Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design


Information and paperwork are the most abundant products generated by modern business. There are two reasons for the overwhelming information and paperwork: PEOPLE. People is the reason because a growing population generate a tremendous amount of data that needs to be entered, manipulated, processed, and output like medical files, school records, employment to name a few. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]


GOVERNMENT. The second reason is the increase of government regulation and controls. Computers, particularly, microcomputers are widely used to cope with this burgeoning paperwork. It fuels information based upon which large and small decisions are made. It is use to help management policy and make better decisions about employment, purchasing, and distribution patterns. The flow and availability of data has become indispensable vital element of almost every human enterprise. It requires planning, people, machines, and money. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Data vs. Information
D at a
Consist of raw facts concerning people, events, or other entities collected in vast quantities from both internal and external sources. Examples: employee’s name, number of hours worked

Types of Data:

1. Alphanumeric Data - numbers, letters and other characters 2. Audio Data - sound, noise, or tones 3. Image Data - graphical images or pictures 4.Video Data - moving images or pictures [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Data that has been process and presented in a form suitable for human interpretation and decision making. A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. Rules and relationship can be set-up to organized data into useful, valuable information. The type of information created depends upon the relationships defined between existing data. Adding new or different data means relationships can be redefined, and new information can be created. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Refers to turning data and information A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome Data Process Information

Process of transforming data into information The process of defining relationship between data and information requires knowledge. Knowledge – body of rules, guidelines and procedures used to select, organized, and manipulate data to make it suitable for specific task. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

can be depended on .important 7. RELIABLE . SIMPLE . COMPLETE . ACCURATE . TIMELY .information must not be costly to produce 4.contains all important facts 3.Characteristics of Valuable Information 1.can be used for a variety of purposes 5. VERIFIABLE . 6.can easily be checked to determine correctness. RELEVANT . 9.deliverable when needed. 1999] 7 . FLEXIBLE .reliability of information depends on the source of information. ECONOMICAL .error-free 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL.not overly complex causing information overload. 8.

Importance of Information Information has taken its place in organization as a major corporate resource. they rely on information to monitor these physical operation. This is so because monitoring the physical operation of an organization will be time consuming to do. [KENDALL & KENDALL. It represents other sources in an organization such as money and materials especially when the size of the firm increases. The manager uses many reports or information displays to reflect the firm’s conditions and use these in decision-making. As a manager. 1999] 8 .

Manager needs to understand that there are costs associated with production. 1998] 9 . Information must be manage accordingly and correctly. distribution. Although information is all around. [MCLEOD. storage and retrieval of all information.Information Must Be Manage According to McLeod. and its strategic use for positioning a business competitively should not be taken for granted. security. just as other resources found in the organization. it is not free.

International economic influences b.Reasons For Information Management 1.Increasing complexity of technology c. 1999] 10 . Availability of Problem-Solving tools such as computer [KENDALL & KENDALL.Competitive pressures e.Increasing complexity of management task due to: a.Shrinking time frames d.Social pressures 2.

Principles: 1. A business organization is composed of resources that flow into the organization and then return to the environment where these resources comes from. 1998] 11 . [MCLEOD.Information Resource Management Concept that information is a major corporate resource and must be managed using the same principles being applied in managing other assets of the organization.

the manager is forced to rely on the conceptual resources. The same basic principles that have been developed for the management of physical resources can be applied to the management of conceptual resources. [MCLEOD. 1998] 12 .conceptual resources such as: i. money iii.2. There are two basic types of resources: a. As the scale of operation grows. machines ii. data ii. materials v. facilities b.physical resources such as: i. 4. it becomes more difficult to manage the physical resources by observation. personnel iv. Information 3. Thus.

Management of data and information can be achieved only through organizational. Management of data and information includes: measures design to protect the resources from destruction and misuse c. 6. 1998] 13 .removal procedures that discharge the resource from the organization when they are no longer needed.quality assurance d.5. not individual commitment.acquisition prior to the time they are needed b. [MCLEOD.

Example: car [MCLEOD. 1998] 14 .System A regularly interacting and interdependent group of element forming a unified whole. Consists of tools. A set of interacting elements to accomplish a certain goals or objectives. machine. This attribute – the whole producing results that are greater than the sum of its parts. supplies. Usually requiring some type of orderly management. procedure and people. Major attributes of system is that they possess qualities and capabilities not found in individual elements.

Characteristics of a System 1. 1998] 15 . Interrelated components -dependence of one subsystem on one or more subsystems 3.the line that marks the inside and the outside of a system and which sets off the system from its environment. [MCLEOD. Component -an irreducible part or aggregation of parts that makes a system. Boundary . -also called a subsystem 2.

Interface . Purpose -overall goal or function of a system 5.point of contact where a system meets its environment or where subsystems meet each other [MCLEOD. 1998] 16 . Environment -refers to anything that is external to a system that interacts with a system 6.4.

c.coding and decoding – incoming and outgoing messages d. so that the system and its environment can work on different cycle and at different speeds.detecting and correcting errors – in its interaction with the environment e.buffering – providing a layer of slack between the system and its environment. b.summarizing – raw data and transforming them into the level of detail and format needed throughout the system(for an input interface) or in the environment(for an output interface) [ – protecting the system from undesirable elements that may want to infiltrate it.filtering – unwanted data both for elements leaving the system and entering it. 1998] 17 .Functions of interfaces: a. f.

limit to what a system can accomplish .7. 1998] 18 . Output -refers to whatever a system returns to its environment in order to fulfill its purpose.can either be imposed by internal or external factors 8. 9. Input -refers to what ever a system takes from its environment in order to fulfill its purpose. [MCLEOD. Constraints .

people machines. Business systems rely on the data provided by the information system [HOFFER. 1999] 19 . and other elements that interact and enable the organization to reach each of its goalsto profit or to render service. procedures. A system concerned with accomplishing specific business goals and is broken down into a number of subsystems. methods.Business Systems A collection of policies. GEORGE & VALACICH.

disseminate(output) data and information and provide a mechanism for feedback System that manages data needed by a business system Considered an asset to gain competitive advantage if effectively manage BURCH. it led to a greater reliance upon computer-based information system(CBIS) Considered an asset to gain competitive advantage if effectively manage.Information Systems Set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input). manipulate and store(process). 1992 due to the increase in volume of information that must be processed. 20 .

GEORGE & VALACICH.INFORMATION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN A complex. and stimulating organizational process that a team of business and systems professionals uses to develop and maintain computer-based information systems Series of processes systematically under taken to improve a business through understanding of organization’s objectives. challenging. 1999] 21 . structures. and processes as well on how can exploit information technology for the system’s advantage [HOFFER.

GEORGE & VALACICH. including investigation of inputs. and more efficient means of processing. [HOFFER. 1999] 22 . Used to gain an understanding of an existing system and what is required of it. more economical. This new system maybe built a new or by changing the existing system.SYSTEMS ANALYSIS The scientific study of systems processes. and outputs. GEORGE & VALACICH. [HOFFER. 1999] SYSTEMS DESIGN Proposes a new system that meets the requirements specified. in order to find better.

processing or transforming data. GEORGE & VALACICH. data storage. [HOFFER. and implement improvements in the functioning of businesses that can be Seeks to analyze data input or data flow. 1999] 23 .accomplished through the use of computerized information systems.NEED FOR SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 1. design. 1. information output within the context of a particular business 2.Used to analyze.

3. 4. Consistent operations and procedures [SILVER & SILVER. Greater efficiency Maximizing profit Resources to the best advantage Reduction of human effort Faster turnaround Reduction and elimination of errors in data and information 7. 2.ADVANTAGE OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 1. 5. 6. 1992] 24 .

Trust [HOFFER.Effort is required to sell a system [HOFFER. ambiguity 3. GEORGE & VALACICH.Diversity in backgrounds.Systems development is a team effort.Human element can cause complications 4.Some business problems are beyond the scope of systems analysis and design 2. uncertainty. GEORGE & VALACICH.Clear and complete communication 4. skills and goals that comes from all different groups interested in the system 2.Tolerance diversity. 1999] SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT TEAM . 1999] 25 .LIMITATIONS OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 1. Characteristics of a systems development team: 1.Efforts cost time and money 3.

store. manipulate. databases. CBIS [HOFFER. and processed data into information. software. Software .consists of programs and instructions given to the computer and to the user 3. Hardware . processing. telecommunication.Computer-Based Information System CBIS is an information system that is composed of hardware. 1999] 26 . Database .consists of computer equipments used top perform input. and output activities 2. 1999] Components: 1. GEORGE & VALACICH. GEORGE & VALACICH. people and procedures that are configured to organized collection of facts and information [HOFFER.

allows organization to link computer systems together into effective networks 5. and maintain computer systems .any person involved in information systems development including information systems personnel that manages. 1999] 27 . Telecommunications . policies. run. and rules that human use to operate the CBIS CBIS [HOFFER. Procedures. GEORGE & VALACICH. People .4.includes strategies.any person that benefits in the use of the information system(users) 6. program. methods.

databases.Types of CBIS 1.system to process large amount of data for routine business transactions support day-to-day activities of the business [KENDALL & KENDALL. and devices used to record completed business transaction .includes all of the formal and informal electronic systems primarily concerned with the communication of information to and from persons both in and outside the firm [KENDALL & data workers .an organize collection of people. 1999] 2. 1999] CBIS 28 . Transaction Processing System . Office Automation Systems . procedures.

sometimes. word processing b. electronic scheduling [HOFFER.Data Workers workers that do not usually create data or new knowledge but rather analyze information in order to transform data or manipulate it in some way before sharing it with. desktop publishing e. GEORGE & VALACICH. or formally disseminating it throughout the organization and. Office Automation Applications a. spreadsheet d. beyond. 1999] 29 CBIS . communication c.

Knowledge Work Systems –support professional workers or knowledge workers by aiding them in their effort to create new knowledge and by allowing them to contribute it to their organization or to the society at large. Management Information Systems – an organize collection of people. and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers – provide periodic reports. 1999] 4. Examples: CAD/CAM [KENDALL & KENDALL. databases. 1999] 30 .3. procedures. special report and outputs of mathematical simulation that comes from transaction processing system CBIS [KENDALL & KENDALL.

TPS CBIS Marketing MIS Common Database Production MIS Financial MIS Other MIS Management Information System [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 31 .

databases. interactive system that supports a single manager or relatively small group of managers in the solution of semi structured problems by providing information or suggestions. 1999] 32 . and varying degrees. Decision Support System .an organized collection of people.specific decision making . concerning specific decisions CBIS [ middle management of information workers who needs assistance with semi-structured problems(problems that contains some aspects of being easily predictable as well as other aspects that require the exercise of judgment) . and devices used to support problem. GEORGE & VALACICH.5.

CBIS Model Base DSS Generator Database user interface Decision Support System [HOFFER. GEORGE & VALACICH. 1999] 33 .

CBIS -branch of artificial intelligence and is also called knowledge-based systems Expert Systems user User interface Rule basic Inference Knowledge base [HOFFER. Expert System -information system that can function as a consultant to a problem solver. not only to by suggesting to a solution but also by explaining the line of reassuring that leads to the solution as what a human expert can do. 1999] 34 .6. GEORGE & VALACICH.

Intended for team collaboration via networked computers that uses a software called “group ware” [KENDALL & KENDALL.Intended to bring a group together to solve a problem with the help of various supports such as polling. and scenario creation [KENDALL & KENDALL. GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM .Helps middle managers and information workers collectively plan and decide important business issues 8. 1999] . 1999] 9.Support senior managers of the firm in the strategic planning function. CBIS 35 .COMPUTER SUPPORTED COLLABORATIVE WORK .7. brainstorming. EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS . questionnaires.

ES DSS MIS Knowledge Work System Office Automation System Transaction Processing Systems Systems Analyst may be involved with any or all of these systems 36 [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] ESS GDSS CSCWS .

Reduced operation requirements 12.Superior control over operations 15. 1999] BENEFITS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS 1.Reduced operation casts 13. GEORGE & VALACICH.quality products 7.Better service advantage 3.Increased efficiency 9.Improved communications 8.More efficient administration 11.Fewer errors 5.Superior financial decision making 14.Superior managerial decision making .Added value to products (goods or services) 2.Competitive 4.Increased productivity 10.Higher.37 [HOFFER.Greater accuracy 6.

Systems developed did not support business strategies and policies 2.Acquisition of computers and soft ware that no one needs or knows to use 7.Poor systems planning and inadequate project management 3.Creation of a myriad of design defects and errors 6.Negligence in estimating cost and benefit of the system project 5.Inadequate implementation tasks [BURCH.Failure to define or understand user requirements and get users involved in systems development 4.Development of unstructured. unmaintainable software 10.Negligence in implementing adequate controls 9. 1992] 38 .Installation of incompatible or inadequate technology 8.CAUSES OF UNSUCCESSFUL SYSTEM 1.

to wasted time and decreased productivity. and revenues. to loss of customers. [KENDALL & KENDALL. to management making wrong decisions based on inaccurate or untimely information. to loss of assets.Problem caused by poorly develop systems can range from loss of life. 1999] 39 .

Implementing planning and the use of project management techniques 5.Develop alternatives for system design for evaluation before making majors commitments to final design. and software development 6.Designing all system design components functionally 7. planned approach to systems implementation 10. and current documentation 9.Using coordinated.Design and perform systems maintenance BURCH. 1992 40 .Use of detailed functional design as guide for software design. and testing 8.Prepare clear. complete. technology.WAYS TO HAVE SUCCESFUL SYSTEMS 1.Performance of post-implementation reviews 11.Stressing user involvement in systems development 2.

1999] 41 . SYSTEMS USERS . SYSTEM OWNERS . validating. [HOFFER. GEORGE & VALACICH.capturing. entering.Usually responsible for budgeting the money and time to develop and support information systems. responding to. [HOFFER. GEORGE & VALACICH. and storing data and information. and for the ultimate acceptance o0f the information system.CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE INVOLVED IN SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT 1.People who use (and directly benefit from) the information system on a regular basis. 1999] 2.Information system’s sponsors and chief advocates .

ROLES OF SYSTEM USERS a.Define opportunities to be exploited c.Define problems to be solve b.State business constraints to be imposed by or for the information system primary concern is to “get the job done” [HOFFER. 1999] 42 . GEORGE & VALACICH.List down requirements to be fulfilled d.

TECHNICAL AND PROFESSIONAL STAFF -Consists largely of business and industrial specialists who perform highly skilled and specialized work -Also called knowledge workers Examples: Accountant. CLERICAL WORKERS -People performing day-to-day activities in the business -People who initiate or handle the bulk of any organization’s data. GEORGE & VALACICH. clerk. 1999] 43 . clerk. salesperson.TYPES OF SYSTEM USER a. They are of need of systems that help them process more data with greater speed and fewer mistakes. statistician [HOFFER. engineer. Examples: Bookkeeper. lawyer. scientist. secretary b. office. They often make routine decision based on data and generate information for managers.

d. MIDDLE MANAGERS -Concerned with relatively short-term/ tactical planning. organizing. GEORGE & VALACICH. department head. project manager. Examples: Accounts receivable manager. SUPERIOR -Lowest level of management who controls the day-today operations of the organization. group leader. purchasing manager [HOFFER. controlling.c. -Tend to be interested in “budget for” and “efficiency of” the operations they supervise Examples: Foreman. shift leader. 1999] 44 . and decision-making.

database.3. chief information officer(CIO). inputs. outputs. principal . – Design computer files. SYSTEM DESIGNER – translates user’s business requirement and constraints into technical solutions. Examples: Chief executive officer(CEO). networks and programs that will meet the system user’s requirements – Also integrate technical solution back into the day-to-day business environment Examples: Systems analyst. college dean. data analyst. 1999] e. GEORGE & VALACICH. screen. EXECUTIVE MANAGER – Responsive for long-term/strategic planning and control for the organization. network analyst 45 [HOFFER. president.

Examples: Application programmer.4. GEORGE & VALACICH. network administrator [HOFFER. SYSTEM BUILDERS – construct multi-user information system based upon the design specifications. database programmer. 1999] 46 .

and the outputs of the information with the intent of improving organizational processes.The Systems Analyst Systems Analyst One who systematically assesses the functioning of business by examining the input and processing of data. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 47 .

and maintenance [KENDALL & KENDALL. The analyst supervises the coding and testing of new programs. The analyst introduces the specifications through formal presentations and documentations. documentation and training. conversion. site preparation.JOB DESCRIPTION OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST The system analyst gathers and analyzes information about current systems and any new requirements for any new systems. He or she uses that information to plan modifications to existing systems or to design new systems. 1999] 48 .

DUTIES OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST 1.Apply fact-gathering techniques to study current systems and develop requirements for the proposal of a new information system. 4. 1999] 49 . and estimate benefits.Used structured diagramming and documentation methods to illustrate and define both existing and proposed Information systems. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 5.Develop solution to business system procedures. 2.Estimating requirements for time and resources. 3.Design procedures for data collection and processing. 6.Perform cost – benefit analysis on any proposed system solution.

Design input forms. [KENDALL & KENDALL.7. and display formats.Incorporate security measures into system design. 18. 14.Use prototyping technique to develop abbreviated systems quickly during analysis and design.Supervise user documentation and training. 13. 9. testing.Supervise site preparation 8.Choose hardware and software.Supervise maintenance and change control after the system is in operation. 15. 16. output reports.Oversee conversion to new system. 10. 1999] 50 .Establish system development standards. 17.Supervise coding. 12. and quality control.Keep current with developments in the field of computer technology.Evaluate system designs for quality and ease of maintenance 11.

4.Bachelors degree in computer science. 1992] 51 . statistics or business.As a consultant 2.Experience or training in management skills. 6.As a supporting expert 3. 2.Effective verbal and written communication skills.As a change agent [KENDALL & KENDALL.ROLES OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST 1.Experienced programmer 3.Experience or training in business systems. [SILVER & SILVER. information science. 5. 1999] QUALIFICATIONS OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST 1. accounting.Training in systems analysis and design.

Good verbal and written communication skills.Knowledge of basic business theories and concepts.Positive attitude towards others. [SILVER & SILVER. 4.Willingness to work with others 7. 5.Ability to solve problems. 1992] 1.Technical knowledge of computers and information systems hardware and software. 6.Creativity and innovation 2. 52 . 3.CRICITAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST 1.

Organizational knowledge c. a. GEORGE & VALACICH. Problem identification d. Analysis and solving of problems 2. Analytical Skills –Understanding of the organization and its functions. 1999] 53 . to identify the opportunities and problems. Technical Skills Understanding the information technology. Systems thinking b.DOMAIN OF SKILLS 1. potentials and limitations of [HOFFER. and to analyze and solve problems.

g. Systems development tools and environments f. GEORGE & VALACICH. Data communication standards and software for LAN and WAN e.Knowledge in: a. [HOFFER. 1999] 54 . Operating systems d. Types of computers b. Decision support system generators and data analysis tools. Programming languages c.

Reading computer publications and books b. Joining professional societies interested in computer technologies. seminars.Attending professional conferences. news groups or conferences [HOFFER.Can be achieve through: a. 1999] 55 . Attending any courses or training sessions offered by your organization e. GEORGE & VALACICH. Attending computer classes or teach at a local college d.Participating in electronic bulletin boards. or trade shows f. c.

resources. resource management b. GEORGE & VALACICH. Management Skills – Understanding how one must manage projects. risks and changes . working alone and with a team c. change management 4. managing expectations 56 [HOFFER. facilitating groups d. risk management d. project management’ c. communication skills b. Interpersonal Skills – Understanding how one will work with end users as well as other persons involved in systems development a. 1999] 3.Knowledge in : a.

1992 57 .Academic Training Industry Experience CAREER PATH Industry experience OF A Academic Training SYSTEMS ANALYST Junior Analyst Senior Analyst Private Consulting Management SILVER & SILVER.

maintain.THE SYSTEMS ANALYST Sequence of steps used to organize a large of activities needed to build system Traditional methodology used to develop. 1992 58 . and replace information system SDLC SILVER & SILVER.

Detailed Systems Design 2. Systems Analysis 6. Systems Implementation 1. Planning 7. Systems Evaluation And Selection 3. 1992 . General Systems Design SDLC 5. Systems Maintenance 59 SILVER & SILVER.4.

1992 60 SDLC .PHASES OF SYSTEMS CYCLE (SDLC) DEVELOPMENT LIFE 1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS – Its purpose is to understand the existing system and propose alternate replacement system at the end. SYSTEMS PLANNING – Initial investigation of the system – A brief study of the problem to determine whether the systems project should be pursued – Net result is a rough plan for how-and whether-to proceed with the project. 2. SILVER & SILVER.

3. 61 . 6.Longest phase and the costliest phase in the SDLC .Phase where the system is monitored and made SDLC necessary adjustments to make the system produce SILVER & SILVER. userinterfaces.SYSTEMS DESIGN – Conceptualizes the system to be developed – Provides plans for data-entry procedures. 4. 1992 continuously expected results of it.SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE . file and database design controls and backup procedures.SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT – Phase where the system is actually being developed – Involves programming and testing of system 5.SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION – Phase where system is put into operational use.

Information Requirements Analysis 62 .

1999] Systems Project Begins with problems or with opportunities for the improvement within a business that often come up as the organization adapts to change [KENDALL & KENDALL.Planning and then managing activities and team members for productivity [KENDALL & KENDALL.Determining Feasibility PROJECT FUNDAMENTALS 1. 1999] 63 .Determining project feasibility 2.Scheduling projects 3.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. The systems analyst serves as catalyst and supporting expert primarily by being able to see where processes can be improved. 1999] 64 .1999] 1.Business people suggest systems project for two broad reasons: 1.To experience problem that lend themselves that systems solutions 2. altering installing new systems when they occur [KENDALL & KENDALL.To recognize opportunities for improvement through upgrading.

supplier.Improving worker’s satisfaction with the system. 7. 3. 4. 1999] 65 .Combining processes. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 6. 5. and vendor interaction with the system.Streamlining a process through the elimination of unnecessary or duplicated steps. 2.Improvements to systems can be defined as changes that will result in incremental yet worthwhile benefits: 1.Reducing errors in input through changes of forms and display screens.Reducing redundant output.Speeding up a process.Improving ease of costumer. 8.Improving integration of systems and subsystems.

it is committing resources that thereby become unavailable for other projects. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Appropriate timing of project commitment 3.CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF SYSTEMS PROJECTS 1.Project is worthwhile compared to other ways that organization could invest resources [KENDALL & KENDALL.Possibility of improving attainment of organizational goals 4.Backing from management 2. 1999] 66 .Practical in terms of resources for systems analyst and organization 5. 1999] Remember that when a business commits to one project.

SEVERAL ACCEPTABLE OBJECTIVES FOR SYSTEMS PROJECTS.Shortening data-processing time.Upgrading customer services to gain a competitive edge. INCLUDES: 1. 3.Speeding up input. etc. 4. cut down on employee time required.Reducing errors and improving the accuracy of data input.Integrating business subsystems. 6. 1999] 67 .) [KENDALL & KENDALL. 5.Automating manual procedures to improve them in some way (reduce errors.Reducing the cost of the system output by streamlining and eliminating duplicate or unnecessary reports. increase speed or accuracy. 7. 2.

[HOFFER. GEORGE & VALACICH. 1992] Most projects must be developed within tight budgetary and time constraints [HOFFER.ASSESSING PROJECT FEASIBILITY All projects are feasible given unlimited resources and infinite time [PRESSMAN. 1996] 68 . 1996] is a required activity for all information systems project and is potentially a large undertaking that requires a systems analyst to evaluate a wide range of factors. GEORGE & VALACICH.

[HOFFER.SOME OF THE FEASIBILITY FACTORS ARE REPRESENTED BY THE FOLOWING CATEGORIES: 1.Operational Feasibility 4. GEORGE & VALACICH. 1996] 69 .Schedule Feasibility 5.Political Feasibility 7.Legal and Contractual Feasibility 6.Technical Feasibility 2.Economic Feasibility 3.

1999] this is where the expertise of systems analysts is beneficial.vTECHNICAL FEASIBILITY The analyst must find out whether current technical resources can be upgraded or added to in a manner that fulfills the request under consideration. they will be able to answer the question of technical feasibility . [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 70 . since by using their own experience and their contact with vendors.

software.or organizational procedures. [HOFFER.Failure t achieve adequate system performance levels f. b.Failure to attain expected benefits from the project. GEORGE & VALACICH. 1996] 71 .Inaccurate project cost estimates d.Inaccurate project duration estimates e.The potential consequences of not assessing and managing risks can include the following outcomes: a. c.Failure to adequately integrate the new system with existing hardware.

v ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY its purpose is to identify the financial benefits and costs associated with the development project. it is often referred to as cost-benefit analysis. 1996] 72 . GEORGE & VALACICH. [HOFFER.Determining Project Benefits i. GEORGE & VALACICH.Tangible Benefits– refer to items that can be measured in dollars and with certainty. 1996] a. Example: Lower transaction costs/higher profit margins [HOFFER.

MOST TANGIBLE BENEFITS WILL FIT WITHIN THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES: § Cost reduction and avoidance § error reduction § Increased flexibility § Increased speed of activity § Improvement of management planning and control § opening new markets and increasing sales opportunities [HOFFER. 1996] 73 . GEORGE & VALACICH. – may have direct organizational benefits such as the improvement of the employee morale or they may have broader societal implications such as the reduction of waste creation or resource consumption. 1996] ii. GEORGE & VALACICH.Intangible Benefits – refer to items that cannot be easily measured in dollars or with certainty. [HOFFER.

Site preparation v.System development ii. you can distinguish IS-related development costs as either one-time or recurring.New hardware and software purchases iii. 1996] 74 . Determining Project Costs – similar to benefits.Data or system conversion [HOFFER. ONE-TIME COSTS – refer to those associated with project initiation and development and the start-up of the system. an information system can have both tangible and intangible costs – besides tangible and intangible costs.User training iv. GEORGE & VALACICH. These costs typically encompasses activities such as: i.b.

GEORGE & VALACICH. Fixed Cost –refer to cost that are billed or incurred at a regular interval and usually at a fixed rate. [HOFFER.New software and hardware leases iv.RECURRING COSTS –refer to those costs resulting from the ongoing evolution and use of the system. 1996] 75 .Incremental data storage expense iii. These cost typically include: i.Application software maintenance ii. 1996] Both one-time and recurring cost can consist of items that are fixed or variable in nature. forms. data center personnel [HOFFER.Supplies and other expenses example: paper. GEORGE & VALACICH.

Operating => EXAMPLE: System maintenance costs. Preparing documentation iv. Management.Project-Related=> EXAMPLE: Application software. Site preparation and modifications.Start-Up => EXAMPLE: Operating system software. and planning personnel [KING & SCHREMS. Software modifications to fit local system. Start-up personnel iii. Collecting and analyzing data.Procurement => EXAMPLE: Consulting Costs. Capital Cost ii. 1978] 76 .TYPES OF COSTS: i. Communication equipment installation. Equipment purchase or lease. operation. Asset depreciation.

[HOFFER. 1996] Cost of Capital –the rate of which money can be borrowed or invested. The Time Value of Money –most techniques used to determine economic feasibility encompass the concept of TVM. Discount Rate –the rate of return used to compute the present value of future cash flow. –refers to the concept of present cash outlays to future expected returns.c. Present Value –the current value of a future cash flow. GEORGE & VALACICH. 1996] 77 . GEORGE & VALACICH. [HOFFER.

– the discount rate is used to determine the present of value of both cash receipts and outlays. [HOFFER. 1996] 78 .Return On Investment(ROI) –is the ratio of the net cash receipts of the project divided by the cash outlays of the project.GEORGE & VALACICH.COMMONLY USED ECONOMIC COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE 1. –tradeoff analysis can be made among projects competing for investment by comparing their representative ROI ratios. 3.Break-Even Analysis(BEA) –finds the amount of the time required for the cumulative cash flow from a project to equal its initial and ongoing investments. 2.Net Present Value(NPV) –uses a discount rate determined from the company’s cost of capital to establish the present value of a project.

Formula in figuring out the present value:

PVn = Y [

_1 _ (1+i)



present value of money discount rate years from now



Example of TVM: Suppose you want to buy a used car from an acquaintance and she asks that you make three payments of $1,500 for three years, beginning next year, for a total of $4,500. Solutions: PV1 = 1500 x [ PV1 = 1500 x [ PV1 = 1500 x [ _1_ _ (1+.10) _1_ _ (1+.10) _1_ _
1 2 3

] ] ]

= 1500 x .9091 = 1363.65 = 1500 x .8264 = 1239.60 = 1500 x .7513 = 1126.95

(1+.10) where PV , PV , and PV3 reflect the present value of each 1 2 $1,500 payment in year one, two, three, respectively. [HOFFER, GEORGE & VALACICH, 1996]

To calculate the Net Present Value (NPV) of the three $1,500 payments simply add the calculated present values: NPV = PV1 + PV2 + PV3 = 1363.65 + 1239.60 + 1126.95 = $3,730.20



v OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY is dependent on the human resources available for the project and involves projecting whether the system will operate and be used once it is installed. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999] Its purpose is to gain an understanding of the degree to which the proposed system will likely solve the business problems or take advantage of the opportunities outlined in the systems service request or project identification study. [HOFFER, GEORGE & VALACICH, 1996]

v SCHEDULE FEASIBILITY the process of assessing the degree to which the potential time frame and completion dates for all major activities within a project meet organizational deadlines and constraints for affecting change. [HOFFER, GEORGE & VALACICH, 1996] the schedule of activities produced during project initiation and planning will be very precise and detailed for the analysis phase. [HOFFER, GEORGE & VALACICH, 1996]


KEY ELEMENTS IN DEVELOPING A PROJECT PLAN: 1.A definition of scope for the project stating which general functions within the purchasing department will be analyzed and which activities outside of purchasing will be considered. 2.A more complete problem statement. 3.An initial requirements statement specifying in general terms which types of information and information processing are needed, how urgent the situation is, and what constraints seem to be in place on a systems solution. 4.A request for resources of people, time, and money to develop the information requirements and system functional specifications. 5.A time line indicating when the project team will perform various steps of the project. 6.A business case or justification for continuing with the project. [HOFFER, GEORGE & VALACICH, 1996]

Analysis Design Data gathering Data Flow and Decision Analysis Proposal Preparation Break apart the major Data Entry Design activities into Input Design smaller ones. 1999] 85 . Output Design Data Organization Implementation Evaluation Implementation Beginning to plan a project by breaking it into three major activities. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

1999] 86 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Assign members of a team to appropriate projects 3.PLANNING INCLUDES ALL OF THE ACTIVITIES REQUIRED TO: 1.Estimate the time required to complete each task 4.Schedule the project so that tasks are completed in a timely fashion.Select a systems analysis team 2.

ACTIVITY PLANNING AND CONTROL 1. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Sometimes the most difficult part of project planning is the crucial step of estimating the time it takes to complete each task or activity. while the highest extreme is to include every detailed step. The lowest level of detail is the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) itself. 1999] 87 .Estimating Time Required The systems analyst’s first decision is to determine the amount of detail that goes into defining the activities.

Detailed Activity Data Gathering Conduct Interviews Administer Questionnaires Read Company Reports Introduce Prototype Observe Reactions to Prototype Weeks Required 3 4 4 5 3 8 3 2 2 Data Flow and Analyze Data Flow Decision Analysis Proposal Preparation Perform Cost / Benefit Analysis Prepare Proposal Present Proposal Refining the planning and scheduling of analysis activities by adding detailed tasks and establishing the time required to [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] complete these tasks. 88 .

The System analyst will find not only that this technique is easy to use but also that it lends itself to worthwhile communication with end users. Gantt Charts for Project Scheduling It is essentially a chart on which bars represent each task or activity. that is the size of the bar indicates the relative length of time it will take to complete each task. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 89 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.The bars representing activities or tasks are drawn to scale. 1999] Advantages: 1.2.Its simplicity 2.

Activity Conduct Interviews Administer Questionnaires Read Company Records Analyze Data Flows Introduce Prototype Observe reactions Perform Cost / Benefit Prepare Proposal Present proposal q Incomplete Activity Completed Activity Partially Completed Activity [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Weeks 90 . 1999] Using a two-dimensional Gantt Chart for planning activities that can be accomplished in parallel.

Improvement of the schedule if necessary 3. [KENDALL & KENDALL.And review progress once the project is undertaken.3. PERT Diagrams Was developed in the late 1950s for use in the U. 1999] A program (project) is represented by a network of nodes and arrows that are then evaluated to determine: 1. 1999] 91 .S. Navy’s Polaris nuclear submarine project PERT is an acronym for Program Evaluation and Review Techniques. is useful when activities can be done in parallel rather than in sequence.Critical activities 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Critical path –is determined by calculating the longest path.Recognize that an activity is completed. [KENDALL & KENDALL. letters. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 92 .THE CIRCULAR NODES ARE PRESENT TO: 1.Indicate which activities need to be completed before a new activity may be undertaken (precedence). 1999] Events –are circles on the PERT diagram. it is defined as the path that will cause the whole project to fall behind even if one day delay is encountered on it. and can be identified by numbers. 2. or any other arbitrary form of designation.

2.REASONS FOR USING A PERT DIAGRAM OVER A GANTT CHART: 1. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Easy identification of the order of precedence. 3. 1999] 93 .Easy determination of slack time.Easy identification of the critical path and thus critical activities.

1999] 94 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Activity A B C D E F G H I Conduct Interviews Administer Questionnaires Read Company Reports Analyze Data Flow Introduce Prototype Observe Reactions to Prototype Perform Cost / Benefit Analysis Prepare Proposal Present Proposal Predecessor None A None B.C E D G H Duration 3 4 4 8 5 3 3 2 2 Listed activities for use in drawing a PERT diagram.C B.

2 70 I. 10-30-50-60-70-80 10-30-40-60-70-80 [KENDALL & KENDALL.4 B.4 40 phase of a systems project. there are four paths: 10-20-30-50-60-70-80 The longest path which 10-20-30-40-60-70-80 takes 22 days. 50 G.2 80 In this example.3 60 H.q A completed PERT diagram for the analysis 20 A. 1999] 95 .4 30 D.8 E.3 10 C.3 F.

Communication Strategies for Managing Teams –a way to organize your thinking about teams is to visualize them as always seeking a balance between accomplishing the work at hand and maintaining the relationships among team members. [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL.MANAGING ANALYSIS AND DESIGN ACTIVITIES 1. 1999] 96 . 1999] 2.Setting Project Productivity Goals –systems analysts are accustomed to thinking about the productivity goals for employees who show tangible outputs such as the number of entries keyed in per minute. or the number of items scanned per second.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Using the hints or methods for estimating time required and coupling them with experience will enable the team to set worthwhile productivity goals. 1999] 97 .Team member’s expertise 2.Former performance 3.And the nature of the specific project [KENDALL & KENDALL.GOALS NEED TO BE FORMULATED AND AGREED BY THE TEAM SHOULD BE BASED ON: 1.

Avoiding Project Failures –management along with the feasibility studies are usually the best defenses possible against taking on projects that have a high probability of failure. –the decision process of your team must be open stand up to scrutiny from those outside of it and the team members should consider that their reputation and standing in the organization are inseparable from the projects they accepts. 1999] 4. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Motivating Project Team Members –motivation is an extremely complex but a good one to consider. –setting goals can also motivate team members by clarifying for them and others what must be done in order to get results. 1999] 98 .3. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

[HOFFER.Ownership of software used in joint ventures 2. 1996] 99 . 1996] Contractual Obligations my Involve in: 1.nondisclosure agreements with partners 4.v Legal and Contractual Feasibility The process of assessing potential legal and contractual ramifications due to the construction of a system. GEORGE & VALACICH. Typically. GEORGE & VALACICH.Or elements of a labor agreement [HOFFER. legal and contractual feasibility is a greater consideration if your organization has historically used an outside organization for specific systems or services that you now are considering handling yourself.License agreements for use of hardware or software 3.

and thus the distribution of power. GEORGE & VALACICH.v Political Feasibility The process of evaluating how key stakeholders within the organization view the organization. the construction of an IS can have political ramifications. 1996] 100 . GEORGE & VALACICH. [HOFFER. 1996] Since an information system may affect the distribution of information within the organization. [HOFFER.

Speeding up the data gathering 3.Reducing bias [KENDALL & KENDALL.Improving effectiveness 4.Sampling and Investigating Hard Data S a m process of systematically selecting representative p The l ielements of a population ng Helps accelerate the process by gathering selected data rather than all data for the entire organization KENDALL.Containing costs 2. 1999] [KENDALL & REASONS OF SA TO SELECT REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF DATA TO EXAMINE: 1. 1999] 101 .

2. attributes.Determining the Population to be Sampled –SA has to determine whether the population should include only one level of organization. or even the reactions of customers if KENDALL. 1999] the sample. 1999] 102 .STEPS THAT SA MUST FOLLOW TO DESIGN A GOOD SAMPLE ARE: 1.Determining the Data to be Collected or Described –SA needs a realistic plan about what will be done with the data once it is collected –duties and responsibilities of systems analyst at this point are to identify the variables. all levels. and associated data items that needed to be gathered in [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & necessary.

103 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.3. 1999] b. Convenience Samples – the easiest to arrange but it is also the most unreliable – unrestricted. 1999] information system. Choosing the Type of Sample a. non probability samples Example: SA put a notice in a company newsletter asking for everyone interested in the new sales performance to come to a meeting at 1:00 on Tuesday.Purposive Sample – is based on judgment – still non probability sample but moderately reliable – SA can choose a group of individuals who appear knowledgeable and who are interested in the new[KENDALL & KENDALL.

Cluster Sampling-the systems analyst select a group of documents or people to study. 1999] 104 c.Stratified sampling. especially when sampling involves documents and reports – a numbered list of population should be obtain to ensure that each document or person in the population has an equal chance of being selected. iii. and then selecting objects or people for sampling within the subpopulations.Systematic Sampling-simplest method of probability sampling ii. 1999] d. Simple Random Sample .the process of identifying subpopulations. [KENDALL & KENDALL.– not practical. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Complex Random Samples that are most appropriate for the SA are: i. or strata.

or even the time available by people in the organization.often depends on the cost involved or the time required by the systems analyst. – it is necessary to set a sample size greater that one but less than the size of the population itself.4. 1999] 105 . Sample Size Decision. – if each of the documents in a population contained exactly the KENDALL. 1999] [KENDALL & same information as every other document. a sample size of one would be sufficient.Deciding on the Sample Size – it is important to remember that the absolute number is more important in sampling than the percentage of population. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

– Many of these reports are not complex. but they serve mainly a feed back for quick action.Performance Reports – its important function is to assess the size of the gap [KENDALL & KENDALL. – Many summary reports are used by decision makers to provide background information.TYPES OF HARD DATA: a. and afford strategic overviews of organizational plans. spot exceptions to normal occurrences. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Reports used for decision making 1. 1999] b. sales. 1999] 106 between actual and intended performance.Analyzing Quantitative Documents – SA needs to obtain some of the documents such as reports regarding the status of the inventory. . or production that are used in running the business.

calculations and other data manipulation. and afford strategic overviews of organizational plans. 1999] 107 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] WAYS OF ANALYST IN INSPECTING RECORD: i. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Looking for opportunities for improving the recording form design iii.Watching for instances where the computer can simplify the work (that is.Observing the number and type of transactions iv. spot exceptions to normal occurrences. – Many summary reports are used by decision makers to provide background information.Checking for errors in amounts and totals ii.– provide periodic updates of what is occurring in the business.

Note the type of form (whether printed in-house. computer-generated in-house on-line.Compare the intended distribution pattern with who actually receives the form.Collect examples of all the forms in use.etc.Document the intended distribution pattern.Data Capture forms –understanding the system that is currently in place should be done before you set out to change the information flows in the organization. iii.). 1999] 108 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. handwritten. whether officially sanctioned by the business or not (official vs. [KENDALL & KENDALL. ii.d. bootleg forms). 1999] Steps in creating a catalog of form to help you understand the information flow that is currently in use in the business: i. iv.

List terms that characterize good or evil and appear repeatedly in documents.Examine documents for key or guiding metaphors. if present. d. c. 1999] 109 .2.Recognize a sense of humor.Look for insiders versus outsiders or an “us against them” mentality in documents.Analyzing Qualitative Documents Guidelines that can help analyst to take a systematic approach to this sort of analysis are: a. b. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

b.Memos – are not kept or they are made available only to those who have “a need to know”. 1999] 110 . attitudes.Signs on bulletin boards or in work areas – serve as subtle reinforces of values to those who read them. and beliefs of organizational [KENDALL & KENDALL. – analysis of memo content will provide you with a clear idea of the values. as defined in organizational policy.Qualitative Documents a. 1999] members. [KENDALL & KENDALL. – it is also instructive to note whom signs are intended or and to find out through interviews whether organizational members are held accountable for acting on the information posted.

and the meaning and clarity of any messages provided. –examining manuals.Corporate Web Sites – web sites accessible to the public should also be viewed by the analyst.Manuals [KENDALL & KENDALL. both printed and on-line. 1999] 111 . 1999] – it should be analyze following the four guidelines spelled out previously.c. – writers of manual are allowed more elaboration in making a point than is typically accorded to those writing memos or posting signs. d. use of design features (such as color). humor. [KENDALL & KENDALL. systematically will give you a picture of the way things ought to happen. – examine the contents for metaphors.

– examining policies allows the systems analyst to gain an awareness of the values.e. and charges. access. use. you can be primarily concern with those that address policies about computer services. attitudes. and beliefs that are guiding the corporation [KENDALL & KENDALL.Policy Handbooks – while this documents typically cover both areas of employee and corporate behavior. – policies are larger guidelines that spell out the organization ideal of how members should conduct themselves in order to achieve strategic goals. 1999] 112 .

Interviewing Kinds of Information sought in interviewing…….Read Background Material – read and as much background information about the interviewees and their organization as possible. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Opinions Goals Feelings Informal Procedures Planning for Interview: 1. 1999] 113 . use of 2. Establish Interviewing objectives – the1999] background information being gathered as well as own experienced to establish interview objectives. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

include key people at all levels who will be affected by the system in some manner. 1999] 114 .Decision-making frequency d.Decide Who to Interview [KENDALL & KENDALL.Information formats c.Key Areas of Decision-Making: a.Information sources b. – strive for balance so that as many user’s needs are addressed as possible. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] – when deciding who to interview.Qualities of information e.Decision-making style 3.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 115 . 1999] 5.Decide on Question Type and Structure – proper questioning techniques are the heart of interviewing.Prepare the Interviewee – prepare the person to be interviewed by calling ahead or sending an e-mail message and allowing the interviewee a time to think about the interview. – interview should be kept at 45 minutes to an hour at the most. [KENDALL & KENDALL. so better write the questions to cover the key areas of decision making that you discovered when you ascertained interview objectives.4.

1999] BIPOLAR QUESTION – is special kind of closed question. such as yes or no.Open-Ended Questions – include those questions such as “what’s” and “how’s” that answers most likely their opinions. [KENDALL & KENDALL. such as ‘none’. [KENDALL & KENDALL.QUESTION TYPES: a. true or false. or ‘fifteen’. Closed Questions – answers finite number. – limits the response available to the interviewee. ‘one’. agree or disagree. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] b. 1999] 116 . it limits the interviewee even further by only allowing a choice on either pole.

making phrasing easier for the interviewer.BENEFITS OF USING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS: i. attitudes and beliefs. which reflects his/her education. [KENDALL & KENDALL. values. vi. providing richness of detail.allowing more spontaneity. vii.using them in pinch if the interviewer is caught unprepared. iii. iv.Putting the interviewee at ease.revealing avenues of further questioning that may have gone untapped. v. ii. iii. 1999] 117 .Allowing the interviewer to pick up on the interviewees vocabulary..making it more interesting for the interviewee.

iv. iii.asking question that may result in too much irrelevant detail.Possibly losing control of the interview. 1999] 118 .Possibly giving the impression that the interviewer is on a “fishing expedition” with no real objective for the interview.Potentially seeming that the interviewer is unprepared. v.Allowing responses that may take too much time for the amount of useful information gained. [KENDALL & KENDALL.DRAWBACKS OF USING OPEN-ENDED QUESTION: i. ii.

Saving time ii.easily comparing interviews iii.BENEFITS OF USING CLOSED QUESTIONS: i.getting to the point iv.Covering lots of ground quickly vi. 1999] 119 .Keeping control over the interview v.Getting to relevant data [KENDALL & KENDALL.

.DRAWBACKS OF USING CLOSED QUESTION: i.Being boring for the interviewee ii.Failing to build rapport between interviewer and interviewee. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Missing main ideas for the preceding reason iv. 1999] 120 .Failing to obtain rich detail( due to the fact that the interviewer supplies the frame of reference for the interviewee) iii.

Attributes of Open-Ended and Closed Question Open-ended closed low low low much much difficult Reliability of data Reliability of data Efficient use of time Efficient use of time Precision of data Precision of data Breadth and depth Breadth and depth Interviewer skill required Interviewer skill required Ease of analysis Ease of analysis [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 121 high high high little little easy .

Probes – the strongest “probe” or “follow-up” is the simplest “why” – if done in a systematic and determined manner. thinking it through. EXAMPLES: §Why? §What makes you feel that way? [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 122 . and responding appropriately. – it allows the systems analyst to follow up questions to get more detailed responses. your probing will be acknowledged as a sign that you are listening to what’s being said.c.

Avoiding leading questions – leading questions tend to lead the interviewee into a response that using seem to one EXAMPLE: You agree with other managers that inventory control should be computerized.QUESTION PITFALLS 1. 1999] 123 . don’t you? [KENDALL & KENDALL.

1999] 124 . EXAMPLE: What decisions are made during a typical day and how do you make them? [KENDALL & KENDALL. or may mistake which question they are answered and draw the wrong conclusion.Avoiding double-barreled questions – are those that use only one question mark for what are actually two separate questions.2. – double-barreled question is poor choice because interviewees answers only one question (purposely or not).

you should be probably structure the interview as a pyramid.ARRANGING QUESTIONS IN A LOGICAL SEQUENCE: 1. – the interviewer begins with very detailed. – useful if the interviewee seems reluctant to address the topic. [KENDALL & KENDALL. often closed. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Pyramid Structure – inductive organization of interview questions can be visualized as having a pyramid shape. 1999] EXAMPLE: If you are interviewing someone who has told you over the phone that he or she does not need to talk with you because that person already knows what is wrong with the forecasting model. questions. 1999] 125 . – should be use if you believe your interviewee needs to warm up to the topic.

how do you feel about forecasting ? Pyramid Structure and end with a general one 126 [KENDALL & KENDALL.start with a what specific precisely is the question problem in your forecasting model? Have you considered obtaining more up-todate information? What do you think would make forecasting here more effective? In general. 1999] .

1999] the and end cost? with a specific one 127 . open-ended questions and then narrowing the possible responses by using closed questions. begin with What are your reactions to the new system? a general What computers do you use? question What is the cost of the new computer system? Is the new computer system worth [KENDALL & KENDALL. Funnel Structure – the interviewers takes a deductive approach by beginning with generalized.2. – provides an easy. nonthreatening way to begin an interview.

the interviewee is asked for opinions for broad topics that obviously have no “right” answers.3. [KENDALL & KENDALL. questions at the right time.keeping your interviewee’s interest and attention through a to ask the right Remember that once you know how variety of questions. 1999] 128 . – begins with easy. – in the middle of the interview. you have many options for sequencing them. Diamond-Shaped Structure – is the best because it is the combination of the two previous structures. closed questions that provide a warm-up to the interview process. [KENDALL structure is 1999] – the chief advantage of this& KENDALL.

move toward general questions. 129 . 1999] Do you think you can teach someone else to make these decisions? What would it take to setup decision rules so others can benefit from your experience? Are computers helpful in making decisions? Can a computer make these distribution and end with decisions? a specific question. your distribution decisions? [KENDALL & KENDALL.begin with How a do you make specific question.

Unstructured Interviews Evaluation Evaluation Amount of time required Amount of time required Training required Training required Allows spontaneity Allows spontaneity Provides interviewee insight Provides interviewee insight flexibility flexibility Interviewer control Interviewer control Precision Precision Reliability Reliability Breadth and Depth Breadth and Depth Structured easy low limited little very little little high high high low 130 high Much needed much much opportunity great low low low high [KENDALL & KENDALL.Unstructured difficult Structured vs. 1999] .

1999] 131 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. you can begin formulating questions. beliefs behavior characteristics Once you have determined that you have good cause to use a questionnaire and have pinpointed the objectives to be fulfilled through its use.Questionnaires attitudes Kinds of Information sought when using Questionnaires…….

Some guidelines to help you decide whether use of Questionnaires is appropriate: 1. 3.A large number of people are involved in the systems project. management) approves or disapproves of a particular feature of the proposed system.The people you need to question are widely dispersed (different branches of the same corporation) 2. 1999] 132 .You are doing a exploratory study and want to gauge overall opinion before the systems project is given any specific direction. and it is meaningful to know what proportion of a given group (for example. 4.You wish to be certain that any problems with the current systems are identified and addressed in follow-up interviews. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

Basic question types used on the questionnaire are: 1. 1999] 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 133 . – when you want to survey a large sample of people.Closed Questions – should be used when the systems analyst is able to list effectively all the possible responses to the question and when all the listed responses are mutually exclusive. whether product or process. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Open-Ended Questions – are particularly well-suited to situations in which you want to get at organizational member’s opinions about some aspect of the system. – when it is impossible to list effectively all of the possible responses to the question. so that choosing one precludes choosing any of the others.

1999] 134 closed fast low low Difficult easy .Trades-off between the use of open-ended and closed questions on Questionnaires Open-ended slow high high easy Difficult Speed of completion Speed of completion Exploratory nature Exploratory nature Breadth and depth Breadth and depth Ease of preparation Ease of preparation Ease of analysis Ease of analysis [KENDALL & KENDALL.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. Use the language of respondents whenever possible. 5. 2. 4. Keep questions short. Avoid bias in wording. Keep wording simple. This also means avoiding objectionable questions 6. 1999] 135 . Target questions to the right respondents. Work of being specific rather than vague in wording. Ensure that questions are technically accurate before including them.Some guidelines to use when choosing language of your questionnaire: 1. 8. Do not patronize respondents by talking down to them through low-level language choices. Use software to check whether the reading level is appropriate for the respondents. 3. Don’t assume too much knowledge. 7. However. avoid overly specific question as well.

To measure the attitudes or the characteristics of the people answering the questionnaires. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 136 .Scaling in Is the process of assigning Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s numbers or other symbols to an attribute or characteristic for the purpose of measuring it. To have the respondents judge the subjects of the questionnaire. 1999] Reasons for Scaling 1.

Four different forms of measurement scales:
1.Nominal scale –are used to classify things. 2. Ordinal scale –allows classification and also implies rank ordering. 3. Interval scale –posses the characteristic that the interval between each of the numbers are equal but there is no absolute zero. 4.Ratio scale –when the interval is equal and there is an absolute zero. used less often by the systems analyst. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]


Reasons for Scaling
1. Validity –is the degree to which the questions measures what the analyst intends to measure. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999] 2.Reliability –measures consistency. a. External Consistency – if the same result obtained both times when question was administered once and then again under the same conditions. b. Internal Consistency – if the questionnaire contains subparts and these parts have equivalent results. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Kinds of Information sought when Observing decision-maker behavior and the office environment. activities messages relationships


Observing the decision maker and the decision maker’s physical environment are important information-gathering techniques for the systems analyst. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

The following steps aid in observing a manager’s typical decision making activities:
1.Decide what is to be observed (activities). 2. Decide at what level of concreteness activities are to be observed that is, will the analyst observed that “The manager freely shared information with subordinates” or make a much more concrete observation such as “Manager sends a copy of the same memo to three subordinates”?). Determining the level of concreteness of observation will also dictate the amount of inference in each observation and subsequently the amount of interpretation needed once observations are made. 3. Create categories that adequately capture key activities. 4. Prepare appropriate scales, checklists; or other materials for observation. 5. Decide when to observe. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Time Sampling Cuts down on bias with randomization of Advantages observations Allows a representative view of Gathers data in a frequent activities fragmented fashion that doesn’t allow Disadvantages time for a decision to unfold Misses infrequent but important decisions

Event Sampling Allows observation of behavior as it unfolds Allows observation of an event designated as important Takes a great deal of analyst’s time Misses a representative sample of frequent decisions


Methods for Structured Observation of the environment is referred to as STROBE: 1.It provides a standard methodology and standard classification for the analysis of those organizational elements that influence decision making. 2. It allows other systems analyst to apply the same analytic framework for the same organization. 3. It limits analysis to the organization as it exists during the current stage in its life cycle. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]


1999] 143 . desk placement) File cabinets.e. and other items used for processing information [KENDALL & KENDALL.Analogy between filmic elements for observation and strobe FILMIC ELEMENTS Set location People position within a frame Stationary objects Props (movable objects) ORGANIZATIONAL ELEMENTS Office location Decision maker’s placement in an office (i. bookshelves. and equipment for storing information Calculator.. PCs.

newspapers. and items used for external information Office lighting and color Clothing worn by decision makers [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 144 .FILMIC ELEMENTS External objects (brought in from other scenes) Lighting and color Costumes ORGANIZATIONAL ELEMENTS Trade journals.

PCs present in office Equipment/files present in office [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 145 . incandescent lighting and colors Trade journals present in office Calculators.A summary of decision-maker characteristic that correspond to observable elements in the physical environment Characteristics of Decisionmakers information informally Gathers Seeks extra organizational information Processes data personally Stores information personally Corresponding Elements in the Physical Environment Warm.

1999] 146 .Characteristics of Decisionmakers power in decision Exercises Corresponding Elements in the Physicalfor power Desk placed Environment making credibility in decision Exhibits Wears authoritative clothing making information with others Office easily accessible Shares [KENDALL & KENDALL.

is a worthwhile technique for quickly gathering specific information about users’ information requirements. 1999] 147 .Prototyping Kinds of Information sought when Prototyping… user reactions innovations user suggestions revision plans Prototyping of information system. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

[KENDALL & KENDALL.KINDS OF PROTOTYPES 1.Non-operational & KENDALL. 1999] [KENDALL Prototype –is that of a non working scale model which is set up to test certain aspects of the design. working model of an integrated circuit. 2.Patched-up – it has to do in with constructing a system that works but is patched up or patched together. –in engineering this approach is refer to as breadboarding-creating a patched together. –a non working scale model of an information system might be produce when the coding require by the applications is too extensive to prototype but when the useful idea of the system can be gained through the prototyping of the input and the output only. 1999] 148 .

Input Process Output A non operational prototype may seek users’ opinions on the interfaces (input and output). 1999] 149 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.

First-Of-A-Series –involves a first full scale model of a system.3. 1999] 4. often called a pilot. [KENDALL & KENDALL. but not all of the features that the final systems will have. –when this kind of prototyping is done the system is accomplished in modules. –it is useful when many installations of the same information systems are plan. yet it minimizes the cost of overcoming any problems that it presents. [KENDALL & KENDALL. FULL-SCALE WORKING MODELS allows users to experience realistic interaction with the new system. so that if the features that are prototyped are evaluated successfully. 1999] 150 . Selected Features –concerns with building an operational model that includes some.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 151 .Facility 3 Facility 2 Facility 1 A First-Of-A-Series Prototype is a working model that will be used elsewhere if its is successful.

Facility 1 Facility 2 Facility 3 A First-Of-A-Series Prototype is a working model that will be used elsewhere if its is successful. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 152 .

–when this kind of prototyping is done the system is accomplished in modules. the analyst is still gathering information about what users need and want from the information system. –it is important to emphasize that at this stage in the life cycle. 1999] 2.GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A PROTOTYPE 1. 1999] 153 . so that if the features that are prototyped are evaluated successfully.Building the prototype rapidly –analyst can use prototyping to shorten this gap by using traditional information-gathering technique to pinpoint prominent information requirements and then they can quickly make decisions that bring forth a working model.Working in manageable modules –one that allows users to interact with its key features yet can be built separately from other system module. [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

–must be well developed to enable users to to pick-up the system quickly. –on-line. –a helpful attitude that demonstrates to users how necessary their feedback is if the system is to improve.3. Stressing the user interface –to easily interact with the systems prototype. interactive systems using GUI interfaces are ideally suited to prototype. 1999] 4. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Modifying the prototype –making the prototype modifiable means creating it in module that are not highly interdependent. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 154 .

1999] 155 .DISADVANTAGES Difficult to manage prototyping Users and analyst may adopt a prototype as a completed system when it is inadequate ADVANTAGES Potential exists for changing the system early in its development Opportunity exists to stop development on a system that is not working May address user needs and expectations more closely. Disadvantages and Advantages of prototyping [KENDALL & KENDALL.

Giving open reactions to the prototype –making users secure enough to give an open reaction is part of the relationship between analysts and users that your team works to build. 1999] 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Experimenting with the prototype –allows user the reality of hands-on interaction. 1999] 156 . –limited functionality along with the capability to send comments to the systems team ca be included. –providing a private (relatively unsupervised) period for users to interact with and respond to the prototype is one way to insulate them from unwanted organizational influences. [KENDALL & KENDALL.THREE MAIN WAYS A USER CAN BE OF HELP IN PROTOTYPING: 1.

Suggesting to the prototype –is their willingness to suggest additions to and/or deletions from the features being tried.3. –in the end it is the analyst responsibility to weigh this feedback and translate it into workable changes where necessary. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 157 .

Analysis Phase 158 .

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM A graphical representation of data processes throughout the organization Advantages of the Data Flow approach: 1.Analysis of a proposed system to determine if the necessary data and processes have been defined. 1999] 159 .Communicating current system knowledge to users through data flow diagrams 4. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Freedom from committing to the technical implementation of the system too early.Further understanding of the interrelatedness of the systems and subsystems. 2. 3.

1 Create Student Record 03 Student Master Entity Flow of Data Process Student Data Store The four basic symbols used in Data Flow Diagram by [KENDALL & KENDALL.SYMBOLS MEANING EXAMPLE Student New Student Information 2. 1999] Gane & Sarson. 160 .

1999] 161 . or a machine – also called a source or destination of data vFlow of Data – are the arrow that shows movement of data from one point to another.vExternal entity – can either be a department. with head of the arrow pointing toward the data’s destination. a person. [KENDALL & KENDALL. vProcess – A rectangle with rounded corner is used to occurrence of a transforming process. a business.

1999] 162 .Assigned the name of the whole system when naming a high-level process. [KENDALL & KENDALL. is produced. VERB – describes the type of activity. b. examples: compute. such as backordered or inventory. examples:compute sales tax.Process represent work being performed within the system and should be named using one of the following formats: a. verify. prepare. print backordered report. such as Inventory Reporting Subsystem.Use a verb-adjective-noun format for detailed processes.To name a major subsystem. print or add ADJECTIVE – illustrates which specific output. c. example: inventory control system.

2. the general system. representing the entire system.Creating child diagrams (more detailed levels) – the process on diagram 0 that is exploded is called the parent process.Creating the context diagram – is the highest level in a data flow diagram and contains only one process.DEVELOPING DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 1. dictates that child diagram cannot produce output or receive input that the parent process is not also produce or receive. and outputs. vertical balancing.Drawing diagram 0 (the next level) – is the explosion of the context diagram and may include up to nine processes. – the initial context diagram should be an overview. 3. and the diagram that results is called the child diagram. one including basic inputs. 1999] 163 . – the primary rule for creating diagram. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

Entity 1 Entity 2 Input A Input B 0 System Name Output C Entity 3 1 Input A General Entity 1 Process AAA Data Flow B 2 General Output C Process BBB Entity 3 vContext 01 Data Store 1 02 Data Store 2 4 General Process DDD Entity 2 3 Input B General Process CCC Data Flow D Diagrams (above) Can be “exploded” into 164 Diagram 0 [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] .

4.Checking the diagram for errors 2 1 1 3 Data Flows should not split into two or more different data flows processes need to have at least one input data flow and one output data flow 2 all Data Flows must either originate or terminate at a process [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 165 .

and necessary data stores.The progression of models from physical to logical… Current logical data flow diagram Derive the logical data flow diagram for the current system by examining the physical data flow diagram and isolating unique business activities. New logical data flow diagram Create the logical data flow diagram for the new system by adding the input. 166 [KENDALL & KENDALL. the nature of the processes. 1999] . Determine where the user interfaces should exists. output. New Physical data flow diagram Derive the physical data flow diagram by examining processes on the new logical diagram. and processes required in the new system to the logical data flow diagram for the current system.

and to determine the expected result of performing a task.Better understanding of the business by analyst. Has a business emphasis and helps the analyst to understand the business being studied. 2. 3.Flexibility and maintenance. 1999] 167 .LOGICAL DATA FLOW DIAGRAM Are often more stable because they are based on business events and not on a particular technology or method of implementation. 5. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Elimination of redundancies and easier creation of the physical model.Better communication with users. to grasp why procedures are performed. 4.More stable system. Advantages in using a logical diagrams: 1.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. 3. Advantages of data flow diagram: 1. a transaction file.Identifying temporary data stores. 5.Sequencing processes that have to be done in a particular order.Describing processes in more detail than do logical DFDs.PHYSICAL DATA FLOW DIAGRAM Shows how the system will be constructed. 6.Specifying actual names of files and printouts. Also have intermediate data stores-often. 4.Adding controls to ensure the processes are done properly. 1999] 168 . 2.Clarifying which processes are manual and which are automated.

SIX REASONS FOR PARTIONING DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS: 1.Different user groups – if the processes performed by several different users groups, often at different physical location within the company, they should be partitioned in different computer programs. 2.Timing – examined the timing of the processes. If two processes execute at different times, they cannot be grouped into one program. 3.Similar tasks – if two processes performed similar tasks and both are batch processes, they may be grouped into one computer program. 4.Efficiency – several batch processes may be combined into one program for efficient processing. 5.Consistency of data – processes may be combined into one program for consistency of data. 6.Security – processes may be partitioned for security reasons. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Is a reference work of data about data(that is, metadata), one that is compiled by systems analysts to guide them through analysis and design. The data dictionary may be used to: 1.Validate the data-flow diagram for completeness and accuracy. 2.Provide the starting point for developing screens and reports 3.Determine the contents of data stored in files. 4.Develop the logic for data-flow diagram processes. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]


DATA REPOSITORY While the data dictionary contains information about data and procedures, a larger collection of project information. The Repository concept is one of the many impacts of CASE tools and may contain the following: 1.Information about the data maintained by the system, including data flow, data stores, record structures, and elements. 2.Procedural logic. 3.Screen and report design. 4.Data relationships, such as how one data structure is linked to another. 5.Project requirements and final system deliverables. 6.Project management information, such as delivery schedules, achievements, issues that need resolving, and project users. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Data Flow Diagram

Data Dictionary

Data Flow

Data Flow Description Form XXX

Data Structures

Data Elements XXX

XXX Data Store Description Form XXX Data Structure XXX Data Elements XXX

Data Store

How the data dictionaries relate to data flow diagram [KENDALL & KENDALL 1999]

v DATA -should be described first for all input and output, FLOW followed by the intermediate data flow and the data flow to and from data stores. -the detail of each data flow is described using the data structure, a group of elements sometimes called fields. v DATA STRUCTURES -are usually described using algebraic notation like: •= means “is composed of” •+ means “and” •{ } indicate repetitive elements •[ ] represents an either/or situation •( ) represents an optional elements -allows the analyst to produce a view of elements that make up the data structure, along with information about those elements. 173 [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

v DATA ELEMENTS -each of it should be defined once in a data dictionary and may also be entered previously on an element description form. v DATA STORES -all base elements must be stored with in the system. -are created for each different data entity being stored. -when data flow base elements are grouped together to form a structural record, it is created for each unique structural record. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

CREATING THE DATA DICTIONARY 1. and item cost) or semi-permanent nature. It is acceptable to start with some information and then add more information to the data store when you analyze more data flows and realize more information to be added. description.Developing data store Contains information of a permanent (item number. 1999] 175 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. 2.Analyzing Input and Output An important step in creating the data dictionary is to identify and categorize system input and output data flow.

actions. occurrence that might affect the outcome of something else. 1999] 176 .STRUCTURED DECISION Conditions. [KENDALL & KENDALL. and action rules must be known in order to design systems systems for structured decision. 1999] The analyst first determine the conditions-that is. [KENDALL & KENDALL. condition alternatives.

multiply. it is based on: a. move.structured logic or instructions organized into nested and grouped procedures. 177 .Structured English when structured decisions are not complex. and so on.simple English statements such as add. this is the appropriate technique in analyzing the decision process. b.THREE ALTERNATIVES FOR DECISION ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE DECISIONS: 1. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] a.

reserved meaning. and PERFORM. •Be careful when using “and” and “or”. •Indent blocks of statements to show their hierarchy (nesting) clearly. UNTIL. 1999] 178 . underline those words or phrases to signify that they have a specialized. •Use and capitalized accepted keywords such as IF. THEN. and avoid confusion when distinguishing between “greater than” and “greater than or equal to” and like relationships. [KENDALL & KENDALL. ELSE. DO. case structures. •When words or phrases have been defined in a data dictionary. decision structures.Writing Structured English •Express all logic in terms of sequential structures. or iterations.

Calculate Base Premium Calculate Base Premium IF construction is brick IF construction is brick THEN deduct 10 percent of base to total THEN deduct 10 percent of base to total ENDIF ENDIF IF owner chooses $100 deductible IF owner chooses $100 deductible THEN add 15 percent of subtotal THEN add 15 percent of subtotal ENDIF ENDIF IF home has burglar alarm IF home has burglar alarm THEN deduct 5 percent of adjusted subtotal THEN deduct 5 percent of adjusted subtotal ENDIF ENDIF Using structured English for analyzing the decision process for a simple sequential decision [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 179 .

THEN complete the following implement Action A statements.Structured English Type example Sequential Structure Action #1 A block of instructions Action #2 where no branching occurs Action #3 Decision Structure IF Condition A is true Only IF a condition is true. 1999] 180 . ELSE implement Action B otherwise jump to the ELSE ENDIF Example of logic expressed in a sequential structure and decision structure [KENDALL & KENDALL.

structure where the cases are mutually exclusive (if one occurs the others cannot) Example IF Case #1 implement Action #1 ELSE IF Case #2 implement Action #2 ELSE IF Case #3 implement Action #3 ELSE IF Case #4 implement Action #4 ELSE print error ENDIF Iteration DO WHILEthere are Customers. Blocks of Statements Action #1 that are repeated until ENDDO done Example of logic expressed in a case structure and an iteration 181 .Structured English Type Structure Case A special type of decision.

when the it is used to determine which actions need to be taken. separated into four quadrants.2. Conditions and Action Conditions Actions Rules Condition Alternative Action Entries The standard format used for presenting a decision table [KENDALL & KENDALL.Decision Tables is a table of rows and columns. 1999] 182 . the logic moves clockwise beginning from the upper left.

Decision Trees are used when complex branching occurs in a structured decision process. 1999] 183 . Means IF Condition 2 Action 1 1 3 2 Action 2 Condition 1 1 Condition 2 2 Action 4 Condition 4 2 Action 3 can be thought of as meaning THEN Conventions for drawing a decision tree [KENDALL & KENDALL. Analyst tree does not contain probabilities and outcomes. because in systems analysis trees are used mainly for identifying and organizing conditions and actions in a completely structured decision process.3.

3. Complex combinations of conditions.Decision Trees a.CHOOSING A STRUCTURED DECISION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE: 1. OR Communication to end users is important. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Structured English when a. OR b. and contradictions. 184 .There are many repetitious actions. 4. and rules are found. The sequence of conditions and actions is critical. When not every condition is relevant to every action (the branches are different). You require a method that effectively avoids impossible situations. actions. 1999] b.Decision Tables when a. redundancies. OR b.

1999] Decision Support System Posses many characteristics that differentiate them from other. more traditional Management Information System. [KENDALL & KENDALL.SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISION Are those that are partially programmable but still require human judgment. DSS are most powerful when addressing semi-structured decisions. 1999] 185 . Supports the decision-making process through the presentation of information that is designed for the decision maker’s problem-solving approach and application needs. [KENDALL & KENDALL. since the DSS supports the decision maker in all phases of decision making but does not mandate one final answer.

and choice 3.THREE MAJOR CONCERNS ARISE WHEN ANALYZING SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: 1.The multiple-criteria methods that are useful in solving semistructured problems. design. 1999] 186 . 1999] Analytic Decision Maker  Heuristic Decision Maker Learns by acting Learns by analyzing Users step-by-step procedure Values quantitative information Uses trial and error Values experience and models Builds mathematical models and Rules on common sense algorithms Seeks optimal solution Seeks Satisfying solution KENDALL & KENDALL.Whether decision makers are primarily Analytic or heuristic 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL.How decisions are made in the three problem-solving phases of intelligence.

Unable to identify the problem Intelligence Unable to define the problem Unable to prioritize the problem Unable to generate alternative Unable to quantify or describes Alternative Unable to assign criteria. and makings Unable to identify a choice method Unable to organize and present information Unable to select alternative Design Choice Common Bottlenecks in the three phases of Decision Making [KENDALL & KENDALL. values weights. 1999] 187 .

Certainty Information and experience increase certainty. which are determined by the availability of information and experience. 1999] Uncertainty 188 . Risk Decisions are made under certainty. and risk. uncertainty. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

The number of decision criteria -a manager concerned is dealing with a structured problem.DIMENSIONS OF SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISIONS 1. 3. 2.The degree of decision-making skill required -relates back to the concepts of analytic and heuristic decision makers -is measured in the analytic and experience-based maturity of the decision maker. conflicting goals and multiple decision criteria. 1999] 189 .The degree of problem complexity -DSS can help in this regard by encouraging the decision maker to define the boundary of the system. [KENDALL & KENDALL. but most real-world problems have multiple. and he/she b would accomplish this goal by clearly defining the problem and limiting the number of variables.

and most allow the decision maker to perform sensitivity analysis by asking “what-if” types of question [KENDALL & KENDALL. has clear documentation. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 190 . and is user friendly but inexpensive. 1999 Give the decision maker a more powerful way to evaluate alternatives and the design phase of decision making [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999 A decision involving multiple criteria may include choosing a software package that is powerful.Multiple-Criteria Decision Making Approaches allow decision makers to set their own priorities.

the systems analyst must used systematic methods for acquiring hardware and software. must identify and forecast future costs and benefits. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 191 . 1999] In order to address information requirements adequately. and must perform cost-benefit analysis. [KENDALL & KENDALL.PREPARING THE SYSTEM PROPOSAL Systems proposal is a destination of all the systems analyst has learned about the business and about what is needed to improve its performance.

1999] 192 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Ascertaining Hardware and Software Needs The systems analyst needs to work along with user to determine what hardware will be needed Hardware determination can come only in conjunction with determining information requirements. Knowledge of the organizational structure can also be helpful in hardware decision.

Inventory computer hardware Estimate Workloads Evaluate hardware Evaluate Software Choose the vendor Acquire the computer equipment 193 [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Steps in choosing hardware and software… .

the systems analyst needs to sit up one quickly and carry through on it.model number. manufacturer. or rented.The physical location of the equipment.The estimated age of the equipment.The status of the equipment operation . 1999] 194 . 6. and storage.The type of equipment .If an Updated Computer Hardware is an available. operating. leased.on order.The projected life of the equipment.owned.The financial arrangement for the equipment . 3. 5. You need to know: 1.The department of person consider responsible for the equipment. 7. 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL. in need of repair. 4.

ESTIMATING WORKLOADS Means that systems analyst formulate numbers that represent both current and projected workloads for the system. 1999] 195 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. so that any hardware obtain well posses the capability to handle current and future workloads.

Criteria that the Systems Analysts and Users should use to evaluate performance of different systems hardware include: 1.The idle time of the central processing unit.The size of the memory provided. 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL. and systems analysts.EVALUATING COMPUTER HARDWARE Is the share responsibility of management.The total volume capacity of system(how much can be processed at the sane time before the problem arises).The time required for average transactions(including how long it takes to input data and how long it takes to receive output). 1999] . users. 4. 3.

ACQUISATION OF COMPUTER EQUIPMENT Advantages Buying  Disadvantages Cheaper that leasing or renting Initial cost is high Risk of obsolescence over the long run The ability to change system / Risk of being stuck if choice was Full control wrong Provides tax advantages of Full responsibility accelerated depreciation No capital is tied up No financing is required Leases are lower than rental payments  Leasing Company doesn’t owned the system when lease expires Usually a heavy penalty or terminating the lease  Renting No capital is tied up  No financing is required  Easy to change systems  Maintenance and insurance are usually included  Company doesn’t owned the Computer  Cost is very high because vendors assumes the risk(most expensive option)  197 .

Satisfactory users interface e. Fast response time d.Ease of Use a. Able to perform all task that maybe desired at some time in the future c. 1999] 198 . Well design display screens d. Adequate feedback b.Software Evaluation 1. Efficient input e. Good error recovery c.Performance Efficiency a. Able to perform required tasks b. Adequate capacity 2. Readme files for last minute changes d. Efficient storage of data b. Efficient back-up c. Help menus available f. Flexible interface [KENDALL & KENDALL.Performance Effectiveness a. Efficient output 3.

Manufacturer Support a. Good organization b. Web site with FAQ 6. Usable with other software 5.Quality of Documentation a. Options for input b. Options for output c. 1999] 199 .Flexibility a. Web site with downloadable product updates [KENDALL & KENDALL. Newsletter or e-mail c. Tech support hotline b. Adequate on-line tutorial c.4.

1999] 200 . and increasing job satisfaction for employees by eliminating tedious tasks. in enhancing accuracy. maintaining a good business image. [KENDALL & KENDALL.IDENTIFYING BENEFITS AND COSTS Tangible Benefits Are advantages measurable in dollars that accrue to the organization through the use of information system Examples: Increase in the speed processing The advantage of the computer’s superior calculating power Intangible Benefits Include improving the decision making process. becoming more competitive in customer service.

1999] 201 . and effective decision making due to untimely or inaccessible information. the cost of programmers’ time. losing the reputation for being first with an innovation or the leader in a field declining company image due to increased customer dissatisfaction. the cost of resources. and other employees’ salaries.Tangible Costs Are the cost of the equipment such as computers and terminals. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Intangible Costs Include losing a competitive edge. the cost of systems analysts’ time.

Design Phase 202 .

or the World Wide Web. 2. 6. 4.Design output to serve the intended purpose. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Provide the output on time.Design output to fit the user.Assure that the output is where it is needed. 3.Choose the right output method. extranets. Six objectives for output: 1.Delivered the appropriate quantity of output.OUTPUT DESIGN Is information delivered to users through the information system by way of intranets. 1999] 203 . 5.

Compatibility with software and hardware 3.Reliability 2. Three key factors: 1. 1999] 204 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Manufacturer support.vPrinters are changing so rapidly that any list of them is outdated the next year.

1999] 205 .Output Method Advantage Printer Specially Printers (label makers. accessed. special tasks that would be difficult on standard Good for frequently printer.) Display Screen Audio Screen Handles large volumes Can easily accomplish of output. etc. ephemeral messages. Good for individual user  Disadvantage May be noisy Cannot be networked  Can be expensive if required for many users Is expensive to develop  [KENDALL & KENDALL.

easily faxes and Web Can be made pages interactive Can be “broadcast” Has generally lower resolution Web sites need diligent maintenance  [KENDALL & KENDALL.Has large capacity ROM Can be update very Electronic Output (e-mail.Output MethodAdvantage Microform  Disadvantage Handles large volume Can be of information expensive initial investment Is more difficult to update  DVD and CD. 1999] 206 .

[KENDALL & KENDALL. although it is actually produced by discrete digital sounds that are then put together in such a way as to be perceived as V continuous words. 1999] 207 . highly useful desktop technology. •Screens as output are an increasingly popular output technology. may provide an ideal output technology for information that is needed only once and that need never be stored. •Audio output Is interpreted by the human ear as speech.•Specialty printers involved in expensive.

DVD(Digital Versatile Disk) is expected to replace the CD-ROM soon because a DVD has more capacity and a DVD drive can read CD-ROMs as well as DVDs. [KENDALL&KENDALL.•CD-ROMS and DVDs CD-ROMs are being used to output any information that is voluminous and somewhat stable in content. •Electronic output in a form of e-mail. 1999] 208 . faxes and bulletin board messages that can be sent from one computer to another without the need for hard copy. •Microforms are ideal for large volumes of output such as cataloged parts or customer lists. and they can significantly reduce the physical space required for storage.

What are the initial and ongoing costs of maintenance and supplies? 10.Who will use(see) the output(requisite quality) 2.What are the environmental requirements(noise absorption.What is the speed with which output is needed? 6.Under what special regulations is the output produced. controlled temperature. stored.Where is the output needed(distribution/logistics)? 4. and distributed? 9.Factors to consider when choosing output technology 1.How long will(or must) the output be stored? 8.How many people need the output? 3. 1999] 209 .What is the purpose of the output? 5.How frequently will the output be accessed? 7. and cabling) for output technologies? [KENDALL & KENDALL. space for equipment.

2. 2. Three main ways in which presentation of output are unintentionally biased: 1. 3. Choice of graphics.Realizing how output bias affect users 1.Recognizing bias in the way output is used bias is present in everything that humans create. How information is sorted.Introducing bias when information is sorted bias is introduced to output when the analyst makes choices about how information is sorted for a report.Introducing bias by setting limits many reports are generated on an exception basis only. 1999] 210 . which means that when limits on values are set beforehand. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Setting of acceptable limits. 3. only exceptions to those values will be output.

Limit set too high. 1999] 211 .Four general problems with setting limits that may bias output: 1. 4.Limit set too low.Range of exceptions output too wide. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 3. 2.Range of exceptions output too narrow.

Be aware of the sources of bias.Introducing bias through graphics 1. f. 1999] 212 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Train users to rely on multiple output for conducting “reality tests” on system output. d.Create an interactive design of output that includes users and a variety of differently-configured systems during the testing of Web document appearance.Work with users so that they are informed of the output’s biases and can recognize the implications of customizing their displays. e.Create output that is flexible and that allows users to modify limits and ranges. c.Avoiding bias in the design of output: a.

the page number c. 1999] 213 . the heading or title of the report b. the column headings e.Special output forms 4.Designing printed output 1.Functional attributes a. Variable information – is information that can vary each time the report is printed out. the grouping of related data items together f. and size 3. 2. type.Paper quality. the use of control breaks [KENDALL & KENDALL.Report design conventions Constant information – is information that remains the same whenever the report is printed. the data preparation d.

d. determine the need for the report. estimate the overall size of the report. [KENDALL & KENDALL. determine the data items to be included. determine the users. b. e. 1999] 214 . title the report.5.Stylistic/aesthetic attributes Steps in designing output reports with a computeraided software tool a. c.

Steps in designing output reports with a computer-aided software tool: a. [KENDALL & KENDALL.include the preparation date on the report. b. g.determine the need for the report. 1999] 215 . f.title the report. d.determine the users.determine the data items to be included.number the pages of report. c.estimate the overall size of the report. e.

k. and aesthetic appeal. define variable data. usefulness. special. j.h. or numeric character. i. indicating on the screen whether each space or field is to be used for an alphabetic.label each column of data appropriately. [KENDALL & KENDALL.view prototype reports with users and programmers for feasibility.indicate the positioning of blank lines used to help organize information. 1999] . readability.

Keep the screen simple.Designing screen output Guidelines for screen design 1. 3. 2. 4. 1999] 217 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. Keep the screen presentation consistent. Create an attractive screen. Facilitate user movement among screens.

1999] 218 .Tabular output for decision support systems information systems that were designed to support decisions makers in semi-structured decision systems.Screen Design Example: 1. 2. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Graphical output for decision support systems to organize information through the use of data flow diagrams. and to inform management about recommendations on the proposed information system.

Use the tools you’ve learned. c. d.General guidelines for designing web sites b.Examine the web sites of professional designers f.Study other web sites -analyze design elements are being used. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 219 .Use the resources that the web has to offer e. and see how they are functioning.Designing a web site 1.Use professional tools -use software called a web editor like Microsoft’s front page or adobe page mill.

and video very sparingly k.Look at some poor examples of web pages.Create templates of your own j.Consult the books h.Use plug-ins. g. audio.a. too i. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Plan ahead. 1999] 220 .

” Web sites often have a page devoted to these so the company sales force or tech support are not inundated with the same questions over and over again and users can have FTP “file transfer protocol” is currently the most common 24 hour access to answers. [KENDALL & KENDALL. way to move files between computer systems. (in Microsoft internet explorer bookmarks are called “favorites.”) You can jump to a page by clicking on its bookmark. FAQ “frequently asked question.Web Terms Meaning book mark A stored address of a web page. 1999] 221 .

[KENDALL & KENDALL. copy. The person responsible for maintaining the web site. save. and print these pages.browser GIF Java Webmaster www VRML Software that allows you to read web pages. 1999] . An object oriented language that allows dynamic applications to be run on the internet. “graphic interchange format” a popular compressed image format best suited for artwork. “virtual reality markup language” a language similar to HTML that allows users to browse in 3D. “world wide web” a global hypertext system that uses the internet.

that can be used with another programs. “hypertext markup language” is the language behind the appearance of documents on the web. In a hypertext system words. 223 .JPEG HTML http:// Hyperlink plug-ins URL “joint photographic expert group” developed and gave the acronym of its name to title this popular compressed image format best suited for photographs. “hypertext transfer protocol” is used to move web pages between computers. phrases or images that are underlined or emphasized in some way(often Additional software(often developed by a third party) with a different color). “uniform resource locator” is the address of a document or program on the internet.

[KENDALL & KENDALL.INPUT DESIGN The systems analyst is acknowledging that poor input calls into question the trustworthiness of the entire system. by the transaction or by the batch. 1999] Data is usually input to a processing system in one of two modes. 1989] 224 . [SILVER & SILVER.

This mode is also known as online data entry. [SILVER & SILVER.Transaction-Oriented Processing – source data is entered directly into the processing system at the time the transaction occurs without intermediate storage. This mode is also known as offline data entry. 1989] Batch Processing – involves preparing data to be input to a system at a later time. [SILVER & SILVER. 1989] 225 . In this mode. Input is made in real time. source data is transcribed on to machine-readable storage media.

Elements of Data Input A source document is a record of an original transaction. The data on source documents must be made available for processing by the system. generated at a time the transaction takers places. [SILVER & SILVER. This involves transferring the data on the source document to another record that is machine readable. Source documents contain the about the procedures or activities initiated during the transaction. 1989] Input Media Several methods are used to prepare source data for input into a system. 1989] 226 . [SILVER & SILVER. The purpose of all input devices is to convert media into electronic pulses that can be stored and manipulated by computers or other devices.

Voice Recognition Devices 12.Keyboard Terminals a. 3.Dumb Terminals – Do not have integrated microprocessor. a. 1989] 227 .Mark Sense Readers 8. 4.) [SILVER & SILVER. joysticks. b. a.Most Common Input Media 1. wands.Optical Scanning Devices 7.Magnetic ink Character Readers 10.Magnetic Ink Character Recognition 11.Manual Data Entry Devices a.Other Input Devices ( mice. digitizers. and light pens.Optical Character Readers 9. b.Smart terminal – have an integrated microprocessor 2.Long hand or on a typewriter 5. 6.

[SILVER & SILVER. Filled should be labeled. 1989] 228 . and explanatory notes should be included in the form to make sure that data is entered correctly. It should have adequate space for the user to fill in the data.Design of Source Document A source document should capture data in the sequence in which it will be entered to the system.

1989] 229 . [SILVER & SILVER.Input Verification Control Well-designed information systems have transaction controls that monitor input data to make sure it is correct. •Sequence Test – the data must be entered in proper sequence. •Data Type Check – data entered in the field must be in the correct data type. and complete. •Test for Completeness – all data must be necessarily entered for the processing transaction. •Combination Test – information entered into two field must be properly related. •Range Test – data must be entered within the range or limit that is expected for the kind of transaction being process. •Accuracy Test – the data must be entered accurately. in the proper range.

[SILVER & SILVER.Verification Involves making comparisons to check the accuracy of the data transferred from one document to another. •Keyboard Information Twice •Batch Totals – some of all values in a given field in a batch. 1989] 230 .

Place related items close together. Avoiding shifting between capital letters and lower case and between figures and numbers unless necessary. for instance 1/29/89. and so on. 1989. Structure records.” •Use common expressions to identify fields: ADDRESS rather than LOCATION or DOMICILE. Don’t call for a date to be entered one way. for example. •Use a consistent style. [SILVER & SILVER. LAST NAME rather than SURNAME. and later ask for it to be entered as January 29. not constants. •Only variable data should be entered. so that the operator enters “6723.Input Design Guidelines •Design input screens for operator convenience.” not “EMPLOYEE NUMBER 6723. 1989] 231 .

•Provide entry operators with a guide showing standard abbreviations to be used and explanations of style and format for all fields. •Use codes or abbreviation to simplify data entry. [SILVER & SILVER. phone number.• Enter data in a logical sequence. •Design forms with the end user in mind. For example. and let the computer calculate the gross pay. is more logical than name. rather than having to key in the full words. Provide enough space for people to write or print required information. address. For example. phone number. It is obviously easier to enter F for female and M for male. leave adequate space for names of states or individuals. •Use the computer to perform the computations. enter the number of hours worked and the pay rate. name. For instance. address. 1989] 232 .

2.Design forms to assure accurate completion.Make forms easy to fill out.Ensure that forms meet the purpose for which they are designed. [KENDALL&KENDALL. 1999] 233 .Keep forms attractive. 4. 3.Four guidelines for form design should be observed in order to design useful forms: 1.

Form 1. 1999] Name of first person involved .Form Flow -forms should flow from left to right and top to bottom.Good Form Design 1. Types of incident Location Incident Report Data Investigating Officer Time Address Phone Injuries Name of second person involved Address Name of witness Address Phone Comments Phone Injuries Describe what happened Action taken Suggestions 234 [KENDALL & KENDALL.

1999] 235 . Totals c.2.Identification and access f.Instructions g. Seven main sections of a strong form are: a. or box.Captioning – another technique that can make easy work of filling out a form.Body 3. [KENDALL & KENDALL. space.Comments d. – tell the person completing the form what to put on the blank line.Seven sections of a form -a second technique that makes it easy for people to fill out forms correctly in logical grouping of information. Signature and verification b.Heading e.

– the display screen should show only that which is necessary for the particular action being undertaken.Good screen and web forms design good form design is transferable to screen design and eventually to the good design of Web sites and their pages. 4. 3. – the first guideline for good screen design is to keep the screen display simple. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Keep the screen presentation consistent. 2. 1999] 236 .Create an attractive screen.Facilitate user movement among screens. Four guidelines for screen design: 1.Keep the screen simple.

1999] 237 . Scrolling this is an extremely easy way for inexperienced users to change screens. Calling up more detail another general approach to movement between screens allows users to call up another screen quickly by using cursor positioning along with a specific command [KENDALL & KENDALL.Keeping the screen consistent the second guideline for good screen design is to keep the screen display consistent. Facilitating movement the third guideline for good screen design is to make it easy to move fro one screen to another.

1999] 238 . the middle section is called the “body”of the screen this can be used for data entry and is organized from left to right and top to bottom. the top of the screen features a “heading” section.On-screen dialog Displaying prompts facilitate of user movement between screens. part which is written into the software to describe to the user where he or she is in the package. Three screen sections this method is useful because it simplifies interactions with screens. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Designing an attractive screen the fourth guideline for good screen design is to create an attractive screen for the user.

Inverse video and blinking cursors Techniques that effectively enhance the attractiveness of screens. Using different type of fonts are another way to make screens attractive to users. 1999] 239 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Using windows hyperlinks another way to keep the screen display simple is to list a few basic commands that. will overlay windows to partially or totally fill the current screen with new information. when used.

Shift and extended attributes -limits data fields to numeric or alphanumeric entries when data is keyed. the attribute character must be taken into consideration.240 .Protection -determines whether the user may enter data into the screen field or not. Attribute character considerations when designing mainframe terminal screens for entering data. 2.Intensity -is how bright a screen field will appear 3. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Attributes attribute characters control the characteristics of the screen field to the right of them and include the following qualities: 1.

Using icon in screen design -icons serve functions similar to those of words and may replace them in many menus. OS/2. Macintosh. [KENDALL & KENDALL.0 2. 1.Tab control dialog boxes -are another part of graphical user interfaces and another way to get users organized and into system material efficiently. -icons designed for the spreadsheet for excel 7.Graphical user interface -uses a windows. 1999] 241 . since their meaning is more quickly grasped than words. 3.Screen code generation may be designed using a number of CASE tools. or other graphics screen for entering and displaying data.

Consider including three basic buttons in your design: OK. and help. 4. blue on white [KENDALL & KENDALL. black on yellow d.Guidelines for designing the control dialog boxes: a. The top five most legible combinations of foreground lettering on background are(starting with the most legible combination): a. 1999] 242 .Create a separate tab for each unique feature. c. yellow on black c. cancel.Using color in screen design -color is an appealing and proven way to facilitate computer input.Place the most commonly used tabs in front and display them first. b. green on white e. white on blue b.

5.FILE OR DATABASE Is a central source of data meant to be shared by many users for a variety of applications.Data Availability.Data integrity.Efficient data storage. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Purposeful information retrieval. 2. Design Objectives: 1. 3. Conventional files will remain a practical way to store data for some (but not all) applications. 1999] 243 .Efficient updating and retrieval. 4.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. 2.Ensuring that all data required for current and future applications will be readily available. 1999] 244 .Allowing users to construct their personal view of the data without concern for the way the data are physically stored.Maintaining data that are both accurate and consistent. 3.Ensuring that data can be shared among users for a variety of applications. 5. 4.Allowing the database to involve and the needs of the users grow.The effectiveness objectives of the database include: 1.

data collected about people.the information that describes data Entities any object or event about which someone chooses to collect data. Relationships are associations between entities (sometimes they are referred to as data associations).Data concepts Reality . Metadata .the real world itself will be referred to as reality. 1999] 245 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. or events in reality will eventually be stored in the file or database. Data . places.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. is called a secondary key if it cannot uniquely identify a record.Records is a collection of data items that have something in common with the entity. it is called a primary key. 1999] 246 . Keys is one of the data items in a record that is used to identify report when a key uniquely identifies a record.

Example: tax table [KENDALL & KENDALL.File Organization •File types -files can be used for storing data for an indefinite period of time. an expansion area is reserved at the end of each record. 1999] 247 . •Master files -contain records for a group of entities. or they can be used to store data temporarily for a specific purpose. -if the master file is stored using conventional file methods. •Table files -contains data used to calculate more data or performance measures.

•Work files -a program can work efficiently if a work file is used.• Transaction files -is used to enter changes that update the master file and produce reports. -may contain several different kinds of records such as the three used for updating the newspaper subscription master.microfiche units. •Report files -is used when it is necessary to run a program but no printer is available(busy). [KENDALL 248 & KENDALL. and even computerized typesetting machines. with a code on the transaction file indicating the type of transaction. 1999] . -is very useful because users can take files to other computer systems and output to specialty devices such as laser printers.

sequential master file are used when the hardware(magnetic tape) requires it when the normal access requires that most of the records be accessed.v Sequential organization when records are physically in order in a file. it is necessary to go through to the entire file. [KENDALL & KENDALL. vLinked lists are achieved by using a set of pointers to the direct you to the next logical record located any where in the file. 1999] 249 . a common hashing techniques is to divide the original number by a prime number that approximates the storage locations and then to use the remainder as the address. when it is updated. vHashed File Organization is the process of calculating an address from the record key.

since it is stored file that is separate from the data file.v Indexed Organization index is different from a pointer. VSAM – or virtual storage access method. in a vIndexed-Sequential Organization also called ISAM(indexed-sequential access method). a widely used method of file organization allow program to read records directly without reading other records in the file. a more modern and efficient method for handling indexed-sequential files. ISAM – the records are arrange in blocks. 1999] 250 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.

1999] 251 . Therefore it is structure made up of many oneto-many or one-to-one associations.DATABASE ORGANIZATION Hierarchical Data Structures imply that entity can have no more than one owning entity. [KENDALL & KENDALL. which are referred to as relations. Network Data Structures a relational structure consists of one or more twodimensional tables.

User Views Unnormalized relationship Step 1 Remove repeating groups Normalized relations(1NF) Step 2 Remove partial dependencies Second normal form (2NF)relations Step 3 Remove transitive dependencies [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Third normal form(3NF) relations 252 .Normalization of a relation is accomplished in three major steps……….

A specific data field should exist only on one master file. Example: CUSTOMER NAME should exist only on the CUSTOMER MASTER FILE. Vendor master file – should contain only vendor information. not on the ORDER FILE or any other master file 3. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Each master file or database relation should have programs to create.GUIDELINES FOR FILE OR DATABASE RELATION DESIGN 1. Item master file – should contain only item information. 1999] 253 . update. Each separate data entity should create a master file. 2. and delete(CRUD) the records. read.

Join two relations together 3.Derive new attributes 6.Calculate totals and performance measure 8. 1999] 254 .Index or sort rows 7.Eight steps in the retrieval and presentation of data: 1.Project columns from the relation 4.Present data [KENDALL & KENDALL.Choose a relation from the database 2.Select rows from the relation 5.

4. [KENDALL & KENDALL.User consideration as demonstrated in the design of suitable interfaces and by providing appropriate feedback to user from the system.USER INTERFACE OBJECTIVES 1. 3.Effectiveness is achieved through the design of interfaces that allow users to access the system in a way that is congruent with their individual needs. 1999] 255 .Efficiency as demonstrated through interfaces that both increase the speed of data entry and reduce errors.Productivity as measured by ergonomically sound principles of design for user interfaces and work spaces. 2.

– provides the user with an on-screen list of available selections. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 256 .Types of User Interface 1. Natural language interfaces – are perhaps the dream and ideal of inexperienced users.Question-and-answer interfaces – the computer displays a question to the user on the screen.Menus – this interface appropriately borrows its name from the list of dishes that can be selected in the restaurant. 2. since they permit users to interact with the computer in their everyday or natural language. 3.

1999] 257 . – manipulate the computer as a tool by allowing the user to control the dialog. [KENDALL & KENDALL. or some sequence of these three methods.Form-fill interfaces(input/output forms) – consist of on-screen forms or web-based forms displaying fields containing data items or parameters that need to be communicated to the users.Command-language interfaces – allows the users to control the application with a series of key strokes.4. commands. 5. – require memorization of syntax rules that may prove to be obstacles for inexperienced users. phrases.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. Graphical user interfaces(GUIs) – allow direct manipulation of the graphical representation on the screen. joystick.6. which can be accomplished with keyboard input. 1999] 258 . or a mouse – its creation poses a challenge. since an appropriate model of reality or an acceptable conceptual model of the representation must be invented.

3.Dialog Is the communication between the computer and a person. so that the computer understand what people are entering and people understand what the computer is presenting or requesting. 1999] 259 . 2.Minimal user action.Meaningful communication. Guidelines for dialog design: 1.Standard operation and consistency. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Well designed dialog makes it easier for people to use a computer and leads to less frustration with the computer system.

1999] 260 . minimizing the use of abbreviations. Standard operation and consistency the system should be consistent throughout its set of different screens and mechanisms for controlling the operation of the screens throughout different applications. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Minimal user action keying is often the lowest part of a computer system. and providing clear user feedback. and good dialog will minimize the number of keystrokes required.Communication presenting an appropriate title on each screen.

Feedback is Needed to Tell the User That: The computer has accepted the input The input is the correct form The input is not in the correct form There will be a delay in the processing The request has been completed The computer is unable to complete the request More detailed feedback is available(and how to get it)  [KENDALL&KENDALL. 1999] 261 .

1999] DATA MINING its concept came from the desired to use the database for a more selective targeting of customers. 1999] Data mining collects personal information about customers in an effort to be more specific and interpreting and anticipating their preferences. [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL. It uses a series of keywords and commands to select the rows and columns that should be displayed in the resulting table. Diagram below 262 .STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE(SQL) is a popular way to implement queries.

External Data Prospects or mailing list from other companies Warranty card customer sent in Information from survey that customer filled out External Data Customer purchased history from credit card Data Maintained Internally Customer profile obtained when customer made purchase from the web Special promotion offer for customer External Data Customer demographics from municipality [KENDALL & KENDALL.1999] 263 .

Quality Assurance Through Software Engineering 264 .

[KENDALL & KENDALL. and Auditing software. Testing. 1999] SQA 265 .Documenting software with appropriate tools 3. modular approach 2.Securing total quality by designing systems and software with a top-down. maintaining .APPROACHES APPROACHES TO QUALITY 1.

•Reshaping a new system or modification of the information system •Encouraging users to crystallize their expectations about SQA information systems and their interactions with them. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT vResponsibility •The full organizational support of management must exist •Early commitment to quality from the analyst and the business is necessary to achieve the goal of quality •Providing on-the-job time for Information System quality circles for implementations of improvements. •Departmental quality standards must be communicated through feedback to the systems analysis team.

programmer/analyst peer d. to point out problems and to allow the programmer or analyst responsible for that portion of the system to make suitable changes [KENDALL & KENDALL.a way of using peer reviewers to monitor the system’s programming and over-all development.walkthrough coordinator c.vStructured Walkthrough .a peer who takes notes about suggestions [KENDALL & involves at least 4 people: a. 1999] SQA . 1999] 267 .programmer/analyst b.

1999] 268 .Systems Design and Development vBottom-Up Design . d. Overall organizational objectives are not considered and hence cannot be met. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] SQA Limitations: a. [KENDALL & KENDALL. b.identifying the process that need computerization as they arise. There is a duplication of effort in purchasing software and even in entering data c. analyzing them as systems and either coding the process of or purchasing package software to meet the immediate problem. Much worthless data are entered into the system. Interface bugs are enormously costly to correct and many of them are not uncovered until programming is complete.

as well as to ascertain how they are best met in an overall system [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Advantages: a. c. It enables separate systems analysis teams to work in parallel on different but necessary subsystems.Avoiding the chaos of attempting to design a system “all at once”. It avoids a Major problem associated with the bottomup approach [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] SQA 269 .vTop-Down Design .allows the systems analyst to ascertain overall organizational objectives first. b.

1999] SQA 270 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Pitfalls: • The system would be divided into a “wrong” subsystems. • Once systems division are made. 1999] Total quality management and the top-down approach to design can go hand in hand. their interfaces maybe neglected or ignored. The top-down approach provides the systems group with a ready-made division of users into task forces for subsystem. • Eventually subsystems must be reintegrated. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

payroll.g. and product systems) OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS LEVEL (e.ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES LEVEL (coordinating systems to meet company objectives) FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS LEVEL (e..g. and printing) PROGRAM MODULE LEVEL (e. manage editing. read data. updating... write to files and printer) Overall organizational objectives using top-down approach 271 . accounting.g. sort.

1999] 272 .useful in programming and works well with topdown design . c. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] SQA Advantages: a.Modules are easier to maintain.Modules are easier to grasp.involves breaking the programming into logical.Modular development . since they are selfcontained subsystems. manageable potions or modules. b. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Modules are easier to write and debug because they are virtually self-contained.

Keep each module to manageable size b.Pay particular attention to the critical interfaces c. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Guidelines for modular programming: a.Minimize the number of modules the user must modify when making changes.Maintain the hierarchical relationships set up into the top-down phases. d. 1999] SQA 273 .

1999] SQA 274 . b.Modularity in the Windows Environment Two systems to link programs: 1.shares code by using Dynamic Link Library(DLL) files. Server . [KENDALL & KENDALL.programs that contain the original data Client .It speeds development because common DLL files have code contained. Dynamic Data Exchange(DDE) .programs that uses the data Advantage: a.Programs will have the same look and feel as other Windows programs.

it is superior to DDE because it ties in application data and graphics. 1999] SQA .Disadvantage: a. It is limited in features b. Object Linking and Embedding(OLE) . [KENDALL & KENDALL. Programs tend to use the least common nominator rather than take advantage of potentially powerful features. 4. it retains all of the properties of the originally created data.

.control flags/switches – arrows with the field-in circles [KENDALL & KENDALL. which represents the modules and connecting arrows.a diagram consisting of rectangular boxes.are meant to be drawn from the top down. 1999] Drawing a Structure Chart .Structure Charts -recommended tool for designing a modular. 1999] 276 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.flow diagram [KENDALL & KENDALL. top-down system. the couples – arrows with the empty circles b. 1999] Two types of Arrow: a.

1999] 277 .” 1.1 Arrows with empty circles represent “data couples.1 The higher level module calls the lower module Arrows with filled-in circles represent “control flags” 1.2 A structure diagram encourages top-down design using modules [KENDALL & KENDALL.

To identify and limit as much as possible the data couples and control flags that pass between modules. 1999] 278 .To encourage a top-down design 2.Objective of drawing structure chart: 1. [KENDALL & KENDALL.To support the concept of modules and identify the appropriate modules 3.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. ‘perform’ and ‘do’. although several secondary tasks may be associated with the primary task.Transformational modules – are those created from a data-flow diagram.Types of statements for control modules are ‘if’. Perform only one task.Functional or specialized modules – are the lowest in the structure. 1999] 279 . It may or may not be represented on data flow diagram. They usually perform only one task. with a rare subordinate module beneath them. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Control modules – contain the logic performing the lower-level modules. 1999] c.Types of Modules a. 1999] b. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

the structure chart cannot stand alone as the sole design/ documentation technique. 1999] Even when a structure chart accomplishes all of the purposes for which it was drawn. Allowing the lower-level module to perform a task not required by the calling module is called improper subordination.Module Subordination Subordination of module is one of the lower on the structure chart called by another module higher in the structure. [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 280 .

Is the primary source of information about the system and the current state of development. It provides an overview of the system itself. The documentation should record all essential facts and decision about the system. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999] Includes all management and quality assurance materials, specification which are the product for analysis and design operations, source code and technical guides and user manual use to describe the finished system. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999] A good documentation is clear, concise, consistent and accurate. A document must be accurate, as its value decreases rapidly with every error it contains. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Nassi- Shneiderman Charts

Advantage: adopts the philosophy of structured programming. uses a limited number of symbols so that the flowchart takes up less space. can be read by someone unfamiliar with symbols used in other of flowcharts. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

Three Basic Symbols:




-similar to structured English because it is not a particular type of programming code, but it can be used as intermediate step for developing program code. [KENDALL & KENDALL,1999]

Procedures Manuals

-they may contain background comments, steps required to accomplish different transactions, instruction on how to recover from problems, and what to do next if something is not working(troubleshooting). [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]


Biggest complaints a.they are poorly organized is hard to find needed information in them. c.the specific case in question does not appear in the manual d.the manual is not written in the English [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]


The Folklore Method is a system documentation technique that was created to supplements some of the techniques just covered. It gathers information that is often shared among users but is seldom written down. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999] is a systematic techniques, based on traditional methods used in gathering folklore about people and legends.It requires the system analyst to: a.interview users b.investigate existing documentation in files c.and observe the processing of information

Objective of Folklore Method is to gather information corresponding to one of the four categories: Folklore, Tales, Saying and art forms. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

STOMS Descriptions of how users currently get the system to run STOMS Descriptions of how users currently get the system to run ART FORMS Diagram, tables and flowcharts ART FORMS Diagram, tables and flowcharts

SAYINGS “Do this and ititworks.” SAYINGS “Do this and works.”


Stories about how users were able to get th Stories about how users were able to gett

Customs, tales, sayings and art forms used in the FOLKLORE method of documentation apply to information system. [KENDALL & KENDALL, 1999]

1999] 287 . 4.Allows for a structured design approach if that is considered to be more important than other factors 6.Is understood by others in the organization 3.Is suitable for the size of the system you are working on. 5.Is compatible with existing documentation 2.Choosing a Design and Documentation Technique Choose a technique that: 1.Allows you to return in working on the system after you have been away from it for a period of time.Allows for easy modification [KENDALL & KENDALL.

CODE GENERATION AND DESIGN Code Generation -is the process of using software–often a lower or integrated CASE product to create all or part of computer program. 1999] 288 . screen designs and so on. with this sophisticated set of tools. business rules. but also reengineer existing code. One advance approach to code generation is a set of program called XperCASE by Siemens AG österreich. [KENDALL & KENDALL. •Full Code Generatorsrequires a full methodology for: entering all data.. •Partial Code Generators generate only specific pieces of code that maybe incorporated into program being constructed by the programmers. the system analyst cannot only generate program code.

loose coupling interfaces for modules and external elements defined data structures consistent with specification and information consideration given to maintenance and documentation state to design and plan reconcilable. modularity effective. 1999] Coding Design verified in the coding compliance with any coding standards and conventions code readily readable (including typing and data declarations) state of code and plan reconcilable. 1999] 289 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Design Specification requirement reflected in software design. functional independence software well structured. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

[KENDALL & KENDALL. eliminating unused features and adding new features to the program. analyst. and generating the new program code Reverse engineering is the opposite of code generation. modify the logic and output it as computer code in a different language. modifying the design. and converted into repository entities.REENGINEERING (Reverse Engineering) Refers to the complete process of converting program code to the CASE design. The computer source code is examined. 1999] 290 . the design may be modified. Once the program has been reverse engineered.

CGI Teamwork Systems. Inc. 1999] 291 .Corporation Product Name Bachman Information Systems. Analyst Capture Cadre Technologies. PacReverse Intersolv Siemens AG XL Recovery XperCASE Selected reverse engineering tools [KENDALL & KENDALL.. Inc. Inc.

. screen and report layouts.Reverse engineering concepts Do process records Add 1 to counter Add amt. 292 [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999 . Xbase… Existing computer programs loaded into the reverse engineering toolset. ENDDO Reverse Engineering Toolset Computer Source Code: C. COBOL. record and element descriptions in the data dictionary. Reverse engineering toolset examines computer source coded and produces CASE repository CASE repository CASE repository is created including: structure charts. to Total ……….

2. since changes may be made at the design level rather than at the code level. 6.The time required for system maintenance is reduced. 5.Analysis may be performed on the system to eliminate unused portions of computer code. code that may stills exist in order programs even though it was made obsolete revisions of the program through out the years.THE ADVANTAGES OF USING A REVERSE ENGINEERING TOOLSET ARE NUMEROUS: 1. freeing uptime for new development. 3. is produced.Structured programs are created from unstructured or loosely structured computer code. which may have been nonexistent or minimal for older programs.Documentation. 4. 293 .Future maintenance changes are easier to make.

new hardware. or equipment. trial and error testing will not well as new procedural manuals. not just at the end. 1999] 294 .TESTING All of the system newly written or modified application programs. It is meant to turn up heretofore unknown problems not to demonstrate the perfection of programs. and all system interfaces must be tested thoroughly. Haphazard. [KENDALL & KENDALL. manual. it is an essential series of steps that helps assure the quality of the eventual system. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Although testing is tedious. 1999] Testing is done through system development.

[KENDALL & KENDALL.the correctness of output. operators.testing the interfaces between subsystems b. and the usefulness c. and check to see if the modules work together with one another as planned. analysts.before system is put into production. 1999] 295 . users all play different roles in various aspects of testing.v Testing is accomplished on sub systems or program modules as work progresses.checked with test data. this includes: a. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] The system as working whole must also be tested. Programmers. all programs must be desk-checked.It is done on many different levels at various intervals.understandability of system documentation and output.

1999] 296 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. In this stage Programmers must: a. in this capacity the analyst work to ensure that correct testing techniques are implemented by the programmers but probably does not personally carry out this level of checking.desk check their programs to verify the way the system will work. b.Program Testing with Test Data -he system analysts serve as an advisor and coordinator for program testing. It checks to see if programs that are interdependent actually work together as planned. create both valid and invalid test data Link Test with Test Data -it is referred to as string testing.

analyst. and users all play different roles in testing software and systems [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 297 .Program Testing with test data Programmers Link Testing with test data Analyst Testing Operators Users Full Systems Testing with test data Full Systems Testing with live data Programmers. operators.

Full Systems Testing with Test Data . 1999] 298 . Examining whether operators have adequate documentation in procedure manuals to afford correct and efficient operation.operators and end users become actively involved in testing Factors to consider when systems testing with test data: a. Determining if output is correct and whether users understand that this is. c. in all likelihood. Ascertaining if work flows necessitated by the new or modified system actually “flow”. d. [KENDALL & KENDALL. b. Checking whether procedure manuals are clear enough in communicating how data should be prepared for input. how output will look in this form.

is performed most often to improve the existing software rather than to respond to a crisis or system failure. as well as good feel for how actual data will be handled. [KENDALL & KENDALL. It refers to having an expert who is not involved in setting up or using a system examine information in order to ascertain its reliability. It is also done to update software in response to the changing organization. 1999] 299 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Maintenance Practices .Full Systems Testing with Live Data . 1999] Auditing .data that have been successfully processed through the existing another way of assuring the quality of information contained in the system. [KENDALL & KENDALL. It allows an accurate comparison of the new system’s output with what you know to be correctly processed output.

Implementing The Information System 300 .

[KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL.IMPLEMENTING APPROACHES The process of translating logical design into a physical implementation is the implementation phase. 1999] First Approach .the movement of computer powers to individual users by setting up and shifting computer power and responsibility to groups throughout the business with the help of distributed computing. 1999] 301 . It is also the process of assuring that the information system is operational and then allowing users to take over its operation for use and evaluation.

Second Approach -using different strategies for training users and personnel. management. using a variety of training techniques and making sure that each user understand any new role that he or she must take on because of the information system. [KENDALL & KENDALL. and analyst themselves. the analyst need to formulate performance measures on which to evaluate the system. [KENDALL & KENDALL. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 302 . evaluation comes from users. including taking them in their own level. the system analyst needs to weigh the situation and propose a conversion plan that is appropriate for particular organization and information system. 1999] Third Approach -choosing a conversion strategy. 1999] Fourth Approach-involves evaluating the new or modified information system.

design. domains and relationships into a physical data implementation. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Process-oriented -translation of module specification into program specifications. Translating a logical data model expressed in terms of entities. coding. 1999] 303 . 1999] Data-oriented -information system still need to concentrate on system’s data requirements. attributes. testing and integration. the program development cycle can then be applied: this involves specification review. This translation process can be considered into a mapping of one model. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

the concept of distributed systems is used in many different ways. it is possible to have distributed systems for businesses. 1999] .Implementing Distributed System . [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 304 . as well as different hierarchal architectural configuration of data processors that can communicate with each other and that have differing data storage capabilities. it will be taken in a broad sense so that it includes workstation that can communicate with each other and data processors. a setup which can be conceived of as an application of telecommunications.if the reliability of a telecommunication network is high. [KENDALL & KENDALL.

PCs can act as either the server or the client . depending on the requirements of the applications. Client/ server network.Client/Server Technology -the client/server (C/S) model. [KENDALL & KENDALL.since it should have the look and feel of a unified system. 1999] - 305 . Peer-to-peer network . -client/server computing -client/server technology client/server architecture This refer to a design model that can be thought of as applications running on a local area network (LAN) performing its distributed processing.

a workstations or laptop computers. [KENDALL & KENDALL. or any way in which the user can enter the system. 1999] 306 . 1999] Client-based application means that the applications resides in a client computer and cannot be access by other users on network. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Client as Part of the Client/Server Model using a LAN Client – refers to the network machines which are typically points of entry to the client/server system. 1999] Client Workstations used smaller programs that stay resident in the client to do “front-end processing”(as opposed to back-end processing). [KENDALL & KENDALL. including communicating with the user. It could be a network desktop computer.that is used by human. It requires separate installation on each workstation if the LAN has not purchased a site license.

A client/server system configuration Local data Visible Analyst User-specific Application Visio Microsof t Powerpo int Microsoft Microsoft Excel Word Microso ft Access General Application Enterpris e Data Clients Server 307 .

[KENDALL & KENDALL.on a LAN is accessible to all workstations. Server-based applications are types of client processing capabilities that permits the user to request network applications(program stored on a network server rather than on users computer) from the server. It is a PC dedicated to receiving and (temporarily) storing files to be printed. 1999] Print the term used to denote a computer on a LAN that stores on its hard disk the application programs and data files for all of the clients on the network.File server. 1999] 308 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.

there are well-documented high start-up or switch-over cost associated with a movement to a C/S architecture. Disadvantages of Client/Server Model a.Advantages of Client/Server Model a. 1999] 309 .systems are not always the best solution to an organization affords greater computer power end greater opportunity to customize applications. is more expensive than other options [KENDALL & KENDALL. b.

Hierarchical Networks 2.Local Area Network(LAN) b.Bus configuration [KENDALL & KENDALL.Types of distributed system networks: Standard types of network: a.Ring Networks 4.Wide Area Network(WAN) [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 310 . 1999] Main Types of Distributed Systems Networks 1.Star Networks 3.

Advantages of Distributed Systems Allow data storage out of the way of on-line. 1999] 311 . Lower equipment cost since not all system parts need to perform all functions. real-time transactions. Less expensive than large systems initially since expansion can be planned for without actually purchasing hardware. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Lower equipment cost by permitting flexibility in choice of manufacturer. Allow less expensive media for data storage when all data are not needed all of the time by all users.

Disadvantages of Distributed Systems Difficulty in achieving a reliable system Security concerns increase commensurately when more individuals have access to the system Analysts must emphasize the network and the interactions it provides and de-emphasize the power of subsystems.. department instead of branch) [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 312 . Choosing the wrong level of computing to support (i.e. individual instead of department.

so that by now the analyst should possess an accurate assessment of the users who must be trained.TRAINING USERS Systems analysts engage in an educational process with users. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Throughout the system development life cycle. the analyst will often be managing the training rather than be personally involved in it. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] In the implementation of large projects. the user has been involved. the analyst can bring to any training situation is the ability to see the system from users viewpoint. 1999] 313 .

[KENDALL & KENDALL.Training Strategies are determined by who is being trained and by who will train them. 1999] 314 . [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] Who to train .all people who will have secondary or primary use of the system must be trained. This includes everyone from dataentry personnel to those who will use output to make decisions without personally using a computer.

In-House trainers 5. 1999] 315 .Establishing measurable objectives 2. Vendors 2.Using appropriate training methods 3. Other System user Guidelines For Training 1.vPeople who train users. External Paid Trainers 4.Selecting suitable training sites 4. Systems Analysts 3. Possible training sources include: 1.Employing understandable training materials [KENDALL & KENDALL.

equipments and output. Depend on user’s job. prototypes of manuals. free vendors sites with hands-on.Elements Training objectives Training methods Training sites Training materials Relevant Factors Depend on requirements of user’s job. use Depend on training objectives. rented facilities [KENDALL & KENDALL. cost. and experience. equipment. 1999] 316 . Depends on user’s needs. operating availability. demonstration. combination of lecture. personality.cases.on-line tutorials installation. in-house operable and study. background.

and there is also a contingency approach that takes into account several organizational variables in deciding which conversion strategy to use. There are many conversion strategies available to analysts. The importance of adequate planning and scheduling of conversion. 1999] 317 . file backup. [KENDALL & KENDALL.CONVERSION A third approach to implementation is physically converting the old information system to the new or modified one. There is no best way to proceed with conversion. and adequate security cannot be overemphasized.

Disadvantage: a. b.Users may resent being force into using an unfamiliar system without recourse.Conversion Strategies 1. the old system is dropped and the new system is put into use.It is considered as risky approach because long delays might ensue if errors occur since there is no alternate way to accomplish processing. Advantage: Users has no possibility of using the old system rather the new one. [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 318 .Direct changeover -it means that on specified date.

who are not forced to make an abrupt change to the new system. Possibility of checking new data against old data in order to catch any errors in processing in the new system. 1999] 319 . b. This is the most frequently use approach but its popularity maybe declined because it works best when a computerized system replaces a manual one.Parallel conversion -refers to running the old system and the new system at the same time. Advantages: a. in parallel. [KENDALL & KENDALL. Offers a feeling of security to users.2.

it is difficult to make comparison between outputs of a new system and the old one [KENDALL & KENDALL. 1999] 320 . b.unless the system being replaced is a manual one.Disadvantages a.the cause of running two systems at the same time and the burden on employees of virtually doubling their workload during conversion.

uncomplicated systems.attempts to combine the best features of the earlier two plans. Disadvantage: It takes too long to get the new system in place and its inappropriateness for conversion of small. [KENDALL & KENDALL.3.Phased or gradual conversion . without incurring all of the risk. 1999] 321 . Advantage: Allows users to get involved with the system gradually and the possibility of detecting and recovering from errors without a lot of down time.

Advantage: a. [KENDALL & KENDALL. b.4. operational prototypes to change from old systems to new in a gradual manner.Modular prototype conversion This approach to conversion uses the building of modular. 1999] 322 . Disadvantage: a.special attention must be paid to interfaces so that the modules being built actually work as a system.users are familiar with each module as it becomes operational.prototyping is often not feasible automatically rules out this approach for many conversions. b.each module is thoroughly tested before being used.

5. Disadvantage: Even when one conversion is successful. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Distributed conversion -refers to a situation in which many installations of the same systems are contemplated. and this must be handled accordingly. each site will have its own peculiarities to work through. as is the case in banking or in franchises such as restaurants or clothing stores Advantages: Problems can be detected and contained rather than inflicted simultaneously on all sites. 1999] 323 .

Direct Changeover Direct Changeover Parallel Conversion Parallel Conversion Gradual Conversion Gradual Conversion Modular Prototype Modular Prototype Conversion Conversion Distributed Conversion Distributed Conversion Five conversion strategies for information systems 324 .

1999] 325 . stored data. It is the responsibilities of all those who come into contact with the system and is only as good as the most lax behavior policy and the organization. 1999] Three interrelated aspects: 1.Security security of computer facilities. and the information generated is part of a successful conversion. It includes controlling access to the computer room by means of machine-readable badges or a human sign-in/sign-out system. [KENDALL & KENDALL. and software through physical means.its equipment. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Physical security – refers to securing the computer facility.

and business transactions are from the proliferating.Logical Security – refers to logical controls within software itself. Special encryption software has been develop to protect commercial transaction from the Web. 1999] 326 . These are passwords or authorization codes of some sort. [KENDALL & KENDALL.2.

3. data. Behavioral security– behavioral expectations of an organization are encoded in its policy manuals and even on signs posted in bulletin boards. But the behavior that the organization members internalized is also critical to the success of security efforts. [KENDALL & KENDALL. and information in order to ensure that their interest are consistent with the organization’s interests and they fully understand the importance of carrying through on security procedures. Security can begin with the screening of employees who will eventually have access to computers. 1999] 327 . Part of the behavioral facet of security is monitoring behavior at irregular intervals in order to ascertain that proper procedures are being followed and to correct any behaviors that may have eroded with time.

and magnetic media.Appointing a manager to supervise or personally supervising the preparation of the installation site.Planning. 4. 2. preprinted forms. [KENDALL & KENDALL. such as toner cartridges. and supervising programmers and data-entry personnel who must convert all relevant files and databases.Ordering any necessary materials that are externally supplied to the information system.Other conversion considerations 1. 3. paper.Ordering equipment(up to three months ahead of planned conversion). Scheduling. 1999] 328 .

the war and the journey metaphors are oriented toward an organizational goal.Another metaphor. like the zoo. all signify orders and rules.Organizational Metaphors and Their relationship to Successful Systems Be aware of organizational metaphors when you attempt to implement a system you have just developed. journey. the organism. 1999] 329 . or jungle. the environment is chaotic. 1. family. appears balanced between order and chaos.When the predominant metaphoris war. [KENDALL & KENDALL.the society and the zoo do not stress the company’s goal but instead allow the individuals in the corporation to set their own standards 3. corporate and individual goals.In addition to the machine metaphorssuch as society. However. while the zoo and jungle are not. 2. and the game.

Type of Information system Success less likely with this metaphors Traditional MIS War jungle Traditional MIS War journey Jungle zoo Society zoo Zoo family society Journey zoo Decision Support Systems Decision Support Systems Expert Systems/AI Expert Systems/AI Cooperative Systems Cooperative Systems Competitive Systems Competitive Systems Executive Information Systems Executive Information Systems Success more likely with this metaphors Family society machine Family society organism Game organism machine Journey game organism War game organism Organism game 330 .

1999] 331 .EVALUATION Throughout the systems development life cycle. the analyst. and users have been evaluating the evolving information systems and networks in order to give feedback for their eventual improvement.models that attempt to estimate the value of a decision based on the effects of revised information using information theory. management. Evaluation is also called for following system implementation. Evaluation Techniques: a. It is simulation or Bayesian statistics user evaluation that emphasize implementation problems and user involvement ` -information system utility approaches that examine the properties of information.Cost Benefit Analysis . [KENDALL & KENDALL.

The user involvement approach yields some insight for new projects by providing a checklist of potentially dysfunctional behavior by various organizational members.Types of evaluation 1. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Revised decision evaluation approach presents difficulty since all variables involved with the design. 3. 2.The information system utility approach can be more comprehensive than the others if it is expanded and systematically applied. 1999] 332 . It also serves as guide in development in future project the analyst might undertake. development and evaluation of the information system cannot be calculated or quantified.

projects and ongoing efforts.Goal utility (answers ‘why’ information systems by asking whether the output has value in helping the organization obtain its objective. [KENDALL & KENDALL.Form utility (What kind of output?) c.The information system utility approach is a workable and straight forward framework for evaluating large-scale information systems.Possession utility (Who should receive output?) b. Utilities of information a.Place utility (Where the information is distributed?) d. 1999] 333 .Actualization utility (How the information is introduced and used by the decision maker?) f.Time utility (When information is delivered?) e.

1999] 334 . [KENDALL & KENDALL.Evaluating the system an information system can be evaluated as successful if it possesses all six utilities. a.“good” the module is a success The information utility approach is a workable and straightforward framework for evaluating large scale information systems projects and on-going efforts.“poor” the entire module will be the destined to failure. c. b.partial/ “fair” will result in a partially successful module.

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