INTRODUCTION (VARDHMAN GROUP)
The industrial city Ludhiana, locate the fertile Malwa region of central Punjab is otherwise known as the Manchester of India. Within the precincts of this city located the corporate headquarters of the Vardhman Group, born in 1965, under the entrepreneurship of Late Lala Rattan Chand Oswal has today blosommed into one of the largest Textile Business house in India. As its inception, Vardhman had an installed capacity of 14,000 spindles; today capacity has increased multifold to over 5.5 lacs spindles. In 1982 the group entered the sewing thread market in the country, which was a forward integration of the business. Today Vardhman threads are the second largest producer of sewing threads in India. In 1990, it undertook yet another diversification, this time into weaving business. The grey fabric weaving unit at Baddi (H.P.), commissioned in1990 with a capacity of 20,000 meters per day, has already made its mark as a quality producer of grey poplin/sheeting/shirting in the domestic as well as foreign market. This was followed by entry into fabric processing by setting up AURO Textiles at Baddi, which currently has a process capacity of 1lacs meters/day. In the year 1999 the group has added yet another feather to its cap with the setting up of Vardhman Acrylics Ltd. Bharuch (Gujarat) which is joint venture Acrylic Fiber production undertaken with Marubeni and Exlan of Japan. The company also has strong presence in the market of Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, UK and EU in addition to the domestic market. Adherence to systems and dedication to quality has resulted in obtaining the coveted ISO 9002/ ISO 14000 quality award, which is the first in Textile industry in India.
AURO DYEING is a unit of Vardhman Spinning and general Mills Ludhiana. It is located in a village Baddi, Tehsil-Nalagarh, District Solan. The AURO dyeing site occupies 45.000 square meters. Unit has a maximum production of 45 tons per day. The unit has two production sections: YARN DYEING FIBER DYEING
YARN DYEING 100% COTTON POLYESTER/COTTON BLEND 100% ACRYLIC ACRYLIC/COTTON BLEND COTTON/WOOL BLEND
AVERAGE PRODUCTION – 15 ton/day (max.) FIBER DYEING 100% COTTON 100% POLYESTER ACRYLIC TOW 100% WOOL
AVERAGE PRODUCTION – 30 tons/day (max.) AURO DYEING has collaboration with the Japanese concern and has the latest technology of dyeing. Most of the machinery has been imported from Japan.
1. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Research and Development department is an integral and necessary component of any industry. The success of any industry is not possible without R&D department and it depends on the efficient working of this department.
THE MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE R&D DEPARTMENT ARE
IT ACTS AS A NEXUS between the outside party and production department since the orders are taken from the outside party and after approval sent to the bulk section through this department. QUALITY CONTROL of products and QUALITY CHECKS of input materials are done in this department.
is another important function of this department. Shade is developed according to the reference recipe and the shade is to be matched with the standards under lowest number of trials.
THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF R&D DEPARTMENT ARE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. QUALITY INPUT. QUALITY OUTPUT. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CELL (PDC). OBBDM. SPDM. WEAVING SECTION (SHIRTING CELL)
FOLLOWING DYES ARE TESTED FOR THERE COLOUR VALUE: REACTIVE DYES: Reactive Dyes are tested on OBBDM machine.1
In this section all the input materials like dyes. chemicals. DISPERSE DYES: Disperse Dyes are tested on HTHP Machine. tested for there performance properties. water hardness etc. grey yarn husk. VAT DYES: Vat Dyes are tested on AHIBA Machine. different. ACRYLIC DYES: Acrylic Dyes are tested in Beaker Dyeing Machine.
A) DYES TESTING
1) TESTING A NEW SAMPLE AS SUBTITUTE • Colour Value (Strength) • Fastness (Dry Rubbing. Wet Washing) • Colour Fastness to Mercerization • Solubility • Migration Behavior 2) TESTING FOR RUNNING ITEM Colour Value ∆ E Value (STD & PREVIOUS) • Physical Appearance
After testing ∆ E value and colour strength is also compared.5
In Dye the sub store person gives testing new dye and this dye is tested against the previous supply & standard. Concerned person sends testing report to the colour substore and main storeafter sign. Consistency of each dye corresponding file. Salt Soda Acetic Acid
Caustic Lyes etc. After testing the record are maintained in the vendor development file.
C) TEST FOR DIFFERENT AUXILIARIES:
1) WETTING AGENTS • WETTING TEST • SOLID CONTENT 2) DETERGENT/ WASHING OFF AGENTS • CLEANING EFFICIENCY 3) RETARDER
. B) Some dyes come for vendor analysis. NaOCl is also tested for available Chlorine. Other auxiliaries are tested for solid content & different performance properties. B) CHEMICAL TESTING: In chemical testing the following chemical are tested for their percentage purity.
GREY YARN TESTING:
Grey yarn comes from different units tested in input section for their physical parameters and dye ability.
• HALF DYEING TIME 4) SOFTENER • SOLID CONTENT • APPLICATION TEST
Husk is tested for their moisture content. after signed by concerned person. PPC Deptt.
Water hardness is tested four times in a day. Record of the grey yarn used for the production is maintained in the grey yarn-testing file. After testing the report is send to production Deptt. After testing report is send to main store and boiler section by the concerned person. Commercial Deptt.
COLOR FASTNESS TO MERCERIZING. COLOR MEASUREMENT OF TEXTILE INSTRUMENTS. Under the view of quality control the word QULITY means the best quality performance for the utmost satisfaction of the customer within a competitive price and CONTROL is the tool used by the management in securing this quality. COLOR FASTNESS TO HYPOCHLORITE BLEACH/PEROXIDE BLEACH 4.
The objective of QUALITY OUTPUT section is to control the quality of the product by testing and controlling all the related parameters.
. (Wet and Dry) 3. COLOR FASTNESS TO WASHING
a) REACTIVE DYED YARN b) VAT DYED YARN 2.2
Performance of the product against the customer decides the quality of that product. 6. 7. DETERMINATION OF WHITENESS INDEX OF TEXTILES. are
1. RESISTANCE TO COLD WATER BLEEDING a) REACTIVE DYED YARN AND VAT DYED YARN b) SPECIFIC SHADES OF VAT AND REACTIVE 5.7
1. COLOR FASTNESS TO CROCKING. For this purpose the different tests. which are carried out here.
INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE QUALITY OUTPUT ARE
LAUNDROMETER To check the washing fastness. CROCKMETER To check the wet and dry rubbing fastness.
. CIRCULAR KNITING MACHINE To make knitted fabric from the yarn. MOISTURE ANALYSER To check the moisture content of the yarn.8
8. 10. WRAP REEL To make a lea of yarn. COLOR FASTNESS TO PERSPIRATION. COLOR FASTNESS TO LIGHT. 9. PH OF WATER EXTRACT FROM BLEACHED TEXTILES. RAPID OIL EXTRACTOR To check the % finish content. LEA STRENGTH TESTER To check the breaking strength of the lea.
22% 4 .4/5 3/4 3 .550.9
QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS FOR DYED PRODUCTS
S.65% 4 .4/5 3/4 3 .3/4
SHOULD MATCH WITH STANDARD SHOULD BE UNIFORM
.4/5 3/4 3 .20.N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
PARAMETER MOISTURE CONTENT FINISH CONTENT WASHING FASTNESS RUBBING FASTNESS (DRY) RUBBING FASTNESS (WET) SHADE LEVELNESS
COTTON FIBRE 6.16 -0.5-8% 0.3/4
PET FIBRE 1-2% 0.3/4
ACRYLIC FIBRE 1-2% 0.3% 4 .
TESTING ↓ COLD WATER BLEEDING TESTING ↓ REPORT IS SENT TO PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT ↓
MATERIAL FLOW IN OUTPUT SECTION
DYEING SECTION ↓ QUALITY ASSURANCE ↓ YARN TESTING ↓ RUBBING FASTNESS TESTING (WET AND DRY) WASHING FASTNESS TESTING ↓ SAMPLING ↓ COUNT TESTING ↓ C.S.
Generally the recipe of the orders below 250 Kg is developed in this section.3 OBBDM SECTION (OPEN BATH BEAKER DYEING MACHINE) OBJECTIVE
Objective of OBBDM SECTION is to prepare the recipe for a given shade for the bulk production as well as to prepare the lab dips for the market orders. For this purpose open bath beaker dyeing machine and HTHP machines are used.
TYPES OF MATERIALS DYED IN THIS SECTION ARE
100% COTTON (yarn and fibre) POLYESTER/COTTON blend (yarn) 100% ACRYLIC (fibre) 100% POLYESTER (yarn and fibre) 100% WOOL
DIFFERENT DYES USED IN THIS SECTION ARE
REACTIVE DYES and VAT DYES for cotton DISPERSE DYES for polyester BASIC DYES for acrylic ACID DYES for wool DISP/REACT AND FOROSOL DYES FOR P/C blend
NAME OF MACHINE OBBDM NO OF MACHINES 4 NO OF BEAKERS IN MACHINE 1 having 6 beakers 3 having 14 beakers
d) Add soda according to shade depth in 3 installments at an interval of 5 min.5 Gpl Caustic .5% (Only For Red.0 .Of Salt (NaCl) 20gpl 40Gpl 50Gpl 60Gpl 70gpl 70 Gpl Conc.2.0 .1.0% 4.
SALT-SODA CONCENTRATION (DEPTH WISE)
Depth Of Shade Up To 0.
DYEING PROCEDURE (FOR REACTIVE HE DYES)
From step (a) to (d) same as for VS dyes. f) Drain the beaker and wash the sample properly with fresh water and give after treatment.4. Of Soda (Na2co3) 10 Gpl 12 Gpl 15 Gpl 18 Gpl 20 Gpl Soda .0% 2. Navy & Black) Conc .3 Gpl
.5% Above 6. e) Now run the m/c for 50 min. (e) Run the m/c for 50 win at 800c (f) Same as for VS dyes. c) Run for 15 min. At 600c.
b) Add salt according to concentration of shade in 3 installments at an interval of 5 min.6.5% Above 6.75% 0.75 .12
DYEING PROCEDURE (FOR REACTIVE VS DYES)
a) Start dyeing at 400 c and run the m/c for 15 min.
b) Keep it in oven till dry.5 g/l Temp.600c Time -5’ M:L R -1:15 b) Cold wash with fresh water for 5 min. .0 g/l Temp.
Now check the sample (dyed) for shade & levelness in mentioned light source.13
AFTER TREATMENT (FOR VS & HE DYES)
a) Neutral with Acetic Acid .
. -900c Time -5’ M:L R -1:15 d) Hot wash for 5 min.5.1. c) Soaping with Wetter 28 .
a) Hydro the sample.
0 gpl Solopol PES – 0. 2 Raise the temperature up to 1350c with heating gradient 20c/min.
b) Run the m/c for 30 win.e.5 gpl
Now add water to make final volume 90 ml (1:18 M:L R) 1 Run the m/c at 500c for 15 min. 4 Cool the m/c up to 800c with full cooling gradient.
a) Start dyeing at 500c and raise temp to 900c in full steam. 5 Run for next 20 min.5 gpl Ammonium Sulphate – 0. Lycol RDNI – 0. c) Cool the m/c up to 800c with full cooling gradient. 1:18 M:L R).14
DYEING PROCEDURE (DISPERSE DYES)
After pippetting of colour load the lea in beaker and add water to make the final volume (including chemical) 90 ml (i. 6 Drain the beaker and wash properly with fresh water. 7 Hydro the sample and keep it in oven for drying.0 gpl Ammonium Sulphate – 0.
DYEING PROCEDURE (FOROSOL DYES)
0 After pippetting dye solution add chemicals. e) Hydro the sample and keep it in oven for drying. 3 Run the m/c for 30 win.0 gpl Salt – 4.5 gpl Acetic Acid – 0. Chemicals to be added – Solopol PES – 1. d) Drain the beaker and wash the sample properly.5 gpl Acetic acid – 1.
1. • Dip the sample for 5 min.4
. • Let the solution be cool up to 400c. Carbonizing Procedure Make 100 ml solution with 70% H2SO4 & 20% water. • Neutralize the sample • Now check the shade of polyester part.15
Carbonize the sample & check shade. • Take out the sample carefully from solution and wash with cold water.
Dye solution circulates in-out through the package. (HISAKA). which helps in minimizing the problems of the bulk production.
MAKE OF MACHINE HISAKA FONG’S DALAL TOTAL NO OF MACHINES NO OF MACHINES 7 2 2 11
DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPDM AND THEIR WORKING
DYEING TANK This is the main part of the machine situated at the center of the machine. The desired shade of the order above 250 kg is produced in this section on a single package. It is cylindrical in shape having the liquor capacity of 12 ltrs.
The objective of the SPDM (single package dyeing machine) section is to dye the single package for the purpose of bulk production as well as to produce the development shade. For this purpose single package dyeing machines are used. It contains a spindle at the center where package is placed. It contains the heating coils at the bottom. is followed in bulk. which is followed in SPDM. The procedure. Steam is passed through the coils for heating the liquor.
The maximum air pressure in the HISAKA machines is 6kg/sq.cm.17
ADDITION TANK An addition tank is situated near the main dye tank. WATER OUTLET VALVE This is called the drain valve. It Sucks and delivers the liquor through the cheese. STEAM INLET AND OUTLET VALVE Steam comes from the boiler for the purpose of heating the liquor. A cold water pipe is connected to this steam valve for the purpose of cooling. All the dyes and chemicals can be fed to the main dye tank through this tank with the help of the feeding system. It performs the function of coldwater inlet in the tank.
1. It comes through the steam inlet valve and goes out from outlet valve. With the help of drain valve all the liquor is drained after use.5
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CELL (PDC)
. WATER INLET VALVE One water inlet valve is attached at the bottom of the machine. SUCTION PUMP Suction pump is situated at the center bottom of the machine. AIR PRESSURE VALVE After closing the main tank air pressure valve generates the required pressure for the dyeing.
This section studies various parameters and reasons related to that problem. For example to get the shade right first time (RFT) all the parameters related to the process are studied and controlled. TO INTRODUCE NEW DYES AND CHEMICALS If new dye or the chemical is to be introduced in the process then testing of that sample is done in this section. If the results are satisfactory then that dye or chemical is introduced in to the process. For example the latest
. The testing is done through OBBDM section or if necessary through SPDM section. Mostly the complaint arises related to the quality of the substrate and necessary steps are taken to solve that problem for the complete satisfaction of the customer.
TO INTRODUCE NEW DEVELOPMENTS New development related to process.18
This is the section where all the new developments related to process and materials are done and all the old processes are controlled if any problem occurs.
THE MAIN OBJECTIVE S OF THE PDC SECTION IS
TO DEAL WITH PROBLEMS IN DYIENG If any problem in the bulk or lab occurs related to dyeing then it is deled by the PDC cell and controlled by this section by controlling and studying all the related parameters of dyeing. TO DEAL WITH COMPLAINTS If there is any complaint by the customer then that complaint is deled by the PDC cell. shade or the materials are done in this department.
which helps in higher productivity and lower dyeing cost.6
WEAVING SECTION-SHIRTING CELL
. polyester/nylon and acrylic /cotton etc.19
developments are the development of the dyeing process of different blends like wool/cotton. acrylic/wool/nylon. TO DEVELOP VARIOUS METHODS OF COST AND TIME SAVINGS Various methods of cost and time savings are introduced by this department by studying thoroughly the related process.
1. wool/nylon. TO INTRODUCE THE NEW WORK PRACTICES The PDC section introduces the new method of doing the work so that it could be feasible and comparatively easier for the worker to do that work.
MAKING OF DESK-LOOM AT AURO WEAVING
Produce desk-loom as per required design and construction. Light source. which contains: Standards of the fabric. Count and construction
2. Party. Required dye class. Shade numbers against each shade.
. SHADE DEVELOPMENT
Development of each shade in 50 Gms on AHIBA TURBOMAT machine as per requirement.
The different work practices carried out in the weaving section are -:
1. Sent to AURO WEAVING after matching with standards.
3. Primary and secondary. get the desk-loom request from the AURO WEAVING.DESK-LOOM REQUEST FROM AURO WEAVING
Weaving section in the very first step. Sent to AURO TEXTILE for processing.
The objective of the weaving section is to produce the dyed yarn of required shade and dye class.
ISSUING OF ORDER
The bulk order is issued from the AURO WEAVING to the AURO DYEING required by the party. QUALITY CHECKING
After bulk production quality of the yarn is checked. After matching the decision is taken to remake the desk-loom or to send to the party.
6. Sometimes the party demands for the yardage (15 meters to 100 meters) to check the feel and finish of the quality of the fabric and bulk order is given after the approval of yardage. checking yarn is sent to A/W for fabric production. Then party gives the order for the production in bulk if approved by the party. After recipe confirmation it is sent to shop floor for the bulk production.
Processing is done as per dye class and count and then matching with standards is done. SEND TO A/W FOR FABRIC PRODUCTION
9. SEND TO PARTY FOR APPROVAL
After approval of the desk-loom it is sent to the party. CONFIRMATION OF RECIPE
Recipe is confirmed by producing the shade on the SPDM by producing the 1 kg lot on SPDM.
They also keep a control over the orders by daily monitoring at each stage of SPDM. and each office has been assigned a maximum limit i. dyes and also upon the urgency of the order placed. The particular order of a buyer is completed depending upon the availability of the grey yarn. Schedule Making 2.
Monitoring: The PPC cell also has to keep a check
on the status of the orders being processed and also the stage at which they are.e. This department has to decide the date for the dyeing of the particular lot in the bulk The main functions of this department are: 1. Monitoring 3. the amount of order /day to be processed.22
2. It also monitors whether the order or the lab dip for shade confirmation has been dispatched on time and if not the reasons for the same. Thus based on these parameters a plan for the procurement of the required grey material is also prepared.
PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL
The main objective of this department is to execute the orders placed to the organization by effective scheduling. Dispo Making
Schedule Making: In this a schedule is made for
the orders placed by the branch offices in Delhi. Ludhiana etc.
. dyeing and dispatch. Tirupur. Mumbai. Based on this allocation a schedule is made.
Macro planning is done once a week and deals mainly with the lots to be processed in the coming week.23
Dispo Making: This includes the preparation and
execution of the disposition sheet. The planning done is mainly of two types micro planning and macro planning. This sheet also keeps a record of the pending quantity of the order and at what stage. Micro planning in done every day for the next three days and gives much more accurate details of the machine allocation. It is much easier to make changes in the micro planning than macro.
PROCESS FLOW IN YARN DYEING
YARN IN CHEESE FORM ↓ PRE WINDING ↓ DYEING ↓ DRYING ↓ QUALITY CHECKING ↓ POST WINDING ↓ CODITIONING ↓ PACKING ↓ DISPATCH
The grey yarn is supplied to AURO Dyeing from the following units: 100% Cotton yarn → AURO Spinning Mills → Vardhman Polytex Ltd.S.S.S. → V.M.G. → Arisht spinning Mills → AURO Spinning Mills Acrylic/Cotton blend → V.
.G.M. → OSWAL Cotton spinning Mills → Arisht spinning Mills → Arihant Spinning Mills Polyester/Cotton blend → V.M.(100% EOU) → V. → Arihant Spinning Mills → Vardhman Polytex Ltd.25
The objective of the Pre Winding section is to convert the cone into soft package form for the purpose of dyeing.M.S.G.G.
NAME DRUMS S SPEED (m/min) WINDING DIA.DIA. OF DRUM PACKAGE DENSITY POWER (kw) MAKE NO OF M/C’S
KAMITSU 60 440 RANDOM 185 mm 0. – 70 mm
. These polypropylene cheeses contain the perforations from which the dye liquor circulates through the yarn with an inside to outside flow. DIA.329 3.364 – 0.8 JAPAN 2
PSM 120 480 RANDOM 198 mm 0. CHEESE SPESIFICATIONS WEIGHT – 130-135 gms LENGTH – 156 mm EX.329 4.405
ZURICH (SZD) 9
These machines are used to convert the cones into soft packages by winding the yarn on polypropylene cheeses. – 79 mm INT.5 GUJRAT 4
SSM 45 1100 PRECISION
. . . . .. . ... .405 .364-0.. Wt.... (Gm) 1500 1400 1300 1200 1500 1400 1300 1200 1500 1400 1300 1200 1500 1400 1300 1200 1500 1400 1300 1200 1500 1400 1300 1200 Count Net Wt. .. . . . .. 1200 Gm –1500 Gm)
STANDARD PARAMETER FOR SSM (For Cotton.. . .. .. . .. ......No Pkg. Range (Gm) 1475-1525 1375-1425 1275-1325 1175-1225 1475-1525 1375-1425 1275-1325 1175-1225 1475-1525 1375-1425 1275-1325 1175-1225 1475-1525 1375-1425 1275-1325 1175-1225 1475-1525 1375-1425 1275-1325 1175-1225 1475-1525 1375-1425 1275-1325 1175-1225 Dia -Range (mm) 195-201 191-197 182-188 176-182 195-201 191-197 182-188 176-182 195-201 191-197 182-188 176-182 195-201 191-197 182-188 176-182 195-201 191-197 182-188 176-182 195-201 191-197 182-188 176-182 Travers e (mm) 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 Density (Gm/Cc) 0.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
20 CBD 20 CBD 20 CBD 20 CBD 24 CBD 24 CBD 24 CBD 24 CBD 30 CBD 30 CBD 30 CBD 30 CBD 40 CBD 40 CBD 40 CBD 40 CBD 50 CBD 50 CBD 50 CBD 50 CBD 60 CBD 60 CBD 60 CBD 60 CBD
... Package Wt... . .
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Count 20 CBD H 20 BRD H 24 CBD H 25 DRD 30 CBD H 40 BRD 20 P/C 30 P/C 40 P/C 34 BRD 30 BRD 20 WARP Sign Double circle Double circle Single circle Single circle Single circle Single circle Single circle Double circle Double circle Single circle Single circle Single circle Colour BLUE YELLOW PINK YELLOW YELLOW VIOLET BLUE VIOLET PINK BLUE PINK VIOLET Side (Pkg) SINGLE SINGLE BOTH SINGLE BOTH BOTH BOTH SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE SINGLE
STANDARD PARAMETERS FOR KAMITSU & PSM
SR...WT COUNT NO.32 .34-0. ...30-0.. 150 –151 150-153 .32 0.(gm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 CBD 24 CBD 30 CBD 60 CBD 40 CBD 20 P/C 30 P/C 40 P/C 20 wp 30 wp 1200 GM 1200 GM 1200 GM 1050 GM 1200 GM 1200 GM 1200 GM 1200 GM 1200 GM 1200 GM
DIA.. ... ( m/m ) 195-200 195-200 195-200 195-200 195-200 188-193 188-193 188-193 195-200 195-200
TRAVERSE (m/m) 150-153 .35 .
DENSITY (gm/cc) 0. PKG .30-0..35 0.. .. 0. .32 0. .
YARN DYEING SECTION
. . .34-0. 0.28
# TENSION WT.30-0. (3 gm) 1-2 1 2 NIL NIL 1 NIL NIL 1 NIL
The packages are loaded into the carrier situated into the machine where into-out flow is used to dye the package. For this purpose HTHP package dyeing machines are used.
MAKE OF MACHINE HISAKA FONG’S POZZI HARA DALAL TOTAL NO OF MACHINES 1 2 21 No OF MACHINES 7 6 5
DIFFERENT PARTS AND WORKING OF YARN DYEING MACHINE
MAIN DYE VESSEL
The objective of the yarn dyeing is to dye the grey yarn in package form.
The dye tank contains heating coils lying at the bottom of the machine. OVER FLOW VALVE The function of the overflow valve is to overflow the liquor in the main dyeing tank whenever required. Similar to the addition tank it also contains the mixer and three electromagnetic coils. DOZING PUMP Dozing pump dozes the dye or chemical at a fixed rate to the main dyeing tank. DESSOLVING TANK A Dissolving tank is also situated near the main dyeing vessel to dissolve the dye. It contains a mixer to dissolve the chemicals and three electromagnetic sensors to sense the water level in the tank. The cheeses are loaded on to the spindles and dyeing is carried out using into-out flow of the dye liquor. MAIN CIRCULATING PUMP The main circulating pump performs the function of circulating the dye liquor with into-out flow from the package. All the additions of the chemicals are done through this tank. Steam is used to heat he liquor in the tank. Addition of the dye liquor is done through this tank to the main dye vessel. THROTTLE VALVE
Yarn dyeing machine contains the main dye vessel in which the spindles are loaded. ADDITION TANK With the main dyeing tank addition tank is situated.
Throttle valve controls the flow of the dye liquor by changing the position of the valve and helps in the constant flow rate of the dye liquor through the package. If the pressure inside the vessel exceeds this value then excess pressure is released by the safety valve. FOUR -WAY COCK It performs the function to change the liquor flow from insideout to outside-in and vice-versa. WATER INLET VALVE The hot and cold water is filled in the main dyeing tank and in the addition and dissolving tank with the help of water inlet valve. SAFETY VALVE Maximum pressure in the machine is kept to be 4 kg/sq cm. The pressure of the inlet steam is kept to be 6 kg/sq. STEAM INLET The supply of the steam to the heat exchangers is done through the steam inlet system. Steam is passed through the heat exchangers for the heating. It is situated with a cooling pipe also for the cooling purpose. STEAM TRAP It performs the function of separating the condensate from the steam.
.cm. HEAT EXCHANGER Heat exchangers are situated at the bottom of the tank to heat the liquor.
DYEING TANK PRESSURE pressure inside dyeing tank after lid is closed. 4. PUMP SUCTION generates pressure during suction of liquor by the pump.
. PRESSURE GAUGE It contains four operating systems: 1. LEVEL GAUGE It consists of a glass tube with a scale alongside it. 2.32
AIR PRESSURE VALVE Air pressure valve increases the pressure after lid is closed and decreases the pressure before opening of the lid. 3. IN DYE PRESSURE pressure of liquor after passing from throttle valve. PUMP DELIVERY generates pressure during delivery of liquor by the pump. The level inside the tube indicates the level of water inside the vessel.
33 3` 8` 3` 7` 4200
300 2’ 2` 45” 2` 3`30” 6` 8` 50 46.30” 1050
666 2’ 3`15” 2` 3`30” 6` 9` 50 46.OF PUMPS PUMP DISCHARGE (m3/min) NO.30” 50 47. substrate.79 3` 3`30” 3` 3`30” 4662
PROGRAMMER a) In programmer we feed the progm.0 2.25 3.5 kg /PKG (kg) WATER FILLING TIME LOW TEMP.0 2.0 2. Panel of the programmer according to the given ptn.61 3` 3` 3` 2`40” 4662
666 2’ 4` 2` 3`30” 6` 8` 50 47 3. ( lts)
LLC400/180 FUJI/PVH MITSUBISHI 55 KW 3
LLC-200/114 FUJI/R/H MITSUBISHI 37 KW 3
LLC-200/114 FUJI/PVH MITSUBISHI 37 KW 3
LLC-100/90 FUJI/PVH MITSUBISHI 18. with the help of deft keys on the temp.25 3. / PARAMETER
MODEL PROGRAMMER PLC PUMP POWER NO.0 2. PTNS for diff.45 3.75 3` 2`30” 3` 3`30” 2100
300 2’ 2` 40” 2` 3`45” 6` 9` 50 46.45 3.50” 6` 4.
. and PTN no. DRAIN HIGH TEMP DRAIN HOT WATER TEMP (°C) MAX. OF .70 3.30” 3` 3.0 2. type of dyes etc.PKG LOT SIZE ON 1.0 2.33
M/C No. shades. HEATING RATE (°C/min) INJECTION FROM D/T INJECTION FROM A/T VOL.56 3` 2`30” 3` 3`30” 2100
150 2’ 2`15” 2` 2.5 KW 3
LLC-444-150 FUJI/PVH MITSUBISHI 75 KW 3
MITSUBISHI 75 KW 3
675 2’ 2` 45” 2` 3`30” 6` 8` 50 47. b) There are diff.57 3` 3.
PTN. • In case addition the lots size the amount of lot has to be adjusted in this at the time cheese loading use blind bobbin (the pipe of the same size as the bobbin) instead of cheese and use the blend pipe
. wt. On each spindle 5 – 12 cheese can be loaded. e) Place spacer between two pkgs in case of noninterfixing cheese and in full bleach. density ribbon on pkgs and deposition of fly.. by checking pkg. e) The PTN can be changed only while the programmer operation is reset. Extremely soft and hard cheese will cause difference in flow rate of liquor. which results in cheese-tocheese shade variation d) Coning should be done is case of PSM and Kamitsu pkgs. a) Before loading of material on carrier. traverse. Here the entire carriers are bottom type cheese carrier. And the operation starts according to progm.34
c) For running the progm. c) Check pkgs for uniform winding. d) The programmer of the m/c senses the PLC (programmable logic control) and PLC operator and control the value acc.. dia. b) Check quality of pkg. Enter the progm PTN no. f) Use proper & cleaned lock and lock plate depending upon the shades. The spindles are arranged on lower manifold. check colour staining on carrier. to information / command given by the programmer. Cheeses are loaded on to carrier.
THE DIFFERENT OPERATIONS DURING DYEING ARE :Loading:
The yarn dyeing process is performed in cheese form.
c) Make sure that the cooling water to the pump and run the ptn. i) Descend slowly the carrier and place the carrier on the carrier receiving taper. h) Lift the carrier by hoist and load it in dyg tank. and the right and left vices are in become in perfect engagement. light shade and med. Open the pkgs lighting valve.35
(the pipe is set on the whole of the spindle) in case whole spindle (one or more) has not to be loaded. release valve. Close the cover and turn the cover opening–closing handle till the complete engagement between vice. and air inlet valve.
. b) Close the dyg. After closing the lid make sure that dyg tank lid is completely closed and turn the select switch of the safety device on the control panel in closed position. so that water can be sucked from the upper end of the carrier. j) Disengage the hanging fixer and set the carrier at carrier receiving taper. shades. •When m/c is to run turn the switch on the control panel on normal side from auto side • In case out-in flow direction the liquid level should be at the upper end of the carrier. g) Before loading the dyg tank with carrier check the colour staining in case of full bleach lots. tank with lid and lock the tank in following sequence: Close the lighting valve.
a) Check PTN which is to be run. k) Disengage the hanging fixer and set the carrier at carrier receiver .
sheet. Alkali dosing should be done according to specified dosing ptn. f) Reactive dyes should dissolve at 45 °C for 15-20 min at 60 °C g) Vat dyes should dissolve at 45 °C for 15-20 min. a) Before weighing colour. mentioned on the ptn. about 50 ml should be weighed on a balance of 300 gms. h) Sulphur black dye should be dissolved at 88 °C for 1520 min. Now calculate flow rate of the liquid (lt/kg/min)
. b) Colour weigh should be done accurately in front of m/c man. k) Alkali should be predessolved for 10–15 min. Tank and find out the total head. Total head = delivery pressure – suction pressure Now from the head & discharge (pump) graph i.e. d) Colour above 2 kg should be weighed on 5 kg balance. c) Colour for light shade i.36
Salt and Alkali Preparation:
Take the recipe from shift office and crosscheck it again.e pump performance out the pump discharge. more than 40°C should be dissolved in dissolving tank for level dyg. j) Alkali should be checked before feeding colour. e) Colour above 2 kg should be weight on 60 kg balance. • The dyestuff and other agents having dissolving temp. check all electronic balances on daily basis against std. i) Channeling should be checked before feeding colour. wt.
Feed dyes and other agents only after dissolving completely in the required tank (Dissolving / Additional) Check suction pressure and delivery pressure in dyg.
b) Close the packing this tightening value. of material More or less flow rate may cause even dyg. open the air purge valve and remove the press. the shade collapse may occur. so the flow direction must be limited to the inside to out side in such case. the flow should be changed from in-out to out-in in little intervals. caused by the out side to in side flow. c) Open the release value.out direction only.37
Flow rate = pump discharge * 1000 ( lt/kg/min) Wt.
Opening the cover:
Make sure that the liquid temp. 1 Open air bent valve and make sure that the tank internal pressure has reached 0( zero) on pressure gauge. a) Open the over flow valve and water feed valve and start the operation then the fresh water is supplied and dirty water is over flowed . should be carried out in the inside to out side direction but in case uneven dyg is expected in cheese with the in. or air on the lots. * It is dangerous to heat up the empty tank & under any condition pump should not be operated without water. a) Make sure that the pump is stopped completely. d) Turn the handle to open the vice and to disengage the dune. tank is less than 80°C.
Water washing :
When the liquor temp becomes below 80 °C. in the dyg. Generally dyg. e) Open the cover.
. In case of acrylic material wool or softly wound yarn.
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS NAME MAKE MAX.38
After dyeing of the yarn in cheese form the wet packages are brought to the drying section for the purpose of drying.1
Passing the hot air through the packages dries the wet packages on the rapid dryer and then conditioning is done by passing the cool air to keep a constant moisture content of the yarn. Drying of the packages is done in two ways: RAPID DRYER RF DRYER
6.CAPACITY MOTOR POWER RAPID DRYER 1 HISAKA 800 Kg 120 kw RAPID DRYER 2 HISAKA 800 Kg 120 kw
MAIN PARTS OF RAPID DRYER AND WORKING
Main vessel has a lid at the top of it. sent by the blower. In the main vessel hot air is circulated through the package with into out flow. BLOWER The function of the blower is to suck the dry air separated from the mist separator and blow towards the heater. It is connected to the outlet of the mist separator. Heater is connected to the outlet of the blower. HEATER The function of the heater is to heat the dry air at the required temperature. LIP SEALING RING The function of the lip-sealing ring is to close the vessel with the help of air pressure.
The different operations of the machine are: -
. Pressure is generated in the vessel after closing the lid.39
The packages loaded onto the spindles are placed in the main vessel. COOLER Cooler performs the function of to decrease the temperature of the moist air coming out of the vessel. MIST SEPERATOR Mist separator separates the moisture and dust from the moist air with the help of filtration.
DRYING When hot air is sent through the package with in to out flow the moisture present in the yarn gets vaporized and drying takes place. 4.
• It uses the direct heating method of the capacitor type.40
1. WET ADJUSTMENT Cool air is sent through the package with out to in direction to distribute the moisture evenly through the package. 2. DEHYDRATION When hot air is passed through the package with out to in direction the water gets extracted from the package.
. 3. PRESSURE REDUCTION Pressure is reduced into the machine after the operation is over and then lid is opened. 5. PRESSURE RISING The pressure of the machine rises after closing of the lid and when the blower starts operating.
the keep changing their orientation due to the high frequency of the applied voltage—this generates heat and eventually raises the temp.41
• Operation mechanism:Radio frequency rays are generated at 10000. They suck the clean air (1100cfm) heat it up by the heaters. Since water molecules act as dipoles.
Function of filters: Two filters are situated on the machine.11000 dc volts and frequency 27. b) Electrode distance – can be varied between 260mm to 460mm. all the polar molecules inside this field are affected.1 = 93. Main machine parts: a) Oscillator and R/F generation region b) Electrodes c) Conveyer d) Water cooling unit e) Exhaust fans f) Filter g) Heater unit.5 L of moisture per hour.12+ 0.6 Mg Hz these establish a field between the top and bottom electrodes.
Machine settings: -
a) Conveyer belt speed can be varied from 3m/hr. to 30 m/hr. This hot air aids in the removal of steam from the packages.
. which is sucked out with the aid of hot air blowing from the bottom. • Conveyer belt speed calculations: At a power of 85Kw the machine evaporates 85 X 1. To boil at which moisture is converted to steam.
packages per hour
Package weight X N X conveyer speed (kg per hour) Taking the value of conveyor speed as calculated above:Production = package weight X 93.7 to 5) = 27 to 30 Let M be the amount of moisture required to remove from the package the speed of belt should be:93.5 M Now M is function of a) rpm at hydro.e combed or carded) f) Surrounding atmospheric conditions Kg/hr. b) Time at hydro.e 6 X ( 4.
To run different packages (differing in moisture content) at the same speed:93. N XM
Production rates :N X conveyer speed Or .5 m/hr.5 should be constant. c) Package weight d) Yarn count e) Material type(i.
1 m length of belt accommodates N packages i.
5 amperes (when the conveyor is completely loaded). And then stop the pump and fan. To halt the machine stop the R/F .43
nXm or i. To start the R/F rays. At the distribution board switch on the pump and fan required for cooling before switching on the R/F drier. The anode current should not exceed 12.e.can be controlled by varying the space between the packages (manually) m.can be varied by adjusting the hydro rpm & time. For bleached yarns allow 5mm more electrode settings and run at greater speed to avoid over drying. since they might effect the capacitance of the system.constant n1 X m1 = n2 X m2 = n3 X m3 =
n. It is recommended to clean the machine twice a week with air pressure. wait for 5 mins. …………………… nXm .
Precautions and safety measures : There should not be any dust particles between the electrode region . Do not clean the machine while it is in operation as it sucks in air at 220 cfm Not to leave materials inside for a prolonged time interval Do not feed in material without centrifuging. and wait for another 5 mins. if it does adjust the electrode settings.
to bring this value down to an acceptable limit (45% .
CONTROL PANEL :Tim e SET Rpm display
rpm1 & rpm2 selector
manual up & down
.(4 L capacity) Centrifuge motor=7.55% to be used on the R/F drier) hydro extractor is employed. b> 2 centrifuges having separate motors. c>centering unit. The factors. and due to inertia factors the moisture/water particles separate from the cheese. Construction:a>4 carriers each having a capacity of 12 spools/cheese.E.Yarn winded in the from of cheese are loaded in the centrifuge which provides the centrifugal force. removed from the cheese are i> angular velocity of the centrifuge & ii> the time interval at which the cheese are rotated.5 Kw Machine settings:Rpm0 to 1500 Time0 to 8 mins.44
T. d>hydraulic system to lift the covers.
After emerging from the dyeing chamber the dyed yarns have moisture content of around 120% to 170% . which determine the quantity of moisture/water. Principle and working:The hydro extractor works on the principle of centrifugal force and inertia.
To stop the machine in case of emergency press the lower left red colored button. Set the rpm & time values. Mount the packages/cheese on the carriers. Manually put down the covers.
7. To halt the cycles again press the green button. Press the green colored start/stop cycle button & the machine will operate in the auto mode.45
PROCEDURE TO START THE MACHINE:Set the main switch to position 1 Manually lift the covers.
8. Wax is applied by wax roller. Taper angle is provided to cones. First of all vacuum is created which lowers the boiling
. AUTOCONER has greater speed as compared to SSM. Spindles are used in place of cradle. To achieve this uniformity conditioning is done. Electronic measuring gauge is present in AUTOCONER. Drum diameter is reduced. Number of PSM machines-10 Number of AUTOCONER-2 Number of MECHCONER-1 The same PSM machines are used in post winding as that in pre winding with some differences.
Uniformity of moisture in yarn may suffer due to dyeing and drying treatments. Speed of machine is increased to 500 m/min.46
The objective of the post winding section is to convert the dyed packages into the cone.
PRINCIPLE: .It is based on principle of condensation of
steam. DIFFERTENCE BETWEEN PSM AND AUTOCONER Spindle is provided in AUTOCONER not in SSM.
AMOTO ENGG.5100mm .5 Ton
PROCESS TIME: .
SEIGER CONDITIONING PLANT MAKE: . Following parameters are mentioned on carton. Secondary advantage of YCP is weight gain by yarn due to condensation of steam.75min SPECIFICATIONS: Diameter of shell Height of shell Length of shell Weight gain .
After conditioning material is dispatched in cartons.2200mm .PVT.8%
9.LTD. CONTROLLER: -SIEMENS
0 60 S4 -500 0 S5 -10 0 S6
PRESSURE -680 -680 -100 TEMPRATURE 55 60 55 S1 S2 S3
point of water to 55*c resulting in generation of steam which condense on yarn.
MILL: SUBSTRATE: COUNT: SHADE N0.OF CONES: DATE: NET WT. LOT N0: N0.: GROSS WT.5”x13. capacity 40kg) for
10. capacity 25 kg) for minicones(max.: The size of the cartoon can be: • • • • 24”x24”x21” : 23”x23”x21” : 16”x16”x14” : 32”x26. capacity 45kg) 20 cones(max.
PROCESS FLOW FOR FIBRE DYEING STAMPING PRESSING DYEING
. capacity 10kg) : 40 cones(max.75” export 25-27 cones(max.
STAMPING AND PRESSING
Objective of the stamping is to load and stamp the fibre of required density. PET. ACRYLIC FIBER TOW WASHING RANGE DRYER HYDROEXTRACTOR DRYING BREAKER BAILING MACHINE PARAGON. into the carrier for the purpose of dyeing.49
HYDOREXTRACTOR CAKE UNLOADING COTTON. HARMONY. WORKING
. RANGOLI RAINBOW HARMONY AURO Spng RANGOLI VSGM ARIHANT ACRYLIC ALEA SEYDEL RE BALING DAFFODIL VSGM
The material is fed into the feed lattice.54 gm/ cm2 NO OF MACHINES
3 2 5
HEIGHT OF FIBRE IN CARRIER FOR REQUIRED DENSITY:
POLYESTER (P-0. Pressing machine works on the principle of hydraulic pressure.32 gm/cm2 -. INDIA & OSCAR JAPAN TOTAL MACHINES STANDARD DENSITY: For cotton For polyester Pashupati tow Val tow – 0. Hot water feeding system attached in the swing material helps in wetting of the fiber and proper loading. Stamping road stamp the fibre in the carrier with its constant up and down movement.59 gm/ cm2 -. which press the material at the effective height for the required density of the substrate. From feed lattice the material goes to the swing feeder.0.56gm/ cm2 -.0. After stamping the dummy is placed on to the carrier and then taken for the pressing on the pressing machine.
NAME OF MACHINE MAKE OF MACHINE STAMPING OSCAR JAPAN PRESSING MAKK Engg. Swing feeder place the material on the carrier with the uniform movement.32 gm/cm2) PRESS HEIGHT (cm) AS PER SCALE ON PRESSING M/C 138
.59 gm/cm2) LOT SIZE (kg) 650 EFFECTIVE HEIGHT 128 PRESSING WT (cm) AS PER SCALE ON PRESSING 138 LOT SIZE (kg) 350 COTTON EFFECTIVE HEIGHT 128 (P-0.
.. . .. ... ..
117 108 99 90 81 72 63 ... . For this purpose fibre dyeing HTHP machines are used..51
625 600 575 550 525 500 475 450 425 400 375 300
122 118 113 108 103 98 93 88 83 78 73 69
138 132 128 123 118 113 108 103 98 93 88 83
325 300 275 250 225 200 175 ..
127 118 109 100 91 82 63 .. ... Principle of the fiber dyeing machines is same as that of yarn dyeing
. . .. . . .
The objective of the fiber dyeing is to dye the fiber loaded in the carrier at the stage of stamping and pressing. ..
The cheeses are loaded on to the spindles and dyeing is carried out using into-out flow of the dye liquor. In to out flow of the liquor is used to dye the fiber in the machine.
MACHINE MAKE Capacit y Leters Capacit y Kgs Pump Power
Dia of vessel
FD-1 FD-2 FD-3 FD-4 FD-5 FD-6 FD-7 FD-8
HISAKA HISAKA HISAKA HISAKA HISAKA HISAKA HISAKA HISAKA
2400 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
350 650 650 650 650 650 650 650
37 45 45 45 45 45 45 45
1200 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400
DIFFERENT PARTS AND WORKING OF FIBER DYEING MACHINE
MAIN DYE VESSEL
Yarn dyeing machine contains the main dye vessel in which the spindles are loaded.52
machines. The dye tank contains heating coils lying at the
bottom of the machine. Similar to the addition tank it also contains the mixer and three electromagnetic coils. It contains a mixer to dissolve the chemicals and three electromagnetic sensors to sense the water level in the tank. MAIN CIRCULATING PUMP The main circulating pump performs the function of circulating the dye liquor with into-out flow from the package. ADDITION TANK With the main dyeing tank addition tank is situated. All the additions of the chemicals are done through this tank. DISSOLVING TANK A Dissolving tank is also situated near the main dyeing vessel to dissolve the dye. OVER FLOW VALVE The function of the overflow valve is to overflow the liquor in the main dyeing tank whenever required. Steam is used to heat he liquor in the tank. THROTTLE VALVE
. Addition of the dye liquor is done through this tank to the main dye vessel. DOZING PUMP Dozing pump dozes the dye or chemical at a fixed rate to the main dyeing tank.
The pressure of the inlet steam is kept to be 6 kg/sq.54
Throttle valve controls the flow of the dye liquor by changing the position of the valve and helps in the constant flow rate of the dye liquor through the package. Steam is passed through the heat exchangers for the heating.
STEAM TRAP It performs the function of separating the condensate from the steam. WATER INLET VALVE The hot and cold water is filled in the main dyeing tank and in the addition and dissolving tank with the help of water inlet valve. STEAM INLET The supply of the steam to the heat exchangers is done through the steam inlet system. SAFETY VALVE
.cm. It is situated with a cooling pipe also for the cooling purpose. HEAT EXCHANGER Heat exchangers are situated at the bottom of the tank to heat the liquor. FOUR -WAY COCK It performs the function to change the liquor flow from inside-out to outside-in and vice-versa.
Maximum pressure in the machine is kept to be 4 kg/sq cm. 6. 8. AIR PRESSURE VALVE Air pressure valve increases the pressure after lid is closed and decreases the pressure before opening of the lid.
The objective of the hydro extractor is to remove the excess water from the dyed fiber in the carrier. LEVEL GAUGE It consists of a glass tube with a scale alongside it. IN DYE PRESSURE is pressure of liquor after passing from throttle valve.
13. Hydro extractor
. PRESSURE GAUGE It contains four operating systems: 5. The level inside the tube indicates the level of water inside the vessel. PUMP SUCTION generates pressure during suction of liquor by the pump. If the pressure inside the vessel exceeds this value then excess pressure is released by the safety valve. PUMP DELIVERY generates pressure during delivery of liquor by the pump. 7. DYEING TANK PRESSURE is pressure inside dyeing tank after lid is closed.
14.5 min FOR ACRYLIC.56
works on the principle of centrifugal force. It is taken on the unloading machine where the carrier is reversed on the wooden plate and the cake is unloaded on it.
After dyeing and unloading the cotton and acrylic fibers are brought into the washing section for the purpose of washing. MOTOR RPM-1410 MAKE-TOYU JAPAN NO OF MACHINES.1 PROCESS TIME FOR COTTON.
. Carrier is rotated at a high speed in the machine and the excess water is removed from the carrier.
After hydro extractor the cake is unloaded from the carrier. FOR POLYESTER.3 min.
WASHING BOWL 1 This is the stage where scouring and washing of the fibers is done.57
Where soaping and washing of the fibers are taken out in four bowl washing range. The washing liquor temperature for the reactive dye is 60 ˚c and for sulphur dye is 45 ˚c. Cationic Fixer is also applied if required. SQUEEZING After scouring squeezing of the fibers is done with the help of squeeze rollers at a pressure of 3 kg per square cm. In case of reactive dyes wetting agent and soaping agent is used and in case of sulphur dyes hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid are also used for the oxidation. WASHING BOWL 2 After squeezing the fibers are taken to the second washing bowl where the fibers are washed at a temperature of 60˚ c with water. THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE WASHING SECTION ARE CAKE BREAKER After unloading the cake is first taken to the cake breaker section where the cake is broken and opened into tufts form. WASHING BOWL 3
. HOPPER LATTICE A constant and limited delivery of the fibers is sent to the next section with the help of the hopper lattice.
In the third bowl washing of the fibers is done with the cold water at a temperature of 30˚ c. WASHING BOWL 4 In the fourth bowl the cationic softener is applied to the fibers at a temperature of 45˚ c. HYDRO EXTRACTOR After a constant feed from the hopper lattice the excess water from the fibers is removed in hydro extractor, which works on the principle of centrifugal force. DRYING RANGE After a constant feed from the hopper lattice the fibers for the complete drying are taken to the drying section where the fibers are dried at three different drying chambers. These three chambers consist of the 6 drum dryer range with a temperature of 120˚c, 120˚c and 110˚c respectively. SOOT POINT After drying the fibers are passed through the conveyor to the soot point and sent for packing.
The objective of the ALEA DRYER is to open the acrylic tow after dyeing, with air pressure and dry it with hot air circulation. THE THREE MAIN SECTIONS OF THE ALEA DRYER ARE -: 1. ANTISTATIC APPLICATION In this section the antistatic is applied to the acrylic tow to reduce the static charge on the fibers. The antistatic finish from Vaptex is applied on to the fibers with the help of the kiss roll system on both sides of the fibers. The speed of the fibers is generally 5 kg per minute. 2. OPENING SECTION In this section the opening of the fibers is done with them help of air pressure. The fibers are passed through a vertical air chamber. In this chamber air is blown through the fibers at a pressure of 1.5 kg per square cm to 1.6 kg per square cm. Due to the air pressure the tow is changed into the open strand of fibers with a greater volume. 3. DRYING SECTION In this section the drying of the opened tow is done with circulating the hot air through the fibers. The fibers are passed through two drying chambers on a lattice where the temperature of hot air is 100˚c and 95˚c. respectively.
17. SEYDEL SECTION
(SEYDEL-870 STRETCH BREAK CONVERTER)
The objective of the Seydel section is to convert the acrylic tow into sliver form with the principle of stretching, breaking and drafting. The material flow in the Seydel machine is in this way: FEEDING UNIT ↓ PREBREAKING ZONE ↓ PREBREAKING ZONE ↓ BREAKING ZONE ↓ REBREAKING ZONE ↓ SLIVER COMPACTOR ↓ CRIMPER BOX →
REGULAR HIGH BULK ↓ ↓ CSR ADAPTOR UNIT ↓ ↓ COOLING CONVEYER BELT CONVEYER BELT ↓ ↓ CAN CAN
2-22 30-60 ktex 15-25 % 60 kw
. After stretching crimp is provided to compensate the loss of crimp in previous process. 1 S type slivers.these types of fibers are non shrinkable in nature.these types of fibers are shrinkage active. MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS MACHINE DELIVERY SPEED TOW WEIGHT DRAW RATIO SLIVER WEIGHT SHRINKAGE POWER SEYDEL 870 240 m/min 120-220 ktex 2. Two types of slivers are formed in this section 0 N type slivers.61
Draft is provided separately in each zone to stretch and break fibers by engaging different gears.
DRAFTING ROLLERS To give the required draft to the slivers. SPECIFICATIONS MAKE-NSC (FRANCE) DELIVERY SPEED (REBREAKING)-250 m/min. o CREEL ROLL to give smooth passage. o CREEL GUIDE to guide the sliver. It consists of threeroll system in which one is top roll and two are the bottom rolls. MAIN PARTS FEED UNIT o CREEL for the feeding of sliver. max DELIVRY SPEED (BLENDING)-350 m/min PRESSURE CYLINDER DIAMETER-130 mm
. For this purpose the slivers are passed through creel to the drafting rollers.
OBJECTIVE The objective of the REBREAKER unit is to blend and draft the N type and S type slivers in the 50:50 ratio.62
drafting and Gilling with its combing unit and convert sliver into bump top. Machine works on the principle of hydraulic pressure. Eight bales of the weight 25 kg are pressed and packed together in this machine.63
19. It performs the function of blending. CHAIN GILL
It is assembled with REBREAKER.
19. MAKE OF MACHINE-MAK INDIA NO OF MACHINES-1
.1 BALE PRESS After making of bump top 8 bump tops are fed into bale press machine for making a bale of 200 kg apx.
The hardness of water should not be more than 5ppm and the T. : : : : : 10kg/cm2 1750C 5800C (i) 314 mt2 (ii) 451 mt2 8 per day
The water used in the boiler is first dealkalanised using hydrochloric acid (strength 33%). of Boilers Make Year of Manufacture : Capacity of Boiler (steam generated) Type of Boiler Type of Fuel Fuel Consumption Total Cost Of Fuel Cost of Steam Steam Pressure Temperature of steam Temperature of boiler Surface Area of tubes No. The suspended particular matter in the flue gases should not exceed 100mg/lit.000/day 40 paise/kg. of Workers : : : : : Water consumption : : : THREE : Thermax.S. BOILERS:
No. Fluid Pac (water in tube) 500m3/day Rice Husk/LPG 106 tonnes/day Rs.D. should be less then 300ppm. Chinchwad
1994 and 1998 (i) 8 ton/hr.70.
20. (ii) 12 ton/hr.1.
The overflow from here enters into Aeration Tank where diffused aeration system is used for aeration. which separates the floating matter. The effluent then enters to the Solid Contact Clarifier where limewater. The screened wastewater goes to Equalization Tank. and the fans attached
. The overflow of Solid Contact Clarifier enters to the pH correction tank (not in ETP1) where pH is maintained to 7.5. pickling acid (waste hydrochloric acid) and polyelectrolyte is added.0-7. All these chemicals are dosed into central draft tube.
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT
In this plant. level.65
21. The Aeration Tank also contains bacteria. This oil is removed with the help of slotted pipe mechanism. The effluent is pumped to Oil Removal Tank. effluent from all the departments of the unit is collected to remove the hazardous elements from the effluent so that it does not cause any pollution when it is disposed off.D.O. which shall maintain the B.
The raw water is received in the Bar Screen Chamber. which separates the oil from the effluent. Solid Contact Clarifier helps in reducing the color and the suspended solids from the effluent. coarse solids from the effluent.
level.A. BOD etc. has to be given to this tank to maintain the amount of bacteria (2500-3000 mg/lit). input water from all
the various sections of the unit is collected so that pH. A regular feed of urea and D.66
maintain the D.
Main components of ETP:
Tank: In this tank.O.
b) Oil Removal Trap: In this tank all the grease and oil (if
any) is removed from the water by a pipe that has a slit on the top from where oil layer is removed. of the water becomes constant.P.
Mixer: This tank is used for dozing of the
chemicals into the water. The excess sludge after removal of water in a Decanter with the help of polyelectrolyte will be transferred to the to the trolleys from where it is disposed off. The settled biomass in the Secondary Clarifier is returned partly to Aeration Tank to maintain the Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids in Aeration Tank. The water after treatment is either sent down the drain or used for irrigation in the nearby fields. The effluent from Aeration Tank flows into the Secondary Clarifier where the biomass settles at the bottom and clear effluent flows out.
i) Decanter: The main function of this part is to separate
the water from the sludge.-II Ion Exchange Limited.
Contact Clarifier: Here the water with the
chemicals is given ample time for reaction to take
Correction Tank: The pH of the output water
should be neutral not so the pH is corrected by the addition of the required reagent.-I Hindustan Doro Oliver
Clarifier: this tank is used for removing
the bacteria from the water and clear water flows out
h) Sludge Slump: The sludge collected from the clarifiers
is stored in the sludge slump from where it is sent to the decanter. of plants Capacity Make Limited.
Tank: Air is injected inside the water for
maintaining the required levels of DO.P. This is done with the help of fans or injecting compressed air in the water. : Two : 2500m3/day/plant : E.T.
3/litre (in case of pickling acid) Rs. AMOUNT USED 800 kg/day 10.O. (Dissolved Oxygen) Temperature Color INLET 2500m3/day 10-10.5/litre (in case of ferric chloride)
AMOUNT OF CHEMICAL USED AND THEIR FUNCTION CHEMICAL Lime Pickling Acid Polyelectroly te Urea and D. (Biological Oxygen Demand) C.A.000-12. (Total Suspended Solid) D.P.000ltr/day 15 kg/day Depends on Amount of Bacteria FUNCTION Maintain the required alkalinity Coagulating agent Flocculating agent Growth of Bacteria
WASTE WATER CHARACTERISTICS PARAMETERS Flow Rate PH B.O.0-7.5 650ppm 700-750ppm 300ppm 1ppm 40-500C Colored OUTLET -----7.5 32ppm 250ppm <100ppm 2-4ppm Ambient Colorless
Cost Of Treatment
: Rs. 5.3.S.D.O. (Chemical Oxygen Demand) T.D.
Difference in E.II Chemicals are added to Primary Clarifier There is a pH correction tank Compressed air is passed in the water.P.I and E.T. E.T.I Flash mixer is used to dose chemicals No pH correction tank Aeration Tank has fans for aeration.P.T.P.