goodwill.

Former EmployeesT hese inc lude r et ir ed emp lo yees who ar e will ing t o work o n a part -t ime bas is, ind ividua ls who le ft work and ar e willing t o co me back for higher co mpensat io ns. E ven r et renched emp lo yees ar e t aken up o nce again. T he advant age her e is t hat t he people are alr eady kno wn t o t he or ganizat io n and t her e is no need t o find o ut t heir past per for mance and char act er. Als o, t her e is no need o f an or ient at io n progr amme fo r t hem, since t hey ar e fa miliar wit h t he organizat io n.

Dependents of deceased employeesUsually, banks fo llo w t his po lic y. I f an emp lo yee dies, his / her spouse or so n or daught er is recruit ed in t heir place. T his

is usually an effect ive way t o fulfil so cial o bligat io n and cr eat e goodwill.

Recalls: Whe n ma nageme nt faces a pro ble m, whic h can be so lved o nly by a manager who has pro ceeded o n lo ng leave, it may de decided t o

recall that persons after the problem is solved, his leave ma y be extended.

Retirements: At times, mana ge ment may not find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired, after meritorio us service. Under the circumstances, mana ge me nt may decide to call retired ma nagers with new extension.

Internal notification (advertisement): So met imes, management issues an int er nal not ificat io n for t he bene fit o f exist ing emp lo yees. Mo st emp lo yees know fro m t heir own exper ience abo ut t he requir eme nt o f t he jo b and what sort o f per so n t he co mpany is loo king fo r. Oft en emplo yees have fr iends or acquaint ances who meet t hese r equir eme nt s. Suit able per so ns ar e appo int ed at t he vacant po st s.

(II) External Recruitment:
E xt er nal r ecruit ment seeks applicant s for po sit io ns fro m so ur ces out side t he co mpany. T hey have out number ed t he int er nal met ho ds. T he var io us ext er nal so ur ces inc lude:

Professional or Trade Associations:Many asso ciat io ns pro vide placeme nt service t o it s me mber s. It co nsist s o f co mpiling jo b seeker ¶s list s and pro vid ing access t o member s dur ing r egio nal or nat io na l co nvent io ns. Also , t he publicat io ns o f t hese associat io ns carr y class ified advert iseme nt s fro m emp lo yer s int er est ed in r ecr uit ing t heir me mber s. T hese ar e part icular ly usefu l fo r at t ract ing highly educat ed, exper ienced or skilled per so nnel. Also, t he r ecr uit er s can zero o n in specific jo b seeker s, especia ll y fo r hard-t o- fill t echnica l po st s.

Advertisements:It is a po pular met ho d o f seeking r ecr uit s, as man y r ecr uit er s pr efer advert isement s because o f t heir wide r each. Want ads descr ibe t he jo b bene fit s, ident ify t he emp lo yer and t ell t ho se int erest ed how t o apply. Newspaper is t he mo st co mmo n med iu m but for hig hly spec ia lized r ecruit s, advert ise ment s ma ybe placed in pro fessio nal or business jo ur nals. Advert ise ment s must co nt ain pro per inf or mat io n lik e t he jo b co nt ent , working co ndit io ns, lo cat io n o f jo b, co mpensat io n inc lud ing fr inge bene fit s, jo b specificat io ns, growt h aspect s, et c. T he advert isement has t o sell t he idea t hat t he co mpany and jo b ar e per fect fo r t he candidat e. Recr uit ment advert ise ment s can a lso ser ve as cor porat e advert iseme nt s t o build Co mpany¶ s image. It also cost effect ive.

Employment Exchanges:E mp lo yme nt E xchanges have been set up all o ver t he co unt r y in defer ence to t he pro vis io n of t he E mp lo yme nt

E xchanges ( Co mpulso r y Not ificat io n o f Vacancies) Act , 1959. T he Act applies t o all indust r ial est ablis hment s having 25wo rker s o r mo r e each. T he Act r equir es all t he indust r ia l est ablishme nt s t o not ify t he vacancies be for e t hey ar e fille d. T he ma jor funct io ns o f t he exchanges ar e t o incr ease t he poo l of po ssible applica nt s and t o do t he pr eliminar y scr eening. T hus, emp lo yment exchanges act as a link bet ween t he emplo yer s and t he pro spect ive emp lo yees. T hese o ffices ar e part icular ly use fu l t o in r ecr uit ing blue- co llar , whit e co llar and t echnica l wo rker s.

Campus Recruitments:Co lleges, univer sit ies, r esearch labo r at or ies, sport s fie lds and inst it ut es ar e fert ile gro und for r ecr uit er s, part icular l y t he inst it ut es. Campus Recr uit ment is go ing glo bal w it h co mpanies like HLL, Cit ibank, HCL- HP, ANZ Gr indla ys, L&T , Motoro la and Relia nce looking fo r glo bal mar ket s. So me co mpanies r ecr uit a given nu mber o f cand idat es fro m t hese inst it ut es ever y year . Campus r ecr uit ment is so much so ught aft er t hat each co llege; univer s it y depart ment or inst it ut e will have a place ment o fficer t o hand le r ecr uit ment funct io ns. Ho wever, it is o ft en an expensive process, even if r ecr uit ing process produces jo b o ffer s and accept ances event ually. A ma jo r it y leave t he organizat io n wit hin t he fir st five year s o f t heir emp lo yment . Yet , it is a ma jo r sour ce o f r ecruit ment for prest ig io us co mpanies.

Walk-ins, Write-ins and Talk-ins:
T he mo st co mmo n and least expensive a ppro ach fo r candidat es is d ir ect applicat io ns, in which jo b seeker s submit unso lic it ed applicat io n let t er s or r esumes. Dir ect applicat io ns can

also pro vide a poo l o f pot ent ia l emp lo yees t o meet fut ur e need s. Fro m e mp lo yees¶ viewpo int , walk- ins a r e pr efer able as t he y ar e fr ee fro m t he hass les asso ciat ed wit h ot her met ho ds o f r ecr uit ment . While d ir ect applicat io ns ar e part icular ly effect ive in fil ling ent r yle ve l a nd unsk illed vacanc ies, so me or ganizat io ns co mp ile poo ls o f pot ent ia l e mp lo yees fr o m d ir ect applicat io ns fo r skilled po sit io ns. Wr it e- ins ar e t ho se who send wr it t en enquir ies. T hese jo bseeker s ar e asked t o co mplet e applicat io n fo r ms fo r furt her pro cessing . Talk-ins invo lves t he jo b aspir ant s meet ing t he r ecr uit er (o n an appropr iat ed dat e) for det ailed t alks. No applicat io n is r equir ed t o be submit t ed t o t he r ecr uit er.

Contractors:
T hey ar e used t o r ecruit casual worker s. T he na mes o f t he wor ker s ar e not ent er ed in t he co mpany r ecor ds and, t o t his ext ent ; difficu lt ies exper ienced in ma int aining per manent wor ker s ar e avo ided.

Cons ultants:
T hey ar e in t he pro fessio n fo r recr uit ing and select ing ma nager ia l and execut ive per so nnel. T hey ar e usefu l as t hey ha ve nat io nwide co nt act s and lend pr o fessio nalis m t o t he hir ing pro cess. T hey a lso keep pro spect ive e mp lo yer and e mp lo yee ano nymo u s. Ho wever, t he co st can be a det err ent fact or.

Head Hunters:
T hey ar e usefu l in spec ia lized and skill ed candidate wor king in a part icular co mpany. An agent is sent to r epr esent t he r ecr uit ing co mpany and o ffer is made t o t he candidat e. T his is a

usefu l so ur ce when bot h t he co mpanies invo lved ar e in t he same fie ld, and t he emp lo yee is r eluct ant t o t ake t he o ffer since he fear s, t hat his co mpany is t est ing his lo ya lt y.

Radio, Television and Internet:
Radio and t elevis io n ar e used t o reach cert ain t ypes o f jo b applica nt s such as skilled wor ker s. Radio and t elevis io n ar e used but spar ing ly, a nd t hat t oo, by go ver nme nt depart ment s o nly. Co mpanies in t he pr ivat e sect or are hesit ant t o use t he media because o f high co st s and also because t hey fear t hat such advert ising w ill make t he co mpanies lo ok desper at e and damag e t heir co nser vat ive image. Ho wever, t her e is not hing inher ent ly desper at e abo ut using r adio and t elevis io n. It depends upo n what is said and ho w it is deliver ed. I nt er net is beco ming a popular opt io n fo r r ecr uit ment t oday. T her e is specia li zed sit es likenaukr i. co m. Also , websit es o f co mpanies have a separat e sect io n Wher e in; aspir ant s can submit t heir resumes and applicat io ns. T his pro vides a wider r each.

Competitors:T his met ho d is po pular ly kno wn as ³poaching´ o r ³r aid ing´ which invo lves ident ifying t he r ight people in r iva l co mpanies, o ffer ing t hem bet t er t er ms and lur ing t hem awa y. Fo r inst ance, sever al execut ives o f HMT left t o jo in T it an Wat ch Co mpany. T her e ar e legal and et hica l issues invo lved in r aid ing r iva l fir ms fo r pot ent ial cand idat es. From t he legal po int o f view, an e mp lo yee is e xpect ed t o jo in a ne w o rganizat io n o nly a ft er o bt aining a µno o bject io n cert ificat e¶ fr o m his/ her pr esent emp lo yer . Vio lat ing t his r equir eme nt shall bind t he emp lo yee t o

pay a few mo nt hs¶ sa lar y t o his/ her pr esent emplo yer as a punis hme nt . However, t her e are many et hica l issues at t ached t o it .

M ergers and Acquisitions:
Whe n o rganizat io ns co mbine, t hey have a poo l o f emp lo yees, o ut o f who m so me ma y not be necessar y any lo nger . As a r esult , t he new o rganizat io n has, in e ffe ct , a poo l o f qualified jo b applicant s. As a r esult , new jo bs ma y be cr eat ed. Bot h new and o ld jo bs ma y be r eadily st affed by dr awing t he best - qualified

applicant s fr o m t his e mp lo yee poo l. T his met hod fac ilit at es t he immed iat e imp le me nt at io n o f an o r ganizat io n¶s st r ategic p lan. It enables a n o rganizat io n t o pur sue a business p la n, Ho wever, t he need t o displace e mp lo yees a nd t o int egrat e a lar ge number o f t hem r at her quickly int o a new or ganizat io n means t hat t he per so nnel- planning and select io n process beco mes cr it ical mo r e t han ever.

Evaluation of External Recruitment:
E xt er nal sources o f r ecr uit ment have both mer it s and demer it s.

The merits areT he organizat io n will have t he benefit o f new skills, new t alent s and new exper iences, if peo ple are hir ed fro m ext er nal sour ces. T he management will be able t o fulfill r eser vat io n r equir ement s in fa vo r o f t he disadvant aged sect io ns o f t he societ y. S cope fo r r esent ment , heart bur n and jea lo usy can be avo ided by r ecruit ing fr o m o ut side.

The demerits are
Bet t er mot ivat io n and incr eased morale associat ed wit h pro mot ing o wn emp lo yees r e lo st to t he or ganizat io n. E xt er nal r ecruit ment is co st ly. I f r ecr uit ment and select io n processes ar e not pro per ly carr ied out , chances o f r ight candidat es being reject ed and wro ng applicant s being select ed o ccur. High t raining t ime is asso ciat ed wit h ext er nal r ecruit ment . 98% of organizat ional success depends upon efficient emplo yee select ion

1.6

60-Seconds Guide to Hiring the Right People:

0:60 Define the Duties:
To find pro mis ing e mp lo yees, yo u must fir st det er mine what yo u want t hem t o do. Car efully co ns ider all d ir ect and asso ciat ed r espo nsibilit ies and inco rpor at e t hem int o a wr it t en jo b

descr ipt io n. Be car eful w it h gener al t it les such as t yp ist or sales cler k, as t hey have differ ent meanings t o differ ent people.

0:49 «and what it takes to do them:
Fulfi ll ing t hese r espo nsibil it ies w ill r equir e so me leve l o f sk ill and exper ience, even if it is an ent r y- leve l po sit io n. Be r easo nable abo ut your expect at io ns. S et t ing t he bar t oo high ma y lim it yo u r ava ilable t alent poo l; set t ing it t oo lo w r isks a floo d of

applicat io ns fro m t ho se unqualified fo r t he jo b.

0:37 make it worth their while:
L ikewise, yo u do n¶t want t o be o ver ly gener ous or r est r ict ive abo ut co mpensat io n. St at e and lo cal cha mber s o f co mmer ce, emp lo yment bur eaus and pro fessio na l associat io ns can help yo u det er mine appropr iat e wages and benefi t s. Scanning descr ipt io ns o f co mparable jo bs in t he class ified a ds and ot her emplo yment publicat io ns will a lso pro vide clues abo ut pr evailing wage r at es.

0:38 spread the word:
Ho w yo u advert ise yo ur jo b o pening depends o n who m yo u want t o at t r act . So me po sit io ns ar e as easy t o pro mot e as po st ing a ³he lp want ed´ sign in yo ur st ore windo w or placing an ad in yo ur lo cal newspaper. Fo r jo bs r equir ing mo re specia lized skills, co nsider t ar get ed channe ls such as t r ade magazines, o n- line jo b banks a nd

emp lo yment agencies ( t hough t hese ma y r equir e a fee) . And do n¶t o ver loo k sour ces such as fr ie nds, ne ighbor s, supplier ¶s cust o mer s and pr esent emp lo yees.

0:25 talk it over:
Because yo u have clear ly de fined t he role and r equir eme nt s, yo u sho uld have lit t le difficu lt y ide nt ifying candidat es for int er views. Make sure yo u schedule t hem when yo u have a mp le t ime t o r eview t he r esume, pr epar e yo ur quest io ns and give t he candidat e yo u r u n divided at t ent io n. Aft er t he int er view, jot do wn any impr essio ns o r key po int s while t hey¶r e st ill fr esh in yo ur mind. T his w ill be eva luable r efer ence when it ¶s t ime t o make a decis io n.

0:12 Follow-up on Interviews:
Yo u want t o believe yo ur candidat es are being ho nest , but never assume. Co nt act r efer ences t o make sure yo u¶r e get t ing t he fact s o r t o clear up any uncer t aint ies. P ro fessio nal background checks are a wise invest ment for highly se ns it ive po sit io ns, or t hose t hat invo lve hand ling subst ant ia l amo unt s o f mo ne y and valuables.

0:03 you¶ve found them; now keep them:
No w t hat you¶ve hir ed ideal emp lo yees, make sure t hey st ay wit h yo u by pro viding t r aining and pro fessio nal deve lo pment opport unit ies. T he sma ll bus iness expert s at S CORE can help yo u cr aft human r esour ce po lic ies and incent ive plans t hat will ensur e yo ur co mpany r ema ins t he sma ll bus iness emplo yer o f cho ice.

SELECTION

S elect io n is defined as t he process o f differ ent iat ing bet ween applicant s in o rder t o ident ify ( and hir e) t ho se wit h a gr eat er like lihoo d o f success in a jo b. S elect io n is bas ica lly p ick ing an applica nt fro m ( a poo l o f applicant s) who has t he appropr iat e qualificat io n and co mpet ency t o do t he jo b.

The difference between recruitment and selection:
Recruit ment is ident ifying n encouraging pro spect ive emp lo yees t o apply fo r a jo b. And S elect io n is select ing t he r ight candidat e fr o m t he poo l o f applicant s.

2.1 SELECTION PROCESS
S elect io n is alo ng process, co mme nc ing fro m t he pr eliminar y int er view o f t he applica nt s and ending wit h t he co nt ract o f emp lo yme nt .

The following chart gives an idea process: -

about selection

External Environment

Internal Environment

Preliminary Interview

R e je cte d A p p lica tio n

Selection Tests

Employment Interview

R e fe re n c e a n d B a c k g ro u n d

Selection Decision

Physical Examination

Job Offer

Employment Contract

Evaluation

Environme nt factor affecting selection:
S elect io n is influenced by sever al fact or s. Mor e pro mine nt amo ng t hem ar e su pp ly and de mand o f specific sk ills in t he labo ur mar ket , unemp lo yme nt r at e, labo ur- mar ket co ndit io ns, legal a nd po lit ica l co ns ider at io ns, co mpan y¶s imag e, co mpany¶s po lic y, hu man r eso urces planning and co st o f hir ing. T he last t hree co nst it ut e t he int er nal envir o nment and t he r ema ining fo r m t he ext er nal envir o nment o f select io n process.

STEP 1: PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW
T he applicant s received fr o m jo b seeker s wo uld be subject t o scr ut in y so as t o eliminat e unqualified applica nt s. T his is usually fo llo wed by a

p r eliminar y int er view t he pur po se o f which is mo r e or less t he same as scr ut in y o f ap p licat io n, t hat is, elim inat e o f unqualif ied app licant s. S cr ut iny e nables t he HR sp ecia list s t o eliminat e unqualified jo bseeker s based o n t he info r mat io n su p p lied in t heir applicat io n fo r ms. Pr eliminar y int er view, o n t he ot her hand , he lp s r eject mis fit s fo r r easo n, which d id not appear in t he applicat io n fo r ms. Besid es, pr eliminar y int er view, o ft en called µco urt esy int er view¶, is a g o o d p u blic r elat io n exer cise.

STEP 2: SELECTION TEST:
Jo b seeker s who pass t he scr eening and t he pr eliminar y int er view ar e called fo r t est s. Differ ent t ypes o f t est s ma y be ad minist er ed, depending o n t he jo b and t he co mpany. Gener ally, t est s ar e used t o det er mine t he applicant ¶s ab ilit y, apt it ude and per so nalit y.

The followi ng are the type of tests taken: 1). Ability tests:Ass ist in det er mining ho w well a n ind ividua l can per for m t asks r elat ed t o t he jo b. An excelle nt illust r at io n o f t his is t he t yp ing t est s given t o a p ro sp ect ive emp lo yer fo r secr et ar ia l jo b also called as µACHEI VE ME NT TE STS ¶. It is co ncer ned wit h what o ne has acco mplis hed. When app licant cla ims t o know so met hing, an achieve m ent t est is t aken t o measur e ho w well t hey k no w it . Tr ade t est s are t he mo st commo n t ype o f achieve me nt t est give n. Qu est io ns have been prepar ed and t est ed for such t rades as asbest os wo rk er, p u nch- pr ess oper at ors, elect r ic ians a nd mac hinist s. T here are, o f cour se, man y u nst and ardized achieve me nt t est s give n in indust r ies, such as t yp ing o r d ict at io n t est s for an applicant for a st enogr aphic po sit io n.

2). Aptitude test:
Ap t it ude t est s measure whet her an ind ividual¶s has t he capacit y or lat ent ab ilit y t o lear n a given jo b if given adequat e t r aining. T he use o f apt it ude t est is ad visa ble when an applica nt has had lit t le or no exper ience alo ng t he line o f t he jo b o pening. Apt it udes t est s help det er mine a per so n¶s pot ent ia l t o lear n in a g iven ar ea. An exa mp le o f such t est is t he gener al manage ment apt it ude t est s ( GMAT), which ma ny bus iness st udent s t ake pr ior t o gaining ad miss io n t o a g r ad u at e business schoo l progr amme. Ap t it ude t est ind icat es t he abilit y o r fit ness o f an ind ividual t o eng ag e su ccessfu lly in any nu mber o f specia liz ed act ivit ies. T hey co ver such ar e as cler ica l apt it ude, numer ica l apt it ude, mechanica l apt it ude, mot or co -

o rd inat io n, finger dext er it y and manua l dext er it y. T hese t est s help t o det ect po sit ive negat ive po int s in a per so n¶s sensor y or int ellect ual abilit y. T hey fo cu s at t ent io n o n a part icular t ype o f t ale nt such as lear ning or reaso ning in r espect o f a part icular fie ld o f work

Forms of aptitude test: 1. Mental or intelligence tests:
T hey measur e t he o ver all int ellect ual abilit y o f a per so n and enable t o k no w whet her t he per so n has t he ment al abilit y t o deal wit h cert ain pro ble ms.

2. Mechanical aptitude tests:
T hey measur e t he abilit y o f a per so n t o lear n a part icular t yp e o f mec han ica l wo rk. T hese t est s help t o measure specia lized t echnica l kno wled g e and pro ble m so lving abilit ies if t he candidat e. T hey ar e useful in se lect io n o f mec han ics, ma int enance wor ker s, et c.

3. Psychomotor or skills tests:
T hey ar e t ho se, which measur e a per son¶s abilit y t o do a specific jo b. Su ch t est s ar e co nduct ed in r espect o f se mi- skilled and r epet it ive jo bs su ch as packing, t est ing and inspect io n, et c.

3). Intelligence test:
T his t est helps t o evaluat e t r ait s o f int elligence. Ment al abilit y, pr esence o f mind ( a lert ness), numer ica l abil it y, memo r y a nd such ot her aspect s can be measu r ed. T he int elligence is pro bably t he mo st widely administ ered st andardized t est in ind u st r y. It is t aken t o judge numer ica l, skills, and r easo ning, me mo r y and su ch o t her abilit ies.

4). Interest Test:
T his is co nduct ed t o find o ut likes and dis likes o f candidat es t owar ds o ccup at io ns, ho bbies, et c. such t est s ind icat e which occupat io ns ar e mor e in line w it h a per so n¶s int er est . S uch t est s also enable t he co mpany t o pro vide

vo cat io nal guidance t o t he select ed candidat es and even t o t he exist ing emp lo yees. T hese t est s are used t o measur e an ind ividua l¶s act ivit y pr efer ences. T hese t est s ar e part icular ly use fu l fo r st udent s co nsider ing ma ny car eer s o r

emp lo yees decid ing upo n car eer changes. 5 ). Perso nalit y Test: T he imp o rt ance o f per so nalit y t o jo b success is undeniable. Oft en an ind ivid u a l who po ssesses t he int elligence, apt it ude and exper ience fo r cert ain has fa iled becau se o f ina bilit y t o get alo ng wit h and mot ivat e ot her people. It is co nduct ed t o judge mat ur it y, so cial or int erp er so nal skills, behavio ur under st ress and st r ain, et c. t his t est is ver y mu ch essent ia l o n case o f select io n o f sales for ce, public r elat io n st aff, et c. wher e per so nalit y pla ys an impo rt ant ro le. Per so nalit y t est s ar e similar t o int erest t est s in t hat t hey, also, i nvolve a seri ou s p rob lem of obt ain in g an h on est an swer.

6 ). Pro ject i ve Test : T his t est requir es int er pr et at io n o f pro ble ms or sit uat io ns. For examp le, a p ho t o graph or a pict ur e can be sho wn t o the candidat es and t hey ar e asked t o g ive t heir views, and opinio ns about t he pict ur e. 7 ). G eneral kn owled ge Test : T hese d ays G. K. T est s are ver y co mmo n t o find general awar eness o f t he cand id at es in t he fie ld o f sport s, po lit ics, wor ld affa ir s, curr ent affa ir s.

8). Perception Test:
At t imes per cept io n t est s can be co nduct ed t o find o ut belie fs, at t it udes, and me nt al shar pness. et c.

9). Graphol ogy Test:
It is d es igned t o analyze t he handwr it ing o f ind ividua l. It has been sa id t hat an ind iv id u a l¶s ha ndwr it ing can suggest the degr ee o f ener gy, inhibit io n and

spo nt aneit y, as well as disc lo se t he idio syncr asies and e le ment s o f bala nce and co nt ro l. For examp le, big let t er s and emp has is o n capit al let t er s ind icat e a t end ency t o wards do minat io n and compet it ive ness. A s lant t o t he r ig ht , mo d erat e pressur e and good legibil it y show leader ship pot ent ia l.

10). Polygraph Test:
Po lyg r ap h is a lie det ect or, which is designed t o ensure accur acy o f t he in fo r mat io n given in t he applicat io ns. Depart ment st ore, banks, t r easur y o ffices a nd jeweller y sho ps, t hat is, t ho se highly vu lner able t o t heft o r swind ling ma y find po lygr aph t est s useful.

11). Medical Test:
It reveals phys ica l fit ness o f a candidat e. Wit h t he development o f t echno lo g y, med ica l t est s have beco me d iver sified. Medica l ser vic ing he lps measur e and mo n it o r a candidat e¶s phys ica l r esili ence upo n expo sur e to hazardo u s

che mica ls.

CHOOSING TESTS:
T he t est must be cho sen in t he cr it er ia o f r eliabilit y, valid it y, o bject ivit y and st and ar d izat io n. T hey ar e: -

1. RELIABILITY: It refer s t o st andar dizat io n o f t he procedur e o f administ er ing and sco r ing t he t est r esult s. A per so n who t akes t est s o ne day and makes a cer t ain sco re sho uld be able t o t ake t he same t est t he next day o r t he next week and mak e mo re or less t he same scor e. An individua l¶s int elligence, fo r examp le, is g ener ally a st able c har act er ist ic. So if we administ er an int ellige nce t est , a p er so n who scor es 110 in Mar ch would scor e clo se t o 110 if t est ed in Ju ly. T est s, which pr oduce wide var iat io ns in r esult s, ser ve lit t le purpo se in select io n.

2. VALIDITY: It is a t est , which he lps predict whet her a per so n will be successfu l in a given jo b. A t est t hat has been validat ed can be help fu l in differ ent iat ing bet ween p ro sp ect ive emplo yees who will be able t o per for m t he jo b well and t ho se who will no t . Nat urally, no t est will be 100% accur at e in pr edict ing jo b success. A va lid at ed t est incr eases po ssibil it y o f success. T her e ar e t hr ee ways o f va lid at ing a t est .

They are as follows: 1). Concurrent Validity: - T his invo lves det er mining t he fact or s t hat ar e
char act er ist ics o f successful emp lo yees and t hen using t hese fact or s as t he Yard st icks.

2). Predictive Validity: - It invo lves using a select io n t est dur ing t he
select io n process and t hen ident ifying t he successful cand idat es. T he char act er ist ics o f bot h successful and les s successful cand idat es ar e t hen id ent ified.

3). Synthetic Validity: - It invo lves t aking part s o f several simi lar jo bs
r at her t han o ne co mp let e jo b t o validat e t he select io n t est .

3. OBJECTIVITY: - When t wo or mor e peo ple can int erpr et t he r esult o f
t he same t est and der ive t he same co nclusio n( s), t he t est is said t o be o bject ive. Ot her wise, t he t est evaluat or s¶ subject ive o pinio ns ma y r ender t he t est u seless.

4. STANDARDRIZATION: - A t est t hat is st andar dized is administ er ed
u nd er st andar d co ndit io n t o a lar ge group o f per so n who ar e r epr esent at ives o f t he ind iv iduals fo r who m it is int ended. The purpo se o f st andar dizat io n is t o o bt ain no r ms or st andard, so t hat a specific t est scor e can be meaning fu l when co mp ar ed t o ot her scor e in t he group.

STEP 3: INTERVIEW:
T he next st ep in t he select io n process is an int er view. I nt er view is fo r ma l, ind ept h co nver sat io n co nduct ed t o evaluat e t he applicant ¶s accept abilit y. It is co nsid er ed t o be excellent select io n device. It is face-t o- face exchange o f v iew, id eas and o pinio n bet ween t he candidat es and int er viewer s. Basica lly, int er view is not hing but an oral exa minat io n o f candidat es. I nt er view can be ad apt ed t o unskilled, skilled, manager ia l and pro fessio n emplo yees.

Objectives of interview:
I nt er view has at least t hree o bject ives and t hey ar e a fo llo ws: 1 ) Help s o bt ain addit io nal info r mat io n fro m t he applicant s 2 ) Facilit at es giving gener al info r mat io n t o t he applicant s such as co mpany po lic ies, jo b, product s manu fact ur ed and t he like 3 ) Help s build t he co mpany¶s image among t he applicant s.

Types of interview:
I nt er views can be o f differ ent t ypes. T here int er views emp lo yed by t he co mp an ies. Fo llo wing ar e t he var io us t ypes o f int er view:

1) Informal Interview:
An info r ma l int er view is an or al int er vie w and ma y t ake place anywher e. T he emp lo yee or t he manager o r t he per so nnel manager ma y ask a few almo st inco nseq uent ial quest io ns like name, place o f birt h, names o f r elat ives et c. eit her in t heir r espect ive o ffices o r anywher e o ut side t he plant o f co mpany. It is no t p lanned and no bo dy pr ep ar es for it . T his is used widely when t he labo r mar k et is t ight and when yo u need worker s badly.

2) Formal Interview:
Fo r ma l int er views ma y be held in t he emplo yme nt o ffice by t he emp lo yment o ffice in a mor e for ma l at mospher e, wit h t he help o f well st ru ct ur ed quest io ns, t he t ime and place of t he int er view will be st ipu lat ed by t he emp lo yment o ffice.

3) Non-directive Interview:
No n- d ir ect ive int er view or unst r uct ur ed int er view is designed t o let t he int er viewee speak his mind fr eely. T he int er viewer has no for ma l or dir ect ive q u est io ns, but his all at t ent io n is t o t he candidat e. He enco ur ages t he candid at e t o t alk by a lit t le pr oddin g wh en ev er he is s ilent e. g. ³ Mr . Ra y, p leas e t ell us ab ou t
you r s elf a ft er you ¶r e gr a duat ed f r om high s choo l´. T he idea is o give t he ca ndida t e comp let e fr eed o m t o ³s ell´ hi m, wit hou t t he encu mb r a nces of t he int er view er ¶ s qu est ion. But t he int er view er mu st b e of high er

caliber and must guide and r elat e t he info r mat io n give n by t he applicant t o t he o bject ive o f t he int er view.

4) Depth Interview:
It is d esigned t o int ensely exa mine t he cand idat e¶s background and t hink ing and t o go int o co nsider able det ail o n particu lar subject s o f an impo rt ant nat ur e and o f specia l int er est t o t he candidat es. For examp le, if t he candidat e says t hat he is int er est ed in t ennis, a ser ies o f quest io ns ma y be asked t o t est t he d ept h o f under st anding and int er est o f t he candidat e. T hese pro bing quest io ns

mu st be asked wit h t act and t hrough exhaust ive ana lys is; it is po ssible t o g et a go o d p ict ure o f t he candidat e.

5) Stress Interview:
It is d esigned t o t est t he candidat e and his co nduct and behavio r by him u nd er co ndit io ns o f st ress and st rain. T he int er viewer ma y st art wit h ³Mr . Jo sep h, we do not t hink yo ur qualificat io ns and exper ience ar e adequat e for t his po sit io n, ¶ and wat ch t he r eact io n o f the candidat es. A good candidat es will no t yie ld , o n t he co nt rar y he may subst ant iat e why he is qualified t o handle t he jo b. T his t yp e o f int er view is bo rrowed fro m t he Milit ar y organizat io n and t his is ver y u sefu l t o t est behavio r o f ind ividua ls when t hey ar e faced wit h d isag r eeable and t r ying sit uat io ns.

6) Group Interview:
It is d esigned t o save busy execut ive¶s t ime and t o see ho w t he candidat es ma y be bro u g ht t oget her in t he emp lo yme nt o ffice and t hey ma y be int er viewed.

7) Panel Interview:
A p anel o r int er view ing bo ard or select ion co mmit t ee ma y int er view t he cand id at e, usually in t he case o f super vis or y and manager ia l po sit io ns. T his t yp e o f int er view poo ls t he co llect ive jud gment and wisdo m o f t he panel in t he assessme nt o f t he candidat e and also in quest io ning t he facult ies o f t he cand id at e.

8) Sequential Interview:
T he seq uent ia l int er view t akes t he o ne-t o-o ne a st ep furt her and invo lves a ser ies o f int er view, usually ut iliz ing t he st r engt h and knowledgebase o f each int er viewer, so t hat each int er viewer can ask quest io ns in r elat io n t o his or her su b ject ar ea o f each candidat e, as t he candidat e mo ves fro m roo m t o roo m.

9) Structures Interview:
I n a st ru ct ur ed int er view, t he int er viewer uses pr eset st andar dized quest io ns, wh ich ar e put t o all t he int er viewees. T his int er view is also called as µGuid ed ¶ o r µPat t er ned¶ int er view. It is usefu l fo r valid r esult s, especia lly whe n dealing wit h t he lar ge number o f applicant s.

10) Unstructured Interview:
It is also kno wn as µUnpat t er ned¶ int er vie w, t he int er view is lar gely unp lan ned and t he int er viewee do es mo st o f t he t alking. Unguided int er view is ad vant ag eous in as much as it leads t o a fr iend ly co nver sat io n bet ween t he int er viewer and t he int er viewee and in t he process, t he lat er r eveals mo re o f h is o r her desir e and pro ble ms. But t he Unpat t er ned int er view lacks unifo r mit y and wo r se, t his appro ach ma y over look k ey ar ea s of t he ap p lica nt ¶s s kills or
ba ckgr ou nd. It is us ef u l when t he int er viewer t r ies t o pro be per so nal det ails o f

t he cand idat e it analyze why t hey ar e not r ight for t he jo b.

11) Mixed Interview:
I n p ract ice, t he int er viewer while int er viewing t he jo b seeker s uses a ble nd o f st ru ct ur ed and st ruct ur ed and unst ruct ur ed quest io ns. T his appro ach is called t he Mixed I nt er view. T he st ruct ur ed quest io ns pro vide a base o f int er view mo r e co nvent io nal and per mit gr eat er ins ig ht s int o t he unique differ ences bet ween applicant s.

12) Impromptu Interviews:
T his int er view co mmo nly o ccur s when emp lo yer s ar e approached dir ect ly and t end s t o be ver y info r ma l and unst r uct ur ed. Applicant s sho uld be pr epar ed at all t imes fo r o n-t he- spot int er views, especia ll y in sit uat io ns such as a jo b fair o r a co ld call. It is an ideal t ime fo r emp lo yer s to ask t he candidat e so me basic q u est io ns t o det er mine whet her he/ she may be int erest ed in fo r mally int er view ing t he candidat e.

13) Dinner Interviews:
T hese int er views ma y be st ruct ur ed, info rma l, o r socia lly s it uat ed, such as in a r est aur ant . Decide what t o eat quickly, some int er viewer s will ask yo u t o o rder fir st (do not appear indecis ive) . Avo id pot ent ia lly mess y fo ods, such as sp ag het t i. Be pr epar ed for t he co nver sat io n t o abr upt ly change fro m fr ie nd ly chat t o d ir ect int er view quest io ns, however, do not under est imat e t he value o f casu al d iscussio n, so me emplo yer s place a great value o n it . Be pr epar ed t o swit ch gear s r apid ly, fro m fun t alk t o business t alk.

14) Telephone Interviews:
Have a co py o f yo ur r esume and any po int s yo u want t o r eme mber t o say near b y. I f yo u ar e o n yo ur ho me t elephone, make sur e t hat all r oo mmat es¶ o r fa mil y me mber s ar e aware o f t he int erview ( no lo ud st er eos, barking do g s et c.). S peak a bit s lo wer t han usual. It is cr ucia l t hat yo u co nvey yo u r

ent hu sias m ver ba lly, s ince t he int er viewer cannot see your face. I f t her e ar e p au ses, do not worr y; t he int er viewer is like ly just t aking so me not es.

15) Second Interviews:
Jo b seek er s ar e invit ed back aft er t hey have passed t he fir st init ia l int er view. M id d le o r senio r manage ment generall y co nduct s t he seco nd int er view, t o get her or separ at ely. Applicant s can expect mo re in- dept h quest io ns, and t he emp lo yer will be expect ing a great er leve l o f pr epar at io n o n t he part o f t he cand id at es. Applicant s should co nt inue t o r esearch t he emplo yer fo llo wing t he fir st int er view, and be pr epar ed t o use any info r mat io n gained t hrough t he p r evio u s int er view t o t heir advant age.

STEP 4: REFERENCE CHECK:
Man y emp lo yer s r equest names, addr esses, and t elepho ne number s o f r efer ences for t he purpo se o f ver ifying info r mat io n and per haps, gaining ad d it io nal backgro und info r mat io n o n an applicant . Alt ho ugh list ed o n t he ap p licat io n fo r m, refer ences are not usually checked unt il an applicant has su ccessfu lly r eached t he fourt h st age o f a sequent ia l select io n pro cess. When t he labo r mar ket is ver y t ight , organizat io ns so met imes hir e applica nt s befo re check ing r efer ences. P revio us emp lo yer s, kno wn as public figur es, univer sit y pro fesso r s, ne ig h bo ur s or fr iends can act as r efer ences. P revio us emp lo yer s ar e pr efer able becau se t hey ar e alr eady awar e o f t he applicant ¶s per for mance. But , t he p ro ble m wit h t his r efer ence is t he t endenc y o n t he part o f t he pr evio u s emp lo yer s t o o ver-r at e t he applicant ¶s per fo r mance just t o get r id o f t he p er so n. Organisat io ns no r mall y seek let t er s o f r efer ence or t elepho ne r efer ences. T he lat t er is advant ageous because o f it s accur acy and lo w cost . T he t elepho ne

r efer ence also has t he advant age o f solic it ing immed iat e, r elat ive ly cand id co mme nt s and at t it ude can so met imes be infer r ed fro m hes it at io ns and in flect io ns in speech. It ma y be st at ed t hat t he info r mat io n gat her ed t hrough r efer ences har dly in flu e nce select io n decis io ns. T he reaso ns ar e o bvio us: 1 . T he candidat e appro aches o nly t ho se per so ns who would speak well abo ut h im o r her. 2 . P eo p le ma y wr it e favor ably abo ut t he candidat e in order t o get r id o f him o r her . 3 . P eo p le ma y not like t o divu lge t he t ruth about a candidat e, lest it might d amag e o r r uin his/ her car eer.

STEP 5: SELECTION DECISION:
Aft er o bt aining info r mat io n t hro ugh t he pr eceding st eps, select io n decis io nt he mo st cr it ica l o f all t he st eps- must be made. T he ot her st ages in t he select io n process have been used t o nar row t he number o f t he candidat es. T he fina l d ecis io n has t o be made t he poo l o f ind ividua ls who pass t he t est s, int er views and r efer ence checks. T he view o f t he line manager will be gener ally co ns ider ed in t he fina l select io n because it is he/ she who is r espo nsible fo r t he per for mance o f t he new emp lo yee. T he HR manager pla ys a cr ucial ro le in t he fina l select io n.

STEP 6: PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: Aft er t he select io n decis io n and befo r e t he jo b o ffer is made, t he candidat e is r equ ir ed t o under go a phys ica l fit ness t est . A jo b o ffer is, o ft en, co nt ing ent u po n t he candidat e being declar ed fit aft er t he phys ica l exa minat io n. T he r esu lt s o f t he med ica l fit ness t est ar e r ecorded in a st at ement and ar e pr eser ved

in t he p er so nnel r ecor ds. T her e ar e sever al o bject ives behind a phys ica l t est . Obv io u sly, o ne r easo n for a phys ica l t est is t o det ect if t he ind ividua l car r ies an y in fect ious disease. S eco ndly, t he t est assist s in det er mining whet her an ap p licant is p hys ica ll y fit t o per form t he wor k. T hir dly, t he phys ica l

exa minat io n info r mat io n can be used t o det er mine if t here ar e cert ain phys ica l cap abilit ies, which d iffer ent iat e successfu l and less successfu l e mp lo yees. Fo urt h, med ica l check- up prot ect s applicant s wit h healt h defect s fro m

u nd ert ak ing wor k t hat could be det r ime nt al t o t hem or might ot herwise end ang er t he emplo yer ¶s propert y. Fina l ly, such an exa minat io n will pr o t ect t he emp lo yer fr o m wor ker s co mpensat io n cla ims t hat ar e not valid because t he in ju r ies o r illness wer e pr esent when t he emp lo yee was hir ed.

STEP 7: JOB OFFER:
T he next st ep in t he select io n process is jo b o ffer t o t ho se applicant s who have cr o ssed all t he pr evio us hurdles. Jo b o ffer is made t hrough a let t er o f ap po int ed. S uch a let t er gener ally co nt ains a dat e by whic h t he appo int ee mu st r epo rt o n dut y. T he appo int ee must be give n r easo nable t ime fo r r eport ing . T ho s is part icular ly necessar y when he or she is a lr eady in e mp lo yme nt , in wh ich case t he appo int ee is r equir ed t o o bt ain a r e lieving cer t ificat e fro m t he p r evio u s emp lo yer . Again, a new jo b may r equir e mo ve ment t o anot her cit y, wh ich means co nsider able pr epar at io n, and mo vement o f propert y. T he co mpany ma y a lso want t he ind ivid ual t o dela y t he dat e o f r eport ing o n d ut y. I f t he new emp lo yee¶s fir st jo b upo n jo ining t he co mpany is t o go o n co mp an y u nt il per haps a week befor e such t r aining beg ins. Nat ur ally, t h is p r act ice cannot be abused, especia lly if t he ind ividual is une mp lo yed a nd d o es no t have suffic ie nt fina nces.

Decency de mands t hat t he reject ed applic ant s be info r med abo ut t heir no nselect io n. T heir applicant s ma y be pr eserved fo r fut ur e use, if a ny. It need s no emp has is t hat t he applicat io ns o f se lect ed candidat es must also be pr eser ved fo r t he fut ur e r efer ences.

STEP 8: CONTRACT OF EMPLOYM ENT:
Aft er t he jo b o ffer has been made and candidat es accept t he o ffer , cert ain d o cument s need t o be execut ed by t he emp lo yer and t he candidat e. One su ch do cument is t he at t est at io n fo r m. T his fo r m co nt ains vit al det ails a bo ut t he cand idat e, whic h ar e aut hent icat ed and at t est ed by him/ her . At t est at io n fo r m will be a valid r ecord for t he fut ur e r efer ence. T here is a lso a need fo r pr epar ing a cont r act o f emp lo yment . T he bas ic in fo r mat io n t hat sho uld be inc luded in a wr it t en co nt ract o f emp lo yment wil l var y acco rding t o t he leve l o f t he jo b, but t he fo llo wing checklist set s out t he t yp ica l headings: 1 . Jo b t it le 2 . Dut ies, inc lud ing a par se such as ³T he emp lo yee w ill per fo r m such dut ies and will be r espo nsible t o such a per son, as t he co mpany ma y fr o m t ime t o t ime d ir ect ´. 3 . Dat e when co nt inuous emp lo yme nt st art s and t he basis fo r calculat ing ser vice. 4 . Rat e o f pay, allo wance, o vert ime and shift r at es, met ho d o f payment s. 5 . Ho ur s o f work inc lud ing lunch br eak and o vert ime and shift arr angement s. 6 . Ho lid a y arr angement s: i) P aid ho lida ys per year.

ii) Calcu lat io n o f ho lida y pay. iii) Qu alifying per iod.

iv) Accrual o f ho lida ys and ho lida y pay. v) Det ails o f ho lida y year .

v i) Dat es when ho lida ys can be t aken. v ii) Maximu m ho lida y t hat can be t ake at any o ne t ime. v iii) Carr yo ver o f ho lida y ent it le ment . ix) Pu b lic ho lida ys.

7 . Lengt h o f not ice due t o and fro m emp lo yee. 8 . Gr ievances procedur e (or r efer ence t o it ). 9 . Disc ip linar y procedur e (or any r efer ence t o it ). 1 0. Wo r k r ules (or any r efer ence t o t hem) . 1 1. Arr angement s for t er minat ing emp lo yme nt . 1 2. Arr angement s fo r unio n me mber ship (if applica ble) . 1 3. S pecia l t er ms r elat ing t o r ight s t o patent s and designs, co nfident ia l in fo r mat io n and r est raint s o n t rade aft er t er minat io n o f emp lo yme nt . 1 4. E mp lo yer ¶s r ight t o var y t er ms o f t he co nt ract subject t o pro per no t ificat io n being give n.

Alt er nat ive ly called emp lo yme nt agr eeme nt s or simp ly bo nds, co nt r act s o f emp lo yment ser ve many usefu l purpo ses. S uch co nt r act s seek t o r est rain jo b- ho pp er s, t o prot ect kno wledge and info r mat io n t hat might be vit al t o a co mp an y¶s healt hy bot t o m line and t o prevent co mpet it or s fro m po aching h ig h ly va lued emplo yees. Gr eat car e is t aken t o dr aft t he co nt ract for ms. Oft en, ser vices o f law fir ms ( p ro minent fir ms in t his cat egor y include Mulla, Cr aigie, Blunt and Caro e, Crawfor d Baile y, Amar chand Mangaldas Hir ala l, et c. ) ar e engag4d t o g et t he fo r ms dr aft ed and fina lized. Mo st emplo yer s ins ist o n agr eement s being signed by new ly hir ed emp lo yees. But high t ur no ver sect or s such as so ft ware, advert is ing and med ia ar e mo r e pro ne t o use co nt r act s.

T he dr awback wit h t he co nt ract s is t hat it is almo st t o enfor ce t hem. A d et er mined emp lo yee is bo und t o leave t he organizat io n, co nt ract or no co nt ract . T he emp lo yee is pr epar ed t o pay t he penalt y fo r br eaching t he ag reement or t he new emp lo yer will pro vide co mpensat io ns. It is t he r easo n t hat sever al co mpanies have scr apped t he co nt ract s alt oget her.

STEP 9: CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS:
Co nt r ar y t o popular per cept io n, t he select io n process will not end wit h execut ing t he emp lo yme nt co nt r act . T here is anot her st ep ± amor e sensit ive o ne r eassur ing t ho se candidat es who have not select ed, not because o f any ser io u s d efic ienc ies in t heir per so nalit y, but because t heir pro file did not mat ch t he r equir eme nt o f t he organizat ion. T hey must be t o ld t hat t hose who were select ed wer e do ne pur ely o n r elat ive mer it .

STEP 10: EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME:
T he bro ad t est o f t he effect ive ness o f t he select io n process is t he qu alit y o f t he p er so nnel hir ed. An or ganizat io n must have co mpet ent and co mmit t ed p er so nnel. T he select io n process, if proper ly do ne, will ensur e availabil it y o f su ch emp lo yees. How t o evaluat e t he effe ct ive ness o f a select io n programme ? A p er io d ic audit is t he answer. P eople who wor k independent o f HR d ep art ment must co nduct audit . T he t able belo w co ntains an out line t hat h ig h lig ht s t he ar eas and quest io ns t o be co ver ed in a syst emat ic evaluat io n.

2.2 Four Approaches to Selection: 1). Ethnocentric Selection:
I n t his approach, st affing decis io ns ar e made at t he or ganizat io n¶s head q u art er s. S ubsid iar ies have lim it ed aut o no my, and t he emplo yees fr o m t he head q u art er s at ho me and abroad fill ke y jo bs. Nat io nals fr o m t he par ent co u nt r y do minat e t he organizat io ns at home and abroad.

2). Polycentric Selection:
I n po lycent r ic select io n, each subs id iar y is t reat ed as a dist inct nat io nal entity wit h lo cal co nt ro l key fina nc ia l t arget s and invest ment decis io ns. Lo cal cit izens manage subsid iar ies, but t he key jo bs r emain wit h st aff fr o m t he p arent co unt r y. T his is t he appro ach, which is lar gely pr act iced in o ur count r y

3). Regiocentric Selection:
Here, control wit hin t he group and t he movement s of st aff are managed o n a regio nal basis, reflect ing t he part icular disposit ion of business and operat io ns wit hin t he group. Regional manager s have great er discret ion in decisio n. Mo vement of st aff is largely rest rict ed to specific geographical regions and pro mot io ns t o t he jobs cont inue to be dominat ed by managers from t he parent s co mpany.

4). Geocentric Staffing:
I n t his case, business st r at egy is int egr ated t horoughly o n glo bal basis. St aff d evelo pment and pro mot io n are based o n abilit y, not nat io nalit y. T he bro ad and ot her part s o f t he t op management st ruct ur e ar e t horoughly int er nat io nal in co mpo sit io n. Needless t o say, such organizat io ns are u nco mmo n.

2.3 PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION:
The main object ive of select ion is t o hire people having co mpet ence and co mmit ment . This object ive s oft en defeat ed because o f cert ain barr ier s. The impediment s, which check effect iveness o f select io n, are percept io n, fair ness, validit y, reliabilit y and pressure.

Perception:Our inabilit y t o underst and ot hers accurat ely is probably t he most fu nd ament al barr ier t o select ing t he r ight candidate. Select io n demands an individual or a group of people t o assess and co mpare t he respect ive co mpet encies o f others, wit h t he aim o f choosing t he r ig ht persons for t he jo bs. But our views are highly perso nalized. We all perceive t he wor ld different ly. Our limit ed perceptual abilit y is o bviously a st u mbling block t o t he object ive and rat ional select ion o f t he people.

Fairness:Fair ness in se lect io n requires t hat no individual should be discr iminat ed against on t he basis o f relig io n, regio n, race or gender. But t he low nu mbers o f wo men and ot her less pr ivileged sect ions of t he societ y in middle and senio r management posit io ns and open dis cr iminat io n on t he basis o f age in jo b advert isement s and in t he select io n process would suggest t hat all t he effo rt s t o minimize inequit y have not been effect ive.

Validity: Valid it y, as explained ear lier, is a t est t hat helps predict jo b per for mance o f an incumbent . A t est t hat has been validat ed can different iat e bet ween t he emp lo yees who per for m well and t hose who will not . However, a validat ed

t est does not predict jo b success accur at ely. It can only incr ease possibilit y o f su ccess.

Reliability:A reliable met hod is one, which will produce consist ent result s when repeat ed in similar s it uat io ns. Like validat ed t est, a reliable t est may fail t o pred ict job per for mance wit h precisio n.

Pressure:Pressure is brought on t he select ors by po lit ic ians, bur eaucr at s, relat ives, fr iends and peers t o select part icular candidat es. Candidat es select ed because o f co mpulsio ns are obviously not t he r ight ones. Appo int ment s t o pub lic sect ors undert akings generally t ake place under such pressures.

2.4 Difference (Recruitment and Selection):
1.) Recru it ment is t he process of searching for prospect ive candidat es and mo t ivat ing t hem t o apply for jo b in t he organizat io n whereas, select ion is a pro cess o f choosing mo st suit able candidat es out of t hose, who are int erest ed and also qualified for jo b.

2.) In t he recruit ment process, vacancies available are fina lized, publicit y is g iven t o t hem and applicat ions are co llect ed fro m int erest ed candidat es. In t he select ion process, available applicat ions are scrut inized. Test s, int er view and med ical examinat ion ar e conduct ed in order to select most suit able cand id at es.

3.) In recruit ment t he purpose is t o att ract maximu m number s of suit able and int erest ed candidat es t hrough applicat ions. In select io n process t he purpose is t hat t he best candidat e out of t hose qualified and int erest ed in t he appo int ment .

4.) Recruit ment is pr ior t o select io n. It creat es proper base for act ual select io n. Select io n is next to recruit ment . It is out of candidat es¶ available/ int er est ed.

5.) Recruit ment is t he posit ive funct ion in which int erest ed candidat es are enco uraged t o submit applicat ion. Select io n is a negat ive funct io n in which unsuit able candidat es ar e eliminat ed and t he best one is select ed.

6.) Recru it ment is t he short process. In recruit ment public it y is given t o vacancies and app licat io ns ar e co llect ed from different sources Select io n is a lengt hy process. It invo lves scrut iny o f applicat ions, giving t est s, arrang ing int er views and medical examinat ion.

8.) Recru it ment is not cost ly. E xpendit ure is requ ir ed mainly for advert ising t he po st s. Select ion is a cost ly act ivit y, as expendit ure is needed for t est ing cand id at es and conduct of int er views.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To conduct any research a scientific method must be followed the universe of study is very large in which is difficult to collect information from the entire employee. so the sampling method has been followed study, the analysis is based on primary as well as secondary data.

1:-PRIMARY SOURCES:Primary data was collected using an appropriate questionnaire and observing it.

2:-SECONDARY SOURSES:The secondary data was collected from company¶s documents, official records.

3:-QUESTIONNAIRE:It is the set of question which is to be filled up by the respondents for their answers. We have also prepared during our study for the purpose of collection of primary data. Questionnaire designed were of multiple choice and of ended of nature.

4:-METHOD OF ANALYSIS:The tool of analysis adopted by me is the ³QUESTIONNAIRE´ which I have prepared on the basis of my analysis. Methodology can be defined as a systemic way of approaching a problem to identify the truth and for this certain step should be taken in a systematic order and these steps are called methods. ³Research methodology is a process of planning, acquiring, analyzing and disseminating relevant data and information´. The use of right methodology is necessary because if the right methods are not adopted and thoughts are not arrange in a logical order the exact truth might not be expressed. Thus the methodology means correct arrangement of thoughts and knowledge.

WHY RESEARCH IS REQUIRED
Conceptually, the purpose of research is to discover the answers for the questions through application of scientific procedures. The main aim of the research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered yet.

Through each research study has its own specific purpose, but generally researchers are done: 

To gain familiarities with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which associated with something else. 

To test the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables.  To take appropriate decisions. Research is a careful and systematic effort of gaining new knowledge. Research is an original contribute on to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement; it is pursuit of true with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short the search of knowledge through objectives and systematic method of finding solution to problem is research.

RESEARCH DESIGN:
The research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research questions and to control variance.

The definition of three important terms are ± plan, structure and strategy. The plan is an outline of the research scheme on which the researcher is to work. The structure of the research is a more specific outline or the scheme and the strategy shows how the Research will be carried out, specifying the methods to be used in collection and analysis of data. Research design is the specification of methods and the procedure for acquiring the information needed. It is the operational pattern or framework of the projects that stipulate what information is to be collected from which sources by the procedures. The importance of research design lies in the fact that it makes a statement of what is to be done in order to achieve the research objectives and how it is to be done. It is an expression of what of the research exercise in terms of results and the analytical input needed to convert data into research findings. A design may be quite suitable in one case but could not fit in some other research problem. One design cannot serve the purpose of all types of research problems. Also most of the research problems are complex in nature and cannot be solved by a specific research design. Hence a combination of research design is used to reach a solution. The research design when chosen correctly prevents deviation in the study. The present study is the cross sectional descriptive type with fields study and partly casual in nature as it seeks to find out consumer behavior with respect to mobile and correlate them with income, age, education, professions etc. and formulate marketing strategies based on the study.

SAMPLING AND SAMPLE DESIGN:
It is not possible to examine every item in the population hence interferences is drawn about a large numbers of items possessing a particular attribute based on based analysis of fraction of such items. It is called a sample. For developing a sampler design following points need to be discussed with regard to the present study ±

POPULATION:
In statistical usage the terms population is applied to any finite collection of individuals. It has displaced the orders terms universe. It is aggregate of all elements possessing certain specified characteristics which need to studied and defined prior to sample. Population can be finite if units can be counted or infinite. Since the present study is done in Bareilly, The population is finite. Population can be defined in terms of elements, sampling units, extent and time.

In this study, the specifications will be as follows:
Element Sampling units : : People J K Tyres Office

ELEMENT:
An Element is the unit about which information is collected. It provides the basis for analysis. It is identifiable physically. In the present study the element is dealer having a good knowledge about the service. (Regarding Brand)

SAMPLING UNIT:
The sampling unit is the basic unit containing the element of the target population. The sampling may be different from the element. It can be either geographical unit (state, district etc.) or social unit (Household, family, club etc.) or a construction unit (enclave, house, flat etc.) or it may be an individual. In the present stuffy, a sample of distributor is selected in the three stages. First of all a sample of cities is selected, than a sample of colonies is selected from each selected colony after the entire distributor in it.

SAMPLE FRAME:
A sample frame could be a telephone directory, a list of block and localities of a city, a map or any other list consisting of all the sampling units, each stage of sampling process requires its own sampling frame. Since the present study undergoes two stages sampling Process, we would need two sampling frames. First a list of localities, Second a list of distributors within the selected localities.

SAMPLING DESIGN:
Representation of entire universe is only possible through the sampling technique. Considerable care has been taken in selecting the sample so that is Convenient in terms of size and enough to represent the entire universe

SUMMARY OF RESEARCH DESIGN

Data source: Primary and secondary Research approach: Survey method Research instrument: Questionnaire Sampling plan: Sample unit (office) Sample size: 10 employee Sample area: Gwalior city Contact method: Personal contact

QUESTIONNAIRE
Name ± Company¶s name ± Designation ± DateNote ± Please tick the appropriate option.
1. What source you adopt to source candidates? a. Employee referral b. Campus recruitment c. advertising d. Recruitment agencies e. Job portals f. Other, plz specify ±

INTERPRETATION:

Source
10% 20% 10% Employee referral Campus recruitment Advertising Recruitment agencies 25% 35% Job portals

2. How many stages are involved in selecting the candidate? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. More

INTERPRETATION:

Stages

10%

30% 15% 1 2 3 4 More 20%

25%

3. Do you use any of the following tests during the process of recruitment? a. Written b. Aptitude c. Group Discussion d. Personal Interview e. Psychometric test f. Other, pls specify ±

INTERPRETATION:

Tests
5%

10%

20% 40%

Written Aptitude Group Discussion Personal Interview Psychometric Test

25%

4. How do you track the source of candidate? a. Manual b. Software c. Online d. Windows. Xls.

INTERPRETATION:

Sources

20% 30% Manual Software Online Windows.Xls. 10% 40%

5. Apart from the HR Manager, who all from the other departments are required to get involved in interviewing process?

a. Sales b. Administration c. HR Executives d. Other, pls specify ±

INTERPRETATION:

Department

20% 30% Sales Administration HR Executive Others 10% 40%

6. What is the average time spent by sales dept. during recruitment (each candidate)?
a.10mins. b.10 to 20mins. c. 20 to 30mins. d. More

INTERPRETATION:

Time

10%

10%

10 mins 10 to 20 mins 30% 20 to 30 mins More 50%

7. Do you follow different recruitment process for different grades of employees?
a. No b. Yes

INTERPRETATION:

Recruitment Process

20%

No Yes

80%

8. What is the back out percentage of candidates after being offered?
A.1-5 B.5-10 C.10-15 D. 15-20

Interpretation:
It hardly happens with such a big firm.

9. What percentage of candidates leaves within the period of less than 1- 3 month?
A. 1-5 B.5-10 C.10-15 D. 15-20

Interpretation:
It usually doesn¶t happen because contracts are made for at least for 6 months.

10. Does the company reimburse the traveling cost incurred by the candidate for appearing in the interview?
A. Yes B. No C. Depends, how ±

Interpretation: No, Company does not provide the traveling cost incurred by the candidate for appearing in the interview.

11. Do you take any technological support for the process of recruiting?
A. Telephone B. Video conferencing C. Online support D. Other, pls specify ±

Interpretation:
Not generally only with Engineers.

12. If the recruitment type is ³Employee Referral´ then what special privilege has to be paid to the one who has referred?

Interpretation:
If the recruitment type is ³Employee Referral´ then there is no special privilege paid to the one who has referred.

13. In how much time does the whole process generates results? (Time taken in the whole process i.e. from tests, personal interviews to final list of selected candidates)

Interpretation:
It takes about one week for all process, as the tests and interviews are conducted in one day but results are out within a week.

14. How much do you spend in reference check of 1 candidate?

Interpretation:
It depends on the post to be filled.

15. How much do you spend on T&D and Induction per employee?

Interpretation:
Its value goes in lakhs when a group of 10 candidates are selected and undergone training and development.

16. How many recruitments you did in the last fiscal year?

Interpretation:
Last year 12 engineers and 45 workers were recruited.

17. What source has provided you with highest performers? (Both quantity wise and quality wise)

Interpretation:
Both sources give highest performers but external sourcing is slightly better.

18. Do you have a legal advisor for HR department? Yes/No if yes, then is it...
A. Internal B. External

INTERPRETATION:

Legal Advisor

30%

Internal External

70%

19. Are you aware of the concept of RPO ± Recruitment Process Outsourcing?
A. No B. Yes, through what source ±

INTERPRETATION:

RPO

20%

No Yes

80%

RECCOMADATION AND SUGGESSTION

1. The company should increase their candidate pool through external sources.

2. More financing option should be available.

3. The company should provide more customer value.

4. Follow up should be increased.

5. Effort should be done for developing the concept of good relationship with consumers. 6. The company does not go for campus recruitment, they should follow it. 7. The selection process is too lengthy with consumes much time, which has to be decresed.

CONCLUTION

The manufacturing companies aims to ensure that the best candidate is selected for the job regardless of age, color, origin, religion, gender etc.

To achieve this objective company ensures that all those who are concerned with the recruitment and selection process have a clear understanding of the job to be filled.

The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the company will attract and retain the most highly qualified workforce available to them.

All the workers of the studied organization felt that this program is beneficial in improving performance, skills, attitude and knowledge effectively and efficiently of doing work.

BIBLOGRAPHY

Name of the Book: 

    

V S P RAO ³Human Resource Management´ C.B. GUPTA ³Human Resource Management´ K ASWATHAPPA ³Human Resource Management ´ PHILIP KOTLER ³Marketing Management´ A B RAO ³Research Methodology´ C.B. Mamoria & S.V. Gankar ³Human Resource Management´

OTHER RESOURCES: 
  M agazine T hro ugh Q uestio ners Various JK Tyres and Industries Journals & Newspapers.

Websites:
o www.citehr.com o www.hrlinks.com o www.google.com o www.JKtyres.com

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