Engineer On a Disk

Overview: This note set is part of a larger collection of materials available at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu. You are welcome to use the material under the license provided at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu/eod/global/copyrght.html. As always any feedback you can provide will be welcomed.

Copyright © 1993-2001, Hugh Jack email: jackh@gvsu.edu phone: (616) 771-6755 fax: (616) 336-7215

Copyright © 1993-2001, Hugh Jack

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1. TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................... 2 BASIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 4 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND QUANTITIES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS............................................................................................................ 12 KIRCHOFF’S LAWS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 THEVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 CIRCUITS CONTAINING CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS - - - - - - - - - - - - 33 PASSIVE DEVICES .............................................................................................................. 34 TRANSFORMERS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35 ACTIVE DEVICES ................................................................................................................ 37 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 37 TRANSISTORS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 52 AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 57 PHASORS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 57 AC POWER - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 68 3-PHASE CIRCUITS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 75 TWO PORT NETWORKS ..................................................................................................... 76 PARAMETER VALUES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 77 PROPERTIES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 79 CONNECTING NETWORKS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 81 CAE TECHNIQUES FOR CIRCUITS .................................................................................. 83 A CIRCUITS COOKBOOK................................................................................................... 84 HOW TO USE A COOKBOOK - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 SAFETY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 BASIC NOTES ABOUT CHIPS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 84 CONVENTIONS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 USEFUL COMPONENT INFORMATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 86 FABRICATION - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 87 LOGIC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 88 ANALOG SENSORS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 91

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Electric Circuits

we tend to simplify components into discrete and independant parts. the restiction on flow is called resistance. • Current and voltage are very important terms that are not well understood by the beginner. the flow of electrons is called a current. BASIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • Circuit analysis can be troubling because we are dealing with particles that have never been seen. If we separate them they exert a force of attraction. 2. V) I + V R . much like gravity. amps. A) V = potential (voltage. or an applied voltage creating a current.page 4 2. We depend upon calculations and approximations to determine what is happening inside the circuit. R = resistance (ohms Ω) I = current (amperes. If both are together they are stable and steady. This potential of attraction is called voltage. and measuring instruments to verify our numbers. Consider an electron/proton pair.1 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND QUANTITIES • Although in reality circuits involve complex interactions of potential and magnetic fields. The electrons do not flow freely. • Typically each simple circuit component will act as a “black box” with an applied current creating a voltage. V = IR where. If we create a channel for these electrons to flow back to the protons (electrons are much lighter and more mobile than protons).

 dq V dWdt R = -. R = resistance (Ω or Ws/C2) • Resistance is the simplest of all circuit elements.= ------------. dt dq dt where.page 5 ASIDE: The electron is defined as a negative charge and the protons are positive charges. but there are a variety of other simple elements found in circuits. if we consider resistance. P = the power in Watt’s (joules/sec) This gives the change in energy as a function of time.  ----.= P  ------. This gives the conductor the counter-intuitive result that while current is defined as flowing from positive to negative. And. . dq I = ----dt Next consider the product of the current and voltage. W = energy (joules) q = the charge (coulombs) V = the voltage Current is defined as the unit of charge per unit of time.  dW  ------. they tend to move towards the positive charge. and is found in all circuit elements. or the power.capacitors .= -----------2 I  dq dq ---- dt  where. p+e+ 0V V e+ eI p+ p+ NOTE: Voltage is defined as a unit of energy per unit charge. dW vI =  dW  dq = ------. the electrons are moving the opposite direction from negative to positive. such that. dW v = ------dq where. Because electrons are much lighter and smaller.

(This causes the electrons on the effected atom to absorb momentum. • All of us have seen an electromagnet at least once in our lives. V = L dI ---dt where.current sources ASIDE: Resistance is caused by the current electrons moving through a conductor striking atoms and transferring energy to their electrons. The resulting relationship is.voltage sources .inductors . I + V L . H) This may make more sense if we keep in mind that an inductor is just a coil of wire. V = the voltage I = the current L = the inductance (Henry’s. The result is that there is an impeded (resisted) current flow. This is effectively a large inductor.page 6 . The device is best described as resisting current flow changes (almost as if preserving the momentum of the current). generating heat in the material.

where. µ = magnetic permeability I The inductance of a straight conductor is small. In practical devices the inductors are wound into coils to increase the inductance. but the current will quickly reach a steady stae. IH = -------2πr r B = µH where. a current). In a simple design the inductance is. The relationship is. . An electrical capacitor typically allows current to flow freely when a voltage is applied. If the flow is constant a constant magnetic field builds up around the conductor. • When you get a static shock you are touching a basic form of capacitor. The strength of the field is given by.page 7 ASIDE: Inductors are based on the magnetic field created by a flow of charge (ie.

The actual component is made by having plates separated by a material called the dielectric (a non-conducting material). 9V) are one good example. d A where. and the distance between them are the main factors. I + V In some cases capacitors have polarity . Disposable batteries (e. at the rated voltage.page 8 I = C dV -----dt where. and although small they can injure. The schematic symbol is shown below.this means that they must be connected so that the positive terminal is at a higher voltage. The area of the plates. F) V = the voltage across the capacitor (V) The schematic symbol is shown below. When we use these normally we assume that the batteries will supply any amount of current. I = the current through the capacitor (A) C = the capacitance (Farads. .5V. 1. C ASIDE: Capacitance is created by separating electrical charge by some distance. + V • Voltage sources are also very common.g. These devices will explode when connected backwards.

These two reactions occur separately at the positive and negative electrodes.page 9 I + V = 1. and consumed by another. This reduces the voltages they provide when high currents are drawn. The reaction equations for a lead acid battery show how electrons are generated by one reaction.5V In reality batteries are often considered to have a small internal resistance.5V or Vs + I + V - + Vs = 1. R + Vs - battery ASIDE: Most batteries are based on simple electrochemistry. V Pb + H 2 SO4 + HCl → PbSO 4 + 2e – + H2 Pb H2SO4 .

page 10 • A similar method is used when considering current sources Is + Is V - • Some theoretical treatments of circuit elements make use of dependant (variable) voltage and current sources. The schematic symbols are often as shown below. .

β = coefficients 2. but there are some terms and conventions of importance when constructing and reading these diagrams. . .2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS • Most of us will have seen a circuit diagram in the past.each device has input/output terminals that are connected to nodes (black dots). Is I s = the current of the dependant source α.standard schematic symbols are available to reduce ambiguity. ρ = coefficients V x = another voltage in the circuit I x = another current in the circuit I s = αV x = βI x where. . but are implied. .page 11 V s = µV x = ρI x where.we try to have positive voltages at the top. + Vs V s = the voltage of the dependant source µ. and sources on the left hand side. They may not be drawn for simple connections. • Generally.

page 12 .All components are labelled with variable names or values. electrons do not appear and disappear from the circuit. • Consider the example. R1 = 10Ω R2 + Vs R3 C1 3.superposition .node voltages . etc.thevinen and norton equivalents 3. And.keep in mind that current is a flow rate for moving electrons.1 KIRCHOFF’S LAWS • Kirchoff’s Current Law: “The sum of currents at any node in a circuit must equal zero” . Therefore. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • The techniques of circuit analysis focus on trying to derive equations that describe a circuit. . • Some well known techniques include. . • In general most of the techniques attempt to simplify analysis by breaking the circuit into parts. all of the electrons flowing into a point in the circuit must be flowing back out. loops.mesh currents .

that for resistors in parallel. and different paths chosen between them.Parallel Resistors • Let’s consider one on the most common electrical calculations .1 . 3.1. We want to find the equivalent resistance for the network of resistors shown. .1.Each element will have a voltage (potential) between nodes.1 Simple Applications of Kirchoff’s Laws 3.page 13 • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law: “The sum of all voltages about a closed loop in a circuit is equal to zero” .1. the potentials must be equal or current will flow in a loop indefinately (Note: this would be perpetual motion). If any two points on the closed loop are chosen.

page 14 I + R1 V R2 Rn I + V Rp First we can define currents in each branch of the circuit. . V V V∴I – ----.= 0 R1 R2 Rn 111.1. I + R1 V I1 I2 In R2 Rn Now. and then relate the expression to Rp.Series Resistors • Now consider another problem with series resistors. the equation becomes. Also recognize that the potential voltage across each resistor will be V.– … – ----.+ ----. so if we add the current through the resistors. We can use Kirchoff’s voltage law to sum the voltages in the circuit loop.+ + … + ----R 1 R2 Rn 3.+ … + ----- = ---- R1 R2 R n Rp V 1 ∴R p = ------------------------------------------1.=  ----. and the resistors are voltage drops (the signs will be opposite). In this case the input voltage is a voltage rise.----11----.– ----. consider the sum of the currents in and out of the upper conductor.1I∴-.2 . ∑I = I – I1 – I2 – … – In = 0 The current through each resistor is simple to calculate.1.

sum the voltages about the loop.page 15 + I R1 + V1 + V2 + V + Vn Rs I R2 V Rn - First.1. To do this we need to add a direction arrow for current.2 Node Voltage Methods . and then relate the values to the equivalent resistor Rs. or use ‘+’ and ‘-’ for voltages. ∑V = – V + V1 + V 2 + … + V n = 0 Next. ∴– V + IR 1 + IR2 + … + IR n = 0 ∴V = R 1 + R 2 + … + R n = R s -I ASIDE: We can use a “single subscript notation” to indicate a voltage or current. use ohms law to replace voltages with the current. 3.

and that the components act as bridges between these.page 16 • If we consider that each conductor in a circuit has a voltage level. • This is a very direct implementation of Kirchoff’s current law. and then doing a lot of algebra. • This method basically involves setting variables. . then we can try some calculations. • First. let’s consider an application of The Node Voltage method for the circuit given below.

currents and voltages. V 12 = I 3 40Ω V12 ∴I 3 = ---------40Ω . sum the currents at node 1. For the center path. 10Ω I1 I3 node n1 + I2 20Ω + Vo + 30V 5Ω node n2 Next. 30Ω 40Ω V12 40Ω ∑ In 1 = I1 – I2 – I3 = 0 Then find equations for the three currents based on the the difference between voltage at nodes 1 and 2.page 17 Find Vo 10Ω 20Ω + + 30V 5Ω 30Ω 40Ω 40Ω Vo First. we will add labels for nodes.

3. . Each of these can be given a variable name. V 12 19. find the current in the right circuit branch. and equations can be written for each loop current.5V Finally. 30 – V 12 V 12 V 12 0 = I 1 – I 2 – I 3 = ------------------. combine the equations. In some cases these current loops pass through the same components.7V V 12 ∴I 2 = ------90 V 12 – 30 30 – V 12 ∴I 1 = ------------------.page 18 For the left branch.3 Current Mesh Methods • If we consider Kirchoff’s Voltage law.= --------. we could look at any circuit as a collection of current loops.1.217A 90 90 V R2 = I 2 40 = ( 0.= 0.217 ) ( 40 ) = 8. V12 = – 5I 1 + 30 – 10I 1 For the right branch.– ------.= ------------------– 15 15 ASIDE: When using a voltage between nodes we are using the double subscript notation. • We can define a loop (mesh) current for each clear loop in a circuit diagram. and then the voltage across R2.5 I 2 = ------. When doing this we label nodes and then the voltage is listed as ‘Vab’ where ‘a’ is positive relative to ‘b’. V 12 = 20I 2 + 40I 2 + 30I 2 Now.– ---------15 90 40Ω ∴V 12 = 19.

4 More Advanced Applications .1. ∑ VI ∑ VI 1 = 0 = – 30 + 10I 1 + 40 ( I 1 – I 2 ) + 5I 1 30 = 55I 1 – 40I 2 = 0 = 20I 2 + 40I 2 + 30I 2 + 40 ( I 2 – I 1 ) 0 = 40I 1 – 130I 2 (2) (1) 2 Solve the equation matrix for I2.= ----------------------------------------------------.6V 3. V O = 40I 2 = 8.page 19 • These methods are quite well suited to matrix solutions • Lets consider a simple problem.216A 55 ( – 130 ) – ( – 40 ) ( 40 ) det 55 – 40 40 – 130 55 – 40 30 40 – 130 0 Finally calculate the voltage across the 40 ohm resistor. (I will use Cramer’s Rule) det 55 30 40 0 55 ( 0 ) – 30 ( 40 ) I 2 = --------------------------------.= 0. Find Vo 10Ω 20Ω + + 30V - I1 40Ω 5Ω I2 40Ω 30Ω Vo - After adding the mesh currents (and directions) we may write equations.

 - R + R  R + R - 1 2 1 2 . R 2 = V s  ----------------.page 20 3. ∑ V = – Vs + IR1 + IR2 = 0 Vs ∴I = ----------------R1 + R2 Next.4. Vs R2 V o = IR2 =  ----------------. and assume there is no current out at Vo.1. R1 + Vs I + R2 Vo - First.1 . sum the voltages about the loop. Consider the circuit below.Voltage Dividers • The voltage divider is a very common and useful circuit configuration. find the output voltage. we add a current loop. based on the current.

Vs + Vo 3. Rx is a resistance to be measured.4.2 . As the wiper travels along the resistor the output voltage changes.The Wheatstone Bridge • The wheatstone bridge is a very common engineering tool for magnifying and measuring signals. . In this circuit a supply voltage Vs is used to power the circuit. Resistors R1 and R2 are generally equal. An ammeter is shown in the center. and R3 is a tuning resistor.1. and resistor R3 is varied until the current in the center Ig is zero.page 21 ASIDE: variable resistors are often used as voltage dividers.

3 .1. . A similar conversion is done for power circuits called delta to y.Tee-To-Pi (Y to Delta) Conversion • It is fairly common to use a model of a circuit. This model can then be transformed or modified as required. R 2 R3 R x = ----------R1 3.4. • A very common model and conversion is the Tee to Pi conversion in electronics. Ig=0).page 22 R1 + Vs Ig R2 Rx R3 For practice try to show the relationship below holds for a balanced bridge (ie.

page 23 a Rc Rb c Pi Ra b a Rc b Rb c c Delta Ra c a R1 R2 b a R1 R2 b R3 R3 c Tee c c Y c • We can find equivalent resistors considering that. .

= R 2 + R 3 1. Ra Rc R 2 = -----------------------------Ra + Rb + Rc Ra Rb R 3 = -----------------------------Ra + Rb + Rc • To find the equivalents the other way.----------------1 ----.= R 1 + R3 – R 2 – R 3 + R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc R b R c + R b R a – R a Rb – R a R c + Rc Ra + R c R b ∴--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.+ ----------------Rb Rc + Ra 1 R ab = -----------------------------. .+ R a R b + Rc To find R1. (1)-(3)+(2) Rb ( Rc + Ra ) ∴-----------------------------.= R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc (1) (2) (3) R b ( Rc + R a ) – R a ( R b + R c ) + R c ( R a + R b ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= R 1 + R 2 1 ----------------1 ----.page 24 1 R ac = -----------------------------.= R 1 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc Rc ( Ra + Rb ) ∴-----------------------------.= 2R 1 Ra + Rb + Rc R b Rc ∴R 1 = -----------------------------Ra + Rb + Rc Likewise.+ Rc Ra + Rb 1 R bc = -----------------------------.= R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc Ra ( Rb + Rc ) ∴-----------------------------.= R 1 + R 3 11 ----.

to eliminate Ra and Rc.R c R2 R2 R3 R2 ∴R a = ----.R b + ----.R b R1 R3 R 2 R 1 + R2 R 3 R b  -----------------------------.R a R3 R3 We can put these relationships into equation (1).Rb R R1  3 ------------------------------------------.= R 1 + R 3 R2 R2 ----.page 25 Rb Rc Ra Rc Ra Rb R a + R b + R c = ----------.= R 1 + R 3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 ------------------------------------------------R1 R3 R 2 R 3 + R 1 R3 + R 1 R 2 R 2 R3 + R 1 R 3 + R 1 R 2 ∴Rb = ( R 1 + R 3 )  ------------------------------------------------. -  R1 R3 ∴-------------------------------------------------. = -------------------------------------------------  R2 R2 R1 + R2 R3 Likewise.R b + R b + ----.R a = ----.2 THEVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS .R b = ----.= ----------R1 R2 R3 R3 R1 ∴R b = ----.= ----------.R b = ----.R c R1 R1 R2 R1 ∴R c = ----. R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 + R 1 R 2 R a = ------------------------------------------------R1 R2 R 3 + R 1 R 3 + R 1 R2 R c = ------------------------------------------------R3 3. R2 R2 R b  ----.

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• A sometimes useful transformation is based on the equivalence of certain circuit elements, It In

R1

+ Is + Vs _ Vt R2 Thevinen Norton

+

Vn

-

First, consider the short circuit case where, It = In this gives the basic relationship, V s = R1 It Next, consider the open circuit case, Vt = Vn we find the simple relationships, Vt = Vs Vn = Is R2 It = In = 0 Vs ∴----- = I t = I n R1 Vt = Vn = 0

• We can use this to test an unknown circuit for open circuit voltage, and short circuit current, and then replace it with an equivalent circuit. 1. Measure open circuit voltage Vs 2. Measure short circuit current Is 3.a) If using a Thevenin equivalent calculate, Rs = Vs/Is 3.b) If using a Norton equivalent calculate, Rs = Vs/Is 4. Draw the appropriate circuit. * note the resistor values are the same for both circuits.

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• We can also use the Thevenin/Norton transformation to simplify circuits. Consider example 4.13 from [Nilsson]. Find V 60V 20Ω 1.6Ω + 6Ω 8Ω V 120V + 5Ω We can replace the first loop (120V source) with a Norton equivalent, +

36A

20Ω

60V

1.6Ω + 6Ω

+

8Ω

36A

V

120V ------------ = 6A 20Ω

5Ω -

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Next we can convert the remaining voltage source to a current source,

20Ω

60V 5Ω 36A 6Ω

1.6Ω

+

8Ω

V

120V ------------ = 6A 20Ω

60V --------- = 12A 5Ω -

The current sources and resistors may now be combined to simplify the circuit,

1.6Ω 6 – 12 + 36 = 30A 1 ------------------------ = 2.4Ω 1- -- ------ + 1 + 1 - 20 5 6

+

8Ω

V

-

6Ω + 8Ω + 30 ( 2. 2. Select one source in a circuit.2. and then use voltage division to find the output voltage. 2. . Make all other current sources open circuit.4Ω 1.4 ) = 72V V - Combine the two serial resistors. = 48V  8 + 4 3. The basic technique is.page 29 Convert the current source to a voltage source using the Thevinen equivalent.1 Superposition • This is a simple technique that can be used when there are multiple sources in a circuit. 1. + 4Ω 72V V 8Ω + - - 8 V = 72  ----------.

19 from [Nilsson]. Add together the results for each source. Pick the next voltage/current source and go back to 2. 4. 6A 20Ω + 100V + V 40Ω 2. • Consider an example below.5Ω 10Ω Find the voltage V - . 6. Analyze as normal.page 30 3. Make all other voltage sources short circuits. 5. 4.

3 V = V s  ---------------------- = 13.5 10 + 13.3 .= 2.3 Find V using a voltage divider.26 ) = 7.1----.+ ----20 40 6A + Vs V s = 6 ( 2.page 31 a) Let’s consider the current source first. 6A 20Ω + V 40Ω 2.5V  10 + 13.+ 2.73V V - 1 -----------------------------------.3Ω 1.5Ω + 1 -----------------.26Ω 1 .= 13. 13.---------------------1 -----.5Ω 10Ω 6A 10Ω 2.

• Consider the simple case below.5 9.2 Maximum Power Transfer • When we will add a load to a network.page 32 b) Now find the effects of the voltage source with the current source as an open circuit.25 = 40V 3.+ 40 10 + 2.25V  20 + 9.2.52Ω 1. we may want to try and maximize the amount of power delivered to it.52 c) Finally we combine the effects of both sources.5Ω 10Ω - 20Ω + 100V + V 1 ------------------------------.73 + 32. . 20Ω + 100V + V 40Ω 2.= 9.------------------1 ----.52 ∴V = 100  ---------------------- = 32. V = 7.

3 CIRCUITS CONTAINING CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS • When circuits contain capacitors. the solving techniques are the same. find RL for the maximum power transfer. Vs I = ----------------Rs + R L V = IR L 2 VS P L = IV L =  ------------------ R L R + R  S L ∂ P = 0 ∂ RL L ∴R L = R S For maximum power transfer • For practice try proving this theorem for the Norton equivalent circuit. .page 33 Rs + RL VL - Vs + - I Given Vs and Rs. inductors. or other complex components. The main difference is that you will end up with differential expressions. (later we will see better techniques for dealing with these components) • Consider the example. 3.

 V S + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt – C 2  ------------------------------- + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt + R 1 I 2 + L d I 2 = 0 dt  C 1 + C2  etc. . ∑ VI 1 = – V S + C 1 ∫ I 1 dt + C 2 ∫ ( I 1 – I 2 ) dt = 0 ∴V S = ( C 1 + C 2 ) ∫ I 1 dt – C 2 ∫ I 2 dt V S + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt ∴∫ I 1 dt = ------------------------------C1 + C2 (1) ∑ VI 2 = C 2 ∫ ( I 2 – I 1 ) dt + R 1 I 2 + L d I 2 = 0 dt (2) sub.. PASSIVE DEVICES • Passive devices will have the same operating characteristics at the same operating points. (1) into (2)..page 34 C1 R1 Vs + C2 I1 I2 L1 For the two loops.... 4..

. and II NI = Io No II + VI - N1:N2 Io Vo + N1 = the number of coils on the primary side N2 = the number of coils on the secondary side • If a transformer has an iron core it will be shown with lines in the centre. II Io + VI - + Vo - • The ideal relationship is. II + VI N1:N2 Io + Vo - V Vo ----I = ----NI No where. or vice versa. • The transformer is effectively a magnetic circuit. It only works when using AC.1 TRANSFORMERS • A transformer can be viewed as a converter that can increase voltage and lower current. The transformer has two or more coils of wire wrapped about a common core.page 35 4.

2Ω 120V (RMS) For I1.2I 1 – 7. Vt 1I 3 – ---. • Consider the example below. from [Nilsson. ∴V t = 4I 3 120 = 7. Vt 4I 2 + ---. We want to find the power delivered to the 1ohm resistor. pg. We will use the mesh current method.= 0 4 (3) into (1).2I 2 – 3I 3 4 ( I1 – I2 ) = 1 ( I3 – I2 ) I 1 – 3I 2 – I 3 = 0 (4) (3) (2) (1) .2 ( I 1 – I 2 ) + V t For I2. (3) into (2).2I 2 + 4I 3 0 = – 7. For the transformer.page 36 • To deal with a transformer in a circuit analysis we need to pay attention to the polarity of the coils. 450]. 4Ω I2 4:1 1Ω + I1 I3 7.2I 1 + 11. and we may consider the inductance of each coil at times. 120V = 7.– V t + 7.2 ( I 2 – I 1 ) = 0 4 For I3.

thier models.stable high gain amplifiers .2 4 – 7. They are characterized as. The following section will describe a number of components. . • When doing most circuits problems we depends on idealized components. 7.2 4 I 1 120 – 7. may deliver power to the circuit.2 11.2 0 4 –3 0 – 2784 I 3 = --------------------------------------.8 – 100 7.high input impedances . and how to apply them in practical circuits.2 – 7.= -------------.2 120 – 7.1 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS • A very common and versatile device is the operational amplifier (Op-amp).= 27.2 – 7.2 – 3 4 –3 – 1 Finally we find the power in the resistor.2 – 3 I 2 = 0 4 –3 –1 I3 0 7. capacitors and inductors.page 37 Next we can solve the remaining three equations and three unknown currents using a matrix approach. and can perform interesting mathematical functions. These devices are capable of changing their operational performance.1A ) = 44W 5. ACTIVE DEVICES • Active devices are different from passive devices such as resistors.2 11. 5. P = 1Ω ( 44.2 11.2 – 7.

) where. +Vs V- Vo V+ + -Vs • Inside these devices have a very high gain amplifier that compares the inputs and gives an output that is amplified as shown by.low output impdeances • These are available for a few cents in commercial quantities.page 38 .is the inverting input V+ is the non-inverting input G is the gain (typically 100000x) Vo is the output Vs is the supply voltage Vo ≤ Vs If the output voltage is pushed beyond +Vs or -Vs. and the currents in to both of the inputs is negligable. 5.1. • When using these devices the circuit is typically set up so that both the inverting and non-inverting inputs have the same voltage. or slightly below the source voltage. V o = G ( V+ – V .1 General Details • The schematic symbol for these devices is given below. They also come in a wide variety of packages for various applications. . then it will be clipped at. V.

1.2.1. 5.1 .Inverting Amplifier • A typical op-amp application is the inverting amplifier.2 Simple Applications • Considering that the Op-amp was originally designed to allow simple mathematical operations in circuit form.page 39 IVI+ V+ V+ = VI+ = I. .= 0 5. the following circuits tend to bemathematical in nature.

 + V o  R + R - 1 2 The circuit tries to keep both op-amp inputs equal.page 40 R2 VI R1 VV+ R3 + Vo R1 and R2 are effectively a voltage divider. And.1. - R + R  R 1 + R 2 1 2 R 1 + R2 – R 2 R2 ∴V o  ------------------------------ = – V I  ----------------.= ( V I – V O )  ----------------. the V+ input is grounded.= V+ = 0 R2 R2 ∴0 = V I  ----------------.Non-Inverting Amplifier • We can also make non-inverting amplifiers using the following circuit.2 . R2 V .= – ----R1 VI Amplifier Gain 5.2. + V o  1 – ----------------.  R +R   R + R - 1 2 1 2 R2 Vo ∴----. . V.

V .3 . .= V + = VI R1 ∴V I = V O  ----------------.  R + R - 1 2 If we consider the the two inputs to have an equivalent input voltages.  R + R - 1 2 + Vo V+ R1 + R2 VO ∴-----.Integrator • The integrating amplifier is a very powerful application.2.= ----------------R1 VI Gain 5.= V o  ----------------.page 41 R2 R1 VVI R3 Use R1 and R2 as a voltage divider. R1 V .1.

VI I I = ----R1 Finally.– C ---.1.2.page 42 1MΩ If VI R1 II + C Vo R2 In the circuit the 1MΩ resistor is used to prevent output drift. .= V+ = 0 We can then find the currents.Differentiator • The following device is one form of differentiator using an inductor.4 .V o R1 dt 1∴V o = --------. V. Recall that in this configuration. dI f = C ---.∫ V I dt R1 C 5.V o dt ∑ IV - VI d= I I – I f = 0 = ----.

= V+ = 0 Next the input.page 43 L RL If VI II RI + Vo We may begin by realizing that the two op-amp inputs are at zero volts. and feedback currents may be found and summed. . V.+ R dL dt dL ---- R dt L ∴V o = V I  ----.+ R L dt VI Vo ∑ I = I I – I f = 0 = -----I – --------------------R L ---. Vo I f = -------------------dL ---.+ ------- R I RI    VI I I = ---RI • A second type of circuit uses a capacitor to find the differential.

page 44 5. If dissimilar components are used the inputs can be weighted .Weighted Sums • The following circuit can be used to add inputs.5 .2.1.

page 45

I1 V1 I2 V2

R1 Rf R2 + If Vo

In Vn

Rn

We can recognize that the op-amp inputs are both kept at zero volts, and that there is not current into the non-inverting input, we can find, V- = V+ = 0 V1 I 1 = ----R1 Vo I f = ----Rf V2 I 2 = ----R2 Vn I n = ----Rn

∑I

V1 V 2 Vn Vo = I 1 + I 2 + I n – I f = 0 = ----- + ----- + … + ----- – ----R1 R 2 Rn Rf

V1 V2 Vn ∴Vo = R f  ----- + ----- + … + -----  R1 R2 R n

5.1.2.6 - Difference Amplifier (Subtraction)
• We can construct an amplifier that subtracts one input from the other,

page 46

V2

R2 +

Rf Vo

V1

R1 R3

Using the normal approach, we can see that both inputs are essentially voltage dividers, R3 V + = V 1  -----------------   R + R - 1 3 Rf V - = ( V 2 – V o )  ----------------  + V o  R + R- f 2 Next, we can set the two inputs equal, and combine the equations, R3 Rf V + = V - = V 1  -----------------  = ( V 2 – V o )  ----------------  + V o - R + R  R + R-
1 3 2 f

R 2 + Rf – R f R3 Rf ∴V o  ---------------------------- = V 1  -----------------  – V 2  ----------------  -  R +R  R + R  R + R- f f 2 1 3 2 R3 ( R2 + Rf ) Rf ∴V o = V 1  ----------------------------- – V 2  ----- -  R (R + R )  R -
2 1 3 2

Note the result if all resistor values are equal, Vo = V1 – V2

page 47

5.1.2.7 - Op-Amp Voltage Follower
• At times we want to isolate a voltage source from an application, or add a high impedance. This can be done using a voltage follower,

VI

+

Vo

We can develop some of the basic relationship for this circuit, V+ = VI V+ = VVo = V∴V o = V I

5.1.2.8 - Bridge Balancer
• Op-amps can be used for measuring the potential across bridges.

it is probable that both inputs may have the same voltage that is not zero.1. and provided in the device specifications.page 48 Vs R1 R2 - Vo + R3 R4 -Vs • When used in this mode.Low Pass Filter • A Low pass filter will enable us to cut off the higher frequency components of an input signal.9 . . The result of this common offset is that the output will drift with the common inputs.2. This is generally measured by the manufacturer. The technical measure is the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR). 5.

Rf gain = – ----R1 1 ω c = ---------Cf Rf . The corner frequency and gain are.+ jωC  f  Rf V I = IR 1 Next. –Vo VI I = ----.     1 V o = – I  ---------------------.= ------------------------------R1 Rf  --------------------------  1 + jωC R  f f –Rf Vo ∴----. Past a certain point the gain will be very low.page 49 Cf Rf I VI R1 + I Vo Recognizing that the inverting input is at ground we may write the following expressions for the current. we can combine these expressions to find the gain of the system.= ----------------------------------R 1 + R1 jωC f R f VI NOTE: The gain will drop as the frequency rises. 1 ---.

2. Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description offset control V.(inverting input) V+ (non-inverting input) -Vs (supply) offset control output +Vs (supply) no connection 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 5.(inverting input) V+ (non-inverting input) -Vs (supply voltage) no connection no connection offset control output +Vs (supply voltage) no connection no connection 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 • The basic layout of the 741 op-amp is given below for the 8 pin dip package. Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description no connection no connection offset control V. .1.1.page 50 5.10 .The 741 Op-Amp • The basic layout of the 741 op-amp is given below for the 14 pin dip package (14C1741).3 Op-Amp Equivalent Circuits • An equivalent circuit for an op-amp is given below.

page 51 V+ + Ri + Ro Vo V- A(V+ . .V-) -Vs Where typical values are.1. Ri = 1MΩ Ro = 75W A = 105 5.Frequency Response • Open loop frequency response can be estimated using the equivalent circuit below.1 .3.

1 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) • Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) are made with three layers of doped silicon. = --------------------------jωC o Z o + 1 1  Z + ------------  o jωC o Vo A ----. AV I  jωC o  V o = ( AV I )  -----------------------. 1  -----------.= --------------------------VI jωC o Z o + 1 Gain (dB) 20log(A) -20 dB/dec.page 52 Zo + VI + AVI Co + Vo - Basically this is a voltage divider. The layers are either doped to be positive (p-type) or negative (n-type) using low concentrations of elements .2. We can quickly find the gain. Gain 1 ω c = ----------Co Zo log(f) 5.2 TRANSISTORS 5.

• Transistors are highly non-linear. • Except for applications such as switching. • There are two basic types. The schematic symbols for these transistors are shown below. This junction acts much like a diode. but they are often biased by carefully applying voltages and currents to put them in a roughly linear range. Their names come from the sequence of doped layers in the transistor. • A designer will depend heavily upon specifications. most transistor configurations are used for sinusoidal signals.2. As a result there is ussualy a DC design.page 53 mixed with the silicon.1 . 5.Biasing Common Emitter Transistors • A common emitter configuration is shown in the figure below. . PNP and NPN.1. These are often in the form of graphs for different transistor applications. collector base NPN emitter emitter base PNP collector • The base-emitter voltage is ussualy given as a constant. as well as AC.7V. and will on average have voltages around 0.

page 54 Vs R1 Rc CO CI VO VI R2 Re Ce • Consider the common emitter amplifier shown. • To perform the design we must first bias the transistor using the curves below. The capacitor Ce is used to allow the AC to bypass Re. The resistors provide DC biasing to select an operating point. .

page 55 I c ( mA ) 8 I b = 80µA 60µA 6 40µA 4 bias point 20µA 2 0µA 10 17 1 17VR c = ---------------------------------------.2KΩ slope of bias line 8mA 20 V ce ( V ) .= 2125Ω ≈ 2.= ---------.

Vb = V e + V be = I e R e + V be = βI b R e + V be ∴ = 100 ( 30µA )720Ω + 0.2KΩ ≈ and I e ≈ βI b . (0. Based on collector current we can determine that V e = V s – V ce – I c R c = I e Re ∴V s – V ce – I c R c = βI b Assuming we find a beta of 100 in the transistor specifications. to select values for R1 and R2 we need to calculate Vb using Vbe from the specifications. R + R  1 2 R 1 + R2 = 7R 2 R 1 = 6R 2 The value of either R1 or R2 must be picked. V ce = 9V I e = 30µA I c = 4mA Next we will assume the supply voltage is Vs = 20V.7V ∴ = 2.  R + R - 1 2 R2 2. ( 20V ) – ( 9V ) – ( 4mA ) ( 2200Ω ) = 100 ( 30µA )Re R e = 733Ω ≈ 720Ω Now. To do this a common rule of thumb is to use a value of R2 that is approximate 10 time Re. thus giving.2KΩ R 1 = 6 ( 7.86V = 20V  ----------------.page 56 a reasonable bias point is chosen to be near the center of the linear range.86V R2 V b = Vs  ----------------.2KΩ ) = 43.7V is a typical value). R 2 ≈ 10R e R 2 = 7.

This can be crudely though of as the circuit has ‘charged-up’ or ‘warmed-up’. i = a node number V i ( t ) = the instantaneuous voltage at node i V ipeak = the peak voltage at node i ω i = the frequency of the sinusoid φ i = the phase shift • Steady state means that the transients have all stopped.to find steady state as well as transient responses .page 57 6. • Consider the example below. • These techniques are.etc 6. .1 PHASORS • Phasors are used for the analysis of sinusoidal.for single frequency.phasors . steady state conditions.laplace transforms . AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • There are a number of techniques used for analysing non-DC circuits. steady state systems . . V i ( t ) = V i peak sin ( ω i t + φ i ) where. • Sinusoidal means that if we measure the voltage (or current) at any point ‘i’ in the circuit it will have the general form.

V s = 95 sin ( 10t + 0. . it means that we are not concerned with the initial effects when we start a circuit (these effects are known as the transients).  R + R - 1 2 R2 ∴V 2 = ( 95 sin ( 10t + 0. The typical causes of transient effects are inductors and capacitors.  R + R - 1 2 If the supply voltage is sinusoidal we would find.3 – π ) )  ----------------. R2 V 2 = ( – V s )  ----------------.  R + R - 1 2 • Steady state is another important concept.3 ) R2 ∴V 2 = ( – 95 sin ( 10t + 0.page 58 R1 + V1 - Vs + + V2 - R2 Considering that this is a simple voltage divider.3 ) )  ----------------.

These Phase diagrams are only applicable for a single frequency. V s = 95 sin ( 10t + 0. OR 95 · V s = -----.V { cos ( 0.3rad 2 Finally.V { e } 2 95 ∴ = -----.3rad ) } 2 . In the example before we had a voltage represented in the time domain. imaginary 95 -----.page 59 V(t) t steady state + transients steady state • We typically deal with these problems using phasor analysis.3rad ) + j sin ( 0. we could represent the values in complex form.3 ) We could also represent this in the polar domain using magnitude and phase shift.3rad. real jφ 95 V s = -----.V 2 0.V ∠0. Note: the peak value is divided by the square root of 2 to convert it to an RMS value. 95 -----.V 2 0.3rad.

and then do calculations as normal. and they only differ by a phase angle. it is assumed that all of the frequencies in the circuit are the same. • Basically to do this type of analysis we represent all components voltages and currents in complex form.page 60 NOTE: When doing phasor analysis. .

sin φ 2 2 CAPACITOR + V - I dC ---.cos φ + j -----.page 61 TIME DOMAIN RESISTOR + V I PHASOR (FREQUENCY) DOMAIN I + V - R Z=R DC VOLTAGE SOURCE I Vs + Vs + - I AC VOLTAGE SOURCE + - I V s = A sin ( ωt + φ ) + - I AAV s = -----.V = I dt + V - I 1Z = --------jωC .

page 62 TIME DOMAIN INDUCTOR + V I dV = L ---.I dt PHASOR (FREQUENCY) DOMAIN I + V Z = jωL OHM’S LAW + V - I V = IR + V - I V = IZ • Consider the simple example below. .

005 ) ( j ( 10000 )10 –5 )  ∴V o = ( 3.11 + j1.07rad  1 – 5 If we express the output voltage as a function of time we get.sin ( 0.70 )  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.cos ( 0.=  ------ Z + Z   2  1  -------------------------------.005 + Vo - Then.07 )V .page 63 10µF + V s = 5 sin ( 10000t + 0. V o ( t ) = 4.5 )  -------------------------------------------------------------------------. 5j ( 10000 )0.5 ) 2 2 Z 3 = j ( 10000 )0.  1 + ( j ( 10000 )0.005 V o = V s  ----------------.sin ( 0. 1 Z 2 = -------------------------------–5 j ( 10000 )10 Z1=5Ω + 55V s = -----.89 – j2. we procede to use standard circuit analysis techniques.005 ) ( j ( 10000 )10 – 5 ) 5 ∴V o = ( 3.5 ) 5Ω 5mH + Vo - We can redraw the diagram using impedances for each component.43 sin ( 10000t – 2.5 ) + j -----.11 + j1.+ j ( 10000 )0.5 ) + j -----. as if the circuit is only made of resistors.005 2 2 3 –5   j ( 10000 )10  ( j ( 10000 )0.cos ( 0.43V ∠– 2.70 )  ----------- = { – 3.   Z3  5.13 }V = 4.

1 RMS Values • When dealing with alternating currents we are faced with the problem of how we represent the signal magnitude.∫ V ( t ) dt T 0 V RMS = For a sinusoidal function we will find that.707I PEAK 2 6.2 LR Circuits • One common combination of components is an inductor and resistor.1.= 0. • Another common method is to use the effective value.707V PEAK 2 I PEAK I RMS = ------------. 1 T 2 -.page 64 6.1. . This is also known as the Root Mean Squared value.= 0. V PEAK V RMS = --------------. One easy way is to use the peak values for the wave.

.1.page 65 L (A low pass filter) R VI Vo R V o = V I  -------------------  R + jLω R (A high pass filter) VI L Vo jLω V o = V I  -------------------  R + jLω 6.3 RC Circuits • Capacitors are often teamed up with resistors to be used as filters.

1.4 LRC Circuits • These circuits tend to weigh off capacitors and inductors to have a preferred frequency.page 66 R C VI Vo (low pass filter) 1--------jωC 1 V o = ------------------.= ----------------------1jωCR + 1 R + --------jωC C VI R Vo (high pass filter) R jωCR V o = -------------------.= ----------------------1jωCR + 1 R + --------jωC 6. .

5 LC Circuits • Inductor capacitor combinations can be useful when attempting to filter certain frequencies. = VI  -----------------------------------------------------.1.      1 + ( jωC ) ( jωL )   jωL jωL V o = V I  ----------------------------------------.page 67 R VI C L Vo    1  --------------------------     jωL 1   --------. = ----------------------------------------------2   jωL  R +  -------------------------------------.   jωL + R ( 1 – ω LC ) 1   R +  --------------------------   1 + ( jωC ) ( jωL )   1    --------. .+ jωC   jωL 6.+ jωC    -------------------------------------.

  jωC  1 V o = V I  -------------------------- = V I  ---------------------. Vo = VI  I 2  1 -  ω LC – 1 jωL + --------.2 AC POWER • Consider the power system shown below.  jωC L (low pass filter) VI C Vo 1 --------.   2 1 jωL + --------.page 68 C VI L Vo (high pass filter)   2 jωL ω LC  -------------------------- = V  ---------------------. 1 – ω LC  jωC 6. Electrical Generator Transmission Lines Load (light bulb) .

but in reality it will be somewhat reactive. 6. The voltages supplied this way are almost exclusively AC.page 69 • The generator converts some form of mechanical force into electrical power.2. This power is then distributed to consumers over wires (and through transformers). • Another important example of power delivered is when impedence matching between audio amplifiers and audio speakers. . each load will draw a certain current. Also in an ideal situation the load will be pure resistance. Most consumer systems are 50ohm for maximum power transfer and minimum distortion. at the supply voltage .operating at a rated power.1 Complex Power • Consider the basic power equation. Finally at the point of application.

S = P + jQ = P peak cos ( 2ωt + θ ) where.page 70 VP = IV = I Z = ----Z if we consider the impedance and voltage in variable form. 2 2 Z = A + jB V = C + jD 2 ( C + jD ) ( C + jD ) . A – jB P = A + jB A + jB  A – jB 2 ( C + 2jCD – D ) ( A – jB ) ∴P = ---------------------------------------------------------------2 2 A +B ( ( C – D ) + j2CD ) ( A – jB ) ∴P = --------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 A +B [ A ( C – D ) – 2BCD ] + j [ 2ACD + B ( C – D ) ] ∴P = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 A +B In a general form the results are.f. = power factor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6. .= ----------------------.1.-----------------------------------.Real Power • The relationship for real power is shown below where the current and resistance are in phase (although the values are rarely perfectly in phase). S = the complex power P = real power Q = reactive power theta = power angle P pf = cos θ = ---------------------2 2 P +Q where.2.1 . p.

3 .2. 1 T P = -.C.Reactive Power • When we have a circuit component that has current ±90° out of phase with the voltage it uses reactive power. • Consider the following calculations. thus it never returns power to the circuit.1.Average Power • An average power can be a good measure of real power consumption of a resistive component. (not charging) the circuit contains pure resistance.2 .1. and the power is constantly dissipated as heat or otherwise. Notice that the value of P will always be positive.page 71 Vp Ip 2 P = IV = ( V p sin ωt ) ( I p sin ωt ) = V p I p ( sin ωt ) = ---------.∫ ( sin t ) dt 2π 0 6. 6. V p I p 2π 2 P = ---------.∫ p dt T 0 Consider the case of the pure resistance.sin ( 2ωt ) = V rms I rms sin ( 2ωt ) 2 • When the current and voltage are D. in actuality the power is stored in and released from magnetic or electric fields. In this case the net power consumption is zero. .2.

S = VI * jθ v ∴ = ( Ve ) ( Ie –j ( θv – θI ) ) = VIe jθ I = VI ( cos θ I + j sin θI ) . S = apparent power (VA) P = real power from voltage and current in phase (W) Q = reactive power from voltage and current 90° out of phase (var) 6.5 . We can combine these into one quantity called apparent power.    2  π ∴p = V p I p ( sin ωt )  sin  ωt + --    2  ∴p = V p I p ( sin ωt ) ( cos ωt ) sin 2ωt ∴p = V p I p  ---------------.2.Complex Power • We can continue the examination of power by assuming each is as below. 6.2.1.1. S = P + jQ where.Apparent Power • In all circuits we have some combination of Real and Reactive power.4 . In this case if we integrate power consumption over a cycle there is no net comsumption.page 72 π p = ( V p sin ωt )  I p sin  ωt + -. = V rms I rms sin ( 2ωt )  2 - Here the power will be positive then negative.

V RMS = -----------.f. consider the following. it would introduce an inductive effect.1.page 73 6.6 .= I RMS V RMS R 2 P avg 6. We want to find the maximum power transfered from this circuit to the external resistance.8 .= ---------------------S 2 2 P +Q As this value approaches 1 the power consumption becomes entirely real.Power Factor • The power factor (p. P P pf = ----.7 . 1 T 2 P avg = -.∫ I ( t )R dt T 0 2 1 T 2 ∴ = R  -.1. 6.2. • It is common to try to correct power factor values when in industrial settings.Average Power Calculation • If we want to find the average power.2.) is a good measure of how well a power source is being used.∫ I ( t ) dt = RI RMS T 0  Likewise.Maximum Power Transfer • Consider the thevenin circuit below.2. .1. For example. if a large motor were connected to a power grid. and the load becomes purely resistive. Capacitors can be added to compensate.

= 0 2 2 2 ∂ RL ((R + R ) + (X + X ) ) s L s L 2 2 2 2 ∴0 = ( R s + R L ) + ( X s + X L ) – 2R L ( R s + RL ) ∴0 = R L + R s + 2RL R s + X L + X s + 2X L X s – 2R L – 2R L R s ∴R L ( – 1 ) + R L ( 0 ) + ( R s + X L + X s + 2X L X s ) = 0 ∴R L = Rs + ( XL + Xs ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .page 74 Zs V s ∠0° ZL + Z s = R s + jX s Z L = R L + jX L Vs V s ∠0° I = ---------------.= -----------------------------------------------------Zs + ZL ( Rs + RL ) + j ( Xs + XL ) The average power delivered to the load is. Vs ( ( R s + R L ) + ( X s + X L ) – 2R L ( R s + R L ) ) ∂ P L = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. PL = ZL I 2  2 Vs ∴ = ( R L + jX L )  ---------------------------------------------------------------  ( R + R ) 2 + j ( X + X ) 2 s L s L Vs ( R L + jX L ) ∴ = --------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( Rs + RL ) + ( Xs + XL ) To find the maximum we can then take a partial derivative for the resistance.

consider the partial derivative for the reactance. = Vrms ∠240°  3 . – Vs 2R L ( X L + X s ) ∂ P = ---------------------------------------------------------------. each 120 degrees out of phase. phase 1 generator neutral load phase 2 phase 3 V 1 ( t ) = V peak sin ( ωt ) = V rms ∠0° 2π V 2 ( t ) = V peak sin  ωt + ----. If these three wires are connected through a balanced load the sum of currents is zero.= 0 L 2 2 2 ∂ XL ( ( RL + R s ) + ( X L + Xs ) ) ∴X L = – X s 2 6. • These systems carry 3 phases of voltage. on three separate conductors. Most systems provide a fourth wire as a neutral.page 75 Next. = Vrms ∠120°  3 4π V 3 ( t ) = V peak sin  ωt + ----.3 3-PHASE CIRCUITS • 3-phase circuits are common in large scale power generators and delivery systems.

TWO PORT NETWORKS • Two port networks are a useful tool for describing idealized components. The basic device schematics are simple. I1 + V1 I2 + V2 - . phase 1 phase 2 phase 3 7. along with the various parameter sets. • The basic device is seen below.page 76 • As a result loads can be connected in a delta configuration with no neutral. but each set of parameters views the device differently.

and measuring relevant voltages/currents.1 PARAMETER VALUES • obviously some of the parameters are impedance.1. They can be easily determined by setting other parameters to zero. while others are admittance. .1 z-Parameters (impedance) • The values are as below. 7.page 77 z-parameters inverse y-parameters V 1 = z 11 I 1 + z 12 I 2 V 2 = z 21 I 1 + z 22 I 2 I 1 = y 11 V 1 + y 12 V 2 I 2 = y 21 V 1 + y 22 V 2 a-parameters inverse b-parameters V 1 = a 11 V 2 + a 12 I 2 I 1 = a 21 V 2 + a 22 I 2 V 2 = b 11 V 1 + b 12 I 1 I 2 = b 21 V 1 + b 22 I 1 h-parameters inverse g-parameters V 1 = h 11 I 1 + h 12 V 2 I 2 = h 21 I 1 + h 22 V 2 I 1 = g 11 V 1 + g 12 I 2 V 2 = g 21 V 1 + g 22 I 2 7.

• The equivalent circuit for the z-parameters is shown below. V1 z 12 = ----I2 Ω I1 = 0 Transfer Impedance .port 1 impedance with port 2 open circuit. I1 I2 z11 z22 + V1 - z12I2 + - + z21I1 - + V2 - 7.the impedance of the output terminals with port 1 open circuit.page 78 parameter units description V1 z 11 = ----I1 Ω I2 = 0 Input Impedance .1.ratio of port 2 voltage to port 1 current with port 2 open circuit V2 z 22 = ----I2 Ω I1 = 0 Output Impedance .ratio of port 1 voltage to port 2 current with port 1 open circuit V2 z 21 = ----I1 Ω I2 = 0 Transfer Impedance .2 y-Parameters (admittance) .

1.4 b-Parameters (transmission) 7.2.1. • Simple cases of networks are reciprocal and symetrical.2 PROPERTIES • If one set of parameters is known.1 Reciprocal Networks • If a voltage is applied at one port. regardless of which side the voltage is applied to. etc. the short circuit current out the other port will be the same. then it typically has active components.Parameters (hybrid) 7. but cannot be measured directly. 7. • The parameters that indicate a reciprocal networks are. . When a network is neither of these.5 h-Parameters (hybrid) 7.page 79 7.3 a-Parameters (transmission) 7.6 g.1.1. • Reciprocal networks are only possible when passive elements are used. dependant sources. This can help when one set of parameters is needed. other parameters can be found using simple conversions.

2 Symmetrical Networks • This is a special case of the reciprocal network where the input and output parameters are identical.page 80 z 12 = z 21 y 12 = y 21 det a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 det b 11 b 12 b 21 b 22 h 12 = – h 21 g 12 = – g 21 • With any reciprocal network we only need to find 3 of the four parameters. • In addition to the reciprocal constraints. = 1 = 1 7.2. the last can be determined mathematically. z 11 = z 22 y 11 = y 22 a 11 = a 22 b 11 = b 22 det h 11 h12 h 21 h22 det g 11 g12 g 21 g22 = 1 = 1 . we must also consider.

7.1 Cascade • The a parameters can be multiplied a eq = a 1 a 2 7.3. various parameters add ease.3.2 Series • With this type of connection the parameters are added.page 81 • Only two of these parameters need to be found to find the other two parameters. .3 CONNECTING NETWORKS • When connecting networks. 7.

7.3 Parallel • Here the devices are connected.page 82 z eq = z 1 + z 2 7.4 Series-Parallel .3.3.

5 Parallel-Series 8.page 83 7. CAE TECHNIQUES FOR CIRCUITS .3.

it is always worth a review. 7.2 SAFETY • Although you may be familiar with safety. In this section you can find ways to fill the black boxes. 4. and use insulated probes. • Before using this section. 10. . Cover or insulate live contact points when not testing. Always think about what you are doing. 1. Double check. Common problems are reversed power supply polarity. A few careless minutes in a lab can be fatal. 2. or throw it out. Keep objects shielded and properly grounded. loose connections. and most chips here are numbered with the same pin convention. 6.wear safety glasses.report it.3 BASIC NOTES ABOUT CHIPS • The cases come in many forms. 9. 9. and can splatter/spray/etc. • Some (BUT NOT ALL) safety rules are. and have a block diagram of function. but for inhouse development the DIP (Dual In-Line Pin) package is most popular. unless specified. and look for stupid mistakes before turning a device on. fix it.1 HOW TO USE A COOKBOOK • A cookbook is intended to provide enough examples of useful circuits to fill in black boxes in designs. Remember electrolytic capacitors WILL EXPLODE IF CONNECTED BACKWARDS. Wet surfaces can make you a convenient path for electricity 5. the designer should already have some concept of what they want their circuit to do. short circuits. don’t try something without understanding the consequences. Use fuses when possible. Keep things clean while working . A CIRCUITS COOKBOOK 9. and leave the lab better than you found it. 8. If something has malfunctioned deal with it . 9. 3. and avoid ground loops.page 84 9. . When soldering remember the molten solder is hotter than boiling water.

page 85 pin 1 starts here and is numbered in series about the chip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 74LS147 Motorola 0489 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 • Chips are labelled with part numbers. these are typically low cost. with the same IC numbers. • Some IC manufacturers are.Motorola . Be wary when selecting a non-standard IC. and available at any vendor of microchips. except that they will have different rated speeds. making them hard to get in quantities of less than 1000. • Many manufacturers make common chips. The ‘F’ signifies fast. will logically be equivalent to the 74LS147. small purchases may be frowned upon by the supplier. • When TTL inputs have nothing attached they tend to “float high” and will indicate that an input is true. for example the 74F147.National Semiconductor .Texas Instruments • CMOS chips will need pull-up resistors on inputs. • There are extensive volumes of databooks available for chips. and ‘LS’ signifies low speed. there are also many proprietary chips. But. . .

page 86 9. 9.4 CONVENTIONS 9.000X White = 9 = 1. this will be the tolerance.000.5 USEFUL COMPONENT INFORMATION • There are basic families of standard components to be found. or closer to one side of the resistor are the nominal value of the resistor.1 Resistors • The resistor color code is. Many of these are marked by terse codes and symbols.000X Violet = 7 = 10. Black = 0 = 1X Brown = 1 = 10X Red = 2 = 100X Orange = 3 = 1000X Yellow = 4 = 10000X Green = 5 = 100.000X Blue = 6 = 1.000.000X Silver = 10% tolerance Gold = 5% tolerance Brown = 1% tolerance • A resistor will have 4 or 5 bands.5.000.000. 2 2 1K 5% tol ∴22KΩ ± 5% . The bands that are grouped.000.000X Grey = 8 = 100. A single band will be set apart.

1R53K Multipliers 0 = x1 1 = x10 2 = x100 3 = x1000 4 = x10000 5 = x100000 8 = x0. there may be a number code used.6 FABRICATION • There are a few popular methods of fabrication .circuit board 9.1 Tolerances 1 R 5 3 K digit ‘1’ decimal place (optional) digit ‘5’ multiplier x1000 tolerance ±10% ∴1.bread board .5pF (<10pF) F = ±1pF (<10pF) = ±1% (>10pF) G = ±2pF (<10pF) = ±2% (>10pF) H = ±3pF (>10pF) J = ±5pF (>10pF) K = ±10pF (>10pF) M = ±20pF (>10pF) 9.2 Capacitors • Capacitors quite often have values printed on them. • Consider the capacitor with a number code below.1 Shielding and Grounding ..6.01 9 = x0.page 87 9.g.1pF (<10pF) C = ±0. e.5µF ± 10% B = ±0.wire wrap .bin board .5. When the values are not clear.25pF (<10pF) D = ±0.

shielded cables . any inductive magnetic field induces a current one way for one twist. .RF chokes . . and the other way for the next twist .page 88 • Shielding is important for all circuits. or in.two wires that are used for a signal (signal and common) are twisted once per inch or more.bypass capacitors • Cables can be shielded two different ways: . reinforcing fiber (optional) twisted pair shield insulation 9.cable bundles are often covered by a metal foil. This shield is to be connected at one end (not two) of the cable to drain off any induced currents. • Shielding is accomplished through a number of methods: .shielding sheaths .hence cancelling out the induced current.sheet metal (iron) enclosures keep electromagnetic interference out. As a result.7 LOGIC • Decimal to binary encoder . and from corrupting analog signals. or braided wire to provide a general protection for the cable.twisted pairs . it prevents electrical noise from creating false digital signals.

page 89 +V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 10 74147 9 20 7404 1 2 7 21 3 4 6 22 5 6 14 8 23 7 14 8 220 • Binary to decimal decoder .

page 90 +V 7404 1 2 20 21 22 23 15 14 13 12 7442 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 12 8 220 7404 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 8 220 .

8 ANALOG SENSORS • LEVEL DETECTOR LIGHT OR TEMPERATURE . If measuring light the device should be a photoresistor (LDR). The value of resistor R1 should be selected to be close to the normal resistance of the device. This can be done with a simple a simple flip flop. Two level detector circuits are used for the inputs. The output can be used to drive a relay. or some other driver. the reset value should be the lower value.page 91 9. low high S R Q • SINKING SENSOR TO TTL .To measure temperatures or light levels against one level. V+ 10K device + Vo R1 V- • RANGE CONTROLLER . The potentiometer can be used to make fine adjustments. The resisto values should probably be between 1K and 10K.Upper/lower range controller.To convert a sinking sensor to a TTL input. . The ratio of resistors R1 and R2 is determined by the ratio between the sensor supply voltage (normally 24V) and the TTL input voltage (normally 5V). If measuring temperature the device should be an RTD. The Set value should be the upper range.

page 92 + Vs V+ sensor NPN V- power supply R1 Vi device with TTL inputs R2 V R2 ----i = ----------------Vs R1 + R2 • MOTOR REVERSER USING RELAYS . The motor on relay can be a single pole single throw (SPST). but is being controlled by a low current TTL out- .A circuit that allows a motor to be turned on in either direction (safely). whilew the reversal relay mst be a double pole double throw (DPDT) relay.This circuit can be used for a load that requires a few amps of power. motor motor on reverse + motor power supply • DRIVING A HIGH CURRENT DC LOAD WITH A TRANSISTOR . The relays should be selected to carry the peak motor currents.

The values of R1 and R2 should probably be about 10K.A higher voltage signal can be divided to a lower fraction using a voltage divider. or other similar applications.AC loads can be controlled with a low current DC output using a solid state relay.page 93 put. device with out TTL output com load + + power supply - • SIGNAL VOLTAGE LEVEL REDUCTION . Note that the voltage loss accross the transistor will be approximately 2V. The transistor must be selected so that it can carry the maximum load current. A heat sink should be used if the device will pass a large percentage of the rated current. For a higher current load a Darlington coupled transistor can be used. This is only suitable for devices with high impedance inputs and should not be used to reduce battery voltages for motors. .  R + R - 1 2 input device • SWITCHING AN AC LOAD WITH A SOLID STATE RELAY . + signal source com Vs R1 + R2 Vi com R2 V i = V s  ----------------.

The ratio of R1/R2 should be close to the ratio of R3/R4. • CONNECTING A SOURCING SENSOR TO A TTL INPUT . R1 sensor V+ PNP VR2 V i = V s  ----------------. R + R  1 2 • STRAIN GAGE AMPLIFIER .this circuit can be used as a crude strain gage amplifier. Vs com + power supply in R2 Vi device with TLL input .page 94 device + with DC output com + solid hot state relay com neut. The trim pot can then be used to make minor adjustments. hot hot load neut AC power supply neut. The values of the remaining resistors can be selected to give a suitable amount of isolation.This circuit will reduce the larger voltage output from a sourcing sensor (typically 24V) to the lower TTL level (typically 5V).

page 95 V+ strain gage R3 R5 + R4 R2 trim pot. VV+ R7 + VVo V+ R1 R6 R8 V- .

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