Contemporary Theories of Motivation

Gonzalo Campuzano Enrique Flores

OUTLINE Introduction Early Theories of Motivation (Overview) Goal Setting Theory  MBO Programs Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation References Questions & Answers .

Jones. employees have no enthusiasm for their job.55% of U. ³Firms spend Billions to Fire Up Workers ± With Little Luck´. USA Today.S. As cited in D. 2001 . May 10.

Motivation: ³The process that account for an individual¶s intensity. Texbook Vs.e.  i. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. direction. Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive. Novel The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.INTRODUCTION Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation.´ [1] .

They represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown. Practicing managers still regularly use this theories and their terminology in explaining employee motivation.EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1950¶s:    Hierarchy of needs theory Theories X and Y The two-factor theory. Contemporary way of thinking .

when accepted.GOAL-SETTING THEORY Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. and wants to achieve it. An individual is committed to the goal when he believes he can achieve the goal. result in higher performance than does easy goals. Provide feedback. In order to increase performance:    Set specific goals. Difficult goals. .

Four ingredients common to MBO programs:     Goal specification. Failures may come from:    Unrealistic expectations regarding results. Lack of commitment by top management. Fujitsu . Performance feedback. Into Practice Converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members.MBO PROGRAMS: Putting Goal-Setting T. Participation in decision making. Cultural incompatibilities. An explicit time period.

Change their outcomes. Distort perception of others. Choose a different referent Leave the field . Distort perceptions of self. the can:       Change their inputs.EQUITY THEORY Employees make comparison of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others: When employees perceive inequity.

Underrewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.EQUITY THEORY Given payment by time:   Overrewarded employees will produce more than will equitably paid employees. units than will equitably paid employees. Underrewarded employees will produce less or poorer quality of output. Given payment by quantity of production:   . Overrewarded employees will produce fewer. but higher-quality.

Managers should consider openly sharing information on how allocation decisions are made.EQUITY THEORY: Conclusions Motivation is influenced significantly by others¶ rewards as well as by one¶s own rewards. But increasingly equity is thought of from the standpoint of organizational justice. Historically. equity theory focused on distributive justice. Inequities created by overpayment do not seem to have a very significant impact on behaviour. but employees seem to look for equity in the distribution of other rewards. Most research has focused on pay. following consistent and unbiased procedures. .

Rewards-personal goals. Performance-reward.EXPECTANCY THEORY The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that the outcome to the individual. 1 2 3 Indivudual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Personal oals The theory focuses on three relationships:    1. 2. . Effort-performance. 3.

Rewards are not always found attractive by employees:   Managers limited in the rewards they can distribute. . Managers incorrectly assume that all employees want the same. Good performance appraisal not always leads to organizational rewards.EXPECTANCY THEORY Giving maximum effort not always means being recognized.

EXPECTANCY THEORY: Conclusions The key is the understanding of an individual¶s goal and the linkage between the three relationships. . There is no universal principle for explaining everyone¶s motivations.

INTEGRATING CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Many theories are complementary. J esi n i h chievement eed uity omparison/ r anizational Justice O O : IA IB pportunity bility erformance aluation riteria Indi udual ffort Indi idual erformance r anizational e ards ersonal oals b ecti e erformance aluation ystem Rei f rcement ominant eeds ls irect ehavi r . Its basic foundation is the expectancy model.

Job Design igh Achievement Need E uit Com arison Organizational Justice O O : IA IB O ortunit Abilit Performance Evaluation Criteria Indivudual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Personal Goals Objective Performance Evaluation S stem Reinforcement Dominant Needs Goals Direct Behavior .

³High Status Job Title as Compensation for Underpayment: A Test of Equity Theory´. May 10.R. ³Firms spend Billions to Fire Up Workers ± With Little Luck´. Wojnaroski. Journal of Applied Psychology. and W. May 1983. Greenberg and S. 12th Edition. USA Today.C. Jones. Prest. ³Matching Motivational Strategies with Organizational Contexts´. . 2001 [1] T. vol. Pearson Prentice Hall. Feb 1987.REFERENCES Robbins and Judge. Ornstein. 19. pp 60-62 P. Mitchell. Journal of Applied Psychology. Research in Organizational Behavior. D. ³Organizational Behavior´. 2007. P. J. Early. ³Task Planning and Energy Expended: Explorations of How Goals Influence Performance´.

Questions & Answers .

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