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Ckvem-anI ]mTm-hen

]pkvXIw˛ 1
Ckvem-anI ]mTm-hen

]pkvX-Iw˛ 1

hnh¿Ø\w
auem\m apl-ΩZv A_p¬ h^m

{]km-[-I¿:
Ckvemw C‚¿\m-j-W¬ ]ªn-t°-j≥kv, tIcf
t^m¿´v tdmUv, IÆq¿˛ 670 001
Islamika Padavali
(Malayalam)
Author :
Moulana Muhammad Sherif Sahib
Translated by :
Moulana Muhammad Abul Wafa
Printed at:
BRB Offset, Thavakkara, Kannur- 17
Published by :
Islam International Publications, Kerala
Copies:
2000
Ist Edition : 1970
IInd Edition : 1974
IIIrd Edition : 1988
IVth Edition : 2006
Price: 10/-
{]kvXm-h\
{]m Y-anI Ckv e m- a n- I - ] m- T - ß - f pƒs°m- f - f n®psIm≠v
hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°mbn {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°p∂ Hcp eLp-Ir-Xn-bm-Wn-
Xv. Ad-_n-cm-Py-ß-fn¬ Alva-Znøm anj-W-dn-bmbn tkh-\-a-\p-
jvTn-®n-cp∂ auem\m apl-ΩZv ico^v kmln_v cNn-®Xpw JmZn-
bm-\nse kZv¿ A©p-a≥ Alva-Znøm AwKo-I-cn-®-Xp-amb
"Ckvemw Io ]lven' F∂ sNdp]pkvXIØns‚ kzX{¥
hnh¿Ø-\-amWv Ckvem-anI ]mTm-hen.
Cu {KŸw ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v `mjm-¥cw sNbvXXv tIc-f-
°-c-bn¬ Zo¿L-Imew Alva-Znøm anj-W-dn-bmbn tkh\w
sNbvX a¿lqw auem\m apl-ΩZv A_p¬ h^m kmln-_m-Wv.
A√mlp At±-l-Øn\v aKv^n-dØv \¬Ip-am-dm-I-s´. BZy-tØ-
Xn¬\n∂v hyXy-kvX-ambn Cu ]pkvXIw 9 ]mT-ambn Xncn-°p-
Ibpw Hmtcm ]mT-Øn-t‚bpw Ah-km\w tNmZy-߃ tN¿°p-
Ibpw sNbvXn-´p-≠v.
\ivtdm Cim-AØ - v kZv¿ A©p-a≥ AlvaZ- nøm, JmZn-bm≥
]pXn-bX- mbn cq]o-Ic
- n® tIc-fØnse {]kn-≤o-Ic - W
- °- Ω
- n‰n ]pd-
Øn-d°- p∂ BZy-]p-kvXI - a
- m-Wn-Xv. hnZym¿∞n-˛hn-Zym¿∞n\nIƒ
CXv ]q¿Æ-ambpw {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Øp-sa∂ ip`m-]vXn-hn-izm-k-
tØmsS Cu IrXn khn-\bw ka¿∏n-®p-sIm-≈p-∂p.
IÆq¿
28.11.2006 kZv¿
kXy-{]Xn⁄
(AXv^m-ep¬ Alva-Zn-ø)

Ckvemw Zo\n\pw Alva-Znøm PamA-Øn\pw


kzkap-Zm-b-Øn\pw kzcm-Py-Øn\pw tkh\w
sNøp-∂-Xn\v Ft∏mgpw k∂-≤-\m-bncn-°ps-a∂v
Rm≥ G‰p-]-d-™psIm≈p-∂p. Rm≥ Ft∏mgpw
kXyw ]d-bp-∂-Xm-Wv; lkvdØv Jeo^Øp¬
akolv Xncp-a-\- ns‚ F√m D]-tZ-i-ßfpw A\p-
k-cn®v h¿Øn-°p-hm≥ Rm≥ ]cn-{i-an-°p-∂-Xm-
Wv. C≥im-A-√m-lv.
Ckvem-anI ]mTm-hen
]mTw˛ 1
Ckvemw

"C kvemw' F∂ ]Z-Øns‚ A¿∞w A\p-k-cWw F∂m-


Ip-∂p. AXm-bXv, A√m-lp-hn\p ]cn-]q¿Æ-ambn hgn-s∏-SpI F∂v
Xmev]-cyw. apl-Ω-Zv\-_n(-k) aptJ\ A√mlp shfn-s∏-Sp-Ønb
Zo\n\v Ckvemw F∂p t]¿ \¬I-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. A√m-lp-hns\
]cn-]q¿Æ-ambn A\p-k-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ GI-am¿§-am-W-Xv.
Ckvemw F∂ hm°n\v im¥nbpw kam-[m-\hpw \ne-
\n¿ØpIsb∂pw A¿∞-ap-≠v. temIØv imizX kam-[m\w
ÿm]n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Htc-sbmcp am¿§w Ckvemw am{X-am-Wv.
Zo\p¬ Ckvemw AYhm C-kvemw-a-Xw kzoI-cn® Bƒ°v
apkvenw F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. Hcp bYm¿∞ apkvenw A√m-lp-hns\
]cn-]q¿Æ-ambn A\p-k-cn-°p-Ibpw a\p-jy¿°n-S-bn¬ kam-[m-
\hpw im¥nbpw \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xn\v Ignbp-∂{X ]cn-{i-an-°p-
Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xm-Wv. AXn-∂m-h-iy-amb F√m \nb-a-ßfpw
\n¿t±-i-ßfpw Ckvem-an-ep-≠v.
Ckvem-anse F√m A≤ym-]-\-ßfpw a\p-jy¿°v KpW-{]-
8

Zhpw {]mtbm-Kn-Ih
- p-am-Ip-∂p. AXns‚ F√m XØz-ßfpw bp‡n-
k-lhpw _p≤n°v A\ptbmPyhp-amWv.
\mw apkvenw-I-fm-Wv. k¿∆-a-\p-jy¿°p-ap≈ Hcp ssZhn-I-
k-tµ-i-as{X Ckvemw. AXn-\m¬ temI-sØ-ßp-ap≈ apgp-h≥
P\-߃°pw Ckvem-ans\ {]t_m-[n-°p-Ibpw F√m-h-tcbpw
kvt\l-]q¿∆w AXn-te°v £Wn-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠Xv \ΩpsS
\n¿_‘IS-ab - m-Ip-∂p.
ASn-ÿm\ Imcyw
A√mlp GI-\m-sW∂pw apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) A√m-lp-hns‚
{]hm-N-I-\m-sW-∂p-ap-≈-Xm-Wv Ckvemans‚ ASn-ÿm\ hnizm-
kw. F∂m¬, Hcmƒ A√m-lp-hns‚ Zr„nbn¬ bYm¿∞ apkven-
ambn AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-S-W-sa-¶n¬ Cu hnizmkw kzoI-cn-®m¬
am{Xw t]mcm; A√m-lp-hn-t\bpw apl-Ω-Z-\-_n(-k)-tbbpw ]cn-
]q¿Æ-ambn A\p-k-cn-°pI IqSn th≠-Xm-Wv.
Ckvemw Imcy-߃
Ckvem-ans‚ ASn-ÿm-\-]-c-amb A©v A\p-jvTm-\-I¿Ω-
߃ Xmsg ]d-bp-∂-h-bm-Wv. Ahbv°v Ckvemw Imcy-߃
F∂p ]d-bp∂p:-˛

1. ilm-ZØv Iena (km-£y-h-N-\w)


A¿∞w {Kln®p sNm√p-I.

(B-cm-[-\bv°v A¿l≥ A√mlp A√msX a‰m-cp-an-s√∂v


Rm≥ km£yw hln-°p-∂p. apl-Ω-Zp-\-_n(-k) A√m-lp-hns‚
Xncp-Zq-X-cm-sW∂pw Rm≥ km£yw hln-°p-∂p)
9

2. Znh-khpw A©p-t\cw \n›n-X-k-a-b-ß-fn¬ \a-kvI-cn-


°pI.
3. "kImØv' sImSp°p--I.
4. da-Zm≥ amk-Øn¬ t\mºv t\mev°p-I.
5. Ign-hp-≈-h¿ IAv_bn¬t]mbn l÷v sNøp-I.

ŠŠŠŠŠ

tNmZy-߃
1. Ckvemw F∂ ]Z-Øns‚ A¿∞-sa¥v?
2. Bsc-bmWv apkvenw F∂v ]d-bp-∂Xv?
3. Ckvemw Imcy-߃ F{X? Ah GsX√mw?
4. ilm-ZØv Iena A¿∞-k-lnXw ]d-bpI?
5. Hcp apkven-ans‚ \n¿_‘ISa F¥v?
6. Ckvem-ans‚ ASn-ÿm-\-hn-izm-k-sa¥v?
7. Fß-s\-bp≈ hy‡n-bmWv A√m-lp-hns‚ Zr„n-bn¬
bYm¿∞ apkvenw?
10

]mTw. 2

Cuam≥ Imcy-߃
ASn- ÿ m- \ - ] - c - a mb hnizm- k - I m- c y- ß ƒ Bdm- I p- ∂ p.
Ahbv°v Cuam≥ Imcy-߃ F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.

1. A√m-lp-hn¬ hniz-kn-°p-I.
2. A√mlp-hns‚ ae-°p-I-fn¬ hniz-kn-°p-I.
3. A√m-lp-hns‚ InXm-_p-I-fn¬ ({K-Ÿ-ß-fn¬) hniz-kn-
°p-I.
4. A√m-lp-hns‚ \_n-am-cn¬ hniz-kn-°p-I.
5. A¥y-\m-fn¬ (a-cW
- m-\¥
- c Pohn-XØ
- n¬) hniz-kn-°p-I.
6. \∑ Xn∑-Isf kw_-‘n® F√m hn[n\n¿Æ-b-ßfpw
A√m-lp-hn¬\n∂p-≈-Xm-sW∂v hniz-kn-°pI.
A√m-lp-hn¬ hniz-kn-°¬
A√mlp GI-\m-Ip-∂p. Ah\v ka\mbn Bcp-an-√. Ah≥
Btcbpw B{i-bn-°p-∂-h-\p-a-√. F√m kr„n-Ifpw Ahs\
B{i-bn-°p∂p. Ah≥ k¿∆m-[n-\m-Y-\m-Ip-∂p. Ah≥ Bcp-
tSbpw k¥m-\a - √
- . Ah\v Hcp k¥m-\h
- p-an-√; `mcy-bp-an-√. A√m-
lp-hns\ ]pcp-j-s\t∂m kv{Xosbt∂m hnti-jn-∏n-°m-h-X-√.
\msa-√m-h-cp-tSbpw {]]© kI-e-Øn-t‚bpw {k„mhpw ]me-
I\pw Ah-\-s{X. F√m-Øn-t‚bpw kwc-£-I\pw Ah≥X-s∂.
\ap-°m-hi- y-am-bs- X√mw \evIn \sΩ Ah≥ A\p-{K-ln-®ncn°p-
11

∂p. Ah≥ k¿∆⁄-\m-Ip-∂p. Dt±-in-°p-∂-sX√mw sNøm≥


Ign-hp-≈-h-\p-as{X Ah≥. Xs‚ Zmk-cpsS {]m¿∞-\-Iƒ
Ah≥ tIƒ°-p-Ibpw ^ew \¬Ip-Ibpw sNøp∂p. am{X-a√
Xs‚ C„-Zm-kt- cmSv kwkm-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Ah≥ A\m-
Zy\pw A\¥\pas{X.- A-h≥ Dd-ßp-I-bn√; A{i-≤-\m-hp-I-bp-
an-√. Pohn-∏n-°p-I, acn-∏n-°pI F∂o Imcy-߃ Ahs‚ am{Xw
A[n-I-mc-Øn¬ D≈-X-s{X. Bcm-[-\-bv°¿l≥ Ah-\-√msX
a‰mcp-an-√. \mw Ahs\ am{Xta Bcm-[n-°m-hq. kqcy≥,-N-{µ≥,
`qan, BIm-i-߃ F∂n-hbpw `qan-bn-ep≈ k¿∆-h-kvXp-°fpw
\ΩpsS KpW-Øn-∂mbn Ah≥ kr„n-°p-Ibpw \sΩ Ah≥
]cn-]m-en-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp-h-cp-∂p. A{]-Im-cw-Xs∂ \ΩpsS
am¿§-Z¿i-\-Øn-∂mbn Ah≥ Xs‚ \_n-amsc Ab-°p-∂p.
Ah≥ Ft∏mgpw \sΩ ImWp-∂p. ]t£, \ΩpsS IÆp-Iƒ°v
Ahs\ ImWm≥ km≤y-a√ - . Ah≥ \ΩpsS k¬°¿Ω-߃°v
k¬^-ehpw Zpjv°¿Ω߃°v in£bpw \¬Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.
F∂m¬, ]›m-Ø-]n®p aS-ßp-∂-h¿°v Ah≥ s]mdp-Øp-sIm-
Sp-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. Ahs‚ ImcpWyw F√mØnepw D]-cn-bm-
Ip-∂p. \mw Ft∏mgpw Ahs\ am{Xw B{i-bn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.
\mw Ah-t\mSv am{Xta {]m¿∞n-°m-hq. \mw A√m-lp-hns‚
lnX-Øn\p F√m-Øn-ep-a-[nIw {]m[m\yw \¬tI-≠-Xp-am-Wv.
ae-°p-Iƒ
A√mlphns‚ kr„n-I-fmWv ae-°p-Iƒ. \ΩpsS IÆp-
Iƒ°v Ahsc ImWpI km≤y-a-√. kZm A√mlphns\ Bcm-
[n-°p-∂-Xnepw Ahs‚ Iev]-\-I-f-\p-k-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-
Xnepw Ah¿ \nc-Xc - m-Ip-∂p. A√mlp ae-°p-Isf \ap°p th≠n-
bp≈ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fn¬ G¿s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°-b m-Wv. Ah-cn¬
Nne¿ A√m-lp-hns‚ hN\w Ahs‚ hnip-≤-cmb Zmk¿°v
FØn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂p. ag s]øn-°p-I, hmbp Nen-∏n-°p-I, Poh≥
\¬Ip-I, Poh≥ FSp-Ø-pI-f-bp-I apXemb kIe {]]-©-Im-
cy-ßfpw ae-°p-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏-´-h-bm-
Ip-∂p. Npcp-°-Øn¬, ae-°p-Iƒ \ap-°mbn ]e IrXy-ßfpw
12

\n¿∆-ln-°p-∂p. Ah¿ ]cn-ip-≤cpw ]m]-c-ln-X-cp-a-s{X. ssZh-


ln-X-Øn-s∂-Xn-cmbn Ah¿ H∂pw-Xs∂ sNøp-I-bn-√.
ae-°p-Iƒ AkwJyw D≠v. Ah-cp-sS FÆw F{Xsb∂v
A√m-lp A√msX a‰mcpw Adn-bp-I-bn-√. {][m-\-s∏´ \mep ae-
°p-I-fpsS t]cp-Iƒ:-˛

(1) Pn_vco¬ (2) ao°m-Cu¬ (3)

Ckvdm-^o¬ (4) Akvdm-Cu¬.

a\p-jy-lr-Z-b-ß-fn¬ D≠m-Ip∂ F√m \√ hnNm-c-ßfpw


ae-°p-Iƒ aptJ\ D≠m-Ip-∂-h-b-s{X. \mw AØcw \√ hnNm-
c-ßsf kzmb-Ø-am°p-Ibpw AX-\p-k-cn®v {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw
sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv.
\_n-am¿
a\p-jy¿ A√m-lp-hns‚ am¿§-Øn¬\n∂v hyXnNen®p t]mIp-
tºmƒ A√mlp Xs‚ C„-Zm-k-∑m-cn¬ Hcmsf \ntbmKn-°p-
Ibpw At±lw aptJ\ Xs‚ ktµiw temIsØ Adn-bn-°p-
Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Aßs\ Fgp-t∂-ev]n-°s - ∏-Sp∂ alm-flm-°sf
\_n-am¿ ({]-hm-N-I-∑m¿) F∂pw dkq¬am¿ (ssZ-h-Zq-X-∑m¿)
F∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. Ah¿ X߃°v e`n-°p∂ A√mlp-hn-s‚
ktµ-iß - ƒ P\-ßsf Adn-bn-®p-sIm≠v kZp-]t- Z-iß
- ƒ aptJ-
\bpw DØ-a-am-XrI aptJ-\bpw P\-ßsf k¬]-Ÿm-hn¬ \bn-
°p-∂p.
Ah¿ ]cn-ip-≤cpw kXy-k-‘cpamIp∂p. ssZh-ln-X-Øn-
s∂-Xn-cmbn Ah¿ H∂pw-Xs∂ sNøp-I-bn√; ]d-bp-I-bp-an-√.
Ah¿°v Ft∏mgpw ssZhnI-kl - mbw e`n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pw. Ah-
cpsS kXy-Xbv°v sXfn-hmbn A√mlp ]e Zr„m-¥ß - fpw shfn-
s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-Sp-°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv.
temIØv ]e Ime-L-´-ß-fn-embn hnhn[ kap-Zm-b-ß-fn¬
13

\nc- h [n {]hm- N - I - ∑ m¿ Ah- X - c n- ® n- ´ p- ≠ v . ""{]hm- N - I ≥


h∂n´n√mØ Hcp kap-Zm-bhpw C√''- F∂v Jp¿-B≥ \sΩ ]Tn-
∏n-°p-∂p. 1,24,000 \_n-am¿ h∂n-´ps≠∂v \_n-(k) ]d-bpIbp-
≠mbn. F∂m¬, Ipd®v \_n-am-cpsS t]cp-Iƒ am{X-amWv Jp¿-
B-\n¬ FSp-Øp-]-d™n-´p-≈-Xv. \_n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n°v aptº
h∂-Xmbn hnip-≤-Jp¿-B-\n¬ {]kvXm-hn-°-s∏´ {]hm-N-I-∑m-
cpsS t]cp-Ifn¬ NneXv Xmsg tN¿°p∂p:˛

1. BZw 13. ipsF_v


2 CZvcokv 14. aqkm
3. \qlv 15. lmdq≥
4. lqZv 16. A¬b-k-Av
5. kmenlv 17. ZmhqZv
6. C_vdmlow 18. kpe-bvam≥
7. eqØv 19. Zp¬In^v¬
8. Ckvam-Cu¬ 20. C¬bmkv
9. CkvlmJv 21. bq\pkv
10. bA-vJq_v 22. kIvcnøm
11. Aøq_v 23. blvbm
12. bqkp^v 24. Cukm (Ae-bvln-ap emw)

{]hm-NI
- ∑
- m-cpsS ]Z-hn-If
- n¬ hyXym-ka
- p-≠v. Ah-cn¬ Nne-
cpsS ]Zhn a‰p Nne-cp-tS-Xn-t\-°mƒ Db¿∂-Xm-Wv. \ΩpsS apl-
ΩZv \_n(-k) as‰√m {]hm-N-I-∑m-sc-°mfpw t{ijvT\pw D∂-X-
\p-a-mWv. F∂m¬, F√m {]hm-N-I-∑m-tcbpw hniz-kn-°p-Ibpw
_lp-am-\n-°p-Ibpw sNtø-≠Xv \ap°v \n¿∫-‘-am-Wv.
{]hm-NI
- {- ]-`p-hmb apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) Dƒs∏sS F√m {]hm-
14

N-I-∑mcpw a-cn-®p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Ah-cn¬ Bcpw Xs∂ Xncn®v


Cu temItØ°v hcn-I-bn-√.
{]hm-N-I-∑m¿°v A√m-lp-hns‚ ]°¬ kap-∂X ]Z-hn-I-
fp-s≠-¶nepw Xn∂p-I, IpSn-°p-I, Dd-ßpI apX-emb imco-cn-Im-
h-iy-߃ a‰p a\p-jy¿s°-∂t- ]mse Ah¿°p-ap-≠v. A{]-Imcw
Xs∂ ac-W-Øn¬\n∂pw A√mlp Ah-cn¬ Btcbpw Hgn-®p-
\n¿Øn-bn-´n-√, Ah¿ P\n-®Xpw Pohn-®Xpw `qan-bnem--bn-cp-∂p.
`qan-bn¬Øs∂ Ah¿ acn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ah-cn¬ Bcpw-
Xs∂ BIm-i-tØ°v t]mbn´n√. Cukm-\-_n(-A) BIm-i-
tØ°v Ib-dn-t∏mbn AhnsS Pohn-°p-I-bm-sW∂v ]ecpw
sX‰mbn hniz-kn-°p-∂p-≠v. AXv A‘-hn-izmkw am{X-am-Wv.
ssZhnI {KŸ-߃
{]hm-N-I-∑m¿ aptJ\ A√mlp temI-Øn\p \¬Ip∂
ktµ-i-߃ FgpXn tcJ-s∏-Sp-Ø-p∂p. Ah A√m-lp-hns‚
InXm-_p-Iƒ F∂mWv ]d-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. Cß-s\, ]e Ime-ß-
fn¬ h∂ {]hm-N-I-∑m¿ aptJ\ A√mlp A\-h[n {KŸ-߃
Ah-X-cn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. Jp¿-B-\n¬ t]sc-SpØp ]d-b-s∏´ A©v
ssZhnI {KŸ-߃ Xmsg ]d-bp-∂-h-b-s{X.
1. kqlp^n C_vdmlow (C_vdmlow \_n(-A)°v
Cd-ßnb GSp-Iƒ)
2. XudmØv (aq-km-\-_n(-A)°v Cd-°-s∏´ XudmØv
F∂ {KŸw)
3. k_q¿ (Zm-hqZv \_n(-A)°v e`n® ssZhnI ktµ-i-
߃°v k_q¿ F∂v ]d-bp-∂p.
4. C©o¬ (Cu-km-\_
- n(-A)°v Cd-°s
- ∏´ kphn-tij
ktµ-i-߃)
5. Jp¿-B≥ (ap-l-ΩZv \_n(-k)°v A√mlp \¬Inb
{KŸw)
15

a\p-jy-Po-hn-XØ
- ns‚ F√m hi-߃°pw Bh-iy-amb \nb-
a-߃, D]-tZ-i-߃, {]h-N-\-߃, ap≥I-gn™ kw`-h-ßsf
kw_-‘n® hrØm-¥ß - ƒ F∂n-hb
- s{X ssZhnI{KŸ-ßf
- psS
D≈-S-°w. F∂m¬, F√m InXm-_p-Ifpw \nb-a-߃ (\ym-b-{]-
am-W-߃) Dƒs°m-≈p-∂-h-b-√. XudmØv Ckvdm-bo¬ kap-
Zm-b-Øn\p Bh-iy-amb \nb-a-߃ AS-ßnb {KŸ-am-bn-cp-∂p.
]n∂oSv AXns\ Ime-l-c-W-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m≠v Ah-X-cn® Jp¿-
B≥ temIm-h-km-\w-h-tc-bv°p≈ kakvX a\p-jy¿°pw aXn-
bmb ]cn-]q¿Æ \ymb-{]-amW{KŸam-Wv.
A¥y-\mƒ
\msa-√m-hcpw acn-°pw. XpS¿∂v A√mlp \sΩ ]p\cp÷o-
hn-∏n-°pw. am{X-a√- , k¿∆Poh-Pm-eß
- fpw \in°p∂ Hcp Imew
hcpw. ]n∂o-Sv A√mlp F√m-ht- cbpw ]p\-cp-∞m\w sNøn-°pw.
Hcp {]tXy-I-Xcw Bflo-b-Po-hn-X-am-bn-cn°pw AXv. B \mfn\v
(]p\-cp-∞m\ \mƒ) F∂pw (A-¥y-\mƒ)
F∂pw ]d-bp-∂p. A∂v F√m-h-tcbpw A√mlp hnNm-cW
sNøpw. k¬°¿Ωw sNbvX-h¿°v k¬^-ehpw Zpjv°¿Ω-
Im-cn-Iƒ°v in£bpw e`n°p∂Xm-Wv. k÷-\-߃ kpJ-k-
ar-≤a
- mb kz¿§-Øn¬ {]th-in-∏n°-s∏-Spw. Ah¿ AhnsS \nXy-
hm-kn-I-fm-bn-cn-°pw. Ah¿ A√m-lp-hns\ Z¿i-n-°pw. Zp¿÷-\-
߃ \c-I-Øn¬ B]-Xn-°pw. Ah¿ AhnsS ]e-Xcw I„-X-
Ifpw thZ-\-Ifpw A\p-`-hn-°pw. B in£ Zo¿L-Imew \ne-
\n¬°p-∂X - p-am-Wv.
ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. Cuam≥ Imcy-߃ F{X? Ah GsX√mw?
2. A√m-lp-hns‚ HuZmcy߃ Fs¥√mw?
3. Bc-mWv \ΩpsS Bcm-[y≥?
16

4. BcmWv ae-°p-Iƒ?
5. ae-°p-I-fpsS {]h¿Ø\߃ Fs¥√mw?
6. \mev ae-°p-I-fpsS t]cv ]d-bpI?
7. BcmWv \_n-am¿?
8. Ah-cpsS {]h¿Ø\߃ Fs¥-√m-w?
9. F{X {]hm-N-I-∑m¿ temIØv h∂n-´p≠v?
10. Jp¿-B\
- n¬ t]scSpØv ]d™ {]hm-NI
- ∑
- m¿ Bsc√mw?
11. BcmWv t{ijvT-{]-hm-N-I≥ ?
12. ssZhn-I-{K-Ÿ-߃ F∂m¬ F¥v?
13. Jp¿- B ≥ t]sc- S pØp ]d™ ssZhn- I - { K- Ÿ - ß ƒ
GsX√mw?
14. A¥y-\mƒ F∂m¬ F¥v?
17

]mTw˛ 3
apl-ΩZv \_n(-k)

{]hm-NI- t- {ijvT\mb apl-ΩZv \_n(-k)-bpsS P∑-tZiw a°-


bm-Wv. Ad_n-cm-PysØ {][m\ ]´-W-amWv a°. {InkvXzm–w
570 BKÃv 20-˛mw Xnø-Xn, Ad-_n-amkw d_o-D¬-A-∆¬ 12˛mw
XnøXn Xn¶-fmgvN apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) `qPm-X-\m-bn. \_n-bpsS
P\-\Ø- n\v GXm\pw amkw aptº ]nXmhv A–p-√mlv Cl-tem-
I-hmkw shSn-™n-cp∂p. a°-bnse Hcp {][m\ tKm{X-amb
Jpssdiv hwi-Øn¬, _\q-lm-inw IpSpw_Ønse Hcp am\y-
\m-bn-cp∂p A–p-√m-lv. \_n°v Bdp-h-b v {]mb-am-bt∏mƒ
amXmhv Ban-\bpw ]c-temI{]m]vX-bmbn. ]n∂oSv ]nXm-a-l≥
A–p¬ap-Ø-en-_ns‚ kwc-£-W-Øn-emWv \_n(-k) hf¿∂-
Xv. F´p-h-b- m-b-t∏mƒ A–p¬ apØ-en_pw Ime-KXn {]m]n-
®p. AXn-∂p-tijw \_n-bpsS c£m-I¿Øm-hm-bn-cp-∂Xv ]nXr-
k-tlm-Z-c-\mb (aq-Øm-∏) A_q-Xzm-en_v Bbn-cp-∂p.
apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) sNdp∏w apX¬t° k¬kz`m-hnbpw hniz-
kvX-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p. Hcn-°epw I≈w ]d-bp-Itbm NoØ-hm-°p-
]-tbm-Kn-°p-Itbm sNbvXn-cp∂n-√. km[p-°sf klm-bn-°p-I,
a¿±n-Xsc c£n-°pI apX-emb P\-tk-h-\-߃ sNøp-∂-Xn¬
X¬]-c\ - m-bn-cp∂p. kam-[m-\I
- mw-£nbpw im¥\pw k¿∆-cmepw
BZ-c-Wo-b-\p-am-bn-cp∂p. \_n(-k) Hcn-°epw _lp-ssZ-hm-cm-
[\ sNbvXncp∂n-√. At±-l-Øns‚ PohnXw F{Xbpw ]cn-ip-
≤hpw Atß-b‰w A\p-I-c-Wo-b-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p.
\_n°v 40 hb v ]q¿Øn-bm-bt- ∏mƒ A√mlp At±-lsØ
\_nbpw dkq-ep-ambn \ntbm-Kn-®p. Aßs\ Znhy-k-tµ-i-߃
Cd-ßn-Øp-S-ßn. A√m-lp-hns\ am{Xta Bcm-[n-°mhq F∂pw
18

_nw_m-cm-[\ Dt]-£n-°-W-sa∂pw At±lw P\-ßsf D]-tZ-


in-®p. a\p-jysc kvt\ln-°-W-sa∂pw temIØv \oXnbpw
[¿Ωhpw ]p\x-ÿm-]n-°-W-sa∂pw At±lw {]t_m-[n-®p.
F∂m¬, _nw_m-cm-[-\-bnepw ]e-Xcw A‘-hn-izm-km-Nm-
c-ß-fnepw Ip‰IrXyßfnepw apgp-In-bn-cp∂ A∂sØ Ad-_n-
Iƒ°v Cu D]-tZiw Ak-ly-am-bn-Øo¿∂p. Ah¿ \_n(-k)-
sb cq£-ambn FXn¿Øp. ]t£, GXm\pw h¿j-ß-fn¬ \√
a\p-jy-cpsS Hcp sNdp-kwLw Xncp-ta\n-bpsS ktµiw kzoI-
cn®p apkvenw-I-fm-bn. F∂m¬, `qcn-]-£ob-cmb FXn-cm-fn-Iƒ
\_n(-k)-tbbpw A\p-N-c-∑m-tcbpw ]e-X-c-Ønepw D]-{Z-hn-®p-
sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. kXy-{]-Nm-cWw XS-bm≥ Ah¿ Atß-b‰w {ian-
®p. \_n(-k) sIm≠p-h∂ ssZhn-I-{]-Imiw ]c-°m-Xn-cn-°m≥
Ah¿ F√m-hn[ t{Zml-\-S-]Sn-Ifpw {]tbm-Kn-®p. B D]-{Z-h-ß-
sf√mw Xncp-ta-\nbpw A\p-N-c-∑mcpw kln-®p. km[p apkvenw-
I-fn¬ Nne-sc B t{Zmln-Iƒ h[n-®p. kv{XoIƒIqSn Ah-cpsS
arKo-ba - mb A{I-aß - ƒ°v Cc-bm-bn-´p-≠v. HSp-hn¬ \_n (k)sb
Xs∂bpw h[n-°m≥ Ah¿ Hcp-sº-´p. At∏mƒ A√m-lp-hns‚
Iev]\ - b - \- p-kc- n®v \_n(-k) kztZiamb a-° hn´v aZo-\b - n-te°v
lnPvdØv sNbvXp. A∂v \_n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n°v 53 hb v {]mb-
am-bn-cp-∂p. At∏mƒ a°m-\n-hm-kn-I-fmb \_n-bpsS A\p-bm-
bn-Ifpw \_nsb ]n¥p-S¿∂v aZo-\-bn-te°v lnPvdØv sNbvXp.
Ah¿ aZo-\b - n¬ A`bw {]m]n-®p. aZo-\m-hm-kn-Iƒ \_n-tbbpw
A\p-Nc - ∑- m-tcbpw kkvt\lw kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw BZ-cn-°p-Ibpw
klm-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Npcp-ßnb Ime-Øn-\p-≈n¬ Ckvemw
\m\m-`m-KØpw {]Ncn®p i‡n-{]m-]n®p XpSßn. F∂m¬, a°m-
\n-hm-kn-If - mb i{Xp-°ƒ Ckvem-ans\ \in-∏n-°p-∂X - n-\mbn \_n-
tbmSv bp≤-Øn\v ]pd-s∏´p. ]t£, A√m-lp-hns‚ klm-b-
Øm¬ \_nbpw A\p-bm-bn-Ifpw F√m bp≤-ß-fnepw hnPbn-
°p-Ibpw i{Xp-°ƒ ]s‰ ]cm-Pb - s
- ∏-SpIbpw sNbvXp. \_n(k)
B i{Xp-°ƒ°v am∏v \¬In. ]n∂oSv Iq´w-Iq-´-ambn P\-߃
\_n-Xn-cp-ta-\nsb hniz-kn®p Ckvemw-aXw kzoI-cn-®p. \_n-bpsS
19

D¬°r-„- Kp-W-K-W-ßfpw A≤ym-]-\-ßfpw F√m-h-tcbpw


BI¿jn-®p. Aßs\ Ckvemw apgp-h≥ temIØpw hym]n®p
XpS-ßn.
apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) Xncp-ta\n P\-ß-fn¬ kaqeamb Hcp
[m¿ΩnI ]cn-h¿Ø\w hcp-Øp-Ibpw Ahsc Db¿Øp-Ibpw
sNbv X p. cmhpw ]Iepw Ah- c psS \∑- b v ° mbn At±lw
{]h¿Øn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p. 63 hb- m-b-t∏mƒ \_n (k) h^m-
Ømbn; aZo-\-bnse dufm-i-co-^n¬ A¥y-hn-{i-aw-sIm-≈p-∂p.
A√m-lp-hns‚ Af-h‰ A\p-{K-l-߃ \_n(-k)Xncp-ta-\n°pw
Ahn-SsØ bYm¿∞ A\p-bm-bn-Iƒ°pw D≠m-I-s´. Bao≥.
apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) temI-Øn\v A\p-{K-la - m-Ip-∂p. At±lw
\n¿∆-ln® A{X-b[ - nIw al¬Ir-Xy-߃ as‰mcp \_nbpw \n¿∆-
ln- ® n- ´ n- √ . A{X- b - [ nIw ssZhn- I - k - l m- b hpw ]n¥p- W bpw
a‰m¿°pw e`n-®n-´p-an-√. B Xncp-ta-\n°v Ah-X-cn® Jp¿-B≥
t]mse-bp≈ A{Xbpw hnin-„hpw ]cn-]q¿Æ-hp-amb Hcp {KŸw
thsd Hcp {]hm-NI - \pw Ah-Xc - n-®n-´n-√. Bflo-b] - Z- h
- n-bn¬ \_n-
Xn-cp-ta-\n°v Xpey-\mb Hcp {]hm-N-I\pw temI-Øp-≠m-bn-´n√;
C\n D≠m-hp-I-bp-an-√.
\_n(-k)-bpsS D¬°r„ KpW-ßfpw k¬kz-`m-h-ßfpw
i{Xp-°-sf-t]m-epw BI¿jn-°p∂ Xc-Øn-ep-≈-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p.
At±lw AK-Xn-I-fpsS kwc-£-I\pw Ai-c-W-cpsS klm-b-
I-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p. G‰hpw DØa-\mb a\p-jy-kvt\-lnbpw G‰hpw
A[nIw A√m-lp-hns\ Bcm-[n® Bfp-am-bn-cp∂p.
\_n-Xn-cp-ta\n "JmØ-ap-∂-_n-øo≥' BIp-∂p. AXm-bXv
{]hm-N-I-Xz-Øns‚ F√m ]cn-]q¿Æ-X-Ifpw At±-l-Øn¬ k-
tΩ-fn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p. At±-l-tØm-Sp≈ A\p-k-cWw aptJ-
\-b-√msX {]hm-N-IXz ]Z-hntbm a‰v Bflo-bm-\p-{K-l-ßtfm
Hcmƒ°pw e`n-°p-I-bn-√. At±lw aptJ\ {]t_m-[n-°-s∏´
Ckvemw Zo≥ a\p-jy-Ip-e-Øn-∂m-I-am\w D≈-X-s{X. temIm-h-
km\w hsc AXv \ne\n¬°p-Ibpw sNøpw. aptºh∂ {]hm-
20

N-I-∑m-cpsS ZuXy-߃ Hmtcm∂pw {]tXyIw \m´nt∂m P\-


Xbvt°m Ime-Ønt\m am{Xw ]cn-an-X-am-bn-cp-∂p. B ZuXy-ß-
sf√mw Ime-l-c-W-s∏-´p-I-gn-™p. F∂m¬ apl-ΩZv \_n(-k)-
bpsS ZuXyw Hcn-°epw Ime-lc - W
- s
- ∏-Sp-Ib
- n-√. At±lw {]t_m-
[n® ]cn-]q¿Æ-aX- a
- mb Ckvemw temIm-hk - m-\w-hsc F√m a\p-
jy¿°p-ambn \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xm-Wv.
apl-ΩZv \_n(-k)°v tijw Hcp ]pXnb aXw (Zo≥) {]t_m-
[n-°p∂ Hcp {]hm-NI - \pw h∂n-´n-√; hcn-Ib
- p-an-√. F∂m¬, \_n
Xncp-ta\n(k)bpsS Bflo-b-in-jyXzw Ae-¶-cn-®p-sIm≠v Jp¿-
B-\nI \nb-a-ßsf \S-∏n¬ hcp-Ø-∂-Xn\pw Ckvem-ans\ ]p\-
cp-≤c
- n-°p-∂X- n-\p-ambn Hcp {]hm-NI - ≥ h∂n-´p-≠v. At±-la - mWv
Alva-Znøm Pam-A-Øns‚ ]cn-ip≤ÿm]-I-cmb lkvdØv
an¿km Kpemw Alva-Zv(-A). Aß-s\-bp≈ DΩ-Øo-\-_n-am¿
(in-jy-{]-hm-NI- ∑
- m¿) hcm-hp-∂X- m-sW∂v Jp¿-B\ - n¬\n∂v sXfn-
bp-∂p-≠v. F∂m¬, AXv kw_-‘n® Jfin-Xa - mb Adnhv A√m-
lp-hn-∂-√msX a‰m¿°pan√-X-s∂.

ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. apl-Ω-Zv(-k) FhnsS? Ft∏mƒ P\n®p?
2. \_n(-k) bpsS amXm-]n-Xm-°fpsS t]sc¥v?
3. amXm-]n-Xm-°f
- psS ac-Wt- ijw \_n(-k)sb hf¿Øn-bXv
Bsc-√m-w?
4. \_n(-k)-bpsS D]-tZ-iß
- f
- psS kmcmwiw F¥m-bn-cp∂p?
5. \_n(-k) ssZhn-I-k-tµiw {]N-cn-∏n-®-t∏mƒ P\-ßfpsS
{]Xn-I-cWw F¥mbn-cp∂p?
6. \_n(-k) lnPvdØv t]mbsXt∏mƒ? Fhn-sS-\n∂v Fhn-
tS-°v?
21

7. aZo-\m-hm-kn-Iƒ \_n(-k)-t\mSv Fß-s\-bmWv s]cp-am-


dnbXv?
8. \_n(-k) Fhn-sS, Ft∏mƒ h^m-Ømbn?
9. "JmØ-ap-∂-_n-øo≥' F∂m¬ F¥mWv hnh£nXw?
10. \_n(-k)s‚ sNdp-∏-Imew Fß-s\-bm-bn-cp∂p?
11. \_n(-k)s‚ kz`m-h-Kp-W-߃ Fs¥-√m-am-bn-cp∂p?
12. \_n(-k)\p tijw h∂ DΩ-Øo-\-_n-bpsS t]sc¥v?
22

]mTw˛ 4
]cn-ip-≤J
- p¿-B≥
apl-ΩZ- \v _
- n(-k) aptJ\ A√m-lp-hn¬\n∂v Ah-Xc- n® {KŸ-
amWv hnip≤Jp¿-B≥. AXv A√m-lp-hns‚ hN-\-am-Ip-∂p. 23
sIm√-°m-ewsIm≠v ]e {]mh-iy-am-bn, kµ¿t`m-NnXw Cd-ßn-
s°m-≠n-cp∂- Znhy-kt- µ-iß - f
- mWXv. Jp¿B≥ ]cn-]q¿Æ \ymb-
{]-am-W-{K-Ÿ-am-Ip-∂p. ]q¿∆nI Znhy-{K-Ÿ-ß-fnse F√m kXy-
ßfpw Jp¿-B≥ Dƒs°m-≈p-∂p-≠v. AXv AJ-fi-amb {]am-
W-a-s{X. AXn-s∂-Xn-cn¬ Hcp tcJbpw hne-t∏m-hp-I-bn-√. Jp¿-
B≥ a\p-jys\ t\¿am¿§-Øn-te°v \bn-°p-∂p. AXn¬ Nn¥n-
°p∂ ]cn-ip-≤∑ - m¿°v IqSp-X¬ IqSp-X¬ ssZhnI-⁄m-\ß - ƒ
e`n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xp-am-Wv. Jp¿-B\v Xpey-ambn Hcp {KŸ-
hp- a n- √ . AXnse G‰hpw sNdnb Hc- ≤ ym- b - Ø n- ∂ p- Xpey-
ambn´pt]mepw thsd H∂v cNn-°m≥ Hcm-fmepw km[y-hpa-√.
AXv kpc-£n-X-{K-Ÿ-am-Wv. AXn¬ Hcp am‰hpw Hcn-°epw hcn-
I-bn-√. ]q¿∆-Zn-hy-{K-Ÿ-ß-sf√mw Ime-l-c-W-s∏´p Ign-™n-cn-
°p-∂p. Ah a\p-jy-cpsS ssII-S-Ø-en∂p hnt[-b-ambn Ae-
t¶m-e-s∏-´p-t]m-bn. F∂m¬, Jp¿-B≥ Aß-s\-b-√. AXv am‰n-
a-dn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bn√; Ime-l-c-W-s∏-Sp-I-bp-an-√. Fs¥-∂m¬
AXns‚ kwc-£-W-_m-[yX A√mlp Xm≥ Xs∂ Gs‰-Sp-Øn-
cn-°p-∂p. AXv temIm-hk - m\whsc \ne-\n¬°pw. \msa-√m-hcpw
Jp¿-Bs\ A£cw-{]Xn ]n≥]-t‰-≠-Xm-Wv.
ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. hnip-≤-Jp¿-B≥ F{X h¿jw-sIm-≠mWv Cd-ßn-bXv?
2. hnip-≤J
- p¿-Bs‚ kwc-£Ww BcmWv Gs‰-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-
∂Xv?
3. ap≥Im-e- ssZhnI{K-Ÿ-߃°v kw`-hn®sX¥mWv?
23

]mTw˛ 5
kp∂Øpw lZokpw

apl-Ω-Zv\-_n(-k)bpsS Pohn-X-N-cy-Iƒ°v kp∂Øv F∂v


]d-bp-∂p. \_n-Xn-cp-ta-\n-bpsS A\p-Nc
- ∑
- m¿ Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS \S-
]-Sn-{I-aß
- sf Xß-fpsS Pohn-XØ - n¬ ]I¿Øn-sb-SpØp ]n≥Km-
an-Iƒ AXns\ ]n≥Xp-S¿∂p-t]m-∂p. Aßs\ ]mc-º-cy-ambn
AXv \ap°v e`n-®p. AXmWv "kp∂Øv'.
\_n(-k)-bpsS hN-\-߃°v lZokv F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.
Ckv e m- a ns‚ auenI{]am- W - a mb Jp¿- B - \ p- t ijw c≠mw
ÿm\w kp∂-Øn-∂m-Ip-∂p. lZo-kn\p aq∂mw ÿm\-hpw. AXv
\_n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n Cl-tem-I-hmkw shSn™v 100, 150 h¿j-
Øn\ptijw t{ImUo-Ic - n-°s
- ∏-´X- m-Wv. \ne-hn-ep≈ {]mam-WnI
lZo-kp-{K-Ÿ-ß-fn¬ {][m-\-s∏-´h: klolv _pJm-cn, klolv
apkvenw, kp\\p A_q-Zm-hq-Zv, kp\\p C_v\p-am-Pm, Pman-D-
Xn¿anZn, kp\\p \kmbn Ch- b m- I p- ∂ p. Cu {KŸ- ß ƒ
knlmlp nØx F∂ t]cn¬ Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.

ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. F¥mWv kp∂Øv?
2. F¥mWv lZokv?
3. Ckvem-ans‚ auen-I-{]-am-W-߃ F{X? Ah GsX√mw?
4. knlmlp nØx GsX√mw?
24

]mTw˛ 6
Jeo^

{]hm-N-I-∑m-cpsS ac-W-tijw Ah-cpsS Bflob {]mXn-


\n[yw hln-®p-sIm≠v hnizm-kn-I-fpsS t\Xm-hmbn Xnc-s™-Sp-
°- s ∏- S p∂ alm- fl m- ° ƒ°v Jeo- ^ - a m¿ F∂p ]d- b p- ∂ p.
Ah¿°v A√m-lp-hns‚ {]tXyI A\p-{K-lw e`n°p-∂p. apl-
Ω-Zv\_- n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS h^m-Øn-\p-tijw apkvenw-If- psS
Bflo-bt- \-Xmhpw Jeo-^b - p-ambn lkvdØv A_q-_° - ¿ kn±o-
Jv(-d) Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. At±-l-Øns‚ hntbm-Km-\-¥cw
lkvdØv Dadp_v-\p¬ JØm_v(-d) Jeo-^-bm-bn. At±-l-Øn-
\p-tijw Dkvam-\p_v\p A^v^m≥(-d) Aenbp_v\p A_nXzm-
en_v(-d) F∂n-h¿ Jeo-^-am-cm-bn-. Chsc Jpe-^m-D¿dm-in-Zo≥-
F∂p ]d-bp-∂p. Jpe-^m-D¿dmin-Zo-ßf - psS Ime-L´w GI-tZiw
30 h¿jw \o≠p-\n-∂p.
]n∂oSv apkvenw-I-fn¬ bYm¿∞ Jeo-^-am-cn-√m-Xm-bn.
AXns‚ ^e-ambn `n∂n∏pw tNcnXncnhpw D≠m-bn. Aßs\
apkvenw-Iƒ A[x-]-Xn-®psImt≠-bn-cp-∂p. Imem-¥-c-Øn¬,
Ah¿ t]cn\p am{Xw apkvenw-I-fm-bn-Øo¿∂p.

ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. BcmWv Jeo-^-am¿?
2. Jpe-^m-D¿ dmin-Zo≥ Bsc√mw?
3. Jpe-^m-D¿ dmin-Zos‚ Ime-L´w F{X h¿j-am-bn-cp∂p?
4. apkvenw-I-fpsS A[x-]-X-\-Øn\v Imc-W-sa¥v?
25

]mTw˛ 7
akolv auDu-Zv(-A)

apkvenw-temIw F√m {]Im-c-Ønepw A[x-]-Xn-°p-Ibpw


Ckvem-ans‚ \ne AXn-tim-N-\o-b-am-bn-Øo-cp-Ibpw sNbvX-
t∏mƒ A√mlp Cu kap-Zm-b-Øn¬\n∂v Hcp alm-]p-cp-js\
Fgp-t∂-ev]n-®p. At±lw aptJ\ Ckvem-ans\ ]p\-cp-≤-cn-°p-
sa∂pw apl-ΩZv \_n(-k)bpsS {]h-N\
- ß
- ƒ hy‡-am°p-∂p≠v.-
B alm-flm-hn\v akolv F∂pw Camw alvZn-sb-∂p-ap≈ ÿm\-
t∏-cp-Iƒ A√m-lp-hn¬\n∂v \evI-s∏-Sp-∂-Xm-sW∂pw \_n-h-
N-\-ß-fn¬\n∂v sXfn-bp-∂p-≠v. B alm-flmhv BK-X-cm-bn-°-
gn-™n-cn-°p-∂p. At±-lØ
- ns‚ t]¿ an¿km Kpemw AlvaZv(A)
F∂-mIp-∂p.
lZvdØv an¿km Kpemw Alva-Zv(-A) 1835 ^n{_p-hcn 13-˛\v
`qPm-X-cm-bn. ]©m-_nse JmZn-bm≥ BWv At±-l-Øns‚ P∑-
tZ-iw. sNdp∏w apX¬t° D¬°r„ kz`mh-ßtfmSpIq-Snb
Bfm-bn-cp∂p At±-lw. im¥hpw ]cn-ip-≤-hp-amb Pohn-X-am-
bn-cp∂p At±lw \bn-®n-cp-∂X- v. At±-lØ
- ns‚ ssZh-`‡ - nbpw
Ckvem-anI tkh-\ß - fpw I≠v F√m-hcpw At±-lsØ kvXpXn-
°p-Ibpw _lp-am-\n-°p-Ibpw "hen-øm'-sW-∂v a\- n-em-°p-Ibpw
sNbvXn-cp-∂p.
1868-˛¬ A√mlp At±-lØ - n\v Znhy shfn-]mSp-Iƒ (hlvbv)
\¬In-Øp-S-ßn. Ckvem-ans‚ ]p\-cp-≤m-c-Wm¿∞w A√mlp
At±-lsØ \ntbm-Kn-®p. A√m-lp-hns‚ Iev]-\-b-\p-k-cn®v
Ckvem-an¬ hmKvZØw sNø-s∏´ alvZnbpw akolpw Xm\m-
sW∂v At±lw temI-tØmSv {]Jym-]n-®p.
Cu ssZhnI Adn-bn∏v At±lw shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-bt- ∏mƒ `qcn-
`mKw P\-ßfpw At±-l-Øns‚ FXn-cm-fn-I-fm-bn-Øo¿∂p. an{X-
26

߃ i{Xp-°-fmbn amdn. Ah¿ NoØ]d™p ]cn-l-kn-®p. ]e-


hn-[-Ønepw D]-{Z-hn-®p, sIm√m≥ Xs∂bpw {ian®p; apl-Ω-Zv\-
_n(-k)sb a°m-\n-hm-kn-Iƒ FXn¿Ø-Xp-t]m-se. F∂m¬
A√m-lp-hns‚ klm-bhpw c£bpw X\n°v e`n-°p-sa∂v Ah≥
hmKvZm\w sNbvXn-´p-s≠∂v At±lw D¬tLm-jn-®p. Aßs\
Xs∂ kw`-hn-®p. al-Ømb ssZhnI-k-lm-b-߃ At±-l-Øn-
\p e`n-®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cp∂p. \√ a\p-jy¿ At±-lsØ kzoI-cn-
®p-Xp-S-ßn. Ime-{I-a-Øn¬ Ah¿ h¿≤n-®p-sIm-t≠bn-cp-∂p.
temIw apgp-h≥ FXn¿Øn´pw At±-lsØ ]cm-Pb - s
- ∏-Sp-Øm≥
i{Xp-°ƒ°v Ign-™n-√. A√mlp At±-l-tØbpw A\p-N-c-
kw-L-tØbpw hnP-bn-∏n-®p. At±-l-Øns‚ Pohn-X-Im-e-Øp-
Xs∂ A©p-e£w Bfp-Iƒ At±-lsØ kzoI-cn-®p. Ad-_n,
D¿Zp, ^mcnkn F∂o `mj-I-fn¬ F¨]-Xn-e-[nIw {KŸ-߃
At±lw Fgp-Xn-bn-´p-≠.v 1908 sabv amkw 26-˛\v At±lw h^m-Øm-bn.
At±-l-Øns‚ J_¿ JmZn-bm-\n-em-Wv.
lZvdØv an¿km Kpemw AlvaZ- (v A
- )\v A√mlp alvZn F∂pw
akolv F∂p-ap≈ ÿm\-t∏-cp-Iƒ \¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Cukm-
\-_n(-A)-tbm-Sp≈ kmZriyw \nan-Ø-am-Wv "akolv' F∂ t]cv
kn≤n-®X- v. "alvZn' F∂ hm°ns‚ A¿∞w ssZhnIam¿§-Z¿i\w
AXm-bXv lnZm-bØv e`n® Bƒ F∂m-Ip-∂p. \mw s]mXpsh
At±-lsØ akolv auDu-Zv F∂mWv ]d-™p-h-cp-∂-Xv.
lZvdØv an¿km Kpemw AlvaZv˛ a-kolv auDu-Zv(-A) Hcp
]pXnb aXw sIm≠p-h-∂n-´n-√. Ckvem-an¬ Hcp am‰hpw hcp-
Øn-bn-´p-an-√. t\sc adn-®v, Xm≥ Ckvem-ans‚ ]p\-cp-≤m-c-I\pw
apl-ΩZv \_n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS Bflo-bi - n-jy-\p-am-sW-∂s{X
ssZhnI Adn-bn-∏\ - p-kc
- n®v At±lw \sΩ ]Tn-∏n-®n-´p-≈X - v. am{X-
a√, apl-Ω-Zv\-_n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n-tbm-Sp≈ A\p-k-cWw hgn
Ckvem-an\v tkh\w sNøp-∂-Xn-\mbn A√mlp X\n°v \p_p-
∆Øv ({]-hm-N-I-Xzw) F∂ ]Zhn \¬In-bn-´p-s≠∂pw At±lw
Adn-bn-®n-´p-≠v. Xm≥ apl-ΩZ- v\_
- n(-k) Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS {]Xn-Om-
bbpw {]Xn-\n-[n-bp-am-sW-∂m-Ip∂p At±lw ]d-™n-´p-≈-Xv.
27

ssZh-I-ev]-\-b-\p-k-cn®v At±lw Xs‚ A\p-N-c-kw-L-


Øn\v "apkvenw ^n¿Jx AlvaZ- nøm' AYhm AlvaZ- nøm apkvenw
Pam-AØv F∂v \ma-I-cWw sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂p.
Cu Pam-AØ- ns‚ tI{µ-ÿm\w JmZn-bm≥ BWv. Ct∏mƒ
185 cm{„-ß-fn¬ AlvaZnøm Pam-A-Øns‚ imJ-Iƒ ÿm]n-X-
ambn Ign-™n-´p-≠v. Ckvem-ans‚ ]p\-cp-≤m-c-W-Øn-∂s{X Cu
Pam-AØv {]h¿Øn-®p-h-cp-∂-Xv. Ckvem-ans‚ c£bpw ]ptcm-
K-Xnbpw CXp-ambn _‘-s∏´p \ne-sIm-≈p-∂p.
ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. Ckvem-ans‚ ]p\-cp-÷o-h-\-Øn\v A√mlp Bsc-bmWv
\ntbmKn-®Xv?
2. hmKvZØ akolns‚ t]sc¥v?
3. At±-l-Øns‚ ÿm\-t∏-cp-Iƒ Fs¥√mw?
4. lZvdØv Alva-Zv(-A) Ft∏mƒ, FhnsS P\n®p?
5. F{Xm-asØ hb- n-emWv akolv auDu-Zv(-A)\v hlvbv
In´n-Øp-S-ßn-bXv?
6. lZvdØv AlvaZ- (v A
- )s‚ sNdp-∏I
- mew Fß-s\-bm-bn-cp∂p?
7. ssZhn-I-k-tµiw tIƒ∏n-®-t∏mƒ P\-߃ Fß-s\-
bmWv {]Xn-I-cn-®Xv?
8. lZvdØv Alva-Zv(-A)s‚ Pohn-X-Im-eØv F{X Alva-Zn-
I-fp-≠m-bn-cp∂p?
9. At±lw GsX√mw `mj-I-fn¬, F{X {KŸ-߃ Fgp-Xn-
bn-´p≠v?
10. At±lw h^m-Øm-bsXt∏mƒ?
11. At±lw Xs‚ Pam-A-Øn\v \¬Inb t]sc¥v?
12. Alva-Znøm apkvenw Pam-AØv F¥n-\pth≠n \ne-sIm-
≈p∂p?
28

]mTw˛ 8
Jeo-^-Øp¬ akolv

aplΩZv \_n(-k) h^m-Øm-b-t∏mƒ lkvdØv A_q-_-


°¿ kn±o-Jv(-d) Jeo-^-bmbn Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p-sh∂v apºp
]Tn®p-ht- √m. AtX-{]-Im-cw, lkvdØv akolv auDu-Zv(A
- ) h^m-
Øm-bt- ∏mƒ B alm-flm-hns‚ {]Ya Jeo-^bpw (Jeo-^Ø - p¬
akolv A∆¬) Pam-A-Øns‚ Cam-ap-ambn lkvdØv auem\m
l°ow \qdp-±o≥ kmln-_v(-d) Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. Bdp-sIm-√-
°mew At±-l-Øns‚ ta¬t\m-´-Øn¬ Pam-AØv {]h¿Ø-\-
߃ \S-∂p.
1914 am¿®v 13-˛\v auem\m \qdp-±o≥ kmln_v(d) h^m-Øm-
b-t∏mƒ lZvdØv an¿km _io-dp-±o≥ alvaqZv AlvaZv kmln-
_v(-d) c≠mw Jeo-^-bmbn (J-eo-^-Øp¬ akolv Ym\n) Xnc-
s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. \o≠ 52 h¿j-°mew At±lw Pam-A-Øn\v
t\XrXzw \¬In. PamAØn\v km¿∆-eu-InI {]Nmcw kn≤n-
®Xpw hntZ-iß - f - n¬ Ckvem-anI {]h¿Ø\ tI{µ-߃ ÿm]n-
°m≥ XpS-ßn-bXpw At±-l-Øns‚ A\p-Kr-lo-X-Im-e-Øm-bn-
cp-∂p.
1965 \hw-_¿ 8˛\v At±lw h^m-Øm-b-t∏mƒ lZvdØv
an¿km \mkn¿ AlvaZv kmln_v(d-lv) aq∂mw Jeo-^-bmbn
(J-eo-^-Øp¬ akolv kmenkv) Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. 1982 Pq¨
8˛\pw 9˛\pw CS-bv°p≈ cm{Xn-bn¬ At±-lw- h^m-Øm-bt- ∏mƒ-
lZvdØv an¿km Xzmln¿ AlvaZv kmln_v(d-lv) 4˛mw Jeo-^-
bmbn (J-eo-^Ø - p¬ akolv dm_nAv) Xnc-s™-Sp-°s
- ∏-´p. 2003
G{]n¬ 18-˛\v At±lw h^m-Øm-bt- ∏mƒ lZvdØv an¿km akvdq¿
AlvaZv kmln_v (A-ø-Z-lp√mlv) A©m-asØ Jeo-^-bmbn
(J-eo-^-Øp¬ akolv Jman-kv) Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. At±-l-
29

Øns‚ A\p-Kr-loX t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Ct∏mƒ temI-Øns‚


\m\m-`m-K-ß-fnepw Ckvem-ans‚ {]Nm-cW {]h¿Ø\w \S-∂p-
h-cp-∂p. A√mlp At±-lØ - n\v kuJyhpw Zo¿Lm-bp pw A[n-
I-a-[nIw ]n¥p-Wbpw \¬Ipam-dmI-s´. Bao≥.
\mw At±-lsØ "Jeo^-Øp¬ akolv' F∂pw "Aao-dp¬
apA-van-\o≥' F∂pw kwt_m-[\ sNøp-∂p.
Jeo-^a - msc A\p-kc
- n-t°-≠Xv \ap°v \n¿_-‘a
- m-Wv. A\p-
k-cn-°m-Ø-h-sc-∏‰n A[¿Ω-Im-cn-Iƒ (^m-kn-Jv) F∂mWv
Jp¿B-\n¬ hnti-jn-∏n-®n-´p-≈-Xv. AØcw Bfp-Isf A√mlp
C„-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√.

ŠŠŠŠŠ
tNmZy-߃
1. Bsc-bmWv Jeo-^-Øp¬ akolv F∂v ]d-bp-∂Xv?
2. At±-lsØ A`n-kw-t_m-[\ sNøp-∂-Xn\v D]-tbm-Kn-
°p∂ as‰mcp t]sc¥v?
3. A©v Jeo-^-am-cpsS t]cp-Ifpw Ah-cpsS Jnem-^Øv
Ime-L-´hpw ]d-bp-I.
4. Jeo-^-amsc A\p-k-cn-°m-Ø-h-sc-∏‰n Jp¿-B≥ F¥v
]d-bp∂p?
30

]mTw˛ 9
Nne Jp¿-B-\nI A≤ym-]-\-߃

1) A√mlp GI-\mWv Ahs\ am{Xta Bcm-[n-°m-hq.


CXmWv Xulo-Zv.
A√mlphns\b√msX Poh-\p-≈tXm Poh-\n-√m-ØtXm
Bb F¥n-s\-sb-¶nepw Bcm-[n-°p-∂-Xn\v "in¿°v' F∂v ]d-
bp-∂p. kØ-bn-tem, KpW-Øn-tem, {]hr-Øn-bntem A√m-lp-
hn-t\m-sSm∏w GXn-s\-sb-¶nepw Iq´p-tN¿°p-∂Xpw in¿°m-Wv.
AXv A√mlp s]mdpØp sImSp-°mØ sImSpw-]m-]-am-Ip-∂p.
A√m-lp-hn-s‚bpw dkq-en-s‚bpw F√m Iev]-\-Ifpw A\p-k-
cn-°p-Ibpw Ahbv°v ap≥K-W\ \¬Ip-Ibpw sNtø-≠-Xm-Wv.
2) amXm-]n-Xm-°sf _lp-am-\n-°pI; Ahsc kvt\l-]q¿∆w
A\p-k-cn-°pI; Ah-tcmSv Ib¿Øv kwkm-cn-°mXn-cn°pI;
Ah¿°v tkh\w sNøpI; Ahsc klm-bn-°pI; Ah¿°p
th≠n {]m¿∞n-°pI; ssZh-ln-X-Øn-s\-Xn-c-√mØ Ah-cpsS
F√m B⁄-Ifpw A\p-k-cn-°p-I.
3) \a-kI
v mcw AXns‚ ka-bß
- f
- n¬ IrXy-ambn \ne-\n¿Øp-I.
4) da-km≥ amk-Øn¬ t\mºv A\p-jvTn-°p-I.
5) k°mØv sImSp-°p-I.
6) Ign-hp-≈-h¿ l÷v \n¿∆-ln-°p-I.
7) B¨, s]¨ F∂ hyXym-k-a-√msX a\p-jy¿ XΩn¬
thsd Hcp PmXn hyXym-k-hp-an-√. IqSp-X¬ ssZh-`-‡n-bp-≈-h-
cmtcm Ah-cs{X A√m-lp-hns‚ Zr„n-bn¬ A[nIw am\y-X-bp-
≈-h¿. F√m-h-tcmSpw aa-X-bnepw \oXn-bnepw kvt\l-Ønepw
h¿Øn-°p-I.
31

8) kXy-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ ]c-kv]cw ktlm-Z-c-ß-fm-Ip∂p;


At\ym\yw kvt\lhpw sFIyhpw ]pe¿ØpI; Hcmƒ as‰m-
cmsf A]-am-\n-°p-Itbm ZqjWw ]d-bp-Itbm Acp-Xv. ]c-kv]-
c-k-lm-bhpw kl-Xm-]hpw Ft∏mgpw D≠m-bn-cn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.
9) {]bm-kß
- fpw I„-XI
- fpw t\cn-Sp-tºmƒ ]X-dmsX ÿnc-
Nn-ØXbpw kl\hpw ssIs°m-≈p-Ibpw ZpB sNbvXp-sIm-
≠n-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I.
10) F√m \√ Imcy-߃°pwth≠n Ign-h-\p-k-cn®p ]cn-{i-
an-°p-Ibpw A√m-lp-hn-t\mSv klm-b-a¿∞n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-I.
11) ]m]-s∏m-dp-Xn-°mbn Ft∏mgpw A√m-lp-hn-t\mSv {]m¿∞n-
®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I.
12) hn\- b - k z- ` mhw ssIs°m- ≈ p- I ; Al¶cn°cpXv ;
Btcbpw \nµn-°pIbpa-cp-Xv.
13) Ckvem-anI ktµiw F√m-h-cnepw kvt\l-]q¿∆w {]N-
cn-∏n-°p-I. AXn-∂mbn k¿∆-I-gn-hp-Ifpw D]-tbm-Kn-°p-I.
14) km[p-°sf klm-bn-°pI; A\m-YtcmSv IcpW ImWn-
°p-I. tNmZn-°p-∂-h¿°v sImSp-°m≥ km[n-°m-Ø-]£w \√-
hm°v ]d-bp-I.
15) kXyw ]d-bpI; I≈w ]d-b-cpXv; I_-fn-∏n-°-cpXv;
Btcbpw h©n-°-cpXv; hniz-kvXX ]men-°p-I.
16) tam„n-°-cpXv; Bcp-sSbpw Ah-Imiw l\n-°-cpXv; Icm-
dp-Iƒ ]men-°p-I.
17) k¬`m-h\ ssIs°m-≈pI; Bsc-]-‰nbpw Zp¿[m-cW
sh®p-]p-e¿Ø-cp-Xv.
kXy-{]Xn⁄
(\mkn-dm-Øp¬ Alva-Zn-øm)-)

kz¥w aX-Øn\pw kzk-ap-Zm-b-Øn\pw kztZ-


i-Øn\pw th≠n tkh\w sNøm≥ kZm k∂-
≤-bm-bn-cn-°p-sa∂pw kXy-k‘
- X
- b
- n¬ Ft∏mgpw
\ne-\n-ev°p-sa∂pw Rm≥ G‰p-]-d-™p-sIm-≈p-
∂p. C≥im-A-√m-lv.