Engineer On a Disk

Overview: This note set is part of a larger collection of materials available at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu. You are welcome to use the material under the license provided at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu/eod/global/copyrght.html. As always any feedback you can provide will be welcomed.

Copyright © 1993-2001, Hugh Jack email: jackh@gvsu.edu phone: (616) 771-6755 fax: (616) 336-7215

Copyright © 1993-2001, Hugh Jack

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1. TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................... 2 BASIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 4 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND QUANTITIES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS............................................................................................................ 12 KIRCHOFF’S LAWS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 THEVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 CIRCUITS CONTAINING CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 PASSIVE DEVICES .............................................................................................................. 34 TRANSFORMERS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 ACTIVE DEVICES ................................................................................................................ 37 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 37 TRANSISTORS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 52 AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 57 PHASORS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 57 AC POWER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68 3-PHASE CIRCUITS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 75 TWO PORT NETWORKS ..................................................................................................... 76 PARAMETER VALUES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 77 PROPERTIES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 79 CONNECTING NETWORKS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 81 CAE TECHNIQUES FOR CIRCUITS .................................................................................. 83 A CIRCUITS COOKBOOK................................................................................................... 84 HOW TO USE A COOKBOOK - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 SAFETY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 BASIC NOTES ABOUT CHIPS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 CONVENTIONS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 USEFUL COMPONENT INFORMATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 FABRICATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 87 LOGIC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 ANALOG SENSORS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 91

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Electric Circuits

amps. V = IR where. R = resistance (ohms Ω) I = current (amperes. BASIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • Circuit analysis can be troubling because we are dealing with particles that have never been seen. • Current and voltage are very important terms that are not well understood by the beginner. The electrons do not flow freely. Consider an electron/proton pair. We depend upon calculations and approximations to determine what is happening inside the circuit. and measuring instruments to verify our numbers. • Typically each simple circuit component will act as a “black box” with an applied current creating a voltage. This potential of attraction is called voltage. 2. If both are together they are stable and steady.1 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND QUANTITIES • Although in reality circuits involve complex interactions of potential and magnetic fields. the restiction on flow is called resistance. If we create a channel for these electrons to flow back to the protons (electrons are much lighter and more mobile than protons). A) V = potential (voltage. If we separate them they exert a force of attraction. or an applied voltage creating a current. the flow of electrons is called a current.page 4 2. V) I + V R . much like gravity. we tend to simplify components into discrete and independant parts.

 dq V dWdt R = -. if we consider resistance. dt dq dt where. R = resistance (Ω or Ws/C2) • Resistance is the simplest of all circuit elements. and is found in all circuit elements.page 5 ASIDE: The electron is defined as a negative charge and the protons are positive charges. dq I = ----dt Next consider the product of the current and voltage. This gives the conductor the counter-intuitive result that while current is defined as flowing from positive to negative. .  dW  ------. Because electrons are much lighter and smaller. such that. And. dW vI =  dW  dq = ------. but there are a variety of other simple elements found in circuits. dW v = ------dq where. P = the power in Watt’s (joules/sec) This gives the change in energy as a function of time. W = energy (joules) q = the charge (coulombs) V = the voltage Current is defined as the unit of charge per unit of time.= ------------. p+e+ 0V V e+ eI p+ p+ NOTE: Voltage is defined as a unit of energy per unit charge. they tend to move towards the positive charge. the electrons are moving the opposite direction from negative to positive.= -----------2 I  dq dq ---- dt  where. or the power.  ----.capacitors .= P  ------.

V = the voltage I = the current L = the inductance (Henry’s.current sources ASIDE: Resistance is caused by the current electrons moving through a conductor striking atoms and transferring energy to their electrons. The result is that there is an impeded (resisted) current flow. • All of us have seen an electromagnet at least once in our lives.inductors . V = L dI ---dt where. The device is best described as resisting current flow changes (almost as if preserving the momentum of the current).voltage sources . generating heat in the material.page 6 . H) This may make more sense if we keep in mind that an inductor is just a coil of wire. (This causes the electrons on the effected atom to absorb momentum. The resulting relationship is. I + V L . This is effectively a large inductor.

An electrical capacitor typically allows current to flow freely when a voltage is applied.page 7 ASIDE: Inductors are based on the magnetic field created by a flow of charge (ie. The relationship is. where. µ = magnetic permeability I The inductance of a straight conductor is small. In a simple design the inductance is. In practical devices the inductors are wound into coils to increase the inductance. IH = -------2πr r B = µH where. If the flow is constant a constant magnetic field builds up around the conductor. . • When you get a static shock you are touching a basic form of capacitor. The strength of the field is given by. but the current will quickly reach a steady stae. a current).

When we use these normally we assume that the batteries will supply any amount of current. These devices will explode when connected backwards. . Disposable batteries (e. C ASIDE: Capacitance is created by separating electrical charge by some distance. F) V = the voltage across the capacitor (V) The schematic symbol is shown below.page 8 I = C dV -----dt where. The schematic symbol is shown below.this means that they must be connected so that the positive terminal is at a higher voltage. 1. 9V) are one good example.5V. The actual component is made by having plates separated by a material called the dielectric (a non-conducting material). d A where.g. + V • Voltage sources are also very common. and the distance between them are the main factors. The area of the plates. and although small they can injure. at the rated voltage. I = the current through the capacitor (A) C = the capacitance (Farads. I + V In some cases capacitors have polarity .

These two reactions occur separately at the positive and negative electrodes.5V In reality batteries are often considered to have a small internal resistance. V Pb + H 2 SO4 + HCl → PbSO 4 + 2e – + H2 Pb H2SO4 .page 9 I + V = 1.5V or Vs + I + V - + Vs = 1. and consumed by another. The reaction equations for a lead acid battery show how electrons are generated by one reaction. This reduces the voltages they provide when high currents are drawn. R + Vs - battery ASIDE: Most batteries are based on simple electrochemistry.

page 10 • A similar method is used when considering current sources Is + Is V - • Some theoretical treatments of circuit elements make use of dependant (variable) voltage and current sources. The schematic symbols are often as shown below. .

They may not be drawn for simple connections. but are implied. β = coefficients 2.standard schematic symbols are available to reduce ambiguity. ρ = coefficients V x = another voltage in the circuit I x = another current in the circuit I s = αV x = βI x where.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS • Most of us will have seen a circuit diagram in the past. but there are some terms and conventions of importance when constructing and reading these diagrams. and sources on the left hand side. . . . + Vs V s = the voltage of the dependant source µ. • Generally. Is I s = the current of the dependant source α. .each device has input/output terminals that are connected to nodes (black dots).we try to have positive voltages at the top.page 11 V s = µV x = ρI x where.

.thevinen and norton equivalents 3. all of the electrons flowing into a point in the circuit must be flowing back out. R1 = 10Ω R2 + Vs R3 C1 3.keep in mind that current is a flow rate for moving electrons. electrons do not appear and disappear from the circuit. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • The techniques of circuit analysis focus on trying to derive equations that describe a circuit.node voltages . • In general most of the techniques attempt to simplify analysis by breaking the circuit into parts. etc.superposition .All components are labelled with variable names or values. loops.mesh currents .page 12 . Therefore. . • Consider the example.1 KIRCHOFF’S LAWS • Kirchoff’s Current Law: “The sum of currents at any node in a circuit must equal zero” . • Some well known techniques include. And.

1 Simple Applications of Kirchoff’s Laws 3.1. If any two points on the closed loop are chosen. 3. . and different paths chosen between them.1.that for resistors in parallel. the potentials must be equal or current will flow in a loop indefinately (Note: this would be perpetual motion).page 13 • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law: “The sum of all voltages about a closed loop in a circuit is equal to zero” . We want to find the equivalent resistance for the network of resistors shown.Parallel Resistors • Let’s consider one on the most common electrical calculations .1 .Each element will have a voltage (potential) between nodes.1.

so if we add the current through the resistors.– … – ----.page 14 I + R1 V R2 Rn I + V Rp First we can define currents in each branch of the circuit.= 0 R1 R2 Rn 111.=  ----. We can use Kirchoff’s voltage law to sum the voltages in the circuit loop.1. In this case the input voltage is a voltage rise.1I∴-.1.+ … + ----- = ---- R1 R2 R n Rp V 1 ∴R p = ------------------------------------------1. consider the sum of the currents in and out of the upper conductor. the equation becomes.+ ----.– ----.2 .Series Resistors • Now consider another problem with series resistors. ∑I = I – I1 – I2 – … – In = 0 The current through each resistor is simple to calculate. . and the resistors are voltage drops (the signs will be opposite). V V V∴I – ----. and then relate the expression to Rp.+ + … + ----R 1 R2 Rn 3. Also recognize that the potential voltage across each resistor will be V.----11----. I + R1 V I1 I2 In R2 Rn Now.

1. sum the voltages about the loop. ∴– V + IR 1 + IR2 + … + IR n = 0 ∴V = R 1 + R 2 + … + R n = R s -I ASIDE: We can use a “single subscript notation” to indicate a voltage or current. To do this we need to add a direction arrow for current. and then relate the values to the equivalent resistor Rs.2 Node Voltage Methods . or use ‘+’ and ‘-’ for voltages. ∑V = – V + V1 + V 2 + … + V n = 0 Next. use ohms law to replace voltages with the current.page 15 + I R1 + V1 + V2 + V + Vn Rs I R2 V Rn - First. 3.

• This is a very direct implementation of Kirchoff’s current law. let’s consider an application of The Node Voltage method for the circuit given below. • First. • This method basically involves setting variables. then we can try some calculations.page 16 • If we consider that each conductor in a circuit has a voltage level. and then doing a lot of algebra. and that the components act as bridges between these. .

30Ω 40Ω V12 40Ω ∑ In 1 = I1 – I2 – I3 = 0 Then find equations for the three currents based on the the difference between voltage at nodes 1 and 2. sum the currents at node 1.page 17 Find Vo 10Ω 20Ω + + 30V 5Ω 30Ω 40Ω 40Ω Vo First. V 12 = I 3 40Ω V12 ∴I 3 = ---------40Ω . For the center path. we will add labels for nodes. currents and voltages. 10Ω I1 I3 node n1 + I2 20Ω + Vo + 30V 5Ω node n2 Next.

find the current in the right circuit branch. • We can define a loop (mesh) current for each clear loop in a circuit diagram. .3 Current Mesh Methods • If we consider Kirchoff’s Voltage law.5V Finally. 30 – V 12 V 12 V 12 0 = I 1 – I 2 – I 3 = ------------------.7V V 12 ∴I 2 = ------90 V 12 – 30 30 – V 12 ∴I 1 = ------------------.= 0. When doing this we label nodes and then the voltage is listed as ‘Vab’ where ‘a’ is positive relative to ‘b’. V 12 = 20I 2 + 40I 2 + 30I 2 Now. Each of these can be given a variable name.= --------. and then the voltage across R2. In some cases these current loops pass through the same components. V12 = – 5I 1 + 30 – 10I 1 For the right branch.5 I 2 = ------.page 18 For the left branch. and equations can be written for each loop current.1.217A 90 90 V R2 = I 2 40 = ( 0. V 12 19. we could look at any circuit as a collection of current loops.217 ) ( 40 ) = 8. 3.= ------------------– 15 15 ASIDE: When using a voltage between nodes we are using the double subscript notation. combine the equations.– ---------15 90 40Ω ∴V 12 = 19.– ------.

page 19 • These methods are quite well suited to matrix solutions • Lets consider a simple problem. Find Vo 10Ω 20Ω + + 30V - I1 40Ω 5Ω I2 40Ω 30Ω Vo - After adding the mesh currents (and directions) we may write equations.4 More Advanced Applications .= 0. V O = 40I 2 = 8. (I will use Cramer’s Rule) det 55 30 40 0 55 ( 0 ) – 30 ( 40 ) I 2 = --------------------------------. ∑ VI ∑ VI 1 = 0 = – 30 + 10I 1 + 40 ( I 1 – I 2 ) + 5I 1 30 = 55I 1 – 40I 2 = 0 = 20I 2 + 40I 2 + 30I 2 + 40 ( I 2 – I 1 ) 0 = 40I 1 – 130I 2 (2) (1) 2 Solve the equation matrix for I2.6V 3.216A 55 ( – 130 ) – ( – 40 ) ( 40 ) det 55 – 40 40 – 130 55 – 40 30 40 – 130 0 Finally calculate the voltage across the 40 ohm resistor.1.= ----------------------------------------------------.

 R 2 = V s  ----------------. we add a current loop. Consider the circuit below. ∑ V = – Vs + IR1 + IR2 = 0 Vs ∴I = ----------------R1 + R2 Next. based on the current.1 .page 20 3. R1 + Vs I + R2 Vo - First. Vs R2 V o = IR2 =  ----------------. find the output voltage.Voltage Dividers • The voltage divider is a very common and useful circuit configuration. sum the voltages about the loop.4.1. and assume there is no current out at Vo. - R + R  R + R - 1 2 1 2 .

In this circuit a supply voltage Vs is used to power the circuit.page 21 ASIDE: variable resistors are often used as voltage dividers.1. and resistor R3 is varied until the current in the center Ig is zero.The Wheatstone Bridge • The wheatstone bridge is a very common engineering tool for magnifying and measuring signals. An ammeter is shown in the center. Resistors R1 and R2 are generally equal.4. As the wiper travels along the resistor the output voltage changes. and R3 is a tuning resistor. Rx is a resistance to be measured. Vs + Vo 3.2 . .

. A similar conversion is done for power circuits called delta to y. This model can then be transformed or modified as required. R 2 R3 R x = ----------R1 3. Ig=0).1.4.page 22 R1 + Vs Ig R2 Rx R3 For practice try to show the relationship below holds for a balanced bridge (ie. • A very common model and conversion is the Tee to Pi conversion in electronics.3 .Tee-To-Pi (Y to Delta) Conversion • It is fairly common to use a model of a circuit.

page 23 a Rc Rb c Pi Ra b a Rc b Rb c c Delta Ra c a R1 R2 b a R1 R2 b R3 R3 c Tee c c Y c • We can find equivalent resistors considering that. .

(1)-(3)+(2) Rb ( Rc + Ra ) ∴-----------------------------.----------------1 ----.= R 1 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc Rc ( Ra + Rb ) ∴-----------------------------.+ Rc Ra + Rb 1 R bc = -----------------------------.= R 1 + R 3 11 ----.page 24 1 R ac = -----------------------------.= R 1 + R 2 1 ----------------1 ----.= 2R 1 Ra + Rb + Rc R b Rc ∴R 1 = -----------------------------Ra + Rb + Rc Likewise.+ R a R b + Rc To find R1. .= R 2 + R 3 1.= R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc Ra ( Rb + Rc ) ∴-----------------------------.+ ----------------Rb Rc + Ra 1 R ab = -----------------------------. Ra Rc R 2 = -----------------------------Ra + Rb + Rc Ra Rb R 3 = -----------------------------Ra + Rb + Rc • To find the equivalents the other way.= R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc (1) (2) (3) R b ( Rc + R a ) – R a ( R b + R c ) + R c ( R a + R b ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= R 1 + R3 – R 2 – R 3 + R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc R b R c + R b R a – R a Rb – R a R c + Rc Ra + R c R b ∴--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

= R 1 + R 3 R2 R2 ----.R b = ----. R2 R2 R b  ----.Rb R R1  3 ------------------------------------------.= R 1 + R 3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 ------------------------------------------------R1 R3 R 2 R 3 + R 1 R3 + R 1 R 2 R 2 R3 + R 1 R 3 + R 1 R 2 ∴Rb = ( R 1 + R 3 )  ------------------------------------------------.R a = ----.R b = ----.page 25 Rb Rc Ra Rc Ra Rb R a + R b + R c = ----------.R a R3 R3 We can put these relationships into equation (1).R c R2 R2 R3 R2 ∴R a = ----.= ----------.R b R1 R3 R 2 R 1 + R2 R 3 R b  -----------------------------.R c R1 R1 R2 R1 ∴R c = ----.R b + R b + ----. to eliminate Ra and Rc. -  R1 R3 ∴-------------------------------------------------.R b + ----. = -------------------------------------------------  R2 R2 R1 + R2 R3 Likewise.2 THEVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS . R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 + R 1 R 2 R a = ------------------------------------------------R1 R2 R 3 + R 1 R 3 + R 1 R2 R c = ------------------------------------------------R3 3.= ----------R1 R2 R3 R3 R1 ∴R b = ----.

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• A sometimes useful transformation is based on the equivalence of certain circuit elements, It In

R1

+ Is + Vs _ Vt R2 Thevinen Norton

+

Vn

-

First, consider the short circuit case where, It = In this gives the basic relationship, V s = R1 It Next, consider the open circuit case, Vt = Vn we find the simple relationships, Vt = Vs Vn = Is R2 It = In = 0 Vs ∴----- = I t = I n R1 Vt = Vn = 0

• We can use this to test an unknown circuit for open circuit voltage, and short circuit current, and then replace it with an equivalent circuit. 1. Measure open circuit voltage Vs 2. Measure short circuit current Is 3.a) If using a Thevenin equivalent calculate, Rs = Vs/Is 3.b) If using a Norton equivalent calculate, Rs = Vs/Is 4. Draw the appropriate circuit. * note the resistor values are the same for both circuits.

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• We can also use the Thevenin/Norton transformation to simplify circuits. Consider example 4.13 from [Nilsson]. Find V 60V 20Ω 1.6Ω + 6Ω 8Ω V 120V + 5Ω We can replace the first loop (120V source) with a Norton equivalent, +

36A

20Ω

60V

1.6Ω + 6Ω

+

8Ω

36A

V

120V ------------ = 6A 20Ω

5Ω -

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Next we can convert the remaining voltage source to a current source,

20Ω

60V 5Ω 36A 6Ω

1.6Ω

+

8Ω

V

120V ------------ = 6A 20Ω

60V --------- = 12A 5Ω -

The current sources and resistors may now be combined to simplify the circuit,

1.6Ω 6 – 12 + 36 = 30A 1 ------------------------ = 2.4Ω 1- -- ------ + 1 + 1 - 20 5 6

+

8Ω

V

-

+ 4Ω 72V V 8Ω + - - 8 V = 72  ----------. 1. Make all other current sources open circuit. Select one source in a circuit. and then use voltage division to find the output voltage. = 48V  8 + 4 3. .page 29 Convert the current source to a voltage source using the Thevinen equivalent. 2. 2. The basic technique is.1 Superposition • This is a simple technique that can be used when there are multiple sources in a circuit.4 ) = 72V V - Combine the two serial resistors.2.4Ω 1.6Ω + 8Ω + 30 ( 2.

19 from [Nilsson]. • Consider an example below.5Ω 10Ω Find the voltage V - . Add together the results for each source. 6A 20Ω + 100V + V 40Ω 2.page 30 3. 4. Make all other voltage sources short circuits. Pick the next voltage/current source and go back to 2. 4. 5. Analyze as normal. 6.

+ 2.5V  10 + 13.3Ω 1.5Ω 10Ω 6A 10Ω 2.1----.3 .+ ----20 40 6A + Vs V s = 6 ( 2.page 31 a) Let’s consider the current source first. 6A 20Ω + V 40Ω 2.3 V = V s  ---------------------- = 13. 13.26 ) = 7.26Ω 1 .3 Find V using a voltage divider.---------------------1 -----.5 10 + 13.73V V - 1 -----------------------------------.5Ω + 1 -----------------.= 2.= 13.

= 9.52 c) Finally we combine the effects of both sources. 20Ω + 100V + V 40Ω 2.+ 40 10 + 2. we may want to try and maximize the amount of power delivered to it.25 = 40V 3.25V  20 + 9.page 32 b) Now find the effects of the voltage source with the current source as an open circuit.2.5 9.------------------1 ----. • Consider the simple case below.73 + 32. V = 7.52Ω 1.5Ω 10Ω - 20Ω + 100V + V 1 ------------------------------. .2 Maximum Power Transfer • When we will add a load to a network.52 ∴V = 100  ---------------------- = 32.

page 33 Rs + RL VL - Vs + - I Given Vs and Rs. find RL for the maximum power transfer.3 CIRCUITS CONTAINING CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS • When circuits contain capacitors. Vs I = ----------------Rs + R L V = IR L 2 VS P L = IV L =  ------------------ R L R + R  S L ∂ P = 0 ∂ RL L ∴R L = R S For maximum power transfer • For practice try proving this theorem for the Norton equivalent circuit. . The main difference is that you will end up with differential expressions. or other complex components. inductors. (later we will see better techniques for dealing with these components) • Consider the example. the solving techniques are the same. 3.

..page 34 C1 R1 Vs + C2 I1 I2 L1 For the two loops. . (1) into (2)..  V S + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt – C 2  ------------------------------- + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt + R 1 I 2 + L d I 2 = 0 dt  C 1 + C2  etc.. 4.. ∑ VI 1 = – V S + C 1 ∫ I 1 dt + C 2 ∫ ( I 1 – I 2 ) dt = 0 ∴V S = ( C 1 + C 2 ) ∫ I 1 dt – C 2 ∫ I 2 dt V S + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt ∴∫ I 1 dt = ------------------------------C1 + C2 (1) ∑ VI 2 = C 2 ∫ ( I 2 – I 1 ) dt + R 1 I 2 + L d I 2 = 0 dt (2) sub.. PASSIVE DEVICES • Passive devices will have the same operating characteristics at the same operating points.

page 35 4. It only works when using AC. • The transformer is effectively a magnetic circuit. The transformer has two or more coils of wire wrapped about a common core.1 TRANSFORMERS • A transformer can be viewed as a converter that can increase voltage and lower current. or vice versa. . II + VI N1:N2 Io + Vo - V Vo ----I = ----NI No where. II Io + VI - + Vo - • The ideal relationship is. and II NI = Io No II + VI - N1:N2 Io Vo + N1 = the number of coils on the primary side N2 = the number of coils on the secondary side • If a transformer has an iron core it will be shown with lines in the centre.

2I 2 + 4I 3 0 = – 7. We want to find the power delivered to the 1ohm resistor.page 36 • To deal with a transformer in a circuit analysis we need to pay attention to the polarity of the coils. • Consider the example below. Vt 4I 2 + ---.= 0 4 (3) into (1). 4Ω I2 4:1 1Ω + I1 I3 7.2 ( I 1 – I 2 ) + V t For I2. ∴V t = 4I 3 120 = 7. For the transformer.2I 1 – 7. Vt 1I 3 – ---. We will use the mesh current method.2I 2 – 3I 3 4 ( I1 – I2 ) = 1 ( I3 – I2 ) I 1 – 3I 2 – I 3 = 0 (4) (3) (2) (1) . pg.2 ( I 2 – I 1 ) = 0 4 For I3.2Ω 120V (RMS) For I1. 120V = 7. from [Nilsson. (3) into (2).2I 1 + 11.– V t + 7. 450]. and we may consider the inductance of each coil at times.

1A ) = 44W 5.8 – 100 7. and can perform interesting mathematical functions. They are characterized as. may deliver power to the circuit.high input impedances .2 – 7.page 37 Next we can solve the remaining three equations and three unknown currents using a matrix approach.2 11.= -------------.2 – 7. P = 1Ω ( 44.2 – 7.= 27.2 0 4 –3 0 – 2784 I 3 = --------------------------------------.2 4 – 7.2 – 3 4 –3 – 1 Finally we find the power in the resistor.1 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS • A very common and versatile device is the operational amplifier (Op-amp).stable high gain amplifiers . thier models. • When doing most circuits problems we depends on idealized components.2 4 I 1 120 – 7.2 – 3 I 2 = 0 4 –3 –1 I3 0 7.2 11. 7. The following section will describe a number of components. .2 11. and how to apply them in practical circuits. These devices are capable of changing their operational performance.2 120 – 7. ACTIVE DEVICES • Active devices are different from passive devices such as resistors. 5. capacitors and inductors.

page 38 .) where.1 General Details • The schematic symbol for these devices is given below.low output impdeances • These are available for a few cents in commercial quantities. • When using these devices the circuit is typically set up so that both the inverting and non-inverting inputs have the same voltage. then it will be clipped at. and the currents in to both of the inputs is negligable.is the inverting input V+ is the non-inverting input G is the gain (typically 100000x) Vo is the output Vs is the supply voltage Vo ≤ Vs If the output voltage is pushed beyond +Vs or -Vs. V o = G ( V+ – V .1. 5. V. . or slightly below the source voltage. +Vs V- Vo V+ + -Vs • Inside these devices have a very high gain amplifier that compares the inputs and gives an output that is amplified as shown by. They also come in a wide variety of packages for various applications.

= 0 5. the following circuits tend to bemathematical in nature.page 39 IVI+ V+ V+ = VI+ = I.1.1.Inverting Amplifier • A typical op-amp application is the inverting amplifier.2. 5.1 . .2 Simple Applications • Considering that the Op-amp was originally designed to allow simple mathematical operations in circuit form.

= ( V I – V O )  ----------------.2.Non-Inverting Amplifier • We can also make non-inverting amplifiers using the following circuit. V.= V+ = 0 R2 R2 ∴0 = V I  ----------------.  R +R   R + R - 1 2 1 2 R2 Vo ∴----.1.page 40 R2 VI R1 VV+ R3 + Vo R1 and R2 are effectively a voltage divider. + V o  R + R - 1 2 The circuit tries to keep both op-amp inputs equal. - R + R  R 1 + R 2 1 2 R 1 + R2 – R 2 R2 ∴V o  ------------------------------ = – V I  ----------------.2 . . the V+ input is grounded. + V o  1 – ----------------.= – ----R1 VI Amplifier Gain 5. R2 V . And.

1. V .= ----------------R1 VI Gain 5.page 41 R2 R1 VVI R3 Use R1 and R2 as a voltage divider.= V o  ----------------. R1 V .= V + = VI R1 ∴V I = V O  ----------------. .2.Integrator • The integrating amplifier is a very powerful application.  R + R - 1 2 + Vo V+ R1 + R2 VO ∴-----.3 .  R + R - 1 2 If we consider the the two inputs to have an equivalent input voltages.

= V+ = 0 We can then find the currents.V o R1 dt 1∴V o = --------. Recall that in this configuration. VI I I = ----R1 Finally.4 . .∫ V I dt R1 C 5. V.– C ---.2.Differentiator • The following device is one form of differentiator using an inductor.V o dt ∑ IV - VI d= I I – I f = 0 = ----. dI f = C ---.page 42 1MΩ If VI R1 II + C Vo R2 In the circuit the 1MΩ resistor is used to prevent output drift.1.

. V.+ R dL dt dL ---- R dt L ∴V o = V I  ----.+ R L dt VI Vo ∑ I = I I – I f = 0 = -----I – --------------------R L ---.= V+ = 0 Next the input.+ ------- R I RI    VI I I = ---RI • A second type of circuit uses a capacitor to find the differential. and feedback currents may be found and summed. Vo I f = -------------------dL ---.page 43 L RL If VI II RI + Vo We may begin by realizing that the two op-amp inputs are at zero volts.

If dissimilar components are used the inputs can be weighted .Weighted Sums • The following circuit can be used to add inputs.2.page 44 5.1.5 .

page 45

I1 V1 I2 V2

R1 Rf R2 + If Vo

In Vn

Rn

We can recognize that the op-amp inputs are both kept at zero volts, and that there is not current into the non-inverting input, we can find, V- = V+ = 0 V1 I 1 = ----R1 Vo I f = ----Rf V2 I 2 = ----R2 Vn I n = ----Rn

∑I

V1 V 2 Vn Vo = I 1 + I 2 + I n – I f = 0 = ----- + ----- + … + ----- – ----R1 R 2 Rn Rf

V1 V2 Vn ∴Vo = R f  ----- + ----- + … + -----  R1 R2 R n

5.1.2.6 - Difference Amplifier (Subtraction)
• We can construct an amplifier that subtracts one input from the other,

page 46

V2

R2 +

Rf Vo

V1

R1 R3

Using the normal approach, we can see that both inputs are essentially voltage dividers, R3 V + = V 1  -----------------   R + R - 1 3 Rf V - = ( V 2 – V o )  ----------------  + V o  R + R- f 2 Next, we can set the two inputs equal, and combine the equations, R3 Rf V + = V - = V 1  -----------------  = ( V 2 – V o )  ----------------  + V o - R + R  R + R-
1 3 2 f

R 2 + Rf – R f R3 Rf ∴V o  ---------------------------- = V 1  -----------------  – V 2  ----------------  -  R +R  R + R  R + R- f f 2 1 3 2 R3 ( R2 + Rf ) Rf ∴V o = V 1  ----------------------------- – V 2  ----- -  R (R + R )  R -
2 1 3 2

Note the result if all resistor values are equal, Vo = V1 – V2

page 47

5.1.2.7 - Op-Amp Voltage Follower
• At times we want to isolate a voltage source from an application, or add a high impedance. This can be done using a voltage follower,

VI

+

Vo

We can develop some of the basic relationship for this circuit, V+ = VI V+ = VVo = V∴V o = V I

5.1.2.8 - Bridge Balancer
• Op-amps can be used for measuring the potential across bridges.

1. it is probable that both inputs may have the same voltage that is not zero.2. The result of this common offset is that the output will drift with the common inputs.page 48 Vs R1 R2 - Vo + R3 R4 -Vs • When used in this mode. and provided in the device specifications.Low Pass Filter • A Low pass filter will enable us to cut off the higher frequency components of an input signal. This is generally measured by the manufacturer. .9 . The technical measure is the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR). 5.

The corner frequency and gain are. –Vo VI I = ----.= ----------------------------------R 1 + R1 jωC f R f VI NOTE: The gain will drop as the frequency rises. Rf gain = – ----R1 1 ω c = ---------Cf Rf . 1 ---.+ jωC  f  Rf V I = IR 1 Next. Past a certain point the gain will be very low.page 49 Cf Rf I VI R1 + I Vo Recognizing that the inverting input is at ground we may write the following expressions for the current.= ------------------------------R1 Rf  --------------------------  1 + jωC R  f f –Rf Vo ∴----. we can combine these expressions to find the gain of the system.     1 V o = – I  ---------------------.

.3 Op-Amp Equivalent Circuits • An equivalent circuit for an op-amp is given below.(inverting input) V+ (non-inverting input) -Vs (supply) offset control output +Vs (supply) no connection 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 5.1.2.(inverting input) V+ (non-inverting input) -Vs (supply voltage) no connection no connection offset control output +Vs (supply voltage) no connection no connection 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 • The basic layout of the 741 op-amp is given below for the 8 pin dip package. Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description no connection no connection offset control V.10 .1. Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description offset control V.page 50 5.The 741 Op-Amp • The basic layout of the 741 op-amp is given below for the 14 pin dip package (14C1741).

1 .1.3.V-) -Vs Where typical values are.Frequency Response • Open loop frequency response can be estimated using the equivalent circuit below. Ri = 1MΩ Ro = 75W A = 105 5.page 51 V+ + Ri + Ro Vo V- A(V+ . .

= --------------------------VI jωC o Z o + 1 Gain (dB) 20log(A) -20 dB/dec. Gain 1 ω c = ----------Co Zo log(f) 5. 1  -----------.2. AV I  jωC o  V o = ( AV I )  -----------------------. = --------------------------jωC o Z o + 1 1  Z + ------------  o jωC o Vo A ----.2 TRANSISTORS 5.page 52 Zo + VI + AVI Co + Vo - Basically this is a voltage divider. We can quickly find the gain. The layers are either doped to be positive (p-type) or negative (n-type) using low concentrations of elements .1 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) • Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) are made with three layers of doped silicon.

PNP and NPN.1. most transistor configurations are used for sinusoidal signals. The schematic symbols for these transistors are shown below. • A designer will depend heavily upon specifications. These are often in the form of graphs for different transistor applications. as well as AC. Their names come from the sequence of doped layers in the transistor. This junction acts much like a diode.Biasing Common Emitter Transistors • A common emitter configuration is shown in the figure below. and will on average have voltages around 0. collector base NPN emitter emitter base PNP collector • The base-emitter voltage is ussualy given as a constant. • Transistors are highly non-linear. 5.page 53 mixed with the silicon. • There are two basic types. but they are often biased by carefully applying voltages and currents to put them in a roughly linear range. As a result there is ussualy a DC design.2.7V.1 . • Except for applications such as switching. .

• To perform the design we must first bias the transistor using the curves below. The capacitor Ce is used to allow the AC to bypass Re. The resistors provide DC biasing to select an operating point.page 54 Vs R1 Rc CO CI VO VI R2 Re Ce • Consider the common emitter amplifier shown. .

= 2125Ω ≈ 2.page 55 I c ( mA ) 8 I b = 80µA 60µA 6 40µA 4 bias point 20µA 2 0µA 10 17 1 17VR c = ---------------------------------------.2KΩ slope of bias line 8mA 20 V ce ( V ) .= ---------.

thus giving. Based on collector current we can determine that V e = V s – V ce – I c R c = I e Re ∴V s – V ce – I c R c = βI b Assuming we find a beta of 100 in the transistor specifications.  R + R - 1 2 R2 2. ( 20V ) – ( 9V ) – ( 4mA ) ( 2200Ω ) = 100 ( 30µA )Re R e = 733Ω ≈ 720Ω Now. R 2 ≈ 10R e R 2 = 7. (0. V ce = 9V I e = 30µA I c = 4mA Next we will assume the supply voltage is Vs = 20V.7V ∴ = 2. to select values for R1 and R2 we need to calculate Vb using Vbe from the specifications.2KΩ ≈ and I e ≈ βI b .86V R2 V b = Vs  ----------------.2KΩ R 1 = 6 ( 7. Vb = V e + V be = I e R e + V be = βI b R e + V be ∴ = 100 ( 30µA )720Ω + 0.86V = 20V  ----------------. To do this a common rule of thumb is to use a value of R2 that is approximate 10 time Re.page 56 a reasonable bias point is chosen to be near the center of the linear range. R + R  1 2 R 1 + R2 = 7R 2 R 1 = 6R 2 The value of either R1 or R2 must be picked.2KΩ ) = 43.7V is a typical value).

i = a node number V i ( t ) = the instantaneuous voltage at node i V ipeak = the peak voltage at node i ω i = the frequency of the sinusoid φ i = the phase shift • Steady state means that the transients have all stopped.laplace transforms . This can be crudely though of as the circuit has ‘charged-up’ or ‘warmed-up’. .for single frequency.etc 6. • Sinusoidal means that if we measure the voltage (or current) at any point ‘i’ in the circuit it will have the general form.phasors .page 57 6. • Consider the example below. steady state systems . AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • There are a number of techniques used for analysing non-DC circuits. • These techniques are. steady state conditions.1 PHASORS • Phasors are used for the analysis of sinusoidal. V i ( t ) = V i peak sin ( ω i t + φ i ) where.to find steady state as well as transient responses . .

R2 V 2 = ( – V s )  ----------------.page 58 R1 + V1 - Vs + + V2 - R2 Considering that this is a simple voltage divider. it means that we are not concerned with the initial effects when we start a circuit (these effects are known as the transients). .  R + R - 1 2 If the supply voltage is sinusoidal we would find.3 ) R2 ∴V 2 = ( – 95 sin ( 10t + 0.3 ) )  ----------------. The typical causes of transient effects are inductors and capacitors. V s = 95 sin ( 10t + 0.3 – π ) )  ----------------.  R + R - 1 2 R2 ∴V 2 = ( 95 sin ( 10t + 0.  R + R - 1 2 • Steady state is another important concept.

3rad.V ∠0. V s = 95 sin ( 10t + 0.3rad. we could represent the values in complex form.page 59 V(t) t steady state + transients steady state • We typically deal with these problems using phasor analysis.3rad 2 Finally. Note: the peak value is divided by the square root of 2 to convert it to an RMS value. 95 -----. OR 95 · V s = -----. In the example before we had a voltage represented in the time domain.V { cos ( 0.V 2 0. imaginary 95 -----. These Phase diagrams are only applicable for a single frequency.3rad ) + j sin ( 0.V 2 0. real jφ 95 V s = -----.V { e } 2 95 ∴ = -----.3rad ) } 2 .3 ) We could also represent this in the polar domain using magnitude and phase shift.

page 60 NOTE: When doing phasor analysis. and they only differ by a phase angle. and then do calculations as normal. it is assumed that all of the frequencies in the circuit are the same. • Basically to do this type of analysis we represent all components voltages and currents in complex form. .

page 61 TIME DOMAIN RESISTOR + V I PHASOR (FREQUENCY) DOMAIN I + V - R Z=R DC VOLTAGE SOURCE I Vs + Vs + - I AC VOLTAGE SOURCE + - I V s = A sin ( ωt + φ ) + - I AAV s = -----.sin φ 2 2 CAPACITOR + V - I dC ---.V = I dt + V - I 1Z = --------jωC .cos φ + j -----.

.I dt PHASOR (FREQUENCY) DOMAIN I + V Z = jωL OHM’S LAW + V - I V = IR + V - I V = IZ • Consider the simple example below.page 62 TIME DOMAIN INDUCTOR + V I dV = L ---.

07 )V .70 )  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.+ j ( 10000 )0. we procede to use standard circuit analysis techniques.  1 + ( j ( 10000 )0.cos ( 0.43 sin ( 10000t – 2.005 ) ( j ( 10000 )10 –5 )  ∴V o = ( 3.5 ) 2 2 Z 3 = j ( 10000 )0.005 2 2 3 –5   j ( 10000 )10  ( j ( 10000 )0.005 + Vo - Then.5 ) + j -----.page 63 10µF + V s = 5 sin ( 10000t + 0.5 ) 5Ω 5mH + Vo - We can redraw the diagram using impedances for each component.=  ------ Z + Z   2  1  -------------------------------.005 V o = V s  ----------------.cos ( 0.13 }V = 4.11 + j1. V o ( t ) = 4.43V ∠– 2.005 ) ( j ( 10000 )10 – 5 ) 5 ∴V o = ( 3.sin ( 0.89 – j2.5 ) + j -----.   Z3  5. as if the circuit is only made of resistors.07rad  1 – 5 If we express the output voltage as a function of time we get.sin ( 0.11 + j1. 1 Z 2 = -------------------------------–5 j ( 10000 )10 Z1=5Ω + 55V s = -----.5 )  -------------------------------------------------------------------------. 5j ( 10000 )0.70 )  ----------- = { – 3.

707V PEAK 2 I PEAK I RMS = ------------.707I PEAK 2 6. V PEAK V RMS = --------------.1.= 0. This is also known as the Root Mean Squared value.= 0.∫ V ( t ) dt T 0 V RMS = For a sinusoidal function we will find that. .1 RMS Values • When dealing with alternating currents we are faced with the problem of how we represent the signal magnitude.page 64 6.2 LR Circuits • One common combination of components is an inductor and resistor. One easy way is to use the peak values for the wave. 1 T 2 -. • Another common method is to use the effective value.1.

3 RC Circuits • Capacitors are often teamed up with resistors to be used as filters.1.page 65 L (A low pass filter) R VI Vo R V o = V I  -------------------  R + jLω R (A high pass filter) VI L Vo jLω V o = V I  -------------------  R + jLω 6. .

page 66 R C VI Vo (low pass filter) 1--------jωC 1 V o = ------------------.= ----------------------1jωCR + 1 R + --------jωC 6.1.4 LRC Circuits • These circuits tend to weigh off capacitors and inductors to have a preferred frequency.= ----------------------1jωCR + 1 R + --------jωC C VI R Vo (high pass filter) R jωCR V o = -------------------. .

      1 + ( jωC ) ( jωL )   jωL jωL V o = V I  ----------------------------------------.   jωL + R ( 1 – ω LC ) 1   R +  --------------------------   1 + ( jωC ) ( jωL )   1    --------.1. . = ----------------------------------------------2   jωL  R +  -------------------------------------. = VI  -----------------------------------------------------.+ jωC   jωL 6.5 LC Circuits • Inductor capacitor combinations can be useful when attempting to filter certain frequencies.page 67 R VI C L Vo    1  --------------------------     jωL 1   --------.+ jωC    -------------------------------------.

   2 1 jωL + --------.page 68 C VI L Vo (high pass filter)   2 jωL ω LC  -------------------------- = V  ---------------------.  jωC L (low pass filter) VI C Vo 1 --------.2 AC POWER • Consider the power system shown below. Electrical Generator Transmission Lines Load (light bulb) .  jωC  1 V o = V I  -------------------------- = V I  ---------------------. Vo = VI  I 2  1 -  ω LC – 1 jωL + --------. 1 – ω LC  jωC 6.

Most consumer systems are 50ohm for maximum power transfer and minimum distortion. but in reality it will be somewhat reactive. . Also in an ideal situation the load will be pure resistance. at the supply voltage . Finally at the point of application. • Another important example of power delivered is when impedence matching between audio amplifiers and audio speakers.2.1 Complex Power • Consider the basic power equation. This power is then distributed to consumers over wires (and through transformers).operating at a rated power. The voltages supplied this way are almost exclusively AC.page 69 • The generator converts some form of mechanical force into electrical power. 6. each load will draw a certain current.

Real Power • The relationship for real power is shown below where the current and resistance are in phase (although the values are rarely perfectly in phase).1.1 .page 70 VP = IV = I Z = ----Z if we consider the impedance and voltage in variable form. S = the complex power P = real power Q = reactive power theta = power angle P pf = cos θ = ---------------------2 2 P +Q where.-----------------------------------. 2 2 Z = A + jB V = C + jD 2 ( C + jD ) ( C + jD ) . A – jB P = A + jB A + jB  A – jB 2 ( C + 2jCD – D ) ( A – jB ) ∴P = ---------------------------------------------------------------2 2 A +B ( ( C – D ) + j2CD ) ( A – jB ) ∴P = --------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 A +B [ A ( C – D ) – 2BCD ] + j [ 2ACD + B ( C – D ) ] ∴P = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 A +B In a general form the results are.= ----------------------.2. S = P + jQ = P peak cos ( 2ωt + θ ) where. . = power factor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6. p.f.

• Consider the following calculations.C. thus it never returns power to the circuit.2 .sin ( 2ωt ) = V rms I rms sin ( 2ωt ) 2 • When the current and voltage are D.3 . . In this case the net power consumption is zero. V p I p 2π 2 P = ---------. 6.Average Power • An average power can be a good measure of real power consumption of a resistive component.∫ ( sin t ) dt 2π 0 6. Notice that the value of P will always be positive.2.Reactive Power • When we have a circuit component that has current ±90° out of phase with the voltage it uses reactive power. (not charging) the circuit contains pure resistance.∫ p dt T 0 Consider the case of the pure resistance.page 71 Vp Ip 2 P = IV = ( V p sin ωt ) ( I p sin ωt ) = V p I p ( sin ωt ) = ---------.2. 1 T P = -. and the power is constantly dissipated as heat or otherwise. in actuality the power is stored in and released from magnetic or electric fields.1.1.

1. In this case if we integrate power consumption over a cycle there is no net comsumption.5 .Apparent Power • In all circuits we have some combination of Real and Reactive power.4 .page 72 π p = ( V p sin ωt )  I p sin  ωt + -.2. 6.Complex Power • We can continue the examination of power by assuming each is as below. = V rms I rms sin ( 2ωt )  2 - Here the power will be positive then negative.1. S = P + jQ where.2. We can combine these into one quantity called apparent power. S = apparent power (VA) P = real power from voltage and current in phase (W) Q = reactive power from voltage and current 90° out of phase (var) 6.    2  π ∴p = V p I p ( sin ωt )  sin  ωt + --    2  ∴p = V p I p ( sin ωt ) ( cos ωt ) sin 2ωt ∴p = V p I p  ---------------. S = VI * jθ v ∴ = ( Ve ) ( Ie –j ( θv – θI ) ) = VIe jθ I = VI ( cos θ I + j sin θI ) .

6.2.∫ I ( t ) dt = RI RMS T 0  Likewise.8 .= I RMS V RMS R 2 P avg 6. .1.page 73 6.1. For example.∫ I ( t )R dt T 0 2 1 T 2 ∴ = R  -. Capacitors can be added to compensate. it would introduce an inductive effect.7 . V RMS = -----------.6 .1.f.= ---------------------S 2 2 P +Q As this value approaches 1 the power consumption becomes entirely real. P P pf = ----.Power Factor • The power factor (p. 1 T 2 P avg = -. consider the following.2. if a large motor were connected to a power grid.2. and the load becomes purely resistive.Maximum Power Transfer • Consider the thevenin circuit below.) is a good measure of how well a power source is being used. • It is common to try to correct power factor values when in industrial settings. We want to find the maximum power transfered from this circuit to the external resistance.Average Power Calculation • If we want to find the average power.

page 74 Zs V s ∠0° ZL + Z s = R s + jX s Z L = R L + jX L Vs V s ∠0° I = ---------------. PL = ZL I 2  2 Vs ∴ = ( R L + jX L )  ---------------------------------------------------------------  ( R + R ) 2 + j ( X + X ) 2 s L s L Vs ( R L + jX L ) ∴ = --------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( Rs + RL ) + ( Xs + XL ) To find the maximum we can then take a partial derivative for the resistance. Vs ( ( R s + R L ) + ( X s + X L ) – 2R L ( R s + R L ) ) ∂ P L = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= 0 2 2 2 ∂ RL ((R + R ) + (X + X ) ) s L s L 2 2 2 2 ∴0 = ( R s + R L ) + ( X s + X L ) – 2R L ( R s + RL ) ∴0 = R L + R s + 2RL R s + X L + X s + 2X L X s – 2R L – 2R L R s ∴R L ( – 1 ) + R L ( 0 ) + ( R s + X L + X s + 2X L X s ) = 0 ∴R L = Rs + ( XL + Xs ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .= -----------------------------------------------------Zs + ZL ( Rs + RL ) + j ( Xs + XL ) The average power delivered to the load is.

 = Vrms ∠240°  3 . = Vrms ∠120°  3 4π V 3 ( t ) = V peak sin  ωt + ----.= 0 L 2 2 2 ∂ XL ( ( RL + R s ) + ( X L + Xs ) ) ∴X L = – X s 2 6. If these three wires are connected through a balanced load the sum of currents is zero. Most systems provide a fourth wire as a neutral. • These systems carry 3 phases of voltage. phase 1 generator neutral load phase 2 phase 3 V 1 ( t ) = V peak sin ( ωt ) = V rms ∠0° 2π V 2 ( t ) = V peak sin  ωt + ----.3 3-PHASE CIRCUITS • 3-phase circuits are common in large scale power generators and delivery systems. each 120 degrees out of phase.page 75 Next. consider the partial derivative for the reactance. – Vs 2R L ( X L + X s ) ∂ P = ---------------------------------------------------------------. on three separate conductors.

along with the various parameter sets. The basic device schematics are simple. TWO PORT NETWORKS • Two port networks are a useful tool for describing idealized components. phase 1 phase 2 phase 3 7. but each set of parameters views the device differently.page 76 • As a result loads can be connected in a delta configuration with no neutral. I1 + V1 I2 + V2 - . • The basic device is seen below.

1. They can be easily determined by setting other parameters to zero. while others are admittance.page 77 z-parameters inverse y-parameters V 1 = z 11 I 1 + z 12 I 2 V 2 = z 21 I 1 + z 22 I 2 I 1 = y 11 V 1 + y 12 V 2 I 2 = y 21 V 1 + y 22 V 2 a-parameters inverse b-parameters V 1 = a 11 V 2 + a 12 I 2 I 1 = a 21 V 2 + a 22 I 2 V 2 = b 11 V 1 + b 12 I 1 I 2 = b 21 V 1 + b 22 I 1 h-parameters inverse g-parameters V 1 = h 11 I 1 + h 12 V 2 I 2 = h 21 I 1 + h 22 V 2 I 1 = g 11 V 1 + g 12 I 2 V 2 = g 21 V 1 + g 22 I 2 7.1 z-Parameters (impedance) • The values are as below.1 PARAMETER VALUES • obviously some of the parameters are impedance. . and measuring relevant voltages/currents. 7.

• The equivalent circuit for the z-parameters is shown below. I1 I2 z11 z22 + V1 - z12I2 + - + z21I1 - + V2 - 7.ratio of port 1 voltage to port 2 current with port 1 open circuit V2 z 21 = ----I1 Ω I2 = 0 Transfer Impedance .page 78 parameter units description V1 z 11 = ----I1 Ω I2 = 0 Input Impedance .2 y-Parameters (admittance) .port 1 impedance with port 2 open circuit. V1 z 12 = ----I2 Ω I1 = 0 Transfer Impedance .ratio of port 2 voltage to port 1 current with port 2 open circuit V2 z 22 = ----I2 Ω I1 = 0 Output Impedance .the impedance of the output terminals with port 1 open circuit.1.

1 Reciprocal Networks • If a voltage is applied at one port.4 b-Parameters (transmission) 7. When a network is neither of these.1.6 g. . This can help when one set of parameters is needed. etc.1. the short circuit current out the other port will be the same. other parameters can be found using simple conversions.2.2 PROPERTIES • If one set of parameters is known. • Reciprocal networks are only possible when passive elements are used. 7. • Simple cases of networks are reciprocal and symetrical.Parameters (hybrid) 7.1. regardless of which side the voltage is applied to. • The parameters that indicate a reciprocal networks are.page 79 7.1. then it typically has active components. dependant sources. but cannot be measured directly.5 h-Parameters (hybrid) 7.3 a-Parameters (transmission) 7.

2.2 Symmetrical Networks • This is a special case of the reciprocal network where the input and output parameters are identical. we must also consider. the last can be determined mathematically. = 1 = 1 7. • In addition to the reciprocal constraints. z 11 = z 22 y 11 = y 22 a 11 = a 22 b 11 = b 22 det h 11 h12 h 21 h22 det g 11 g12 g 21 g22 = 1 = 1 .page 80 z 12 = z 21 y 12 = y 21 det a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 det b 11 b 12 b 21 b 22 h 12 = – h 21 g 12 = – g 21 • With any reciprocal network we only need to find 3 of the four parameters.

7.1 Cascade • The a parameters can be multiplied a eq = a 1 a 2 7.3 CONNECTING NETWORKS • When connecting networks. various parameters add ease.2 Series • With this type of connection the parameters are added.3. 7.page 81 • Only two of these parameters need to be found to find the other two parameters.3. .

page 82 z eq = z 1 + z 2 7.3.4 Series-Parallel .3 Parallel • Here the devices are connected. 7.3.

5 Parallel-Series 8.3.page 83 7. CAE TECHNIQUES FOR CIRCUITS .

3 BASIC NOTES ABOUT CHIPS • The cases come in many forms. 9. 2. Keep things clean while working . 3. 8. Always think about what you are doing. and have a block diagram of function. loose connections. In this section you can find ways to fill the black boxes. and can splatter/spray/etc. 10. Remember electrolytic capacitors WILL EXPLODE IF CONNECTED BACKWARDS. 7. fix it. 4. short circuits. but for inhouse development the DIP (Dual In-Line Pin) package is most popular. . • Before using this section.1 HOW TO USE A COOKBOOK • A cookbook is intended to provide enough examples of useful circuits to fill in black boxes in designs. and look for stupid mistakes before turning a device on.page 84 9.2 SAFETY • Although you may be familiar with safety. it is always worth a review.wear safety glasses. Double check. A CIRCUITS COOKBOOK 9. If something has malfunctioned deal with it . 1. and most chips here are numbered with the same pin convention. . 6. unless specified. A few careless minutes in a lab can be fatal. or throw it out. Cover or insulate live contact points when not testing. When soldering remember the molten solder is hotter than boiling water. and avoid ground loops. 9. 9. don’t try something without understanding the consequences. Keep objects shielded and properly grounded.report it. Common problems are reversed power supply polarity. Use fuses when possible. • Some (BUT NOT ALL) safety rules are. Wet surfaces can make you a convenient path for electricity 5. the designer should already have some concept of what they want their circuit to do. and use insulated probes. and leave the lab better than you found it.

But. Be wary when selecting a non-standard IC. . The ‘F’ signifies fast.Motorola . and available at any vendor of microchips. • Some IC manufacturers are. for example the 74F147. making them hard to get in quantities of less than 1000. except that they will have different rated speeds. • Many manufacturers make common chips. will logically be equivalent to the 74LS147.National Semiconductor . • There are extensive volumes of databooks available for chips. with the same IC numbers. • When TTL inputs have nothing attached they tend to “float high” and will indicate that an input is true.Texas Instruments • CMOS chips will need pull-up resistors on inputs. these are typically low cost. small purchases may be frowned upon by the supplier.page 85 pin 1 starts here and is numbered in series about the chip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 74LS147 Motorola 0489 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 • Chips are labelled with part numbers. there are also many proprietary chips. and ‘LS’ signifies low speed. .

1 Resistors • The resistor color code is.000.4 CONVENTIONS 9.000.000X Silver = 10% tolerance Gold = 5% tolerance Brown = 1% tolerance • A resistor will have 4 or 5 bands.000X Blue = 6 = 1. Many of these are marked by terse codes and symbols. The bands that are grouped. 9.5 USEFUL COMPONENT INFORMATION • There are basic families of standard components to be found.000. A single band will be set apart.000X Violet = 7 = 10. 2 2 1K 5% tol ∴22KΩ ± 5% .5.000X White = 9 = 1.page 86 9. this will be the tolerance.000. Black = 0 = 1X Brown = 1 = 10X Red = 2 = 100X Orange = 3 = 1000X Yellow = 4 = 10000X Green = 5 = 100. or closer to one side of the resistor are the nominal value of the resistor.000X Grey = 8 = 100.000.

page 87 9.6.bread board . 1R53K Multipliers 0 = x1 1 = x10 2 = x100 3 = x1000 4 = x10000 5 = x100000 8 = x0.5µF ± 10% B = ±0..1 Tolerances 1 R 5 3 K digit ‘1’ decimal place (optional) digit ‘5’ multiplier x1000 tolerance ±10% ∴1. When the values are not clear. • Consider the capacitor with a number code below.g.5.1pF (<10pF) C = ±0.6 FABRICATION • There are a few popular methods of fabrication . there may be a number code used.bin board .2 Capacitors • Capacitors quite often have values printed on them.25pF (<10pF) D = ±0.circuit board 9.01 9 = x0.wire wrap .5pF (<10pF) F = ±1pF (<10pF) = ±1% (>10pF) G = ±2pF (<10pF) = ±2% (>10pF) H = ±3pF (>10pF) J = ±5pF (>10pF) K = ±10pF (>10pF) M = ±20pF (>10pF) 9. e.1 Shielding and Grounding .

sheet metal (iron) enclosures keep electromagnetic interference out. This shield is to be connected at one end (not two) of the cable to drain off any induced currents. and from corrupting analog signals. reinforcing fiber (optional) twisted pair shield insulation 9.bypass capacitors • Cables can be shielded two different ways: .RF chokes . • Shielding is accomplished through a number of methods: .two wires that are used for a signal (signal and common) are twisted once per inch or more.cable bundles are often covered by a metal foil. it prevents electrical noise from creating false digital signals.hence cancelling out the induced current.7 LOGIC • Decimal to binary encoder . any inductive magnetic field induces a current one way for one twist. .shielded cables .shielding sheaths . As a result.page 88 • Shielding is important for all circuits. . or in.twisted pairs . and the other way for the next twist . or braided wire to provide a general protection for the cable.

page 89 +V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 10 74147 9 20 7404 1 2 7 21 3 4 6 22 5 6 14 8 23 7 14 8 220 • Binary to decimal decoder .

page 90 +V 7404 1 2 20 21 22 23 15 14 13 12 7442 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 12 8 220 7404 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 8 220 .

page 91 9. the reset value should be the lower value. Two level detector circuits are used for the inputs. low high S R Q • SINKING SENSOR TO TTL . V+ 10K device + Vo R1 V- • RANGE CONTROLLER . or some other driver. .To measure temperatures or light levels against one level. If measuring temperature the device should be an RTD.8 ANALOG SENSORS • LEVEL DETECTOR LIGHT OR TEMPERATURE . The ratio of resistors R1 and R2 is determined by the ratio between the sensor supply voltage (normally 24V) and the TTL input voltage (normally 5V). If measuring light the device should be a photoresistor (LDR). The resisto values should probably be between 1K and 10K.To convert a sinking sensor to a TTL input. This can be done with a simple a simple flip flop. The value of resistor R1 should be selected to be close to the normal resistance of the device.Upper/lower range controller. The potentiometer can be used to make fine adjustments. The output can be used to drive a relay. The Set value should be the upper range.

whilew the reversal relay mst be a double pole double throw (DPDT) relay. but is being controlled by a low current TTL out- . The relays should be selected to carry the peak motor currents.This circuit can be used for a load that requires a few amps of power. motor motor on reverse + motor power supply • DRIVING A HIGH CURRENT DC LOAD WITH A TRANSISTOR .A circuit that allows a motor to be turned on in either direction (safely). The motor on relay can be a single pole single throw (SPST).page 92 + Vs V+ sensor NPN V- power supply R1 Vi device with TTL inputs R2 V R2 ----i = ----------------Vs R1 + R2 • MOTOR REVERSER USING RELAYS .

The values of R1 and R2 should probably be about 10K. For a higher current load a Darlington coupled transistor can be used. device with out TTL output com load + + power supply - • SIGNAL VOLTAGE LEVEL REDUCTION .page 93 put.A higher voltage signal can be divided to a lower fraction using a voltage divider.  R + R - 1 2 input device • SWITCHING AN AC LOAD WITH A SOLID STATE RELAY . . Note that the voltage loss accross the transistor will be approximately 2V. This is only suitable for devices with high impedance inputs and should not be used to reduce battery voltages for motors. The transistor must be selected so that it can carry the maximum load current. + signal source com Vs R1 + R2 Vi com R2 V i = V s  ----------------. A heat sink should be used if the device will pass a large percentage of the rated current. or other similar applications.AC loads can be controlled with a low current DC output using a solid state relay.

 R + R  1 2 • STRAIN GAGE AMPLIFIER .This circuit will reduce the larger voltage output from a sourcing sensor (typically 24V) to the lower TTL level (typically 5V). R1 sensor V+ PNP VR2 V i = V s  ----------------. The ratio of R1/R2 should be close to the ratio of R3/R4. hot hot load neut AC power supply neut. The trim pot can then be used to make minor adjustments.page 94 device + with DC output com + solid hot state relay com neut. Vs com + power supply in R2 Vi device with TLL input . The values of the remaining resistors can be selected to give a suitable amount of isolation.this circuit can be used as a crude strain gage amplifier. • CONNECTING A SOURCING SENSOR TO A TTL INPUT .

page 95 V+ strain gage R3 R5 + R4 R2 trim pot. VV+ R7 + VVo V+ R1 R6 R8 V- .