Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Janice E. Sullivan, M.D. Brian Yarberry, Pharm.D.

Why Study Pharmacokinetics (PK) and Pharmacodynamics (PD)?
• Individualize patient drug therapy • Monitor medications with a narrow therapeutic index • Decrease the risk of adverse effects while maximizing pharmacologic response of medications • Evaluate PK/PD as a diagnostic tool for underlying disease states

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
• The science of the rate of movement of drugs within biological systems, as affected by the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of medications

gastric pH. ionization. & formulation • Factors affecting drug absorption related to patients: – Route of administration. solubility.Absorption • Must be able to get medications into the patient’s body • Drug characteristics that affect absorption: – Molecular weight. contents of GI tract .

Absorption in the Pediatric Patient • • • • • • Gastrointestinal pH changes Gastric emptying Gastric enzymes Bile acids & biliary function Gastrointestinal flora Formula/food interaction .

Time to Peak Concentration 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 20 30 60 120 180 minutes concentration IV Oral Rectal .

Distribution • Membrane permeability – cross membranes to site of action • Plasma protein binding – bound drugs do not cross membranes – malnutrition = albumin =  free drug • Lipophilicity of drug – lipophilic drugs accumulate in adipose tissue • Volume of distribution .

Pediatric Distribution • Body Composition   total body water & extracellular fluid  adipose tissue & skeletal muscle • Protein Binding – albumin. α 1-acid glycoprotein • Tissue Binding – compositional changes . bilirubin.

Metabolism • Drugs and toxins are seen as foreign to patients bodies • Drugs can undergo metabolism in the lungs. blood. and liver • Body works to convert drugs to less active forms and increase water solubility to enhance elimination .

Metabolism • Liver .primary route of drug metabolism • Liver may be used to convert pro-drugs (inactive) to an active state • Types of reactions – Phase I (Cytochrome P450 system) – Phase II .

a drug bound to the CYP450 system undergoes oxidation or reduction • Enzyme induction • Drug interactions .Phase I reactions • Cytochrome P450 system • Located within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes • Through electron transport chain.

Phase I reactions types • • • • • • Hydrolysis Oxidation Reduction Demethylation Methylation Alcohol dehydrogenase metabolism .

Phase II reactions • Polar group is conjugated to the drug • Results in increased polarity of the drug • Types of reactions – Glycine conjugation – Glucuronide conjugation – Sulfate conjugation .

Elimination • Pulmonary = expired in the air • Bile = excreted in feces – enterohepatic circulation • Renal – glomerular filtration – tubular reabsorption – tubular secretion .

Pediatric Elimination • Glomerular filtration matures in relation to age. penicillins = longer dosing interval . & tubular function yields prolonged elimination of medications • Aminoglycosides. adult values reached by 3 yrs of age • Neonate = decreased renal blood flow. cephalosporins. glomerular filtration.

drugs with long half-life take days to weeks to reach steady state .Pharmacokinetic Principles • Steady State: the amount of drug administered is equal to the amount of drug eliminated within one dosing interval resulting in a plateau or constant serum drug level • Drugs with short half-life reach steady state rapidly.

Steady State Pharmacokinetics 100 90 80 70 % 60 steady 50 state 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Half-life • Half-life = time required for serum plasma concentrations to decrease by onehalf (50%) • 4-5 half-lives to reach steady state .

Loading Doses • Loading doses allow rapid achievement of therapeutic serum levels • Same loading dose used regardless of metabolism/elimination dysfunction 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 w/ bolus w/o bolus .

Linear Pharmacokinetics • Linear = rate of elimination is proportional to amount of drug present • Dosage increases result in proportional increase in plasma drug levels 120 100 concentration 80 60 40 20 0 dose .

Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics • Nonlinear = rate of elimination is constant regardless of amount of drug present • Dosage increases saturate binding sites and result in nonproportional increase/decrease in drug levels 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 dose concentration .

Michaelis-Menten Kinetics • Follows linear kinetics until enzymes become saturated • Enzymes responsible for metabolism /elimination become saturated resulting in nonproportional increase in drug levels 30 concentration 25 20 15 10 5 0 dose phenytoin .

Special Patient Populations • Renal Disease: same hepatic metabolism. same/increased volume of distribution. ↑ dosing interval • Cystic Fibrosis Patients: increased metabolism/ elimination. ↓ dosage interval . slower rate of enzyme metabolism ∴ ↓ dosage. and larger volume of distribution ∴ ↑ dosage. same/increased volume of distribution and prolonged elimination ∴ ↑ dosing interval • Hepatic Disease: same renal elimination.

Pharmacogenetics • Science of assessing genetically determined variations in patients and the resulting affect on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics • Useful to identify therapeutic failures and unanticipated toxicity .

Pharmacodynamics • Study of the biochemical and physiologic processes underlying drug action – Mechanism of drug action • Drug-receptor interaction – Efficacy – Safety profile .

Pharmacodynamics • “What the drug does to the body” – Cellular level – General .

Pharmacodynamics Cellular Level .

Drug Actions • Most drugs bind to cellular receptors – Initiate biochemical reactions – Pharmacological effect is due to the alteration of an intrinsic physiologic process and not the creation of a new process .

on an organelle within the cell. or in the cytoplasm – Finite number of receptors in a given cell • Receptor mediated responses plateau upon saturation of all receptors .Drug Receptors • Proteins or glycoproteins – Present on cell surface.

inositol phosphates. • Initiates a series of chemical reactions – Normal cellular function is physically inhibited – Cellular function is “turned on” .Drug Receptors • Action occurs when drug binds to receptor and this action may be: – Ion channel is opened or closed – Second messenger is activated • cAMP. etc. cGMP. Ca++.

Drug Receptor • Affinity – Refers to the strength of binding between a drug and receptor – Number of occupied receptors is a function of a balance between bound and free drug .

Drug Receptor • Dissociation constant (KD) – Measure of a drug’s affinity for a given receptor – Defined as the concentration of drug required in solution to achieve 50% occupancy of its receptors .

Drug Receptors • Agonist – Drugs which alter the physiology of a cell by binding to plasma membrane or intracellular receptors • Partial agonist – A drug which does not produce maximal effect even when all of the receptors are occupied .

Drug Receptors • Antagonists – Inhibit or block responses caused by agonists • Competitive antagonist – Competes with an agonist for receptors – High doses of an agonist can generally overcome antagonist .

Drug Receptors • Noncompetitive antagonist – Binds to a site other than the agonist-binding domain – Induces a conformation change in the receptor such that the agonist no longer “recognizes” the agonist binding site. – High doses of an agonist do not overcome the antagonist in this situation .

Drug Receptors • Irreversible Antagonist – Bind permanently to the receptor binding site therefore they can not be overcome with agonist .

Pharmacodynamics Definitions .

Definitions • Efficacy – Degree to which a drug is able to produce the desired response • Potency – Amount of drug required to produce 50% of the maximal response the drug is capable of inducing – Used to compare compounds within classes of drugs .

Definitions • Effective Concentration 50% (ED50) – Concentration of the drug which induces a specified clinical effect in 50% of subjects • Lethal Dose 50% (LD50) – Concentration of the drug which induces death in 50% of subjects .

Definitions
• Therapeutic Index
– Measure of the safety of a drug – Calculation: LD50/ED50

• Margin of Safety
– Margin between the therapeutic and lethal doses of a drug

Dose-Response Relationship
• Drug induced responses are not an “all or none” phenomenon • Increase in dose may:
– Increase therapeutic response – Increase risk of toxicity

Clinical Practice
What must one consider when one is prescribing drugs to a critically ill infant or child???

Clinical Practice • Select appropriate drug for clinical indication • Select appropriate dose – Consider pathophysiologic processes in patient such as hepatic or renal dysfunction – Consider developmental and maturational changes in organ systems and the subsequent effect on PK and PD .

Clinical Practice • Select appropriate formulation and route of administration • Determine anticipated length of therapy • Monitor for efficacy and toxicity • Pharmacogenetics – Will play a larger role in the future .

Clinical Practice • Other factors – Drug-drug interaction • • • • • Altered absorption Inhibition of metabolism Enhanced metabolism Protein binding competition Altered excretion .

intermittent – Site of optimal drug absorption in GI tract must be considered .Clinical Practice • Other factors (con’t) – Drug-food interaction • NG or NJ feeds – Continuous vs.

Effect of Disease on Drug Disposition • Absorption – PO/NG administered drugs may have altered absorption due to: • • • • • • Alterations in pH Edema of GI mucosa Delayed or enhanced gastric emptying Alterations in blood flow Presence of an ileus Coadministration with formulas (I. Phenytoin) .e.

site of metabolism and site of elimination • Inflammation and changes in capillary permeability may enhance delivery of drug to a site – Hypoxemia affecting organ function • Altered hepatic function and drug metabolism .Effect of Disease on Drug Disposition • Drug distribution may be affected: – Altered organ perfusion due to hemodynamic changes • May effect delivery to site of action.

there is altered Vd of free fraction of drugs that typically are highly protein bound therefore a higher free concentration of drug – Substrate deficiencies • Exhaustion of stores • Metabolic stress .Effect of Disease on Drug Disposition – Alterations in protein synthesis • If serum albumin and other protein levels are low.

Effect of Disease on PD • Up regulation of receptors • Down regulation of receptors – Decreased number of drug receptors • Altered endogenous production of a substance may affect the receptors .

Effect of Disease on PD • Altered response due to: – – – – Acid-base status Electrolyte abnormalities Altered intravascular volume Tolerance .

may need to add additional drug or choose alternative agent • Monitor for toxicity – May require decrease in dose or alternative agent .Management of Drug Therapy • “Target-effect” strategy – Pre-determined efficacy endpoint – Titrate drug to desired effect • Monitor for efficacy – If plateau occurs.

Management of Drug Therapy • “Target-concentration” strategy – Pre-determined concentration goal • Based on population-based PK • Target concentration based on efficacy or toxicity – Know the PK of the drug you are prescribing • Presence of an active metabolite? • Should the level of the active metabolite be measured? • Zero-order or first-order kinetics? – Does it change with increasing serum concentrations? .

not the drug level . know how to safely achieve the desired level • Be sure the level is not drawn from the same line in which the drug is administered • Be sure drug is administered over the appropriate time • AND Treat the patient.Management of Drug Therapy – Critical aspects of “target-concentration” therapy • Know indications for monitoring serum concentrations – AND when you do not need to monitor levels • Know the appropriate time to measure the concentration • If the serum concentration is low.

REMEMBER No drug produces a single effect!!! .

You should: a) Start with a normal dose and interval for age b) Give a normal dose with an extended interval c) Give a lower dose and keep the interval normal for age d) Aminoglycosides are contraindicated in renal insufficiency . He has a history of renal insufficiency and is followed by the nephrology service.Case #1 JB is a 5 y. Currently.4 cc/kg/hr. He needs to be started on an aminoglycoside. His sputum gram stain from an ETT shows gram negative rods.o. his BUN/SCr are 39/1. male with pneumonia.5 mg/dL with a urine output of 0.

Case #2 MJ is a 3 y. You should: a) b) c) d) Continue digoxin at the current dose Decrease the digoxin dose by 50% and monitor levels Increase the digoxin dose by 50% and monitor levels Discontinue the digoxin . She is maintained on digoxin 10 mcg/kg/day divided bid. She has a dysrhythmia and is started on amiodarone. female with a history of congenital heart disease.o.

4 mg/kg and increase the infusion to 0. You evaluate the child and notice that he is increasingly agitated.4 mg/kg/hr mg/kg/hr mg/kg/hr .1 mg/kg and increase the infusion to 0. You should: a) b) c) d) Increase the infusion to 0.4 mg/kg/hr.5 Bolus with 0.o male on a midazolam infusion for sedation in the PICU.5 mg/kg/hr Bolus with 0.5 Bolus with 0. He is currently maintained on 0.1 mg/kg and maintain the infusion at 0.Case #3 AC is a 4 y.

His phenytoin level is 6 mcg/ml. You should: a) Increase his phenytoin dose to 12 mg/kg/day divided bid b) Load him with phenytoin 5 mg/kg and increase his dose to 12 mg/kg/day c) Change his feeds so they are held 1 hr before and 2 hrs after each dose. d) Add another anticonvulsant . child on phenytoin NG bid (10 mg/kg/day) for posttraumatic seizures but continues to have seizures.Case #4 JD is a 10 y.o. He is on continuous NG feeds. continue his current dose of 10 mg/kg/day and recheck a level in 2 days (sooner if seizures persist). give him a loading dose of 10 mg/kg.

Case #5 LF is a 12 y.2 mg/dL. She has a seizure disorder which has been well controlled with phenytoin (serum concentration on admission was 19 mcg/ml). You should: a) b) c) d) Administer phenytoin 5 mg/kg IV now Order a serum phenytoin level now Obtain an EEG now Order a total and free serum phenytoin level now . with sepsis and a serum albumin of 1. You notice she is having clonus and seizure-like activity.o.

You should: a) Continue her current dose of theophylline. b) Lower her dose of theophylline and monitor daily serum concentrations c) Increase her dose of theophylline by 10% and monitor daily serum concentration d) Continue her current dose of theophylline and monitor daily serum concentrations .o. you treat her with erythromycin for presumed Mycoplasma pneumoniae. There is no need to monitor serum concentrations. Based on her CXR and clinical findings.Case #6 KD is a 12 y. child admitted with status asthmaticus who is treated by her primary physician with theophylline (serum concentration is 18 mcg/ml).

vancomycin. cefepime and acyclovir in addition to vasopressors. cyclosporine. She is admitted to the PICU in septic shock.1 mg/dL and is on fluconazole. solumedrol.Case #7 BJ is a 13 y. She has renal insufficiency with a BUN/SCr of 45/2.o. S/P BMT for ALL. a) Identify the drugs which may worsen her renal function b) Identify the drugs which require dosage adjustment due to her renal dysfunction c) Identify the drugs which require serum concentrations to be monitored and project when you would obtain these levels .

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