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Submitted to :- Mr. Harshal

Submitted to:- Shahnawaz

Reg. no. :-11012416
Roll no.:-RM6004B46

Cosmic rays are energetic particles

originating from outer space that
impinge on Earth's atmosphere.
About 89% of all the incoming
cosmic ray particles are simple
protons, with nearly 10% being
helium nuclei (alpha particles), and
slightly under 1% are heavier
elements; electrons (beta particles)
constitute about 1% of galactic
cosmic rays.[1] The term ray is a
misnomer, as cosmic particles
arrive individually, not in the form
of a ray or beam of particles.
However, when they were first
discovered, cosmic rays were
thought to be rays. When their
particle nature needs to be
emphasized, "cosmic ray particle"
is written.

The variety of particle energies

reflects the wide variety of
sources. The origins of these
particles range from energetic
processes on the Sun all the way to
as yet unknown events in the
farthest reaches of the visible
universe. Cosmic rays can have
energies of over 1020 eV, far
higher than the 1012 to 1013 eV
that man-made particle
accelerators can produce. (See
Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays for a
description of the detection of a
single particle with an energy of
about 50 J, the same as a well-hit
tennis ball at 42 m/s [about 150
km/h].) There has been interest in
investigating cosmic rays of even
greater energies.[2]

• J. Kremer et al., Measurement of Ground-Level Muons at Two Geomagnetic

Locations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4241, (1999).

• S. H. Neddermeyer and C. D. Anderson, Note on the Nature of Cosmic-Ray

Particles, Phys. Rev. 51, 844, (1937).

• M. D. Ngobeni and M. S. Potgieter, Cosmic ray anisotropies in the outer

heliosphere, Advances in Space Research, 2007.

• M. D. Ngobeni, Aspects of the modulation of cosmic rays in the outer

heliosphere, M.Sc Dissertation, Northwest University (Potchefstroom campus)
South Africa 2006.

• D. Perkins, Particle Astrophysics, Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-


• C. E. Rolfs and S. R. William, Cauldrons in the Cosmos, The University of

Chicago Press, 1988. ISBN 0-226-72456-5

• B. B. Rossi, Cosmic Rays, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964.