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Chemistry Notes (Acids, Bases and Salts)

Chemistry Notes (Acids, Bases and Salts)

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Chemistry notes on Acids,bases and salts
Chemistry notes on Acids,bases and salts

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Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Oct 15, 2010
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10/18/2013

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Acids, bases and salts

1. Acids and bases
y Acid  An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water o Has a sour taste o Turns blue litmus paper red o Turns Universal Indicator red/ orange/ yellow y Base  A base is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions when reacting with an acid  Alkalis are soluble bases o Has a bitter taste and soppy feel o Produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water o Turns Universal Indicator blue/ violet y pH  pH of a solution is based on the relative concentration of hydrogen or hydroxide ions present in the solution  The universal indicator is a mixture of dyes that changes color depending on the pH  By comparing against a pH colour chart, the hydrogen/ hydroxide ions concentration or relative acidity/ alkalinity can be determined Strength of acid  A strong acid completely dissociates when dissolved in water to produce hydrogen ions  A weak acid partially dissociates when dissolved in water to produce hydrogen ions, leaving some acid molecules undissociated in the solution Reaction of acids  React with metals to from hydrogen and a salt o Metal + acid salt + hydrogen  React with carbonates to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water o Carbonate + acid salt + water + carbon dioxide  React with bases to from a salt and water (neutralization) o Base + acid salt + water o Ionic : H+ + OH- H2O Uses of acids  Sulfuric acid o Make detergents o Make fertilizers o Used in car batteries Reaction of bases

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React with acids to from a salt and water (neutralization) o Base + acid salt + water o Ionic : H+ + OH- H2O  React with ammonium salts, when heated, to produce ammonia gas and salt o Alkali + ammonium salt ammonia + water + salt pH of soils  They affect the growth and development of plants o Too acidic soil would prevent plant growth  pH controlled by adding bases, like quicklime (calcium oxide) and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), to raise the pH of acidic soils o Alkalis/ aqueous alkalis are not used as they seep into the soil as raise the ph by too much Oxides  Acidic o Are non-metal oxides o Most dissolve readily in water to give acids o React with alkalis to give salt and water o Uses of sulfur dioxide  As a beaching agent in manufacturing of paper (bleaches wood pulp)  As a food preservative, as it is a disinfectant (Kills bacteria)  Basic o Are metal oxides o Most are insoluble in water. Those that do are called alkalis o Solids at room temperature o React with acids to give salt and water  Amphoteric o Are metallic oxides that react with both acids and bases to from salts and water  Aluminum, Lead(II), Zinc  Neutral o Are non-metal oxides that do not react with acids or bases o Are insoluble in water o Water, Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen monoxide

2. Salts
y y Salts are ionic compounds that is formed when a metallic/ ammonium ions replaces one or more hydrogen ions of a acid (when acid reacts with base) Preparation of salts  Precipitation o Used to prepare insoluble salts o React two soluble reactants with desired cation and anion

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o Filter and wash with distilled water to obtain the salt  Acid neutralization o Used to prepare soluble salts (not Group 1 or ammonium salts) o React an acid with excess metal/ carbonates/ base o Filter the mixture, collecting the filtrate o Obtain the salt by crystallisation  Titration o Used to prepare Group 1 and ammonium salts o Place a fixed volume of acid in a conical flask, and some alkali in a burette. o Add indicator to acid and add alkali drop by drop, while swirling the flask, till the indicator just changes colour o Record the volume of alkali needed, and repeat without indicator o Obtain salt by crystallisation Solubility of salts  All nitrates are soluble  All chloride, except silver and lead, are soluble  All sulfates, except calcium, barium and lead, are soluble  All hydroxides/ oxides, except Group1, ammonium, aluminum, barium and calcium , are insoluble  All carbonates, except Group1 and ammonium, are insoluble Manufacture of ammonia  Nitrogen, from fractional distillation of liquid air, and hydrogen, from cracking of crude oil, are needed  They react in a reversible reaction o N2 + 3 H2 m 2 NH3 o A reversible reaction means that the forward and reversed reaction are occurring simultaneously , until the equilibrium mixture of reactants and products is reached Conditions  450oC, 250 atm, catalyst of finely divided iron  Increase in temperature lowers yield, increase rate  Increase in pressure increases both yield and rate Displacement of ammonia  Ammonia gas is produced when heating an ammonium salt with a base

3. Ammonia
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Nickolas Teo

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