This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Undergraduate Thesis Proposal Su mtted to the Faculty o! the "epartment o! Social Sciences and #umanities $ollege o! Arts and Sciences $a%ite State Uni%ersity& 'ndang $a%ite
'n partial !ul!ilment o! the (e)uirements !or the degree o! *achelor o! Arts in Political Science
Amangan& #yun +ae E, -cto er 20& 2010
The May 2010 National Elections: An Assessment on the First National Automated Elections in the Philippines
Amangan& #yun +ae E,
A Thesis proposal presented to the !aculty o! the "epartmend o! Social Sciences and #umanities& $ollege o! Arts and Sciences& $a%ite State Uni%ersity& 'ndang& $a%ite in partial !ul!ilment o! the re)uirements !or the "egree o! *achelor o! Arts in Political Science, .ith $ontri ution no, ///////////////, Prepared under the super%ision o! "r, $ristina M, Signo, $#APTE( 1
The concept of elections and suffrage are one of the fundamental principles in every democratic nation in the world. From the time of the ancient Greeks, people have fought tyranny for the right to choose their own leaders. The concept of a free and fair election thus made democracy one of the most powerful political philosophies in the world today.
In the international sphere, there is no specific and standard definition of what free and fair democratic election meant. The International Law by necessary implications is only trying to lay down a guide and qualities of what a free and fair democratic election should be and what it should not be, the other aspect International Law tries to emphasi e is the relevance and legality in the right to democracy under !ustomary International Law.
"ccording to "rticle #$ of the %niversal &eclaration of 'uman (ights, )veryone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. )veryone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. "nd the will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government* this will shall be e+pressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. The International !ovenant on !ivil and ,olitical (ights -I!!,(. also states that every citi en shall have the right and the opportunity to take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely choose representative, to vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free e+pression of the will of the electors and to have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country. /ince the beginning of elections in the ,hilippines, the electoral process has been generally characteri ed by irregularities such as fraud, terrorism, violence, vote0buying, ballot snatching, bribery, cheating, and the like. These do not reflect the true will of the Filipino people, thus, a gross violation of the right to suffrage. This affects the credibility of the whole democratic process and mocks at the sacred right to suffrage. "nother problem with regards to the electoral system in the ,hilippines is its traditional way of writing the name of their chosen candidate in an ordinary piece of paper. It has always been a burden for canvassers to do the counting of votes and the long process has been the cause of countless election fraud. 1ne of the burdens of the manual system is its slow results because the counting of votes is performed manually. It is also the reason why many candidates are
appealing to the !ommission on )lections and to the court that they have been cheated during the counting. 2anual voting system gave rise to fraudulent election practices like tampering of election returns and statements of votes. "fter each election, the !omelec and courts are flooded with complaints of election fraud.
That is why on &ecember ##, $334, (epublic "ct no. 5678 otherwise known as the ,oll 2oderni ation Law was signed into law which authori es the computeri ation of elections in the ,hilippines. It was later amended through (epublic "ct no. 3783 or the "mended !omputeri ation "ct of #994 which gave way to the first ever national elections in the ,hilippines. (" 3783 defines an automated election system as the use of an appropriate technology which has been demonstrated in voting, counting, canvassing and transmitting of election results. -Lord den, #9$9..
Through automation a credible transition of power as well as a clean, honest, and orderly election can be ensured. /etting up the country:s automated and electoral system is a crucial step towards clean and honest election. ;hile it will not be a cure0all for the country:s electoral problems, automating the polls will eliminate a lot of the human intervention and that has made vote0rigging possible
The integration of our traditional elections was considered successful to some and failure to others. "ccording to <ational !iti ens: 2ovement for Free )lections, overall, the machine had 33.7=0percent accuracy, which is below the required 33.33= percent. There were also other problems such as election returns with wrong time and date stamps, the lack of digital signatures,
hilippines on 2ay $9.hat are the benefits from the automated election system as perceived by> a. Statement o! the Pro lem This study shall be conducted to assess the implications of the first0ever automated national elections in the .hilippines. .hat are the problems on the first automated national elections as perceived by> .hilippines? #. the researcher finds this study to be relevant and of great significance in pursuance to an honest and clean election e+ercise in the .hat is the law underlying the first automated national election system in the . .and the incomplete inventory of the voting machines and the compact flash cards. /pecifically. @oting public 7. this paper aims to assess the outcome of the elections through feedback from the voters which shall be analysed systematically through a series of guide questions that will lead the study towards an improved and more credible automated election system. . Through evaluation of the pros and cons. the study attempts to answer the following questions> $. )lection officers b. These problems can prove fatal to the credibility of the new election system. #9$9. In light with these issues and the current arguments and positions made by various e+perts today.
@oting efficiency* c. The outcome of the study can be used as reference to similar studies especially with regards to the election system in the . The $ommission on Elections. . The go%ernment especially the la01ma2ing odies. @oting public 6. The commission will also be informed of the feedback by the voting public to the different policies that they establish. .a. The results of the study especially the problems and solutions suggested can help guide the commission for improvement and future modification of the e+isting electoral system. The content in this study can be used as basis for future researches and studies. )nthusiasm to vote* b. )lection fraud* and d. The implications in the study can also open doors for improvement of other government services such as electronic governance. !ost efficiency? Signi!icance o! the Study This study will benefit the following people A agencies> Political Science Students and other students and researchers . )lection officers b.hilippines. The findings of this study can serve as a basis for policy development especially with regards to moderni ation and the election system.hat are the implications of the automated election system in terms of> a.
!ollege of "rts and /ciences. The aspects that will be looked into are the nature of an automated election. the problems encountered in the 2ay #9$9 national automated elections. This study may not only represent the feedback of the electorate to the government but it will also raise awareness on the advantages and disadvantages of the automated elections. #9$9 and representatives from the !ommission on )lections. The data needed will be taken at the . and the feedback from the voting public.The general pu lic. This study will start on <ovember #9$9 and ends on Banuary #9$$. Scope and 3imitations This study will be conducted to determine the outcome of the 2ay #9$9 automated national elections as perceived by the !ommission on )lections and by voters enrolled or employed in the !avite /tate %niversity. It may also encourage active participation by the people on other activities by the government. Time and Place o! the Study The study will be conducted within the premises of the !avite /tate %niversity and the office of the !ommission on )lections from <ovember #9$9 up to Banuary #9$$. its benefits and advantages. The respondents will be selected students and faculty of the !avite /tate %niversity who have voted on 2ay $9. It will be evaluated at the &epartment of /ocial /cience and 'umanities.
referenda. evaluating . $334.. recall and other similar electoral e+ercises by improving on the election process and adopting systems.!12)L)! office.hilippine !ongress. %sing this principle as basis for the study. (epublic "ct 5678 or the "utomated )lections Law was passed in order to provide the state free. orderly. as well as survey from the selected respondents and by the help of related literature. credible and informed elections. accurate and reflective of the genuine will of the people -. consolidation and transmission documents on order that the process shall be transparent and credible and that the results shall be fast. Theoretical Frame0or2 This study shall be guided using the principles that backed the Republic Act 8436 or the Automated Elections Law in the Philippines Republic Act 8436 “Automated Elections Law” In pursuit to man:s quest for harmony and progression. this research aims to pursue a higher stage of development through analy ing the automated election system by its current state. which shall involve the use of an automated election system that will ensure the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot and all election. plebiscites. honest. peaceful.
hilippines. $onceptual Frame0or2 Automated Election System Benefits Problems Implications The paradigm illustrates the conceptual framework of the study. the state shall provide a free. The basis for assessing and analy ing the automated election system in the . honest. "s stated in the automated elections law. These shall be achieved by further developing the system and gear it towards change and improvement.hilippines is to provide an in0depth analysis . and orderly system of elections. This study aims to fill these purposes through assessment and arrival at a more improved election system in order to Custify a credible election system in the .various factors and problems of the new system and opening doors for improvement.
canvassing. consolidating. and transmission of election result. counting.of the benefits of an automated elections system and the problems that arise during the 2ay $9. #9$9 elections. "e!inition o! Terms The definition of terms presents the different technical terms that will be used in the study and their operational definition. and other electoral process. The procedure involves describing the nature of the !urrent "utomated )lection /ystem. counting. "fter the collection of data. the process weighs the different factors for the implication of an automated election system. These implications open doors for the improvement of the system. Manual Election System is a system that involves the traditional pen and paper way of voting. canvassing and transmitting the election results and other electoral process $ommission on Elections is a constitutional commission vested with the e+clusive charge of enforcing all laws relative to elections and the power to decide all questions affective elections . Automated Election System is a system using appropriate technology which has been demonstrated in the voting. its benefits and advantages which serves as input along with the problems of the system and the feedback from the people.
Selected Students and Faculty o! $a%ite State Uni%ersity are registered voters who have participated in the 2ay #9$9 national elections. $#APTE( 2 (E4'E. and recording of votes in the polling place.*oard o! Election 'nspectors is a special body organi ed by the !12)L)! tasked to conduct the voting. -F (E3ATE" 3'TE(ATU(E . counting.
1therwise. That is why according to "(TI!L) @ of the . may #9$9 technical problems and controversies. the very subCect of our government is its citi ens. and national development. .hilippine !onstitution. property. The !ongress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the e+ercise of suffrage. if these officials cannot or would not do their Cobs properly. the courageous and the competent. The citi ens: Cob is to perform oversight functions. %ntil then. and then to insist that these public officials perform their duties ethically. Furthermore. <o literacy. the citi ens should ask for their resignation.hilippines who are not disqualified by law and who are at least eighteen years of age and have resided in the country for at least one year in the place where they plan to vote at least si+ months preceding the elections. the provision goes on that The !ongress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. stressed that the citi ens: role is not to substitute for and do what our officials should be doing. courageously and competently.hilippines. elections in the . to demand that only the most qualified are elected or appointed.anganiban -#993. impeachment or dismissal and their replacement by the ethical.This chapter is a presentation of related literature and studies which provided direction in the conduct of the study. "mong the topics presented in this chapter are the international and municipal concept of elections. 'nternational and Municipal $oncept o! Elections Living in a democratic country. that is. they shall be allowed to vote under . electronic governance. election automation. the right to suffrage may be e+ercised by all citi ens of the .
Doth international and domestic laws protect and guarantee its effective e+ercise by the people so that their sovereign will can be manifested. also underscores that every citi en shall have the right and the opportunity to take part in the conduct of public affairs. "s envisioned under international and domestic laws.(. "nd the will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government* this will shall be e+pressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. /uffrage as conferred by the constitutional provision is not a natural right of the citi ens. directly or through freely chosen representatives. It is this will to . guaranteeing the free e+pression of the will of the electors and to have access. to public service in his country. directly or through freely choose representative. but a political right intended to enable them to participate in the process of government to assure it derives its powers from the consent of the governed. to vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot. )veryone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.e+isting laws and such rules as the !ommission on )lections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot. the !ommission on 'uman (ights -#996. The International !ovenant on !ivil and . on general terms of equality.olitical (ights -I!!. sees to it that the sovereign will of the people should win in an election. )veryone has the right to take part in the government of his country. "ccording to "rticle #$ of the %niversal &eclaration of 'uman (ights.
. literacy and education. thus. vote0buying. participates in equal share and weight. religious. It affects the credibility of the whole democratic process and mocks at this sacred right to suffrage. bribery. These do not reflect the true will of the Filipino people. "ccording to the !ommission on 'uman (ights "dvisory -#996. The . ballot snatching. In a country with a government Fof the people. and each one. all these infringe on the right of Filipinos to self0determination. by the people and for the people. In the midst of clamors for clean. the electoral process has been generally characteri ed by irregularities such as fraud. status. Elections in the Philippines /ince the inception of elections in the country. safely and intelligently. )lection day is one instance when in one day "LL becomes equal before the law E regardless of se+.G election becomes so vital and momentous that it gives life to the government itself. honest. with one vote. racial background. violence. whether inside or . perverted and violent e+ercise of elections in the country. the will of the voting Filipinos should be e+ercised freely. It is by reason of the votes to cast that duly elected candidates may assume the office they wish to hold. The right to suffrage is the spirit and essence of democracy and republicanism. cheating. credible and genuine elections. a gross violation of the right to suffrage. terrorism.participate in the election of officials that determines the kind of democratic government that will eventually be established. property. and the like. political and other beliefs.hilippines has been both a witness and victim to the problematic. orderly. This is the time when everyone. that is. The right to suffrage is one pri ed right.
some of the politicians are also making deal with . and the "rmed Forces of the . In addition.<. for the full and free e+ercise of the right to suffrage by all Filipino voters. they would try to file a recount of votes. .. There is much to be done in these respect and instrumentalities of government. The observance of these international and national standards on the roles of both the government instrumentalities as duty holders and the Filipino electorate as claim holders in the e+ercise of the right to suffrage shall ensure that the sovereign will of the Filipino people is truly and effectively manifested in electoral e+ercises. .. is that many cruel candidates are making deal with some Doard of canvassers who are primarily composed of teachers to manipulate the results. It has always been a burden for canvassers to do the counting of votes and the long process has been the cause of countless election fraud. as duty holders.. #996. is not limited to the outcome of the electoral process. &ue to this.ith regard to the process of voting.. must play their critical roles.hilippines. In short. Lord den -#9$9.outside the voting precincts. describes how the Filipinos voted through the traditional way of writing the name of their chosen candidate in an ordinary piece of paper.inning the election is the effective governance within the tenure of the elected and the quality of public service. the . winning in an election does not stop when the duly elected candidates shall have officially taken their respective oath of office.olice -. 1ne of the burdens of the manual system is its slow results because the counting of votes is Cust performed manually. /econd. therefore. To the !ommission on 'uman (ights of the . The right to suffrage.hilippines.hilippines -"F. particularly the !ommission on )lections -!12)L)!. It is also the reason why many candidates are appealing to the !omelec and to the court that they have been cheated during the counting. the electoral process is crucial for the Filipinos to come out victorious in the process of governance of the elected -!ommission on 'uman (ights of the .hilippine <ational .
time constraints made it impossible to implement theproCect.electric companies. It is a time consuming system. 'owever. count votes using electronic devices such as computers. Election Automation In order to pursue a secure and honest election. %nlike manual election. In addition. the !omelec and courts are flooded with complaints of election fraud. a pilot testing is required by law to be implemented on at least two highly urbani ed cities and two provinces each in Lu on. In preparation of a nationwide automated system. it is the function of the government to provide the people the means to a credible system of election. the plan to automate the #994elections was abandoned. for it takes more than a month before the results are transmitted to the !12)L)!. computeri ed election usually takes a short period of time before proclaiming the winning candidate. 'ence. In addition. !omputeri ed election systems however. Herna -#993. computeri ed election is easy and fast for the transmission of results is done by computers. defines manual election as a system that counts votes using paper audits stored by a ballot bo+. manual election usually takes a long time before proclaiming the winning candidate. to shut down the power during canvassing so that:s the time where they can have the opportunity to change the votes and cheat in the election. "fter each election. 2anual voting system gave rise to fraudulent election practices like tampering of election returns and statements of votes. upon recommendation of the !"!. . @isayas and 2indanao in the #994 elections.
.. found at least #7 common errors and other deficiencies in connection with the use of 12(.. uses paper ballots which contain the names of the candidates and the different races being contested where voters shade or mark the circles corresponding to the names of the candidates they choose to vote for. The &() provided by /martmatic. /ulu and 2arawi !ity. This system combined or merged the two partial results from both systems in order to arrive at the national winners. as well as the &igital (ecording )lectronic -&(). #994 opened the possibility of using an ")/ in the #995 "(22 )lections. This technology was deployed in the areas of Lanao del /ur. Dasilan. the !omelec "dvisory !ouncil -1ctober #995 report. /uccessfully used in the #995 "(22 )lections was the canvassing and consolidation system developed by /martmatic and procured by the !12)L)!. "mong the problems documented with the 12( are> K @otes shaded in the 12( ballot were e+posed to tampering* K %nscrupulous erasures* K The distribution of the official 12( ballots was e+posed to the threat of advance shading* K The attached full $380key Ieyboard in the "!2 is open to programming intrusion* K /cratches and smudges of the ballots hampered their optical scanning or led to . Tawi0Tawi. the &irect (ecording )lectronic or &() and the 1ptical 2ark (eader or 12(. uses a touch pad device where voters simply select their choice of candidates by touching selected areas of the touchpad. 1n the other hand. In its own evaluation of the "(22 automated elections in "ugust #995. #995. Two different kinds of technologies were deployed by !12)L)! for the "(22 )lections.!"! (esolution dated Buly $#. The &() technology was deployed in the entire province of 2aguindanao. /hariff Iabunsuan. These elections results were transmitted from the precinct level for the &() and from counting centers for the 12( up to the national data center in !12)L)!Js head office in Intramuros -!omelec "dvisory !ouncil. the 12( provided by "vante International Technology Inc.
of D)I officials as shown in the tearing off of the bar codes resulting in their reCection by the 12( machine* K Lack of procedural knowledge on the part of the D)Is particularly on the disposition of invalid ballots and other problems* K &iscrepancies in the number of actual voters and number of ballots being counted* K /everal incidents where the system would not close the counting and canvassing after showing that it did not count $99L of the total votes from all the precincts when in fact all precincts counted all the votes* K /ome systems. $apable of creating pre%election configuration data by direct entry and by importing these data from mySQL format& mdb format& or csv format& into the E S& such as# . including laptops and printers. overheated and stopped functioning* K 2alfunctioning of data communication infrastructure or total transmission failures that compromised the integrity and security of the ")/* and K !onstant paper Camming of the 12( ballots These problems can prove fatal in showcasing the credibility of an "utomated )lection /ystem. The following are the technical proCect specifications of the !ommission on )lections regarding the recently held automated election system.their reCection thus slowing down the counting* K The folding and unfolding of 12( ballots resulted in delays* K !onstant paper Camming of the 12( ballots* K Lack of training -or deliberate errors.hilippines. $-MP-NENT 1 PAPE(1*ASE" AUT-MATE" E3E$T'-N S5STEM 6AES7 $omponent 11A Election Management System 6EMS7 1. The system shall have an integrated election management system (E S! "hich shall be# A. These data shall be relevant in providing the actual processes that were taken during the 2ay #9$9 national and local elections in the . It is of this reason that an assessment to the national automated election system is in order to track the same problems what arouse in the "ugust #995 "(22 automated )lections.
iii. customi3able in accordance "ith the re4uirements of this 05P+ 6. iv. vi. 1. The system shall re4uire authori3ation and authentication of all users& such as& but not limited to& usernames and pass"ords& "ith multiple user access levels. All user activities+ ii. iii.en+ All system messages (including error messages!+ E. *ational and /ocal Elections+ A0 0egional Elections+ Plebiscites+ Initiatives+ 0ecall elections+ Special elections. ii. Title and date of elections+ B. $apable of automatically generating the ballot faces to be used in printing the official ballots+ $. iv. $apable of maintaining an immutable audit log& "hich shall include& among others# i.name)stage name& elective position& political party affiliation& (urisdiction "here he intends to run+ v. *umber of registered voters per precinct+ Elective positions and number of seats to be voted for+ $andidates information (full name& nic. Able to handle configurations for different types of electoral e-ercises both for the P$.i.S and the $$S& such as# i. 2ser I1+ Actual date and time stamps+ and Specific action ta. v. . 'oting (urisdictions (provinces& legislative districts& provincial districts& councilor districts& cities)municipalities& barangays& precincts! ii.
The system shall be able to detect and re(ect fa. $omponent 11* Precinct1$ount -ptical Scan 6P$-S7 1. <. 19. =. The system shall allo" manual feeding of a ballot into the P$. The printing and transmission functionalities may or may not be integrated into the system.89 inches per second.e or spurious& and previouslyAscanned ballots.e use of a graphical user interface& including& but not limited to& screen prompts& error messages and help screens. The rest of the votes for the unaffected positions shall be counted. printing!. The system shall be capable of scanning a ballot sheet at the speed of at least 6. The system shall not count ballots more than the specified number of registered voters& inclusive of the number of BEI members and support staff for every precinct)clustered precinct. 6. The system shall have an electronic display indicating the acceptance or re(ection of a ballot.S machine. . 1. >. In case of over%voting for a position& the system shall not credit any vote for any candidate for the affected position.%to%bac. The system shall ma.>>9 @. 11. 8. The system shall have a scanning resolution of at least 6:: dpi. The system shall count the voter?s vote as mar. The system shall employ error handling procedures& including& but not limited to& the use of error prompts and other related instructions. The system shall only count ballots intended for the city)municipality)councilor district for "hich it has been configured. .ed on the ballot "ith an accuracy rating of at least >>. 9..7. 17.. The system shall be able to capture and store in an encrypted format the digital images of the ballot for at least 6&::: ballot sides (1&::: ballots& "ith bac. The system shall be a fully integrated single device. The system shall re4uire authori3ation and authentication of all operators& such as& but not limited to& usernames and pass"ords& "ith multiple user access levels. 1:. The system shall scan in grayscale. 16. The system shall allo" under%voting or no vote in any positions to be voted for. 7.
1=. mar. ii. $. E. Ballots shall have an Arabic translation of the titles of the offices to be voted for& in addition to and immediately belo" the English title& in areas "here Arabic is of general use. B.s on the appropriate space on the ballot opposite the name of the candidate to be voted for# A. 1>.s+ 1. partial shade+ $. Each side of the ballot sheet shall be able to accommodate at least 7:: names of candidates "ith a minimum font si3e of 1:& in addition to other mandatory information re4uired by la". full shade+ B. The ballot paper shall be of such 4uality as to prevent mar.nly one ballot sheet per voter shall be used to accommodate all the names of the candidates for all elective positions. The system shall be able to recogni3e the follo"ing mar.ings on one side of the ballot to bleed through to the other side. E/E$. Both sides of the ballot sheet may be utili3ed. 61.mar. *ames of the candidates shall be pre%printed on the ballot. . The system shall have necessary safeguards to determine the authenticity of a ballot& such as& but not limited to& the use of bar codes& holograms& color shifting in. The system shall be able to scan both sides of a ballot and in any orientation in one pass.s. The re4uired features of the ballot are# A. 18. There shall be as many ballot faces as there are cities)municipalities and districts for the */E. 6:. chec. . . The system shall be able to recogni3e both pencil and in.s.& micro printing& to be provided on the ballot and "hich can be recogni3ed by the system.1<. mar. 1. The ballot design and layout shall be as specified by $. i.
The system shall be able to generate and print the E0& statistical report and audit log for the precinct in the $. The statistical report shall contain the follo"ing information& among others# i. 1emographic information for the precinct (Province& $ity)municipality& barangay name& precinct number or clustered precinct name "ith the individual precinct numbers!+ ii. The system shall have the ability to transmit the precinct results to the follo"ing destinations# i. *umber of registered voters for the precinct+ and *umber of voters "ho actually voted in the precinct by gender and age group. . The system shall transmit digitally signed and encrypted election results and reports enabled by public)private .$s of $. A. city)municipal B. The system shall have alternative po"er sources& such as batteries& inverters or po"er generators& "hich "ill enable it to fully operate for at least 16 hours.. The system shall generate a bac. The system shall& immediately before the start of the voting)counting& re4uire that its vote counters be 3eroed out using administrator and operator access levels& and shall generate and print an initiali3ation report sho"ing that no votes have been cast)counted. iii. 68. 67.up copy of the digitally signed and encrypted E0& including all generated reports& in a removable data storage device. iii. 6<.$+ *B. 69. The system shall not start unless the initiali3ation report has been generated.$+ provincial B. ii. The system shall& before transmission& re4uire the electronic authentication and certification of the election returns through a secure mechanism by at least t"o BEI members.66. A.ey cryptography to provide authenticity& integrity and non%repudiation utili3ing at least 16=%bit encryption scheme. E/E$%specified formats& both in soft and hard copies. E/E$ and $ongress+ 1ominant ma(ority party& 1ominant minority party& Accredited citi3ens? arm& BBP+ and v. $entral server# 6. iv.
22 The system shall be customi3able in accordance "ith the re4uirements of this 05P.ing pens and other supplies& printers and other e4uipment& services& and consumables. The audit log shall record the follo"ing& among others# i.en $.e it fully operational during the entire duration of the pro(ect shall be included in the proposal)offer& including the soft"are and hard"are& bac. ii. Transmission logs& including# C C 2ser I1+ 1ate)time each transmission started and ended ("ith the si3e and name of the transmitted file& such as precinct result!+ C 1ate)time transmitted result "as received at remote station+ B.%up po"er supply& e-ternal data storage devices& ballot mar. All system messages (including error messages!+ 22 22 The system shall have error recovery features. achine I1+ 'oting (urisdiction+ All user%generated activities& indicating# 2ser I1+ Actual date and time stamps+ and Specific action ta. B. iii. 22 The system shall ensure that the printed election results and other reports shall remain legible for at least 9 years. In compliance "ith 0A >7<>& the system must have demonstrated capability and been successfully used in a prior electoral e-ercise here or abroad& "ith a "ritten certification to that fact from the election authority of the client country)state)province. 22 All related re4uirements by the system "hich are needed to ma.The final design of all required statistical reports shall be provided by the !12)L)! within the period specified for /ystems !ustomi ationA&evelopment. .
*umber of registered voters represented in precincts& cities)municipalities and provinces received against total number of registered voters& and percentage thereof+ iii. *umber of precincts& cities)municipalities and provinces reported against total number of precincts& cities)municipalities and provinces and percentage thereof+ ii.e use of a graphical user interface& including& but not limited to& the use of screen prompts& error messages and help screens+ .up data storage device as input for processing+ $. 1ecrypt and authenticate the transmitted encrypted election results prior to consolidation)canvassing+ 1. *umber of votes obtained by each candidate for all positions. onitor& detect& record and secure itself against intrusion and)or unauthori3ed access and recogni3e its authori3ed users "ith the use of physical security devices& such as 2SB flash drives or P$ $IA cards& "ith digital certificates& aside from the use of user I1s and pass"ords+ B. 0estart and resume the operation "ithout any loss of data in the event of an abnormal termination of the system+ 5.22 The design and functionality of the system shall still be sub(ect to final customi3ation re4uirements by the $. D.en do"n by voting (urisdictions on# i. The consolidation)canvassing system ($$S! shall be secure& fast& accurate& reliable and auditable& and able to# A. *umber of voters "ho actually voted in precincts& cities)municipalities and provinces received against total number of registered voters& and percentage thereof+ iv. 1etect previously%loaded election results and prevent these from being input again into the system+ E. E/E$. $omponent 11$ $onsolidation8$an%assing System 6$$S7 1. 2se the electronically transmitted results or the results as contained in the bac. Provide real%time updates bro. a.
for the city)municipal B. Allo" election results to be received for consolidation)canvassing only after the vote counters have been initially 3eroed out and an initiali3ation report has been printed+ F.. ii. Encrypt the digitally signed results and transmit the same to the ne-t upper level of canvassing and to the central server+ *. Allo" the B.E. $onsolidate)canvass and generate reports# i. E/E$ sitting as the national B. iii. for $ongress sitting as the national B. Accurately consolidate results from all e-pected precincts ) cities ) municipalities ) provinces according to the different (urisdictions of each B. Provide for a public "ebsite for real%time publication of canvassing results based on the electronically transmitted precinct results& including services for "eb design& development and hosting+ .$s to end the actual consolidation)canvassing process for each canvassing level and generate final canvassing results only "hen all e-pected results have come in and "hen the previous canvassing level has already been completed+ B. E/E$+ P.$s to digitally sign all electronic results and reports before transmission+ .$ for President)'ice%President& using consolidated provincial)city results. iv. I. E/E$# i.'& and $.$+ /.$& using consolidated city)municipal results+ for $. Initiali3ation 0eport prior to the conduct of the actual canvass operation sho"ing that no vote has been credited in favor of any candidate+ ii.$ "ith supporting S. Allo" the B. $.$P "hen applicable+ Immutable audit log report+ and Statistical report+ . iii.$ for Senators)Party%list& using consolidated provincial)city results+ iv.$& using precinct results+ for provincial)district B. Denerate and print the follo"ing& using =%ply TS5& in a format to be specified by $. 0econfigurable for use in other electoral e-ercises by the $.
E/E$ as specified in this 05P. 1. The bidder shall include in its offer the hard"are and soft"are for the consolidation server that shall be able to accommodate all the re4uirements of the $. iii. million characters ribbon life+ 6:&::: hours TB5+ 7 years "arranty (parts and service! & if purchased+ .m from the main site& or an e4uivalent contingency plan sub(ect to approval by $.%up site& "hich shall be at least 1: . v. The bidder shall propose the hard"are needed for the canvassing units by the B.$s shall be# i. iv. <9: 'A output po"er capacity+ 9:: cps high speed draft+ =%ply TS5 paper handling+ Automatic paper forms handling+ Standard parallel interface connectivity+ > pins printhead+ 17< columns+ 16= BB memory+ 6:: million characters printhead life+ .e it fully operational during the entire duration of the pro(ect shall be included in the proposal)offer& such as but not limited to re4uired soft"are& servers& canvassing units& other related hard"are& bac. The system shall include a secure redundant)bac. 7. All related re4uirements by the system "hich are needed to ma. The minimum specifications for the dot%matri. 2PS# i. -i. E/E$. vi. All hard"are shall have 7 years "arranty (parts and service!& if purchased. viii. vii.printer to be used by the canvassing units for the B.%up po"er supply& e-ternal data storage devices and other supplies& printers and other e4uipment& services& and consumables. A. ii. i-.$s. -. B. $. i.6.
-(:S 1. Huality control and assurance+ .. The service shall cover 1::@ of all clustered precincts covered by this 05P. The service shall provide all the transmission re4uirements of the system. The service shall be available from 7#:: P all election results have been transmitted. 6. $-MP-NENT . 19 minutes typical bac. . 9. 9. Physical site design& preparation and operationali3ation+ 7. Pro(ect management& including team organi3ation and implementation schedule+ 6. -4E(A33 P(-+E$T MANA9EMENT A.e it fully operational for the duration of the pro(ect shall be included in the proposal)offer& including the soft"are and hard"are. 7. The system shall be customi3able in accordance "ith the re4uirements of this 05P. The service may utili3e "ireless& "ired or satellite%based connection& or a combination thereof. The service shall have a designed availability of G>>@..roCect shall include> 1. E/E$. <. iii.roCect. The proCect management services component of the #9$9 <ational and Local )lections "utomation . All related re4uirements by the service "hich are needed to ma. $hange management& including voter education and training+ on Election 1ay to 7#:: P the follo"ing day or until .ii.up time at half load+ 7 years "arranty (parts and service! & if purchased+ . SE(4'$ES The scope of work is to assist the !12)L)! in ensuring the successful implementation of the . The design and functionality of the system shall still be sub(ect to final customi3ation re4uirements by the $. $-MP-NENT 2 P(-4'S'-N F-( E3E$T(-N'$ T(ANSM'SS'-N US'N9 PU*3'$ TE3E$-MMUN'$AT'-N NET..
Pro(ect anagement The !12)L)! recogni es the diversity of services and technologies that shall be integrated in the implementation of the . ii. Didders must describe its proposed solution to include> A.9. the bidders must demonstrate a clear understanding of the depth and breadth of the scope of work to be integrated and the criteria for evaluating these services and technologies. The various teams participating within the proCect must be integrated to achieve their outputs in a coordinated and timely fashion. Bidders must describe the role of the Pro(ect 1irector& the Technical $oordinator and the Pro(ect Team /eaders in various disciplines. embracing people.roCect. B. 0is.n the other hand& the Team /eaders are re4uired to have the ability to plan and lead managerially and technically in their respective disciplines. Didders must describe clearly their approach to systems integration for the successful implementation of the . i.roCect management requires multi0faceted skill and talent. !orollary. management and contingency planning <. processes and organi ation.roCect. $onfiguration management The following subsections outline the requirements of !12)L)! from the bidders in the preparation of their proposed solutions for the delivery of such services. The Bidder?s Pro(ect anagement Team must be able to sho" their ability to interact "ith $. 1. E/E$ leadership and the counterpart . 1edicated and competent pro(ect management teams . . The Pro(ect 1irector is re4uired to have authoritative credentials to lead various teams for the various components of the Pro(ect. 1emonstrable ability in the management of diverse services and technologies This will require a proCect management approach with successful large systems integration e+perience.
estimation+ Ior. It is important to describe how they will manage the services to be provided.ing and monitoring+ 0eporting internal to the pro(ect and reporting to the $ommission+ Problem resolution+ and $hange re4uest procedures. $.roCect format. Bidders must provide resumes of its management team nominated for the Pro(ect on the basis of "hich the nominees "ill be evaluated. Pro(ect planning+ Tas. This team must be provided until the end of the Pro(ect. The bidders must describe the proCect organi ation to be established during the life of the proCect and the reporting and working relationships between the proCect teams and the !12)L)!. procedures. allocation+ Progress trac. ii. Didders must also outline stage0wise items of . the bidders are required to submit a work plan detailing work materials. and through all critical phases of the proCect. 1. Proposed pro(ect management processes& tools and techni4ues Didders must describe its proCect management processes and tools to include the following> i.no"ledge and e-periences. iii. personnel tasksAresponsibilities. v. E/E$%P .$. tools and techniques. for progressing from contract award. Bidders must describe the team they are proposing& including the actual number of staff members& the time each staffer "ill dedicate to the pro(ect& and outline of terms of reference for these positions. vi. iii. In this connection. proCect plan-s. iv. team in an atmosphere of learning that is enriching each other?s . in 2/ . vii. A proven or responsive implementation methodology Didders must describe the proposed methodology -including implementation. iv.
For purposes of evaluation of the bids. during the . redundant communication links. 22 Adherence to environment and safety standards This criterion shall be concerned with the provision all required environmental and safety provisions that adhere with published standards. The proCect audit is designed to ensure that the . 1. persons responsible and other concerns to ensure the quality of the products and services to be delivered. such as engineering services for the preparation of drawings. The preparation of the site shall include the detailed design and engineering work to be performed by the Didder for the . acceptance. review.roCect:s implementation. of an appropriate quality within time scales and budget. 6.roducts. 'owever. the Didders must describe their standards for such audits including scope. documents. etc.roCect. The Didder shall plan and design the installation site layouts in accordance with the Didder:s standards and prepare the sites according to the technical requirements of the . . maps. the "udit (eports shall be prepared by an independent "udit Team whose members shall be appointed by !12)L)!. The proposed technical bid for this component should include a detailed description as to how the following criteria shall be addressed by the Didder in its bid> 22 .roCect. plan and schedule for the preparation of the physical site that will house the various equipment in the different sites. Physical Site Plan& 1esign and Preparation The Didder shall propose a design. required conduct. calculations. specifications. schedules. estimates and coordination with the engineering efforts of the subcontractor. which may be goods and services.delivery. demands upon the !12)L)! personnel and outputs. with the approval of the !12)L)!. Huality $ontrol and Huality Assurance The !12)L)! will conduct a full proCect audit at periodic intervals of the progress of the !ontractor:s schedule of work and deliverables through the TechnicalAFunctional Team and "udit Team independent of the proCect. demands upon proCect personnel.roCect delivers a range of .perational efficiency 1perational efficiency shall be concerned with the smooth functioning of installed equipment with provision for redundant power supply.
Advocacy and communications plans for the change readiness re4uirements of all sta. authority and responsibilities of the !ommission:s offices.no"ledge& attitudes and s. This will affect the functions. therefore. The !ommission.eover the functions and thereby enabling them to use the system in managing the electoral process more effectively+ ii. requires the Didders to describe its proposed change and risk management services detailing the following areas> 22 $hange management methodology that should have a conscious bias to"ard organi3ational improvements and sustainability measures to effect procedural& structural and attitudinal changes in the organi3ation as a result of this pro(ect and the agency?s comprehensive moderni3ation program+ 22 Interventions and recommendations proposed must include strategies or measures that "ill enable the $ommission to address the follo"ing concerns# i. Personnel sociological& cultural and psychological change process should appeal to a sense of nationalism among employees& defining and influencing their special role in the democratic)electoral reform process of the country+ and iv. $hange anagement The onset of the computeri ed operation of the envisioned system will call for changes in the process and procedures presently used by the !12)L)!.ills to eventually ta. relationships.eholders "ithin and outside the $ommission& including candidates& local . E/E$ personnel in terms of . 0eengineering and simplification of pre%election& election day and post%election procedures "hile maintaining ade4uate security and control+ iii. Empo"erment of the $.The following tasks shall also be required> 22 1evelop and implement procedures for the measurement and monitoring of the S/As for the other components of the Pro(ect+ 22 22 Assist in the regular monitoring of S/A compliance for all components+ Assist in the conduct of a 7rd party Stress and Security Testing of all systems+ D2 Assist in the conduct of a 7rd party code revie" of the system+ 22 Assist in recommending acceptance and payment for the services or outputs& and)or the position of penalties "here applicable+ 7.
'oter Education and Information i.!& "hich shall be turned over to the $.s& etc.! that the pro(ect might encounter in the course of pro(ect implementation and more so anticipate the possible ris.s (environmental& physical& political& people%related ris. B. (high%speed Internet connection& etc. The "inning bidder shall provide demo units for road sho"s. The proposal shall include the delivery of all re4uirements& including hard"are (servers& fire"all& etc. The "inning bidder shall provide assistance in the conduct of the information dissemination and education program by commenting on the program or providing reference materials or contacts of other system users. These policy recommendations shall clearly e-plain& in layman?s terms& "hy management should adopt and enforce these policies& ho" they impact on the delivery of services& and ho" they affect the mission and goals of the $ommission. $. iv. E/E$ after the duration of the pro(ect. .!& soft"are (operating system& antivirus& fire"all& etc. 1. E/E$ "ith policy recommendations that the bidder may deem necessary for the efficient operation& administration& management and upgrading of the $ommission?s election administration system.s after the Pro(ect. E/E$& a "ebsite for this pro(ect for voter education purposes and related information dissemination.!& services ("eb development& etc. 5or e-ample& some policy recommendations may be made on security procedures& IT staffing and hiring& service contracting& budget allocation& and others. Policy 0ecommendations The bidder shall provide the $.s!& as "ell as political and public sectors. anagement and $ontingency Planning This refers to a ris. iii. The "inning bidder shall design& develop and produce information content ready for print& broadcast (radio and T'! and presentation in audio%visual& Internet and other media forms. 0is. ii.!& technical training and communication lin. management program that "ill address security and other related ris.government units (/D2s!& non%government organi3ations (*D. The "inning bidder shall develop and maintain& in coordination "ith the $.
The configuration management process should describe clearly the step%by%step activities& inputs& outputs and process metrics.%up plan in case of systems failure in any of the Pro(ect components. 2. #9$9. An appreciation of the processes and realities of government rules& regulations and procedures. in case there are any. Bidders shall provide a $onfiguration provides guidance on developing and maintaining compatibility and consistency of pro(ect documentation& products& and support items throughout the pro(ect. It also harmoni3es other processes such as 0e4uirements $ontrol. This shall also include issue and conflict resolution& in terms of providing alternative courses of action& in case of inevitable conflicts among the parties involved in the Pro(ect and the mitigation of ris.do"n Schedule& and Pro(ect Planning and Didders must provide !@s of their proposed staff clearly showing the relevant skills.This shall also include a bac. Brea. work e+perience and professional certifications.ing& and change management+ and 7. 6. $onfiguration anagement 1. Substantial e-perience and .roCect 2anagement team who shall report full0time should possess> 1. It is imperative& from the functional baseline to the last product baseline& that both client and pro(ect personnel have the same definition of system configurations& configuration items and deliverables throughout the pro(ect life cycle. record in the management if IT pro(ects preferably "ith an outsourcing component+ 6. . Didders may propose additional staffing to complement skills of their proposed staff -!ommission on )lections. anagement& Ior. A proven trac. $onfiguration anagement anagement system..no"ledge in the areas of applications development& 4uality assurance and testing& data center operations& computer hard"are and net"or. STAFF'N9 The .
hilippines.Through automation we can ensure a credible transition of power and have clean. that is cheaper. The electronic mode of doing and finali ing transactions has become the most fashionable way of ensuring efficiency. #993.hile it will not be a cure0all for the country:s electoral problems. that works better and that is innovative.racticing electronic governance -e0governance. the advent of information technology -IT. Electronic 9o%ernance "lso in pursuit of a developed and more efficient government in the . in providing inter0connectivity not only in the government infrastructures. but also in the enterprise private sector as well. . introduced new ways of transactions in government and in business. that is quicker.. In can provide benefits such as better staff motivation or greater political control or an improved public image and cheaper yet better services to those who depend on government. Teodoro -#993. automating the polls will eliminate a lot of the human intervention and that has made vote0rigging possible -"ngara on !omelec.. . effectiveness. . promotes a government that does more. IT! can also be a tool in helping the country prepare for and respond more effectively to natural and man0made disasters like flood control. "ccording to &annug -#99=. /etting up the country:s automated and electoral system is a crucial step towards clean and honest election. 2any other agencies will benefit through the I!T and it will help the country cope up against the trend of globali ation. emphasi es the importance of Information and !ommunication Technology -I!T. honest and orderly #9$9 elections. and efficacy of new plans and programs. early warning and prediction of weather patterns.
. the 2ay #9$9 automated elections was still unsuccessful to provide a fail0safe system. These deficiencies threw doubts on the integrity of the results. there were differences in the manual and machine count for the positions of president.hilippines Integrated /chool. #9$9. and representatives. . 1verall. the lack of digital signatures. and the incomplete inventory of the voting machines and the compact flash cards. The <ational !iti ensJ 2ovement for Free )lections -<amfrel.hilippine goes. 2organ and Mualman -$338.7=0percent accuracy.33= percent as told by <amfrel -"lave. "mong the issues being looked upon are the wrong time and date stamps on the election returns.May 2010 Technical Pro lems and $ontro%ersies "s any system in the . one more vote than the machine tally. The manual count for vice0president was 83=. but the voting machine tallied 83=. the machine had a 33. vice0 president. asserts that that the effectiveness of organi ational performance comes as much from the political culture of the country as it does from the efficiency of the organi ations. which is below the required 33. In this sense. National "e%elopment " critical factor in good governance is the ability of the government to generate trust that allows people to work together toward national development. Teachers who audited the ballots counted 853 votes for president. In the audit of a precinct cluster at the %niversity of the . has cautioned the !ommission on )lections against its plan to conduct automated elections in #9$7 pending FunresolvedG issues in the first computeri ed balloting last 2ay $9.
In the e+treme. underscores that the idea of progress forms the backdrop to a society. the . /uffrage is a right that is afforded to all citi ens regardless of se+.hilippines has a long history of problematic and violent e+ercise of elections characteri ed by fraud. political beliefs. defines performance evaluation as the process by which the organi ation obtains feedback about the effectiveness of its employees. terrorism. . violence.hilippines are not as ideal as it aims to be. racial background. /uffrage is not only a right but also a responsibility for every citi en to participate in administering proper governance. cheating. The literature on concept of election emphasi es the citi enJs role in e+ercising their political rights through elections. bribery. "lso.erformance is translated into behaviors and actions as rated by supervisors and peers. and education. vote0buying. Synthesis This chapter presents the different related to study. social status. religion. 'owever. If human behavior is unreformable. The .hilippines .The key to development comes from the people through performance evaluation. without the possibility of progress of any sort. such as equality and freedom. elections in the . or they are no more than cant and self0delusion. / ilagyi -$339. literacy. ballot snatching. The )conomist -#9$9. and many more. your gain is someone else:s loss. social policy can only ever be about trying to cage the ape within. /ociety must in principle be able to move towards its ideals. <ational and international laws as well as different international bodies such as the %nited <ations sees to it that the sovereign will of the people should win in an election. It serves as an auditing and control functions generating information on which many organi ation decisions are made.
credible and genuine elections and on 2ay $9. There were still unresolved issues from the computeri ed balloting such as missing compact flash cards. innovative. That is why this study is being pursued to make way for improvement of this new system. In the literature of <ational development. that is cheaper. electronic governance is also being pursued which will help the country cope up against the trend of globali ation. wrong time and date stamps on election returns.used to vote in the traditional way of writing the name of their chosen candidate in an ordinary piece of paper which is very tedious and is prone to many irregularities.racticing electronic governance promotes a government that does more. The importance of Information and !omputer Technology -I!T. the key to development comes from the feedback of the people through performance evaluation. 'owever. failure to achieve $99L accuracy and many more. This feedback is a vital element to provide directions . The literature on )lection "utomation contains the comple+ yet specific technicalities of a paper0based automated election system which came from the !ommission on )lections itself. #9$9. and works better. orderly. the countryJs step towards moderni ation was still unsuccessful to provide a $99L reliable system.hilippines witnessed itJs first0ever automated elections which vows not only to eliminate irregularities but also improve the process of voting and canvassing. is being emphasi ed to provide inter0connectivity between the government and the people. . In addition to automation. the . That is why many sectors including the !ommission on 'uman (ights are calling for change in the electoral process in pursuit of an honest. clean. quicker.
&escriptive research. Furthermore. analysis. It often involves some type of comparison or contrast.on decisions being made. as defined by 2anuel and 2edel -$337. and interpretation of the present nature. !alderon and Gon ales -$337. The voice of the people is essential because the ability of the government to generate trust allows the people to work together toward national development. analysing. recording. the development of the research instrument. This method describes what is. classifying and tabulating. and statistical treatment. (esearch "esign The descriptive analysis method of research will be used in this study. group. or how a person. sampling design. data about prevailing conditions. or thing behaves or functions in the present.. This focuses on prevailing conditions. $#APTE( . . composition or process of phenomena. MET#-"-3-95 This chapter presents the research design including the method of collecting data. defines descriptive research as a purposive process of gathering. is a method that involves description.
organi ed. perceptions. /ince the present study is concerned with the assessment of the 2ay $9. and the like and then such data are analysed. processes. and cause0effect relationships and then making adequate and accurate interpretations about such data with or without the aid of statistical methods. opinions. attitudes.practices. interests. )valuated will be the impact of the automation to the !ommission on )lections and the voters. beliefs. Cudgements. "ata 9athering Procedure The method of collecting data that will be used in the study is the normative survey. the descriptive method of research will be the most appropriate method to use. the problems encountered in the process. . intentions. /ince the present research is a status study. practices. trends. and the suggested solution to these problems. beliefs. It is used in collecting demographic data about people:s behaviour. e+plains that the normative survey is concerned with looking into the commonality of some elements. &escribed in the study is the overall process of the automated elections system and its transition from the manual election system. the normative survey would be the most appropriate method to use in gathering data. and interpreted. !alderon and Gon ales -$337. #9$9 national automated elections.
. Sampling Procedure The sampling procedure will e+plain the sampling technique that will be employed in the study.urposive sampling will be used in this research because the data that is needed shall come from a part of the population that belong to certain criteria that are absent from others. The researcher will also use the interview method in gathering necessary data from the !ommission on )lections. . The respondents are chosen on the basis of their knowledge of the information desired. the respondents will be teachers and students and so they are very literate. The researcher will make use of the purposive sampling technique. . Desides. They could read and answer the questionnaire without difficulty.. The questionnaire will be used to gather feedback of the voters on the automated election system. It is a sampling technique where the selects a particular group or groups based on certain criteria. as defined by !alderon and Gon ales -$337.The instrument that will be used to collect data is a questionnaire. purposes. This will be used because it gathers data faster than any other method. This will also determine the study population that will be used by applying certain criteria.urposive sampling. is determining the target population of those to be involved in the study. or variables. This will help the researcher arrive at a more complete and valid information wherein greater comple+ questions can be asked by the researcher to be provided by greater comple+ data which shall be vital to the study.
. The respondents must be employed or enrolled at !avite /tate %niversity for school year #9$9 E #9$$. For this reason. The researcher chose respondents employed or enrolled at the !avite /tate %niversity for the purpose of availability and since the students and employees of the said institution are very literate. /ince the feedback from the people should come from the electorate or those who have voted in the election. The respondents must be $5 years old and above 7. The respondents must have participated in the 2ay #9$9 national and local elections. #. the respondents should be chosen by considering certain criteria such as the following> $. years of age for it is the mandatory age in practicing the right to suffrage as stated in "rticle @ of the .hilippine !onstitution.Selection o! (espondents In selection of respondents. the researcher will be identifying the target population of the study and will be computing for the actual sample. the researcher will be including students who are at least at the 7 rd year level assuming that most of them are of $5 years at the time of the election. they will be able to answer the questionnaire without difficulty. The respondents should also be at least eighteen -$5.
# -#475.9=. -. There are $97$ 7rd year students. -.99#=. These figures will serve as the study population where the actual sample shall be taken. $94 =th year students and 5 8th year students for a total of #953 students who are at least at the 7 rd year level currently enrolled at the !avite /tate %niversity 2ain !ampus. nN $ O -#475. the respondents must have e+ercised their right to vote in the 2ay $9. #9$9 elections to be able to obtain the data needed with regards to the "utomated )lection /ystem. the researcher will be using . #475 nN .Finally. nN $ O -#953 O 863. 367 6th year students. To compute for the sample. "t the same time. there are 863 faculty and staff of !avite /tate %niversity 2ain !ampus employed in the school year #9$90#9$$.agoso:s formula which is < nN $ O <e# where> n N sample < N population e N margin of error "ctual computation of the sample> -#953 O 863.
"e%elopment o! the (esearch 'nstrument "fter reading and studying samples of questionnaire and interview guide from related studies. The sample is computed using the formula provided by . "ttached hereto is a sample of the questionnaire and the interview guide that will be used in the collection of data. respondents for the survey of the study.$ O 8. the researcher prepared his own questionnaire and interview guide. The researcher saw to it that there were enough items to collect data to cover all aspects of the problem and to answer to all the specific questions under the statement of the problem.56= #475 nN 4.agoso. This is computed from a population of #475 people with a margin of error of = percent.56= n N 763 There will be 7=9 -rounded off. . 'e also consulted some knowledgeable people about how to prepare one.
Personal Profile .ere you able to vote in the 2ay #9$9 elections? PPPPPPP Qes PPPPPPP <o #.lease put a check mark before your choice.lease rest assured that any information that you supply will be treated with the greatest confidentiality and anonymity. how enthusiastic were you in voting through an automated election system? PPPPPPP @ery enthusiastic PPPPPPP )nthusiastic .> PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP /e+> PPPPPPP )0mail address -for follow0up purposes. <ame -1ptional. $.lease supply the information asked for. kindly supply the information being asked. If you answered yes. Then.SAMP3E <UEST'-NNA'(E General Direction.lease put a check mark before your choice.> PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP "ge> PPPP &ate of birth -e+act.hat is your current status in !avite /tate %niversity? PPPP )nrolled QearA!ourseA/ection> PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPP )mployed !ollegeA&epartmentA/peciali ation> PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP II. . .> PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP . . . I.lease accomplish this questionnaire very carefully and honestly and return it as soon as possible. Automated Election Assessment .
'ow speedy is the canvassing of results? PPPPPPP @ery speedy PPPPPPP /peedy PPPPPPP Fairly speedy PPPPPPP /low PPPPPPP @ery slow 8. . Problems Encountered in the Election Process . 'ow confident are you in the accuracy of the results? PPPPPPP @ery confident PPPPPPP !onfident PPPPPPP Fairly confident PPPPPPP &oubtful PPPPPPP @ery doubtful 4.PPPPPPP Fairly enthusiastic PPPPPPP %nenthusiastic PPPPPPP @ery unenthusiastic 7. 'ow efficient is the voting process in terms of ease? PPPPPPP @ery efficient PPPPPPP )fficient PPPPPPP Fairly efficient PPPPPPP Inefficient PPPPPPP @ery inefficient 6.hat is your overall rating for the automated election system? PPPPPPP @ery effective PPPPPPP )ffective PPPPPPP Fairly effective PPPPPPP Ineffective PPPPPPP @ery ineffective III. using the following guidelines> .lease put a check mark before the problem you encountered and another check mark at the right under the proper heading to describe how serious your problem is. 'ow fast is the voting process? PPPPPPP @ery fast PPPPPPP Fast PPPPPPP Fairly fast PPPPPPP /low PPPPPPP @ery slow =.
in any way. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPP Lack of security personnel PPPPP unavailability of voter:s I& PPPPP Inadequate supervisory assistance PPPPP Lack of proper orientation PPPPP <oisy environment PPPPP (egistration problems PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP .@/ / F/ </ <. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPP Lack of privacy in voting PPPPP Faulty equipment. 2eans very serious and the problem hampers the effectiveness of the electoral process to a great e+tent. hamper the effectiveness of the electoral process. 2ention the equipment. 2eans serious and the problem hampers much the effectiveness of the electoral process but less than to a great e+tent. 2eans not serious and the problem only slightly hampers the effectiveness of the electoral process. It can even be ignored. The supposed problem does not. 2eans fairly serious and the problem hampers the effectiveness of the electoral process to some e+tent. 2eans not a problem. 2ention the equipment and the problem. PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP 1vercrowding on clustered precincts PPPPP Lack of organi ed system of queuing PPPPP Inadequate election equipment. Problem @/ Seriousness / F/ </ <.
PPPPP .lease put a check mark before the proposals suggested to help solve the problems. please specify PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP I@. PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP @ery %rgent Fairly <ot <ot %rgent %rgent %rgent <eeded PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP &o you have any other suggestions to improve the current election system in the . .hilippines? If there is.eak administration of the board of election inspectors PPPPP 1thers.roposal PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP PPPPP redistribution of clustered precincts more stable system in organi ing queues more election equipment equipment should be pre0tested and validated tighter security on voting precincts voter:s I& should be available before the election more information drive regarding voter:s education board of election inspectors should be properly oriented and more prepared. PPPPP others. Proposal to Solve the Problems . PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP . kindly write your answer in the space provided. . please specify.ut another check mark at the right under the proposal heading to describe how urgent the proposal is.
hat were the preparations made by the government to orient the people? 8.hilippine /etting? 6.osition PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP "ddress PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP &ate PPPPPPPPPPPPP $. .hat were the problems encountered in the election? Iindly enumerate the problems.hat preparations were made by the !12)L)! for the Doard of )lection Inspectors? =. 'ow is it applicable to the . 'ow are these problems addressed? 3.hat kind of election system will be used in the ne+t national and local election? . 5.PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP PPPPPP 'NTE(4'E.hat is the nature of an "utomated )lection /ystem? #. . 'ow effective are the facilities that were used in the election? 4. . . 9U'"E <ame PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP .hat is its advantages and disadvantages? Iindly enumerate. . 7. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.