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Structure + Growth Questions

What category of plant has leaves with parallel vein patterns?

Monocots

Dicots

Angiosperms

Cotyledons

Sieve-tube members
Plants with leaves that have parallel veins are called monocots. Monocots have one cotyledon as
embryos, leaves with parallel veins, and usually fibrous root systems. Monocots are grasses,
grains, palms, and bamboos.

What is plant wood also known as?

Primary phloem

Secondary phloem

Primary xylem
d

Secondary xylem

Vascular cambium
Wood is also known as secondary xylem. Wood is formed when new cells produced by the
apical meristem differentiate to produce the vascular cambium, which in turn produces new
tissues called secondary xylem and secondary phloem.

Meristem tissue is composed of what kind of cells?

Undifferentiated cells
Collenchyma cells

Sclerenchyma cells

Companion cells

Parenchyma cells
Meristem tissue is composed of undifferentiated cells. These cells divide via mitosis to produce
new cells that eventually differentiate into the other tissue types.

Which plant tissue system includes the cuticle?

Vascular

Ground
c

Epidermal

Cambrial

Root
The epidermal tissue system constitutes the outer skin layer of the plant and includes the cuticle,
which is a waxy coat that helps prevent water loss from the plant.

What structure connects the leaf of a plant to the stem?

Terminal bud

Node

Internode

Axial bud
e

Petiole
The structure that joins the leaf to the stem of a plant is called a petiole.

The parenchyma cells of the cortex give rise to which of the following structures?

Vascular cambium
b

Cork cambium

Secondary xylem

Secondary phloem

Root cap
Cork cambium is formed from parenchyma cells of the cortex. When the epidermal tissue layer
and the cortex begin to be sloughed off, a layer of cork, produced by the cork cambium, replaces
them and acts as a tough layer of cells protecting the vascular system of the plant.

Which of the following types of cells are part of dermal tissue?

Guard cells

Parenchyma cells

Collenchyma cells

Phloem cells

Xylem cells
Guard cells are specialized cells in dermal tissue. Paired guard cells form stomata.
6

Which group of plant cells is central to cell regeneration and wound healing?

Sclerenchyma

Collenchyma
c

Parenchyma

Cork cambium

Vascular cambium
Parenchyma cells in a plant’s ground tissue are important in cell regeneration and wound
healing.

Which of the following structures lies between sieve-tube members in phloem?

Sieve plate

Sieve tube

Companion cell

Tracheid

Vessel element
Between each sieve-tube member is a sieve plate through which sugars and other compounds
move as they travel through the plant body.

Sugars are created during what important process in plants?


Primary growth

Secondary growth

Transpiration
d

Photosynthesis

Meristem division
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harness the energy of the sun to create their own
food in the form of sugars.

What is the name of the phenomenon in which the terminal bud inhibits the growth of the
axillary buds?

Primary meristem

Terminal bud dominance


c

Apical dominance

Bud dominance

Terminal dominance
The terminal bud inhibits the growth of the axillary buds in the phenomenon known as apical
dominance.

10

Which of the following is a common feature of a dicot?

Seeds have one cotyledon


b

Reticulate leaves

Scattered vascular tissue in stem


Parallel leaf veins

Flowers have three petals


Reticulate leaves are common to dicots. Monocot leaves have parallel veins.

Plant Reproduction questions

What structures are responsible for protecting the flower bud before it opens?

Sepals

Petals

Stamens

Carpels

Shoots
Sepals, green, leaflike structures, enclose the flower and protect it before it opens. Sepals are
visible at the base of a flower that is open.

What form of reproduction is at work when part of the parent plant breaks off to form new
plants?

Diversification

Sexual reproduction

Germination
d

Fragmentation

Diploidy
Many plants, such as garlic, undergo a type of asexual reproduction known as fragmentation, in
which parts of the parent plant break off and form mature plants.
1

Which of the following hormones regulates the opening and closing of the stomata during times
of drought?

Gibberellins

Ethylene

Auxins

Cytokinins
e

Abscisic acid
Abscisic acid regulates leaf openings, or stomata, in times of drought. This plant hormone is also
involved in seed dormancy and in balancing the effects of growth hormones.

A maple tree is an example of which of the following plant types?

Diurnal

Annual

Biennial

Nocturnal
e

Perennial
Maple trees are perennials, plants whose life cycle spans the course of many years.

A long-day plant is most likely to flower during which of the following months?

July
September

January

March

November
A long-day plant is most likely to flower in the summer or early spring, when the duration of
daylight is larger.

In which of the following structures does the male gametophyte develop?

Stigma

Ovary
c

Anther

Ovule

Sepal
Pollen grains (the male gametophyte) are formed in the anther of the flower.

Which of the following hormones or classes of hormones is involved in seed germination?

Auxins

Cytokinins
c

Gibberellins
Abscisic acid

Ethylene
The class of plant hormones known as gibberellins promotes stem elongation and is involved in
the growth of fruit and the germination of seeds.

Which tropism occurs in response to gravity?

Thigmotropism

Phototropism

Gyrotropism
d

Gravitropism

Planetropism
Gravitropism is the mechanism by which plants grow in response to gravity.

What is the sticky structure that a pollen grain lands on when pollinating another plant?

Ovary

Anther

Stamen
d

Stigma

Petal
Pollen grains are received by the stigma, the sticky or feathery surface on the carpel, the female
sexual organ in plants.

8
What is the name of the twenty-four-hour cycle in which plants operate?

Biological clocks

Timepieces

Phytoperiods

Photoperiods
e

Circadian rhythms
Plants operate in twenty-four-hour cycles called circadian rhythms. These cycles occur
independent of environmental cues.

Which of the following plant structures develops into the fruit?

Stigma
b

Ovary

Anther

Ovule

Sepal
The plant structure that develops into the fruit is the ovary. As the fruit develops, the flower loses
its petals, and the walls of the ovary begin to increase in thickness.

10

Which plant hormone or class of hormones is responsible for phototropism?

Gibberellins
Cytokinins

Abscisic acids

Ethylenes
e

Auxins
The plant hormone IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) is a type of auxin that is involved in phototropic
movements, in which a plant grows, or bends, toward light.