TRAINING is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.





. helps the individual handle future responsibilities. with less emphasis on present job duties. on the other hand.DEVELOPMENT DEFINED DEVELOPMENT.

Need and basic purposes of training To Increase Productivity To Improve Quality To Help a Company Fulfil Its Future Personnel Needs To Improve Organizational Climate To Improve Health and Safety Obsolescence Prevention Personal Growth .

orientation.  Helps people identify with organisational goals.  Improves the morale of the work force. . goals.The Benefits of Training How Training Benefits the Organisation  Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.  Helps create a better corporate image. image. organization. force.  Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.

solving. organisation. better attitudes.  Helps prepare guidelines for work. loyalty.  Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. work.  Aids in understanding and carrying out organisational policies. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.  Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organisation. policies. .The Benefits of Training  Aids in organisational development. Aids in developing leadership skills. motivation. development.

.  Develops a sense of responsibility to the organisation for being competent and knowledgeable. e. . Improves labour-management labourrelations and creates an appropriate climate for growth. personnel. work. production. etc.g. etc.  Helps keep costs down in many areas. communication. knowledgeable. administration.The Benefits of Training  Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.

thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.  Eliminates sub-optimal behaviour.  Helps employees adjust to change.The Benefits of Training  Reduces outside consulting costs by utilising competent internal consulting. fires. .  Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires. subbehaviour. Aids in handling conflict. change. consulting.

growth.Benefits to the Individual  Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development. responsibility and advancement are internalised and operationalised. achievement. self- . Aids in encouraging and achieving selfself-development and self-confidence. motivational variables of recognition. operationalised.

 Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interaction skills. attitudes. skills. trainee.  Increases job satisfaction and recognition. tension. frustration and conflict. and attitudes. recognition. conflict. communication skills.  Provides information for improving leadership knowledge.  Satisfies personal needs of the trainee. .Benefits to the Individual  Helps a person handle stress.

Develops a sense of growth in learning. skills when exercises are required.Benefits to the Individual  Provides trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future. future. required.  Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks. also writing skills. . tasks. learning.

Benefits in Intra and InterIntergroup Relations
Improves communication between groups and individuals.  Improves interpersonal skills. skills. Makes organisation policies, rules and regulations viable. viable.  Improves morale. morale.  Builds cohesiveness in groups. groups.  Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and coordination. coordination. Makes the organisation a better place to work. work.

Training Concepts
Ability: The physical and mental capacity Ability: to perform a task. Action learning: Training method that involves giving teams or work groups a problem, having them work on solving it and committing to an action plan, and then holding them accountable for carrying out the plan. Action plan:A written document detailing plan:A steps that a trainee and his manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job

Training Concepts
Action planning: An employee¶s process of determining how he will achieve his shortshort-and long-term career goals. longAssessment: The collecting of information and providing of feedback to employees about their behavior communication style, or skills. Assessment center: A process in which multiple rates or evaluators (also known as assessors) evaluate employees, performances on a number of exercises.

physical characteristics (e.g. .Training Concepts Attitude: Combination of beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to behave in a certain way.. Basic skills: Skills necessary for employees to perform their jobs and learn the content of training programs. Attitude awareness and change program: Program focusing on increasing employees¶ awareness of their attitudes toward differences in cultural and ethic backgrounds. and personal characteristics that influence behavior towards others. disabilities).

Training Concepts Behavior based conflict: Conflict occurring when an employee¶s behavior in work roles is not appropriate in non-work roles. nonBehavior based program: Program focusing on changing the organization policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees¶ personal growth and productivity. Behavior modeling: A training method in which trainees are presented with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate and provides them with the opportunity to practice those key behaviors .

level. Benefits: What of value the company gains from a training program. Benchmarks: A research instrument designed to measure important factors in being a successful manager.Training Concepts Benchmarking: The use of information about other companies¶ training practices to help determine the appropriate type. . and frequency gains from a training program.

Career development: The process by which employees¶ progress through a series of stages. and other methods. each characterized by a different set of developmental tasks. Career: The pattern of work related experiences that span the course of a person¶s life.Training Concepts Blended learning: Learning involving a combination of online learning. . activities. face-toface-toface instruction. and relationships.

. the awareness of how these perceptions relate to their career goals.Training Concepts Career insight: The degree to which employees know about their interests as well as their skills strengths and weaknesses.

values. . strengths.Training Concepts Career management: The process through management: which employees Become aware of their interests. and weaknesses Get information about job opportunities within a company Identify career goals Establish action plans to achieve career goals Career path: A sequence of job positions involving similar types of work and skills that employees move through in company.

Training Concepts Case study: A description of how study: employees or an organization dealt with a situation. Change: Change: The adoption of a new idea or behavior by a company Change management: The process of management: ensuring that new interventions such as training practices are accepted and used by employees and managers. .

develop skills.Training Concepts Coach: Coach: A peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate him. and provide reinforcement and feedback. Competency: Competency: An area of personal capability that enables an employee to perform his job. Cognitive ability: Outcomes used to ability: measure what knowledge trainees learned in a training program. .

Training Concepts Competency model: A model identifying the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge. Competitive advantage: An upper hand advantage: over other firms in an industry. behavior. and personal characteristics underlying each competency. Competitiveness: Competitiveness: A company¶s ability to maintain and gain market share in an industry. skills. .

employees are expected to acquire new skills and knowledge. Continuous learning: A learning system in learning: which employees are required to understand the entire work system including the relationship among their jobs. and the company.Training Concepts Computer based training (CBT): An interactive training experience in which the computer provides the learning stimulus. the trainee must respond. apply them on the job. and share this information with fellow workers. and the computer analyzes responses and provides feedback to the trainee. their work units. Also. .

content. Course objectives (lesson objectives): The expected behaviors. more specific than program objectives. and standards of a training course or lesson.Training Concepts Cost benefit analysis: The process of analysis: determining the economic benefits of a training program using accounting methods. Course parameters: General information parameters: about a training program including . conditions.

more simply. . Cross training: Training method in which training: team members understand and practice each other¶s skills so that members are prepared to step in and take another member¶s place should he temporarily or permanently leave the team. training employees to learn the skills of one or several additional jobs.Training Concepts Criterion deficiency: The failure to deficiency: measure training outcomes that were emphasized in training objectives. Also.

.Training Concepts Culture: A set of assumptions group members share about the world and how it works as well as ideals worth striving for.

Distance learning: Training method in which learning: geographically dispersed companies provide information about new products. and assessments of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future. relationships.Training Concepts Development: Formal education. policies. job experiences. E learning: Instruction and delivery of training learning: by computer online through the Internet or Web. or procedures as well as skills training and expert lectures to field locations. .

Training Concepts Empowerment: Empowerment: Giving employee responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding product development or customer service .

Training Concepts Evaluation design: Designation of what information is to be collected. when. from whom. Usually conducted before and during the training process . Feedback: Information employees receive Feedback: while they are performing concerning how well they are meeting objectives. Formative evaluation: Evaluation evaluation: conducted to improve the training process. and how to determine training¶s effectiveness.

situation. . medium-to-longGoal orientation: A trainee¶s goals in a learning situation. Goal setting: An employee¶s process of developing short-and long-term career shortlongobjectives.Training Concepts Glass ceiling: A barrier to advancement to an organization¶s higher levels. Goal: Goal: What a company hopes to achieve in the medium-to-long-term future.

guide them in analyzing their experiences. HandsHands-on method: Training method in which the trainee is actively involved in learning. and help them clarify career directions. HighHigh-leverage training: Training that uses an training: instructional design process to ensure that it is effective and that compares or benchmarks the company¶s training programs against other companies¶ .Training Concepts Group mentoring program: Program in which a program: successful senior employee is paired with a group of four to six less experienced protégés to help them understand the organization.

attitudes. higherHuman resource management: The policies. and systems that influence employees¶ behavior.Training Concepts HighHigh-potential employee: An employee whom the company believes is capable of succeeding in a higher-level managerial position. and performance. Human resource management (HRM) practices: Management activities relating to investments in staffing. and compensation and benefits. training. practices. . performance management.

advanced skills. forecasting. InternetInternet-based training: Training delivered on training: public or private computer networks and displayed by a web browser. Intranet based training: Training delivered training: using a company¶s own computer network or server.Training Concepts Human resource planning: The identification. and planning of changes needed in a company¶s human resources area. analysis. Intellectual capital: Cognitive knowledge. and self motivated creativity. Intellectual skills: Mastery of concepts and skills: rules. . system understanding and creativity.

tasks. Job analysis: The process of developing a description of the job (duties.Training Concepts Job: A specific position requiring completion of certain tasks. Job enlargement: The adding of challenges or new responsibilities to an employee¶s current job. and responsibilities) and the specifications (knowledge. skills and abilities) that an employee must have to perform it. .

tools. Key behavior: One of a set of behaviors that is necessary to complete a task. Important part of behavior modeling training. and routines (structured knowledge). processes. demands.Training Concepts Job experience: The relationship. Knowledge: Facts or procedures. problems. What individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge). and other features that an employee faces on the job. tasks. also a company¶s rules. .

and use of knowledge. sharing. which they use to perform their jobs and contribute to company effectiveness. and cultures to improve the creating. Knowledge workers: Employees who own the means of producing a product or service. processes.Training Concepts Knowledge management: The process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools. systems. structures. . These employees have a specialized body of knowledge or expertise.

. adapt. and change. an organization whose employees continuously attempt to learn new things and then apply what they have learned to improve product or service quality. Learning organization: A company that has an enhanced capacity to learn.Training Concepts Learning: A relatively permanent change in human capabilities that does not result from growth processes.

productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee (a protégé). Emphasizing the importance of attending training programs Stressing the application of training content on the job. Manager support: Trainee¶s managers. .Training Concepts Lecture: Training method in which the trainer communicates through spoken words that trainees are supposed to learn. Mentor: An experienced.

Training Concepts Metacognition: A learning strategy whereby trainees direct their attention to their own learning process. Modeling: Having employees who have mastered the desired learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees. . Motivation to learn: A trainee¶s desire to learn the content of a training program. Mission: A company¶s long-term reason longfor existing.

The first step in the instrumental system design model. . Need: A deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in times.Training Concepts Motor skills: Coordination of physical movements. Multimedia training: Training that combines training: audiovisual training methods with computer based training. Near transfer: A trainee¶s ability to apply learned capabilities exactly to the work situation. Needs assessment: The process used to determine if training is necessary.

Training Concepts Norms: Accepted standards of behavior for workgroup members. Obsolescence: A reduction in an employee¶s competence resulting from a lack of knowledge of new work processes. techniques. . Objective: The purpose and expected outcome of training activities. On-theOn-the-job training (OJT): Training in which new or inexperienced employees learn through first observing peers or managers performing the job and then trying to imitate their behavior. and technologies that have developed since he completed his education.

systematic change process that uses behavioral sciences knowledge and techniques to improve a company¶s effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problems solving capabilities. considering the context in which training will occur. . Organizational analysis: Training analysis involving determining the appropriateness of training. Organization development: A planned.Training Concepts Opportunity to perform: The chance to use learned capabilities.

.Training Concepts Organizational socialization: The process of transforming new employees into effective company members. and settling in. Organizing: A learning strategy that requires the learner to find similarities and themes in the training materials. encounter. Outsourcing: The use of external supplies to provide training services. Perception: The ability to organize a message from the environment so that it can be processed and acted upon. Its phases are anticipatory socialization.

Person analysis: Training analysis involving Determining whether performance deficiencies result from lack of knowledge. skill.Training Concepts Performance appraisal: The process of measuring an employee¶s performance. or ability or else from a motivational or work-design problem. Determining employees¶ readiness for training . workIdentifying who needs training.

behavior. ability. . Pretest/posttest: An evaluation design in which both pretraining and post training outcomes measures are collected. the physical or mental rehearsal of a task. or skill to achieve proficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge.Training Concepts Person characteristics: An employee¶s knowledge. Practice: An employee¶s demonstration of a learned capability. or attitude. Pretraining measure: A baseline measure of outcomes. knowledge. skill.

trainers. Readability: Written materials¶ level of difficulty. Psychological success: A feeling of pride and accomplishment that comes from achieving life goals. Reaction outcomes: A trainee¶s perceptions of a training program.Training Concepts Program design: The organization and coordination of the training program. Program Objectives: Broad summary statements of a program¶s purpose. including perceptions of the facilities. . and content.

Structure/ Process/Innovation ReRe-Structuring / Re-inventing «Small/Better/Different Re- . Reengineering: A complete review and redesign Reengineering: of critical processes to make them more efficient and able to deliver higher quality.Training Concepts Readiness for training: The condition of Employees having the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job and The work environment facilitation learning and not interfering with performance. quality.

Simulation: A training method that represents a real life situation. SelfSelf-Management: Person¶s attempt to control certain aspects of his decisiondecisionmaking and behavior.Training Concepts Rehearsal: A learning strategy focusing on learning through repetition (memorization). . with trainees¶ decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if they were on the job.

Social support: Feedback and reinforcement from managers and peers. include skill acquisition or learning and on-theon-the-job use of skills. .Training Concepts Skill: Competency in performing a task. Social learning theory: Theory emphasizing theory: that people learn by observing other persons (models) who they believe are credible and knowledgeable. Socialization: Sharing tacit knowledge by sharing experiences. SkillSkill-based outcomes: Outcomes used to assess the level of technical or motor skills or behavior.

and abilities required for task performance. Knowledge. employees. Subject matter expert (SME): Person who is knowledgeable of Training issue. . and Conditions under which tasks have to be performed Summative evaluation: Evaluation of the extent that trainees have changed as -a result of participating in a training program. skills. Necessary equipment.Training Concepts Stakeholders: The parties with an interest in a company¶s success (include shareholders. and the community). customers.

experts. . and learners interact with each other live and in real time in the same way as they would in face to face classroom instruction. Team leader training: Training that a team manager or facilitator receives.Training Concepts Synchronous communication: Communication in which trainers. Team training: Training method that involves coordinating the performances of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal.

Training design: Characteristics of the learning. intellectual. . Training context: The physical.Training Concepts Trainee characteristics: The abilities and motivation that affect learning. jobTraining administration: Coordination of activities before. during. and after a training program. Training: A company¶s planned effort to facilitate employees¶ learning of job-related competencies. and enabling environment. and emotional environment in which training occurs.

Its six steps include conducting needs assessment.Training Concepts Training design process: A systematic approach to development training programs. and evaluating training programs. Training effectiveness: Benefits that a company and its trainees receive from training. ensuring transfer of training. . creating a learning environment. selecting training methods. ensuring employees¶ readiness for training.

Training site: The place where training is conducted. Training outcomes (Criteria): Measures that a company and its trainer use to evaluate training programs. Transfer of training: Trainees¶ applying learned capabilities gained in training to their jobs.Training Concepts Training evaluation: The process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training has been effective. Work environment: On-the-job factors that On-theinfluence transfer of training. .

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