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Overview: This note set is part of a larger collection of materials available at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu. You are welcome to use the material under the license provided at http://claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu/eod/global/copyrght.html. As always any feedback you can provide will be welcomed.
Copyright © 19932001, Hugh Jack email: jackh@gvsu.edu phone: (616) 7716755 fax: (616) 3367215
Copyright © 19932001, Hugh Jack
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1. TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................... 2 BASIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 4 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND QUANTITIES                        4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS                                         11 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS............................................................................................................ 12 KIRCHOFF’S LAWS                                          12 THEVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS                         25 CIRCUITS CONTAINING CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS             33 PASSIVE DEVICES .............................................................................................................. 34 TRANSFORMERS                                            35 ACTIVE DEVICES ................................................................................................................ 37 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS                                   37 TRANSISTORS                                              52 AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................... 57 PHASORS                                                  57 AC POWER                                                 68 3PHASE CIRCUITS                                           75 TWO PORT NETWORKS ..................................................................................................... 76 PARAMETER VALUES                                        77 PROPERTIES                                                79 CONNECTING NETWORKS                                     81 CAE TECHNIQUES FOR CIRCUITS .................................................................................. 83 A CIRCUITS COOKBOOK................................................................................................... 84 HOW TO USE A COOKBOOK                                   84 SAFETY                                                   84 BASIC NOTES ABOUT CHIPS                                   84 CONVENTIONS                                             86 USEFUL COMPONENT INFORMATION                            86 FABRICATION                                              87 LOGIC                                                    88 ANALOG SENSORS                                          91
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Electric Circuits
2. the flow of electrons is called a current. • Current and voltage are very important terms that are not well understood by the beginner. If both are together they are stable and steady. BASIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • Circuit analysis can be troubling because we are dealing with particles that have never been seen. The electrons do not flow freely. much like gravity. or an applied voltage creating a current. we tend to simplify components into discrete and independant parts.1 CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND QUANTITIES • Although in reality circuits involve complex interactions of potential and magnetic fields. • Typically each simple circuit component will act as a “black box” with an applied current creating a voltage. If we separate them they exert a force of attraction. A) V = potential (voltage. V = IR where. the restiction on flow is called resistance. If we create a channel for these electrons to flow back to the protons (electrons are much lighter and more mobile than protons). This potential of attraction is called voltage. and measuring instruments to verify our numbers. amps. Consider an electron/proton pair.page 4 2. R = resistance (ohms Ω) I = current (amperes. We depend upon calculations and approximations to determine what is happening inside the circuit. V) I + V R .
p+e+ 0V V e+ eI p+ p+ NOTE: Voltage is defined as a unit of energy per unit charge. And.= P .capacitors .= . and is found in all circuit elements. the electrons are moving the opposite direction from negative to positive.page 5 ASIDE: The electron is defined as a negative charge and the protons are positive charges. R = resistance (Ω or Ws/C2) • Resistance is the simplest of all circuit elements. dq I = dt Next consider the product of the current and voltage. or the power. . . dW vI = dW dq = . such that. Because electrons are much lighter and smaller. but there are a variety of other simple elements found in circuits. if we consider resistance.= 2 I dq dq  dt where. P = the power in Watt’s (joules/sec) This gives the change in energy as a function of time. dW v = dq where. dW . dt dq dt where. This gives the conductor the counterintuitive result that while current is defined as flowing from positive to negative. dq V dWdt R = . W = energy (joules) q = the charge (coulombs) V = the voltage Current is defined as the unit of charge per unit of time. they tend to move towards the positive charge.
V = L dI dt where. (This causes the electrons on the effected atom to absorb momentum. V = the voltage I = the current L = the inductance (Henry’s. The resulting relationship is. generating heat in the material.voltage sources . I + V L . This is effectively a large inductor. The result is that there is an impeded (resisted) current flow.page 6 . H) This may make more sense if we keep in mind that an inductor is just a coil of wire.inductors . The device is best described as resisting current flow changes (almost as if preserving the momentum of the current). • All of us have seen an electromagnet at least once in our lives.current sources ASIDE: Resistance is caused by the current electrons moving through a conductor striking atoms and transferring energy to their electrons.
a current). µ = magnetic permeability I The inductance of a straight conductor is small. where. The relationship is. In practical devices the inductors are wound into coils to increase the inductance. but the current will quickly reach a steady stae. • When you get a static shock you are touching a basic form of capacitor. If the flow is constant a constant magnetic field builds up around the conductor.page 7 ASIDE: Inductors are based on the magnetic field created by a flow of charge (ie. IH = 2πr r B = µH where. The strength of the field is given by. . In a simple design the inductance is. An electrical capacitor typically allows current to flow freely when a voltage is applied.
The area of the plates. C ASIDE: Capacitance is created by separating electrical charge by some distance. Disposable batteries (e.5V. d A where. I + V In some cases capacitors have polarity .this means that they must be connected so that the positive terminal is at a higher voltage.g. and the distance between them are the main factors. 1. The actual component is made by having plates separated by a material called the dielectric (a nonconducting material).page 8 I = C dV dt where. When we use these normally we assume that the batteries will supply any amount of current. I = the current through the capacitor (A) C = the capacitance (Farads. 9V) are one good example. These devices will explode when connected backwards. F) V = the voltage across the capacitor (V) The schematic symbol is shown below. The schematic symbol is shown below. + V • Voltage sources are also very common. at the rated voltage. . and although small they can injure.
These two reactions occur separately at the positive and negative electrodes. R + Vs  battery ASIDE: Most batteries are based on simple electrochemistry. The reaction equations for a lead acid battery show how electrons are generated by one reaction.5V In reality batteries are often considered to have a small internal resistance. and consumed by another. V Pb + H 2 SO4 + HCl → PbSO 4 + 2e – + H2 Pb H2SO4 . This reduces the voltages they provide when high currents are drawn.5V or Vs + I + V  + Vs = 1.page 9 I + V = 1.
The schematic symbols are often as shown below.page 10 • A similar method is used when considering current sources Is + Is V  • Some theoretical treatments of circuit elements make use of dependant (variable) voltage and current sources. .
page 11 V s = µV x = ρI x where. + Vs V s = the voltage of the dependant source µ. β = coefficients 2. They may not be drawn for simple connections. . .we try to have positive voltages at the top. Is I s = the current of the dependant source α. .each device has input/output terminals that are connected to nodes (black dots). • Generally. but are implied.standard schematic symbols are available to reduce ambiguity. but there are some terms and conventions of importance when constructing and reading these diagrams.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS • Most of us will have seen a circuit diagram in the past. . ρ = coefficients V x = another voltage in the circuit I x = another current in the circuit I s = αV x = βI x where. and sources on the left hand side.
R1 = 10Ω R2 + Vs R3 C1 3. .mesh currents . • In general most of the techniques attempt to simplify analysis by breaking the circuit into parts.page 12 . • Some well known techniques include.thevinen and norton equivalents 3. all of the electrons flowing into a point in the circuit must be flowing back out. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • The techniques of circuit analysis focus on trying to derive equations that describe a circuit.node voltages . .1 KIRCHOFF’S LAWS • Kirchoff’s Current Law: “The sum of currents at any node in a circuit must equal zero” . electrons do not appear and disappear from the circuit. etc.keep in mind that current is a flow rate for moving electrons.All components are labelled with variable names or values. loops. And. Therefore.superposition . • Consider the example.
Parallel Resistors • Let’s consider one on the most common electrical calculations .1 Simple Applications of Kirchoff’s Laws 3.1.1. . We want to find the equivalent resistance for the network of resistors shown.that for resistors in parallel.1.page 13 • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law: “The sum of all voltages about a closed loop in a circuit is equal to zero” .Each element will have a voltage (potential) between nodes. 3. the potentials must be equal or current will flow in a loop indefinately (Note: this would be perpetual motion).1 . and different paths chosen between them. If any two points on the closed loop are chosen.
page 14 I + R1 V R2 Rn I + V Rp First we can define currents in each branch of the circuit. In this case the input voltage is a voltage rise.= 0 R1 R2 Rn 111.1. .1.+ . and the resistors are voltage drops (the signs will be opposite).+ + … + R 1 R2 Rn 3.1I∴. so if we add the current through the resistors.– … – .Series Resistors • Now consider another problem with series resistors. consider the sum of the currents in and out of the upper conductor.2 .– . ∑I = I – I1 – I2 – … – In = 0 The current through each resistor is simple to calculate. We can use Kirchoff’s voltage law to sum the voltages in the circuit loop. and then relate the expression to Rp.= .11.+ … +  =  R1 R2 R n Rp V 1 ∴R p = 1. V V V∴I – . Also recognize that the potential voltage across each resistor will be V. I + R1 V I1 I2 In R2 Rn Now. the equation becomes.
To do this we need to add a direction arrow for current. use ohms law to replace voltages with the current. or use ‘+’ and ‘’ for voltages. sum the voltages about the loop. and then relate the values to the equivalent resistor Rs. 3.page 15 + I R1 + V1 + V2 + V + Vn Rs I R2 V Rn  First. ∑V = – V + V1 + V 2 + … + V n = 0 Next. ∴– V + IR 1 + IR2 + … + IR n = 0 ∴V = R 1 + R 2 + … + R n = R s I ASIDE: We can use a “single subscript notation” to indicate a voltage or current.2 Node Voltage Methods .1.
page 16 • If we consider that each conductor in a circuit has a voltage level. and then doing a lot of algebra. • This is a very direct implementation of Kirchoff’s current law. and that the components act as bridges between these. • First. let’s consider an application of The Node Voltage method for the circuit given below. . • This method basically involves setting variables. then we can try some calculations.
page 17 Find Vo 10Ω 20Ω + + 30V 5Ω 30Ω 40Ω 40Ω Vo First. 30Ω 40Ω V12 40Ω ∑ In 1 = I1 – I2 – I3 = 0 Then find equations for the three currents based on the the difference between voltage at nodes 1 and 2. currents and voltages. sum the currents at node 1. V 12 = I 3 40Ω V12 ∴I 3 = 40Ω . 10Ω I1 I3 node n1 + I2 20Ω + Vo + 30V 5Ω node n2 Next. For the center path. we will add labels for nodes.
V 12 = 20I 2 + 40I 2 + 30I 2 Now.3 Current Mesh Methods • If we consider Kirchoff’s Voltage law.7V V 12 ∴I 2 = 90 V 12 – 30 30 – V 12 ∴I 1 = .= – 15 15 ASIDE: When using a voltage between nodes we are using the double subscript notation. When doing this we label nodes and then the voltage is listed as ‘Vab’ where ‘a’ is positive relative to ‘b’. In some cases these current loops pass through the same components. combine the equations. 3.1. 30 – V 12 V 12 V 12 0 = I 1 – I 2 – I 3 = .– 15 90 40Ω ∴V 12 = 19. V 12 19. find the current in the right circuit branch. V12 = – 5I 1 + 30 – 10I 1 For the right branch. we could look at any circuit as a collection of current loops. and equations can be written for each loop current.= 0.= . and then the voltage across R2.5V Finally. Each of these can be given a variable name.217A 90 90 V R2 = I 2 40 = ( 0.– . • We can define a loop (mesh) current for each clear loop in a circuit diagram.page 18 For the left branch.5 I 2 = .217 ) ( 40 ) = 8. .
6V 3.216A 55 ( – 130 ) – ( – 40 ) ( 40 ) det 55 – 40 40 – 130 55 – 40 30 40 – 130 0 Finally calculate the voltage across the 40 ohm resistor. V O = 40I 2 = 8.1. (I will use Cramer’s Rule) det 55 30 40 0 55 ( 0 ) – 30 ( 40 ) I 2 = .4 More Advanced Applications .= 0.page 19 • These methods are quite well suited to matrix solutions • Lets consider a simple problem. ∑ VI ∑ VI 1 = 0 = – 30 + 10I 1 + 40 ( I 1 – I 2 ) + 5I 1 30 = 55I 1 – 40I 2 = 0 = 20I 2 + 40I 2 + 30I 2 + 40 ( I 2 – I 1 ) 0 = 40I 1 – 130I 2 (2) (1) 2 Solve the equation matrix for I2. Find Vo 10Ω 20Ω + + 30V  I1 40Ω 5Ω I2 40Ω 30Ω Vo  After adding the mesh currents (and directions) we may write equations.= .
 R + R R + R  1 2 1 2 .Voltage Dividers • The voltage divider is a very common and useful circuit configuration. ∑ V = – Vs + IR1 + IR2 = 0 Vs ∴I = R1 + R2 Next.1.page 20 3.4. and assume there is no current out at Vo. we add a current loop.1 . find the output voltage. R 2 = V s . R1 + Vs I + R2 Vo  First. Vs R2 V o = IR2 = . sum the voltages about the loop. Consider the circuit below. based on the current.
In this circuit a supply voltage Vs is used to power the circuit.page 21 ASIDE: variable resistors are often used as voltage dividers. and resistor R3 is varied until the current in the center Ig is zero. and R3 is a tuning resistor.4. As the wiper travels along the resistor the output voltage changes.The Wheatstone Bridge • The wheatstone bridge is a very common engineering tool for magnifying and measuring signals. .2 . Vs + Vo 3. Resistors R1 and R2 are generally equal.1. Rx is a resistance to be measured. An ammeter is shown in the center.
. • A very common model and conversion is the Tee to Pi conversion in electronics. This model can then be transformed or modified as required.4.1. Ig=0). A similar conversion is done for power circuits called delta to y.3 .page 22 R1 + Vs Ig R2 Rx R3 For practice try to show the relationship below holds for a balanced bridge (ie. R 2 R3 R x = R1 3.TeeToPi (Y to Delta) Conversion • It is fairly common to use a model of a circuit.
.page 23 a Rc Rb c Pi Ra b a Rc b Rb c c Delta Ra c a R1 R2 b a R1 R2 b R3 R3 c Tee c c Y c • We can find equivalent resistors considering that.
+ Rc Ra + Rb 1 R bc = .page 24 1 R ac = .= R 1 + R3 – R 2 – R 3 + R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc R b R c + R b R a – R a Rb – R a R c + Rc Ra + R c R b ∴.1 .+ Rb Rc + Ra 1 R ab = .+ R a R b + Rc To find R1.= R 1 + R 3 11 . (1)(3)+(2) Rb ( Rc + Ra ) ∴.= R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc Ra ( Rb + Rc ) ∴.= R 1 + R 2 1 1 . Ra Rc R 2 = Ra + Rb + Rc Ra Rb R 3 = Ra + Rb + Rc • To find the equivalents the other way.= R 2 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc (1) (2) (3) R b ( Rc + R a ) – R a ( R b + R c ) + R c ( R a + R b ) .= R 1 + R 3 Ra + Rb + Rc Rc ( Ra + Rb ) ∴.= R 2 + R 3 1. .= 2R 1 Ra + Rb + Rc R b Rc ∴R 1 = Ra + Rb + Rc Likewise.
R2 R2 R b .R b + R b + .Rb R R1 3 .= R 1 + R 3 R2 R2 .R a = .R b R1 R3 R 2 R 1 + R2 R 3 R b .R a R3 R3 We can put these relationships into equation (1).= R1 R2 R3 R3 R1 ∴R b = .R b + .R c R2 R2 R3 R2 ∴R a = .R c R1 R1 R2 R1 ∴R c = .= R 1 + R 3 R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2 R1 R3 R 2 R 3 + R 1 R3 + R 1 R 2 R 2 R3 + R 1 R 3 + R 1 R 2 ∴Rb = ( R 1 + R 3 ) . to eliminate Ra and Rc.R b = . R 2 R 3 + R1 R 3 + R 1 R 2 R a = R1 R2 R 3 + R 1 R 3 + R 1 R2 R c = R3 3.  R1 R3 ∴.= .R b = . =  R2 R2 R1 + R2 R3 Likewise.page 25 Rb Rc Ra Rc Ra Rb R a + R b + R c = .2 THEVENIN AND NORTON EQUIVALENTS .
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• A sometimes useful transformation is based on the equivalence of certain circuit elements, It In
R1
+ Is + Vs _ Vt R2 Thevinen Norton
+
Vn

First, consider the short circuit case where, It = In this gives the basic relationship, V s = R1 It Next, consider the open circuit case, Vt = Vn we find the simple relationships, Vt = Vs Vn = Is R2 It = In = 0 Vs ∴ = I t = I n R1 Vt = Vn = 0
• We can use this to test an unknown circuit for open circuit voltage, and short circuit current, and then replace it with an equivalent circuit. 1. Measure open circuit voltage Vs 2. Measure short circuit current Is 3.a) If using a Thevenin equivalent calculate, Rs = Vs/Is 3.b) If using a Norton equivalent calculate, Rs = Vs/Is 4. Draw the appropriate circuit. * note the resistor values are the same for both circuits.
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• We can also use the Thevenin/Norton transformation to simplify circuits. Consider example 4.13 from [Nilsson]. Find V 60V 20Ω 1.6Ω + 6Ω 8Ω V 120V + 5Ω We can replace the first loop (120V source) with a Norton equivalent, +
36A
20Ω
60V
1.6Ω + 6Ω
+
8Ω
36A
V
120V  = 6A 20Ω
5Ω 
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Next we can convert the remaining voltage source to a current source,
20Ω
60V 5Ω 36A 6Ω
1.6Ω
+
8Ω
V
120V  = 6A 20Ω
60V  = 12A 5Ω 
The current sources and resistors may now be combined to simplify the circuit,
1.6Ω 6 – 12 + 36 = 30A 1  = 2.4Ω 1   + 1 + 1  20 5 6
+
8Ω
V

.1 Superposition • This is a simple technique that can be used when there are multiple sources in a circuit.page 29 Convert the current source to a voltage source using the Thevinen equivalent. + 4Ω 72V V 8Ω +   8 V = 72 .4Ω 1. Select one source in a circuit. 1. = 48V 8 + 4 3. The basic technique is. 2. Make all other current sources open circuit.2. and then use voltage division to find the output voltage.6Ω + 8Ω + 30 ( 2.4 ) = 72V V  Combine the two serial resistors. 2.
Make all other voltage sources short circuits. • Consider an example below.page 30 3. 4. 6A 20Ω + 100V + V 40Ω 2. Pick the next voltage/current source and go back to 2.19 from [Nilsson]. 5.5Ω 10Ω Find the voltage V  . 6. Add together the results for each source. Analyze as normal. 4.
26Ω 1 .3 V = V s  = 13.26 ) = 7.+ 20 40 6A + Vs V s = 6 ( 2.= 13.5V 10 + 13. 13.3 Find V using a voltage divider.3Ω 1.73V V  1 .3 .1.5Ω 10Ω 6A 10Ω 2.+ 2.5Ω + 1 .= 2. 6A 20Ω + V 40Ω 2.page 31 a) Let’s consider the current source first.5 10 + 13.1 .
= 9.+ 40 10 + 2.25V 20 + 9.52Ω 1.52 c) Finally we combine the effects of both sources. • Consider the simple case below.25 = 40V 3.2 Maximum Power Transfer • When we will add a load to a network.52 ∴V = 100  = 32.1 .73 + 32.5 9.5Ω 10Ω  20Ω + 100V + V 1 .page 32 b) Now find the effects of the voltage source with the current source as an open circuit. V = 7. we may want to try and maximize the amount of power delivered to it.2. . 20Ω + 100V + V 40Ω 2.
the solving techniques are the same. 3.3 CIRCUITS CONTAINING CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS • When circuits contain capacitors. find RL for the maximum power transfer.page 33 Rs + RL VL  Vs +  I Given Vs and Rs. . Vs I = Rs + R L V = IR L 2 VS P L = IV L =  R L R + R S L ∂ P = 0 ∂ RL L ∴R L = R S For maximum power transfer • For practice try proving this theorem for the Norton equivalent circuit. inductors. The main difference is that you will end up with differential expressions. (later we will see better techniques for dealing with these components) • Consider the example. or other complex components.
. PASSIVE DEVICES • Passive devices will have the same operating characteristics at the same operating points. (1) into (2). 4.. V S + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt – C 2  + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt + R 1 I 2 + L d I 2 = 0 dt C 1 + C2 etc.. ....page 34 C1 R1 Vs + C2 I1 I2 L1 For the two loops. ∑ VI 1 = – V S + C 1 ∫ I 1 dt + C 2 ∫ ( I 1 – I 2 ) dt = 0 ∴V S = ( C 1 + C 2 ) ∫ I 1 dt – C 2 ∫ I 2 dt V S + C 2 ∫ I 2 dt ∴∫ I 1 dt = C1 + C2 (1) ∑ VI 2 = C 2 ∫ ( I 2 – I 1 ) dt + R 1 I 2 + L d I 2 = 0 dt (2) sub.
It only works when using AC. II Io + VI  + Vo  • The ideal relationship is. II + VI N1:N2 Io + Vo  V Vo I = NI No where. or vice versa.1 TRANSFORMERS • A transformer can be viewed as a converter that can increase voltage and lower current.page 35 4. • The transformer is effectively a magnetic circuit. and II NI = Io No II + VI  N1:N2 Io Vo + N1 = the number of coils on the primary side N2 = the number of coils on the secondary side • If a transformer has an iron core it will be shown with lines in the centre. The transformer has two or more coils of wire wrapped about a common core. .
page 36 • To deal with a transformer in a circuit analysis we need to pay attention to the polarity of the coils.2 ( I 2 – I 1 ) = 0 4 For I3. (3) into (2). • Consider the example below. For the transformer. 450]. 4Ω I2 4:1 1Ω + I1 I3 7.2I 2 – 3I 3 4 ( I1 – I2 ) = 1 ( I3 – I2 ) I 1 – 3I 2 – I 3 = 0 (4) (3) (2) (1) . Vt 1I 3 – .2I 1 + 11.2 ( I 1 – I 2 ) + V t For I2.– V t + 7. Vt 4I 2 + . from [Nilsson.2I 1 – 7.2I 2 + 4I 3 0 = – 7.= 0 4 (3) into (1). ∴V t = 4I 3 120 = 7. We will use the mesh current method. pg. 120V = 7. We want to find the power delivered to the 1ohm resistor.2Ω 120V (RMS) For I1. and we may consider the inductance of each coil at times.
2 120 – 7.page 37 Next we can solve the remaining three equations and three unknown currents using a matrix approach.1A ) = 44W 5.= . 5. They are characterized as.2 11.2 11.2 0 4 –3 0 – 2784 I 3 = . P = 1Ω ( 44.= 27.8 – 100 7. capacitors and inductors.2 11.high input impedances .2 – 3 4 –3 – 1 Finally we find the power in the resistor.2 4 I 1 120 – 7. These devices are capable of changing their operational performance. 7.2 4 – 7. • When doing most circuits problems we depends on idealized components.stable high gain amplifiers . .1 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS • A very common and versatile device is the operational amplifier (Opamp). thier models. The following section will describe a number of components.2 – 7. and how to apply them in practical circuits.2 – 3 I 2 = 0 4 –3 –1 I3 0 7.2 – 7.2 – 7. may deliver power to the circuit. and can perform interesting mathematical functions. ACTIVE DEVICES • Active devices are different from passive devices such as resistors.
1.page 38 .low output impdeances • These are available for a few cents in commercial quantities. V o = G ( V+ – V . . V.1 General Details • The schematic symbol for these devices is given below. or slightly below the source voltage. 5. They also come in a wide variety of packages for various applications. and the currents in to both of the inputs is negligable. +Vs V Vo V+ + Vs • Inside these devices have a very high gain amplifier that compares the inputs and gives an output that is amplified as shown by.) where. • When using these devices the circuit is typically set up so that both the inverting and noninverting inputs have the same voltage.is the inverting input V+ is the noninverting input G is the gain (typically 100000x) Vo is the output Vs is the supply voltage Vo ≤ Vs If the output voltage is pushed beyond +Vs or Vs. then it will be clipped at.
1 .1.2 Simple Applications • Considering that the Opamp was originally designed to allow simple mathematical operations in circuit form.Inverting Amplifier • A typical opamp application is the inverting amplifier. 5. the following circuits tend to bemathematical in nature.2.= 0 5.1.page 39 IVI+ V+ V+ = VI+ = I. .
page 40 R2 VI R1 VV+ R3 + Vo R1 and R2 are effectively a voltage divider. the V+ input is grounded. V.  R + R R 1 + R 2 1 2 R 1 + R2 – R 2 R2 ∴V o  = – V I .NonInverting Amplifier • We can also make noninverting amplifiers using the following circuit.= V+ = 0 R2 R2 ∴0 = V I . + V o R + R  1 2 The circuit tries to keep both opamp inputs equal.= ( V I – V O ) . R +R R + R  1 2 1 2 R2 Vo ∴. .= – R1 VI Amplifier Gain 5.2 . And. R2 V .2. + V o 1 – .1.
1.page 41 R2 R1 VVI R3 Use R1 and R2 as a voltage divider. R + R  1 2 If we consider the the two inputs to have an equivalent input voltages.Integrator • The integrating amplifier is a very powerful application. R + R  1 2 + Vo V+ R1 + R2 VO ∴.= V + = VI R1 ∴V I = V O .3 . V . R1 V .2.= R1 VI Gain 5. .= V o .
2.V o dt ∑ IV  VI d= I I – I f = 0 = .= V+ = 0 We can then find the currents. V.V o R1 dt 1∴V o = . . dI f = C .page 42 1MΩ If VI R1 II + C Vo R2 In the circuit the 1MΩ resistor is used to prevent output drift.– C . VI I I = R1 Finally.Differentiator • The following device is one form of differentiator using an inductor.1.4 .∫ V I dt R1 C 5. Recall that in this configuration.
+  R I RI VI I I = RI • A second type of circuit uses a capacitor to find the differential.page 43 L RL If VI II RI + Vo We may begin by realizing that the two opamp inputs are at zero volts.= V+ = 0 Next the input. Vo I f = dL . V. and feedback currents may be found and summed. .+ R L dt VI Vo ∑ I = I I – I f = 0 = I – R L .+ R dL dt dL  R dt L ∴V o = V I .
Weighted Sums • The following circuit can be used to add inputs.page 44 5.5 . If dissimilar components are used the inputs can be weighted .1.2.
page 45
I1 V1 I2 V2
R1 Rf R2 + If Vo
In Vn
Rn
We can recognize that the opamp inputs are both kept at zero volts, and that there is not current into the noninverting input, we can find, V = V+ = 0 V1 I 1 = R1 Vo I f = Rf V2 I 2 = R2 Vn I n = Rn
∑I
V1 V 2 Vn Vo = I 1 + I 2 + I n – I f = 0 =  +  + … +  – R1 R 2 Rn Rf
V1 V2 Vn ∴Vo = R f  +  + … +  R1 R2 R n
5.1.2.6  Difference Amplifier (Subtraction)
• We can construct an amplifier that subtracts one input from the other,
page 46
V2
R2 +
Rf Vo
V1
R1 R3
Using the normal approach, we can see that both inputs are essentially voltage dividers, R3 V + = V 1  R + R  1 3 Rf V  = ( V 2 – V o )  + V o R + R f 2 Next, we can set the two inputs equal, and combine the equations, R3 Rf V + = V  = V 1  = ( V 2 – V o )  + V o  R + R R + R
1 3 2 f
R 2 + Rf – R f R3 Rf ∴V o  = V 1  – V 2   R +R R + R R + R f f 2 1 3 2 R3 ( R2 + Rf ) Rf ∴V o = V 1  – V 2   R (R + R ) R 
2 1 3 2
Note the result if all resistor values are equal, Vo = V1 – V2
page 47
5.1.2.7  OpAmp Voltage Follower
• At times we want to isolate a voltage source from an application, or add a high impedance. This can be done using a voltage follower,
VI
+
Vo
We can develop some of the basic relationship for this circuit, V+ = VI V+ = VVo = V∴V o = V I
5.1.2.8  Bridge Balancer
• Opamps can be used for measuring the potential across bridges.
it is probable that both inputs may have the same voltage that is not zero.9 .page 48 Vs R1 R2  Vo + R3 R4 Vs • When used in this mode.1. 5. The technical measure is the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR).2. This is generally measured by the manufacturer. . The result of this common offset is that the output will drift with the common inputs. and provided in the device specifications.Low Pass Filter • A Low pass filter will enable us to cut off the higher frequency components of an input signal.
= R1 Rf  1 + jωC R f f –Rf Vo ∴. The corner frequency and gain are. Past a certain point the gain will be very low. 1 V o = – I .+ jωC f Rf V I = IR 1 Next. we can combine these expressions to find the gain of the system. 1 . Rf gain = – R1 1 ω c = Cf Rf . –Vo VI I = .= R 1 + R1 jωC f R f VI NOTE: The gain will drop as the frequency rises.page 49 Cf Rf I VI R1 + I Vo Recognizing that the inverting input is at ground we may write the following expressions for the current.
10 .(inverting input) V+ (noninverting input) Vs (supply voltage) no connection no connection offset control output +Vs (supply voltage) no connection no connection 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 • The basic layout of the 741 opamp is given below for the 8 pin dip package.The 741 OpAmp • The basic layout of the 741 opamp is given below for the 14 pin dip package (14C1741). Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description offset control V.1.1.3 OpAmp Equivalent Circuits • An equivalent circuit for an opamp is given below.2.(inverting input) V+ (noninverting input) Vs (supply) offset control output +Vs (supply) no connection 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 5. . Pin # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description no connection no connection offset control V.page 50 5.
Frequency Response • Open loop frequency response can be estimated using the equivalent circuit below.1.page 51 V+ + Ri + Ro Vo V A(V+ . .1 .V) Vs Where typical values are. Ri = 1MΩ Ro = 75W A = 105 5.3.
= jωC o Z o + 1 1 Z +  o jωC o Vo A . We can quickly find the gain.2.page 52 Zo + VI + AVI Co + Vo  Basically this is a voltage divider.2 TRANSISTORS 5. AV I jωC o V o = ( AV I ) . The layers are either doped to be positive (ptype) or negative (ntype) using low concentrations of elements .1 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) • Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) are made with three layers of doped silicon. Gain 1 ω c = Co Zo log(f) 5. 1 .= VI jωC o Z o + 1 Gain (dB) 20log(A) 20 dB/dec.
collector base NPN emitter emitter base PNP collector • The baseemitter voltage is ussualy given as a constant.2. and will on average have voltages around 0. most transistor configurations are used for sinusoidal signals.1. The schematic symbols for these transistors are shown below. as well as AC. This junction acts much like a diode. 5. • A designer will depend heavily upon specifications. Their names come from the sequence of doped layers in the transistor.Biasing Common Emitter Transistors • A common emitter configuration is shown in the figure below.1 . . These are often in the form of graphs for different transistor applications. PNP and NPN.7V. • There are two basic types. As a result there is ussualy a DC design. • Transistors are highly nonlinear. but they are often biased by carefully applying voltages and currents to put them in a roughly linear range. • Except for applications such as switching.page 53 mixed with the silicon.
page 54 Vs R1 Rc CO CI VO VI R2 Re Ce • Consider the common emitter amplifier shown. . The capacitor Ce is used to allow the AC to bypass Re. • To perform the design we must first bias the transistor using the curves below. The resistors provide DC biasing to select an operating point.
page 55 I c ( mA ) 8 I b = 80µA 60µA 6 40µA 4 bias point 20µA 2 0µA 10 17 1 17VR c = .= .2KΩ slope of bias line 8mA 20 V ce ( V ) .= 2125Ω ≈ 2.
7V is a typical value). R 2 ≈ 10R e R 2 = 7. Based on collector current we can determine that V e = V s – V ce – I c R c = I e Re ∴V s – V ce – I c R c = βI b Assuming we find a beta of 100 in the transistor specifications. thus giving.2KΩ ≈ and I e ≈ βI b . to select values for R1 and R2 we need to calculate Vb using Vbe from the specifications.2KΩ R 1 = 6 ( 7.page 56 a reasonable bias point is chosen to be near the center of the linear range. V ce = 9V I e = 30µA I c = 4mA Next we will assume the supply voltage is Vs = 20V.7V ∴ = 2. R + R 1 2 R 1 + R2 = 7R 2 R 1 = 6R 2 The value of either R1 or R2 must be picked. (0.86V R2 V b = Vs . Vb = V e + V be = I e R e + V be = βI b R e + V be ∴ = 100 ( 30µA )720Ω + 0.86V = 20V . ( 20V ) – ( 9V ) – ( 4mA ) ( 2200Ω ) = 100 ( 30µA )Re R e = 733Ω ≈ 720Ω Now. R + R  1 2 R2 2. To do this a common rule of thumb is to use a value of R2 that is approximate 10 time Re.2KΩ ) = 43.
• Sinusoidal means that if we measure the voltage (or current) at any point ‘i’ in the circuit it will have the general form. AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS • There are a number of techniques used for analysing nonDC circuits.for single frequency. V i ( t ) = V i peak sin ( ω i t + φ i ) where. i = a node number V i ( t ) = the instantaneuous voltage at node i V ipeak = the peak voltage at node i ω i = the frequency of the sinusoid φ i = the phase shift • Steady state means that the transients have all stopped. .etc 6.1 PHASORS • Phasors are used for the analysis of sinusoidal.laplace transforms .to find steady state as well as transient responses . • Consider the example below. • These techniques are.page 57 6.phasors . steady state conditions. . This can be crudely though of as the circuit has ‘chargedup’ or ‘warmedup’. steady state systems .
R2 V 2 = ( – V s ) . R + R  1 2 R2 ∴V 2 = ( 95 sin ( 10t + 0. V s = 95 sin ( 10t + 0. R + R  1 2 • Steady state is another important concept. .3 ) ) . R + R  1 2 If the supply voltage is sinusoidal we would find. The typical causes of transient effects are inductors and capacitors.page 58 R1 + V1  Vs + + V2  R2 Considering that this is a simple voltage divider.3 ) R2 ∴V 2 = ( – 95 sin ( 10t + 0.3 – π ) ) . it means that we are not concerned with the initial effects when we start a circuit (these effects are known as the transients).
Note: the peak value is divided by the square root of 2 to convert it to an RMS value.3rad ) } 2 . In the example before we had a voltage represented in the time domain.V ∠0.V { cos ( 0.3rad ) + j sin ( 0. we could represent the values in complex form. These Phase diagrams are only applicable for a single frequency. V s = 95 sin ( 10t + 0.V { e } 2 95 ∴ = .3rad. real jφ 95 V s = .page 59 V(t) t steady state + transients steady state • We typically deal with these problems using phasor analysis.3rad 2 Finally.V 2 0. OR 95 · V s = .3rad. imaginary 95 . 95 .3 ) We could also represent this in the polar domain using magnitude and phase shift.V 2 0.
.page 60 NOTE: When doing phasor analysis. it is assumed that all of the frequencies in the circuit are the same. and they only differ by a phase angle. • Basically to do this type of analysis we represent all components voltages and currents in complex form. and then do calculations as normal.
sin φ 2 2 CAPACITOR + V  I dC .page 61 TIME DOMAIN RESISTOR + V I PHASOR (FREQUENCY) DOMAIN I + V  R Z=R DC VOLTAGE SOURCE I Vs + Vs +  I AC VOLTAGE SOURCE +  I V s = A sin ( ωt + φ ) +  I AAV s = .V = I dt + V  I 1Z = jωC .cos φ + j .
page 62 TIME DOMAIN INDUCTOR + V I dV = L .I dt PHASOR (FREQUENCY) DOMAIN I + V Z = jωL OHM’S LAW + V  I V = IR + V  I V = IZ • Consider the simple example below. .
as if the circuit is only made of resistors.+ j ( 10000 )0.43 sin ( 10000t – 2.70 )  = { – 3.5 ) 5Ω 5mH + Vo  We can redraw the diagram using impedances for each component.005 + Vo  Then.07 )V .005 ) ( j ( 10000 )10 – 5 ) 5 ∴V o = ( 3.cos ( 0.11 + j1.page 63 10µF + V s = 5 sin ( 10000t + 0. V o ( t ) = 4.11 + j1.cos ( 0.005 2 2 3 –5 j ( 10000 )10 ( j ( 10000 )0. 1 Z 2 = –5 j ( 10000 )10 Z1=5Ω + 55V s = .13 }V = 4.005 V o = V s . 5j ( 10000 )0.5 ) + j .07rad 1 – 5 If we express the output voltage as a function of time we get. Z3 5.70 ) .sin ( 0.5 ) 2 2 Z 3 = j ( 10000 )0.5 ) + j .5 ) . we procede to use standard circuit analysis techniques.89 – j2.=  Z + Z 2 1 .43V ∠– 2. 1 + ( j ( 10000 )0.sin ( 0.005 ) ( j ( 10000 )10 –5 ) ∴V o = ( 3.
1 RMS Values • When dealing with alternating currents we are faced with the problem of how we represent the signal magnitude. This is also known as the Root Mean Squared value. 1 T 2 . .∫ V ( t ) dt T 0 V RMS = For a sinusoidal function we will find that.1.= 0.page 64 6.= 0.1.707I PEAK 2 6. V PEAK V RMS = . • Another common method is to use the effective value.707V PEAK 2 I PEAK I RMS = . One easy way is to use the peak values for the wave.2 LR Circuits • One common combination of components is an inductor and resistor.
page 65 L (A low pass filter) R VI Vo R V o = V I  R + jLω R (A high pass filter) VI L Vo jLω V o = V I  R + jLω 6.3 RC Circuits • Capacitors are often teamed up with resistors to be used as filters. .1.
.= 1jωCR + 1 R + jωC 6.1.page 66 R C VI Vo (low pass filter) 1jωC 1 V o = .4 LRC Circuits • These circuits tend to weigh off capacitors and inductors to have a preferred frequency.= 1jωCR + 1 R + jωC C VI R Vo (high pass filter) R jωCR V o = .
jωL + R ( 1 – ω LC ) 1 R +  1 + ( jωC ) ( jωL ) 1 .page 67 R VI C L Vo 1  jωL 1 . = VI .+ jωC jωL 6. .+ jωC . = 2 jωL R + .1.5 LC Circuits • Inductor capacitor combinations can be useful when attempting to filter certain frequencies. 1 + ( jωC ) ( jωL ) jωL jωL V o = V I .
jωC L (low pass filter) VI C Vo 1 . 1 – ω LC jωC 6. Vo = VI I 2 1  ω LC – 1 jωL + .2 AC POWER • Consider the power system shown below. jωC 1 V o = V I  = V I . 2 1 jωL + .page 68 C VI L Vo (high pass filter) 2 jωL ω LC  = V . Electrical Generator Transmission Lines Load (light bulb) .
Most consumer systems are 50ohm for maximum power transfer and minimum distortion. This power is then distributed to consumers over wires (and through transformers). at the supply voltage . . but in reality it will be somewhat reactive.operating at a rated power.1 Complex Power • Consider the basic power equation. Also in an ideal situation the load will be pure resistance.page 69 • The generator converts some form of mechanical force into electrical power. 6.2. • Another important example of power delivered is when impedence matching between audio amplifiers and audio speakers. The voltages supplied this way are almost exclusively AC. Finally at the point of application. each load will draw a certain current.
1 . S = P + jQ = P peak cos ( 2ωt + θ ) where.page 70 VP = IV = I Z = Z if we consider the impedance and voltage in variable form.. p.f. 2 2 Z = A + jB V = C + jD 2 ( C + jD ) ( C + jD ) . = power factor 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6.1.= .2. S = the complex power P = real power Q = reactive power theta = power angle P pf = cos θ = 2 2 P +Q where. .Real Power • The relationship for real power is shown below where the current and resistance are in phase (although the values are rarely perfectly in phase). A – jB P = A + jB A + jB A – jB 2 ( C + 2jCD – D ) ( A – jB ) ∴P = 2 2 A +B ( ( C – D ) + j2CD ) ( A – jB ) ∴P = 2 2 A +B [ A ( C – D ) – 2BCD ] + j [ 2ACD + B ( C – D ) ] ∴P = 2 2 A +B In a general form the results are.
Reactive Power • When we have a circuit component that has current ±90° out of phase with the voltage it uses reactive power.sin ( 2ωt ) = V rms I rms sin ( 2ωt ) 2 • When the current and voltage are D. .∫ ( sin t ) dt 2π 0 6.∫ p dt T 0 Consider the case of the pure resistance. 6.1. in actuality the power is stored in and released from magnetic or electric fields. • Consider the following calculations.2 . In this case the net power consumption is zero.2.C. 1 T P = .3 .2.page 71 Vp Ip 2 P = IV = ( V p sin ωt ) ( I p sin ωt ) = V p I p ( sin ωt ) = . (not charging) the circuit contains pure resistance. and the power is constantly dissipated as heat or otherwise.1. thus it never returns power to the circuit. Notice that the value of P will always be positive. V p I p 2π 2 P = .Average Power • An average power can be a good measure of real power consumption of a resistive component.
1.2. S = VI * jθ v ∴ = ( Ve ) ( Ie –j ( θv – θI ) ) = VIe jθ I = VI ( cos θ I + j sin θI ) . 6. We can combine these into one quantity called apparent power.4 .1. = V rms I rms sin ( 2ωt ) 2  Here the power will be positive then negative.page 72 π p = ( V p sin ωt ) I p sin ωt + .2.Apparent Power • In all circuits we have some combination of Real and Reactive power.Complex Power • We can continue the examination of power by assuming each is as below. S = P + jQ where.5 . In this case if we integrate power consumption over a cycle there is no net comsumption. S = apparent power (VA) P = real power from voltage and current in phase (W) Q = reactive power from voltage and current 90° out of phase (var) 6. 2 π ∴p = V p I p ( sin ωt ) sin ωt +  2 ∴p = V p I p ( sin ωt ) ( cos ωt ) sin 2ωt ∴p = V p I p .
page 73 6.Power Factor • The power factor (p. consider the following.7 .6 . For example. V RMS = .= S 2 2 P +Q As this value approaches 1 the power consumption becomes entirely real. We want to find the maximum power transfered from this circuit to the external resistance.1. P P pf = . 1 T 2 P avg = . • It is common to try to correct power factor values when in industrial settings. and the load becomes purely resistive.2.2.f. .8 .∫ I ( t )R dt T 0 2 1 T 2 ∴ = R . if a large motor were connected to a power grid.) is a good measure of how well a power source is being used. 6. it would introduce an inductive effect.Average Power Calculation • If we want to find the average power.Maximum Power Transfer • Consider the thevenin circuit below. Capacitors can be added to compensate.1.∫ I ( t ) dt = RI RMS T 0 Likewise.2.= I RMS V RMS R 2 P avg 6.1.
= Zs + ZL ( Rs + RL ) + j ( Xs + XL ) The average power delivered to the load is.page 74 Zs V s ∠0° ZL + Z s = R s + jX s Z L = R L + jX L Vs V s ∠0° I = . Vs ( ( R s + R L ) + ( X s + X L ) – 2R L ( R s + R L ) ) ∂ P L = . PL = ZL I 2 2 Vs ∴ = ( R L + jX L )  ( R + R ) 2 + j ( X + X ) 2 s L s L Vs ( R L + jX L ) ∴ = 2 2 ( Rs + RL ) + ( Xs + XL ) To find the maximum we can then take a partial derivative for the resistance.= 0 2 2 2 ∂ RL ((R + R ) + (X + X ) ) s L s L 2 2 2 2 ∴0 = ( R s + R L ) + ( X s + X L ) – 2R L ( R s + RL ) ∴0 = R L + R s + 2RL R s + X L + X s + 2X L X s – 2R L – 2R L R s ∴R L ( – 1 ) + R L ( 0 ) + ( R s + X L + X s + 2X L X s ) = 0 ∴R L = Rs + ( XL + Xs ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .
= Vrms ∠120° 3 4π V 3 ( t ) = V peak sin ωt + . = Vrms ∠240° 3 .page 75 Next. Most systems provide a fourth wire as a neutral. consider the partial derivative for the reactance. – Vs 2R L ( X L + X s ) ∂ P = . on three separate conductors. each 120 degrees out of phase.= 0 L 2 2 2 ∂ XL ( ( RL + R s ) + ( X L + Xs ) ) ∴X L = – X s 2 6.3 3PHASE CIRCUITS • 3phase circuits are common in large scale power generators and delivery systems. phase 1 generator neutral load phase 2 phase 3 V 1 ( t ) = V peak sin ( ωt ) = V rms ∠0° 2π V 2 ( t ) = V peak sin ωt + . • These systems carry 3 phases of voltage. If these three wires are connected through a balanced load the sum of currents is zero.
phase 1 phase 2 phase 3 7. but each set of parameters views the device differently.page 76 • As a result loads can be connected in a delta configuration with no neutral. • The basic device is seen below. I1 + V1 I2 + V2  . The basic device schematics are simple. TWO PORT NETWORKS • Two port networks are a useful tool for describing idealized components. along with the various parameter sets.
and measuring relevant voltages/currents.1.1 PARAMETER VALUES • obviously some of the parameters are impedance.page 77 zparameters inverse yparameters V 1 = z 11 I 1 + z 12 I 2 V 2 = z 21 I 1 + z 22 I 2 I 1 = y 11 V 1 + y 12 V 2 I 2 = y 21 V 1 + y 22 V 2 aparameters inverse bparameters V 1 = a 11 V 2 + a 12 I 2 I 1 = a 21 V 2 + a 22 I 2 V 2 = b 11 V 1 + b 12 I 1 I 2 = b 21 V 1 + b 22 I 1 hparameters inverse gparameters V 1 = h 11 I 1 + h 12 V 2 I 2 = h 21 I 1 + h 22 V 2 I 1 = g 11 V 1 + g 12 I 2 V 2 = g 21 V 1 + g 22 I 2 7. 7. . They can be easily determined by setting other parameters to zero. while others are admittance.1 zParameters (impedance) • The values are as below.
1.port 1 impedance with port 2 open circuit.page 78 parameter units description V1 z 11 = I1 Ω I2 = 0 Input Impedance . V1 z 12 = I2 Ω I1 = 0 Transfer Impedance .2 yParameters (admittance) . I1 I2 z11 z22 + V1  z12I2 +  + z21I1  + V2  7.ratio of port 1 voltage to port 2 current with port 1 open circuit V2 z 21 = I1 Ω I2 = 0 Transfer Impedance . • The equivalent circuit for the zparameters is shown below.the impedance of the output terminals with port 1 open circuit.ratio of port 2 voltage to port 1 current with port 2 open circuit V2 z 22 = I2 Ω I1 = 0 Output Impedance .
4 bParameters (transmission) 7. • Simple cases of networks are reciprocal and symetrical. • The parameters that indicate a reciprocal networks are. .2. regardless of which side the voltage is applied to. but cannot be measured directly. then it typically has active components.3 aParameters (transmission) 7. • Reciprocal networks are only possible when passive elements are used.page 79 7. the short circuit current out the other port will be the same.1. etc.Parameters (hybrid) 7.1 Reciprocal Networks • If a voltage is applied at one port. 7.1.5 hParameters (hybrid) 7.6 g. When a network is neither of these. This can help when one set of parameters is needed.2 PROPERTIES • If one set of parameters is known.1.1. dependant sources. other parameters can be found using simple conversions.
= 1 = 1 7. we must also consider. z 11 = z 22 y 11 = y 22 a 11 = a 22 b 11 = b 22 det h 11 h12 h 21 h22 det g 11 g12 g 21 g22 = 1 = 1 .2 Symmetrical Networks • This is a special case of the reciprocal network where the input and output parameters are identical.page 80 z 12 = z 21 y 12 = y 21 det a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 det b 11 b 12 b 21 b 22 h 12 = – h 21 g 12 = – g 21 • With any reciprocal network we only need to find 3 of the four parameters. • In addition to the reciprocal constraints.2. the last can be determined mathematically.
3 CONNECTING NETWORKS • When connecting networks. 7. .3.1 Cascade • The a parameters can be multiplied a eq = a 1 a 2 7.3. 7.page 81 • Only two of these parameters need to be found to find the other two parameters. various parameters add ease.2 Series • With this type of connection the parameters are added.
page 82 z eq = z 1 + z 2 7.3.3. 7.3 Parallel • Here the devices are connected.4 SeriesParallel .
CAE TECHNIQUES FOR CIRCUITS .5 ParallelSeries 8.3.page 83 7.
When soldering remember the molten solder is hotter than boiling water. and leave the lab better than you found it. Double check. unless specified. In this section you can find ways to fill the black boxes.1 HOW TO USE A COOKBOOK • A cookbook is intended to provide enough examples of useful circuits to fill in black boxes in designs. Always think about what you are doing. 3. • Before using this section. A CIRCUITS COOKBOOK 9. Common problems are reversed power supply polarity. and have a block diagram of function. Use fuses when possible. 8. don’t try something without understanding the consequences. it is always worth a review. and can splatter/spray/etc. 9. 10. Wet surfaces can make you a convenient path for electricity 5.3 BASIC NOTES ABOUT CHIPS • The cases come in many forms. . If something has malfunctioned deal with it . or throw it out. and most chips here are numbered with the same pin convention. 1. Remember electrolytic capacitors WILL EXPLODE IF CONNECTED BACKWARDS.report it. Keep things clean while working . 9. the designer should already have some concept of what they want their circuit to do. A few careless minutes in a lab can be fatal. loose connections.2 SAFETY • Although you may be familiar with safety. short circuits. 4. Keep objects shielded and properly grounded. and look for stupid mistakes before turning a device on. . Cover or insulate live contact points when not testing.page 84 9. and use insulated probes. fix it. 6. 7. • Some (BUT NOT ALL) safety rules are. 9.wear safety glasses. but for inhouse development the DIP (Dual InLine Pin) package is most popular. 2. and avoid ground loops.
and available at any vendor of microchips. . But.Texas Instruments • CMOS chips will need pullup resistors on inputs. • Some IC manufacturers are. • Many manufacturers make common chips. small purchases may be frowned upon by the supplier. The ‘F’ signifies fast. and ‘LS’ signifies low speed. except that they will have different rated speeds.page 85 pin 1 starts here and is numbered in series about the chip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 74LS147 Motorola 0489 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 • Chips are labelled with part numbers. there are also many proprietary chips.Motorola . for example the 74F147. making them hard to get in quantities of less than 1000. these are typically low cost. . Be wary when selecting a nonstandard IC. will logically be equivalent to the 74LS147.National Semiconductor . • When TTL inputs have nothing attached they tend to “float high” and will indicate that an input is true. with the same IC numbers. • There are extensive volumes of databooks available for chips.
000X White = 9 = 1.000X Grey = 8 = 100. Black = 0 = 1X Brown = 1 = 10X Red = 2 = 100X Orange = 3 = 1000X Yellow = 4 = 10000X Green = 5 = 100.000.000. The bands that are grouped.000.5 USEFUL COMPONENT INFORMATION • There are basic families of standard components to be found.000X Violet = 7 = 10.5.1 Resistors • The resistor color code is. 2 2 1K 5% tol ∴22KΩ ± 5% . this will be the tolerance. Many of these are marked by terse codes and symbols.4 CONVENTIONS 9. A single band will be set apart.000X Silver = 10% tolerance Gold = 5% tolerance Brown = 1% tolerance • A resistor will have 4 or 5 bands.000.page 86 9. 9.000. or closer to one side of the resistor are the nominal value of the resistor.000X Blue = 6 = 1.
5.1 Shielding and Grounding .6.bread board . there may be a number code used. 1R53K Multipliers 0 = x1 1 = x10 2 = x100 3 = x1000 4 = x10000 5 = x100000 8 = x0.01 9 = x0.5µF ± 10% B = ±0.1pF (<10pF) C = ±0.page 87 9.1 Tolerances 1 R 5 3 K digit ‘1’ decimal place (optional) digit ‘5’ multiplier x1000 tolerance ±10% ∴1. e.2 Capacitors • Capacitors quite often have values printed on them.wire wrap .circuit board 9.25pF (<10pF) D = ±0.g.. When the values are not clear.6 FABRICATION • There are a few popular methods of fabrication .5pF (<10pF) F = ±1pF (<10pF) = ±1% (>10pF) G = ±2pF (<10pF) = ±2% (>10pF) H = ±3pF (>10pF) J = ±5pF (>10pF) K = ±10pF (>10pF) M = ±20pF (>10pF) 9.bin board . • Consider the capacitor with a number code below.
bypass capacitors • Cables can be shielded two different ways: .hence cancelling out the induced current. it prevents electrical noise from creating false digital signals. As a result.shielded cables .sheet metal (iron) enclosures keep electromagnetic interference out. . or in. • Shielding is accomplished through a number of methods: .two wires that are used for a signal (signal and common) are twisted once per inch or more.shielding sheaths . and from corrupting analog signals.twisted pairs . This shield is to be connected at one end (not two) of the cable to drain off any induced currents. reinforcing fiber (optional) twisted pair shield insulation 9.RF chokes .page 88 • Shielding is important for all circuits. and the other way for the next twist . . or braided wire to provide a general protection for the cable. any inductive magnetic field induces a current one way for one twist.cable bundles are often covered by a metal foil.7 LOGIC • Decimal to binary encoder .
page 89 +V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 10 74147 9 20 7404 1 2 7 21 3 4 6 22 5 6 14 8 23 7 14 8 220 • Binary to decimal decoder .
page 90 +V 7404 1 2 20 21 22 23 15 14 13 12 7442 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 12 8 220 7404 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 8 220 .
The resisto values should probably be between 1K and 10K. If measuring light the device should be a photoresistor (LDR). . The value of resistor R1 should be selected to be close to the normal resistance of the device. The output can be used to drive a relay. This can be done with a simple a simple flip flop.page 91 9. The Set value should be the upper range. The potentiometer can be used to make fine adjustments. If measuring temperature the device should be an RTD.To measure temperatures or light levels against one level.8 ANALOG SENSORS • LEVEL DETECTOR LIGHT OR TEMPERATURE . Two level detector circuits are used for the inputs. V+ 10K device + Vo R1 V • RANGE CONTROLLER .Upper/lower range controller. the reset value should be the lower value. or some other driver. low high S R Q • SINKING SENSOR TO TTL .To convert a sinking sensor to a TTL input. The ratio of resistors R1 and R2 is determined by the ratio between the sensor supply voltage (normally 24V) and the TTL input voltage (normally 5V).
A circuit that allows a motor to be turned on in either direction (safely). but is being controlled by a low current TTL out .This circuit can be used for a load that requires a few amps of power. whilew the reversal relay mst be a double pole double throw (DPDT) relay. motor motor on reverse + motor power supply • DRIVING A HIGH CURRENT DC LOAD WITH A TRANSISTOR .page 92 + Vs V+ sensor NPN V power supply R1 Vi device with TTL inputs R2 V R2 i = Vs R1 + R2 • MOTOR REVERSER USING RELAYS . The relays should be selected to carry the peak motor currents. The motor on relay can be a single pole single throw (SPST).
The values of R1 and R2 should probably be about 10K. + signal source com Vs R1 + R2 Vi com R2 V i = V s . or other similar applications. R + R  1 2 input device • SWITCHING AN AC LOAD WITH A SOLID STATE RELAY .A higher voltage signal can be divided to a lower fraction using a voltage divider. Note that the voltage loss accross the transistor will be approximately 2V. The transistor must be selected so that it can carry the maximum load current.page 93 put.AC loads can be controlled with a low current DC output using a solid state relay. This is only suitable for devices with high impedance inputs and should not be used to reduce battery voltages for motors. device with out TTL output com load + + power supply  • SIGNAL VOLTAGE LEVEL REDUCTION . A heat sink should be used if the device will pass a large percentage of the rated current. For a higher current load a Darlington coupled transistor can be used. .
The ratio of R1/R2 should be close to the ratio of R3/R4.this circuit can be used as a crude strain gage amplifier. The trim pot can then be used to make minor adjustments. • CONNECTING A SOURCING SENSOR TO A TTL INPUT . hot hot load neut AC power supply neut. Vs com + power supply in R2 Vi device with TLL input . R + R 1 2 • STRAIN GAGE AMPLIFIER .This circuit will reduce the larger voltage output from a sourcing sensor (typically 24V) to the lower TTL level (typically 5V). The values of the remaining resistors can be selected to give a suitable amount of isolation. R1 sensor V+ PNP VR2 V i = V s .page 94 device + with DC output com + solid hot state relay com neut.
VV+ R7 + VVo V+ R1 R6 R8 V .page 95 V+ strain gage R3 R5 + R4 R2 trim pot.
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