..

SPE )5tfJ<{

An Experimental, Study of Gas Solubility In 011· Based Drilling Fluids

Patrlok L 'O'aryan,SPE, louisiana State U. Ad_ T. aourtl.,n. ",., SPE, louisiana State U. ,.. ..... G. Monger, SPE, louisiana State U. Deb,a" Kopo.o, SPE, louisiana State U .

....

... m......,. Experimental data are provided for the solubility of CI, C2, C02, and a n_a~ gas mi~t,ure in base .oils and emulsifien used to prepare oil-based drilling fluids over a range of temperatures .. In addition, an empancal ~~~ for . predicting gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids at low to moderate pressures IS presented and a field appllcauon IS outlined.

Introduction

Gas contamination of an oil-based drilling fluid during drilIin8 operations, whether it be by the uncontroUed flow of formation gas into the wellbore (gas kick) or by the driUing of gas-bearing formations (drilled gas), poses a potential hazard to the drilling equipment, environment, and personnel. This danger is the greatest when bottomhole conditions are such that the gas will completely d,lssolve into the drilling fluid and rapidly evolve as the gas-cut drill~g fluid is circulated up the weU. Before this phenomenon can be weU understood and modeled, the solubility of natural gases in a wide variety of oil-based drilling fluids must be known as a function of temperature and pressure.

O'Brien' was the first to report the results of a study on wellcontrol problems caused by gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids. Although O'Brien made no experimental measurements, he concluded that at the same pressure and temperature, the solubility of gas in an oil-based drilling fluid would be 10 to 100 times ,reater than the solubility in water-based fluids.

Thomas ift al. ~ presented nine experimentally measured data points for C I solubility in No. 2 diesel oil and three for C I solubility in an unweighted oil-based drilling fluid, aU at tOO"F [37.80C]. A summary of their data is shown in Table I and Fig. I. In their study, Thomas et al. showed that C I solubility' in the oil-based drilling fluid was less than the solubility of C I in pure No.2 diesel oil. It was stated that this difference in C, solubilities in the two liquids was caused by the presence of brine, emulsifier, and solids in the drilling fluid. In addition, air that may be adsorbed by solid components was cited as possibly affecting C ,-solubility measurements in the drilling fluid. Ref. 1 also presents curves from computer predictions for methane solubility in diesel oil over a range of temperatures (i.e., 100 to 6000P [37.8 to 3IS.6°C)). These curves are shown in Fig. 2. Note that for low to moderate pressure,' the C I solubility appean to be essentially independent of temperature over the range of temperatures commonly found in boreholes (100 to 3OO"F [37.8 to 148.9°C)).

Matthews3 presented solubility curves for CI, CO2, and H2S in No.2 diesel oil at 2S0"F [121.1 0c). For equivalent volumes of the three gases in a mixture at some temperature, Matthews concluded that as pressure is decreased, C I would come out of solution first, followed by C02 and then H2S-i.e., H2S is the most soluble gas of the three gases studied, with C I being the least soluble in No.2 diesel oil. The curves presented here are shown in Fig.3.

In this paper, the effects of base-oil composition on the solubility of gases in oil-based drilling fluids will be discussed. Experimentally measured solubility data will be presented for C I, C2, a natural gas mixture, and CO2 in base oils, drilling-fluid emulsifiers, and oil-based drilling fluids. Factors affecting the solubility of gases in oil-based drilling fluids will be addressed, and an approximate method will be shown ~or determining the solubility of

Copyright 11118 Soclely 01 '"-ttoleum Engln ...

SPE Drillin, Elllineerilll, March 1988

gas in an oil-based drilling fluid. The calculation method $hould be useful for calculating the depth at which drilled gas will break out of solution.

.xperlment.1 App., .....

To measure the solubility of gas in base oils, emulsifiers, and drilling fluids, an experimental apparatUs was constructed as shown in Fig. 4. The system has a 2SO-cm3 positive-displacement pump used to displace mercury into a blind PVT ceU. Mercury is used for pressurizing the mixture being studied. Pressure is monitored with a 10,OOO-psi [68.9-MPa] Bourdon tube gauge. 'The PVT cell is heated with a heating mantle, and heat losses to the atmosphere are minimized by the addition of extra insulation. The temperature of the system is monitored by a digital thermometer with a platinum resistance probe placed between the PVT'ceU and heating mantle. The PVT cell is mounted on a stand that aUows rotation of the ceU durin8 experiments, which facilitates mechanical mixing of the fluids being studied.

A computer model was used to calibrate raw 'experimental data.

This prognim takes into account the exPansion and compressibility of the PVT cell, pump manifold, and mercury caused by changes in temperature and pressure. The calibrated data were then plotted as pressure vs. volume.ss shown in Fig. S. The break in the is0- therm indicates the bubble-point pressure of the mixture. Above the bubblepoint, the mixture is aU liquid; below the bubblepoint, the mixtu~ is both gas and liquid.

To check the current study's experimental procedure, the solubility of C I in No. 2 diesel oil was measured at 100 OP [37.8 0c) and compared with data presented in Ref. 2. Fig. I illustrates this comparison. Good agreement between the two sets of data was 0btained.

.xpe~~tal.twdy

The first set of experimental measurements was made to determine the effects of base-oil composition on the solubility of gas in oilbased drilling fluids. Ct was chosen as the gas for this study. The base oils chosen were No.2 diesel, Mentor 28, and Conoco LVT oils. Gas chromatographic analyses of the three oils were performed to determine their compositions, and the results of the analyses are shown in Table 2. From the analyses, it was concluded that ~ Conoeo L VT oil was the lightest, with the Mentor 28 oil being the heaviest of the three oils. C1 solubilities were determined at lOOOP [37.8 0C). Fig. 6 compares the results. It can be seen that the solubility of C I in the three base oils is about the same at low pressures but different at high pressures. C1 is the most soluble in the Conoeo LVT and the least soluble in the Mentor 28. It was therefore concluded that gas solubility in Oil-based drilling fluids will be a function ofbase-oil composition at high pressures. As a gas/oilbased drilling-fluid mixture is drculated to the surface, however, the behavior of the mixture in the upper 2,000 ft [610 m] of the

33

TABLE 1-METHANE SOLUBILITY IN UNWEIGHTED OIL-BASED DRILLING FLUID AT 100·FI

Methane Solubility (scflbbl)

Pressure (psla)

1,555 2,570 3,585

167 335 502

Composition· of OIl-Based Mud Used, wtlMl

No.2 diesel 011 51.31

Calclum-based surfactant 2.17

Lignite 2.61

Slaked lime 2.61

Barite 10.17

Kengel (oil-wetting bentonite) 0.52

NaCI saturated brine 30.61

Total 100.00

·o.nllty 01 oIl-bued mud at 14.7 pelllI1d 780F_1.0885 g/cm3•

2500

2000

(I)
0 Z
In 1500 C)
e, .-
",
LaJ ."
cr ::J:
:J J>
en (I)
en ",
LaJ
cr 1000
CL. I
7""'0
500 BUBBLE PH4SE
POINT PRESSURE O~------~--------L----- __ ~

300

400 500

SAMPLE VOLUME, cc

600

Fig. 1-Experlmental procedure verHicatlon (T -100 oF).

annulus will not be sensitive to base-oil composition. This. is important because most of the problems associated with gas liberation occur near the surface.

Measurements were also made for the solubility of C I' Cz, CO2, and a natural gas mixture in base oil, oil drilling-fluid: emulsifiers, and oil-based drilling fluids. The composition of the natural gas mixture is shown in Table 3. The base oil chosen was Mentor 28. The oil-based drilling-fluid emulsifiers studied were those normally used to create the invert, water-in-oil emulsion. The oil-based drilling-fluid density was 13 Ibm/gal [1558 kg/m3], and its formulation is summarized in Table 4. Solubility measurements for these systems were made at 100,200, and 3000P [37.8, 93.3, and 148.9°C]. Additional solubility measurements were made in a 15.5- and I8-lbm/gal [1857- and 2IS7-kglm3] oil-based drilling fluid at

:0 1200 Pressur, Thomal C"rrtnt
A> ~ .' o· Study
~ 120 - 130
u
.. 805 126
1000 169
~ 1000 1220 233
1415 - 258
0 1682 280
J 2065 344
!AI 2405 427
en 2545 461
!AI 3e35 638
0 800 3195 695
4080 821
N 4820 850
0 5190 1066
Z
~ 600 o C"".n' S, ... dl
a T"ornos .. 01
>-
~
::i
iii 400
:::I
J
0
en
!AI 200
Z
Cl
x
..
!AI
::& 1000

o

2000 3000 4000

PRESSURE. pliO

5000 6000

Fig. 2-C, solubility In dle •• 1 011. I

PRESSURE (MPo)

10

60 1.8

Fig. 3-C,• COl' and HIS solubility In dleeel 011. a

100°F [37.8°C) to determine the effects of solids content on the solubility of gases in oil-based drilling fluids.

Figs. 7 through 10 summarize the solubilities of C" Cz, natural gas, and CO2 in Mentor 28. Figs. 11 through 14 summarize the solubilities of the gases studied in emulsifier, while Figs. 15 through 18 summarize the solubilities of the gases in the I3-lbm/gal [l558-kg/m3] drilling fluid. Figs. 19 and 20 show the data obtained for the solubilit}' of the gases in the 15.5- and I8-Ibm/gal [1857- and 21S7-kg/m3] oil-based drilling fluids, respectively.

Referring to Fig. 7, which is the plot of the C ,/Mentor 28 oil data, it can be seen that as the temperature increases, the solubility of the gas in the oil decreases. This trend was observed for all cases over the pressure range investigated. Computer simulations made with an equation-of-state (BOS) model, however, indicate that at high pressures, an increase in temperature may result in an increase in gas solubility. This behavior is calculated at pressures near and above the cricondenbar in the single-phase region, where the gas and oil would be miscible in all proportions. No experimental evidence to support this calculated temperature effect was obtained in this study.

Referring again to Fig. 7, it can also be concluded that as pressure increases, gas solubility in the oil will increase. Computer simulations made with an BOS model indicate that above some pressure,

SPE Drillina Ellllneerilll. March 1988

Ir..
PRESSURE .{MPo)
0 10 20 30 40 50 1.8
10
T • 250·F.ilzl·C) w
w= 1.6 ...I
CII...I
..... 0 8 ::>-
CII 1.4 ...10
::>...1 ~...1
...Iw III N ..
O(/) N 0 X 1.2 w
(/)w X (.J (.J w(/)
6 ZW ....-
wO 1.0 <-
Z XO
CI;...,j 0.8~~
XCII 4 PVT CELL
I-cD ::E ....
LIJ 0.6 .... E
::Ed E
I&.tn 2 0.4 d ffi
~a:: I-Cl.
::ELIJ 0.2 (/)
Q. O~~~~~~~~~~O

o 2000 4000 6000 8000

PRESSURE (psio)

FIg. 4-Expertmental .pperat ....

fig. S-Bu~lnt-pl'M8U" determlnltlon from CIIIbrated experimental cllta.

TABLE 2-BASE·OIL MOLAR COMPOSITION
No. 2 Diesel Mentor 28 ConocoLVT
Carbon Number (mol%) (mol%) (mol%)
9 1.3997 '1.1738
10 2.5340 11.2037
11 4.0720 24.1092
12 8.5313 18.5398
13 11.84n 1.4187 11.8951
14 12.2027· 2.2240 17.8742
15 18.0007 8.0817 15.2455
18 14.3790 11.8920 1.4253
17 11.8823 9.4953 +0.7333
18 8.9947 30.8370
19 4.29n 28.1870
20 1.7457 +10.0710
21 2.5813
22 1.1000
23 0.4487
24 +0.2013
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Molecular weight, 204.2 252.0 1n.4
IbmJlbm-mol
Density at eooF, 8.938 7.117 8.743
IbmJgal the gas and oil become miscible in all proportions. This is repteseDted by the vertical portion of the curves shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 21 shows the data for the C,/13., IS.S-, and 18-1bm/gal (lSS8-, 18S7-, and 21S7-kg/m3) oil-based drilling-fluid systems at 100 "F [37.8 0c]. It can be seen that as the density of the fluid increases, the solubility of the gas in the fluid decreases-i.e., gas solubility decreases as drilling-fluid solids content increas¢S.

Fig. 22 compares the solubility ofC, in base oil, a 3OO,OO()-ppm

. brine, and. emulsifier. C, solubility in brine was not deternUned experimentally but rather was estimated from available correlations represented in Figs. 23 and 24. It can' be seen that C, is the most soluble in the base oil and the least soluble in the brine, with C I solubility in emulsifier being slighdy higher than in the brine. It can therefore be concluded that brine and emulsifier content will reduce gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids, as well as SOlids content, by dilution of the oil phase. Therefore, as the oil-to-water ratio of an oil-based drilling fluid decreases, gas solubility in the drilling fluid will decrease.

Fig. 2S compares the solubilities of C, , C2, CO2, and the natural gas mixture in Mentor 28 at lOO"F [37.8°C]. It can be seen

SPE Drilling Bnlineeriq, March 1988

that C, is the least soluble gas, followed by the natural gas mixture, then CO2, and finally C2, which is the most soluble of the gases studied. As the specific gravity of a hydrocarbon gas increases, the solubility of that gas in base oil and therefore oil·based drilling fluids also increases.

G ..... lubUlt' Appro ..... atIon

From the conclusions of the experimental study., it was determined that gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids is proportional to pressure. gas specific gravity. and base-oil volume in the drilling fluid and is inversely proportional to temperature, drilling-fluid solids content, and brine and emulsifier volumes in the drilling fluid.

For a given drilling-fluid volume, the relative volumes of base oil, brine, and emulSifier in the drilling fluid can be determined from a standard retort analysis. Once the volumes ofbase oil, brine, and emulsifier in a given volume of drilling fluid are known, the solubility of a gu in the oil-based drilling fluid can be estimated as being the sum of the gu solubility in each liquid phase in the drilling fluid at the pressure and temperature of interest times the volume fraction occupied by each liquid phase in the volume of

3S

$00 - I

!

I

I

400

100

e MENTO" 28 Oil a DIESEL Oil

4 cosocc lVT Oil

1000 ZOOO

PRESSURE. Plia

!OOO

4000'

fig. ~ of C, eoIubIIlty In ...... Mentor 21, MCI Conoco LVT 0I1a lit 1oo·F.

500

P""url

-E.!!.!_

7715 1200 19815 23115 28215

670 1340 19150 23215 2660

980 13115 1780 2190 2670

~ ~ .....

-

:.: 400

o T=IOO·F

o T. 200·F 6 T =300oF

..J o CD N

II::

e 300 z

1&.1

~

Z

..J 200 CD

;:)

..J

o

en

o

3000

T.",pe,a'ur. .'han. Solul)ll try

degre. F scl/bbl

100 126

100 190

100 317

100 371

100 443

200 815

200 175

200 2615

200 321

200 377

300 300 300 300 300

112 155 213 273 341

1000 2000

PRESSURE. psio

Fig. 7-C, 80lubility In Mentor 28011.

36

TABLE 3-NATURAL GAl COMPOSITION, mol .. (or •• 0.8401)

0.28 0.88

80.18 4.84 2.05 0.49 0.53 0.23 0.15 0.14 0.22

100.0

TABLE 4-13-1bm1p1 OIWlAIED DRILUNQ.FLUID FORMULATION

Volume (em 3)

225.0

12.0 50.0 6.0

Component Mentor 28 Lime

Primary emulsifier Filtration agent Fresh H20

Gelling agent Secondary emulsifier Cael,

BarIte

4.5 5.0 4.5

23.0 292.0

600

500

:a
.D
.....
-
..,
..
_,
0 400
.CD
N
0::
0
r
z
....
~ 300
z >-
!:: P,"sur. Telllperature E,"an. Sol.
_,
CD ~ ~ scl/IIIII
;:) 240 100 121
_, 200 360 100 247
0 4150 100 368
en 575 100 1505
610 100 881
....
Z 205 200 79
C[ 450 200 154
X 650 200 235
r 700 200 331
1&.1 1050 200 443
100 290 300 103
730 300 154
840 300 288
1055 300 355
1180 300 433
0 T = 100·
a T = 200· 4 T = 300·

L- ___l___.

o 500 1000

PRESSURE. psio

"g. 8-C1 80lubility In .. ntor 28011.

SPE DriUina f!naiaeeria8. Mardi 1988

1500

:A 800 p, ... "" ""'01'."" NOrJtOl Gal Sol 400
.a -!.!!!... _!!a!! tCf/bbl
... 825 100 III A
- 1040 100 '" .a
.. 1775 100 - ....
.. 2750 100 .'7
-
3710 100 'M ..
....I 200 ..
e 810 12.
I~ 200 205 Ii
GI 600 1'i!lO ZOO 305 500
N 2500 200 03 1&1
II: M75 200 I .. i&:
e 100 300 93 in
1580 300 117 ....I
Z J~~8 188 JlI ::;)
1&1 .11 :Ii
:Ii 3100 300 132 1&1
~ 400 aT·,OO·' Z 200
>- a '·200·'"
I- 6 T. '00·' >-
::; l-
ii ::;
::;) iii
....I
0 3
II) 200 51 100
11)'
~ 1&1
Z
....I C
C %
II: I-
::;) 1&1
~ :Ii
Z 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
PRESSURE. palo 3000 P, ..... ,. T .... peraturl earoono.tdtSol 300
~ ~ Icflbbl
725 100 367
1030 100 711
1140 100 In7 :A
IZOO 100 17.4 .a
1215 100 'U'i ~
2!500 270 200 lOts ..
770 200 210 ..
.a lOla ZOO 4Z5 ri
.a 1240 200 540
.... 1420 ZOO 705 1&1
- 100 300 141 iL 200
.. 1140 500 303
.. '.00 300 .,, in
.i , .. 0 300 50' ....I
N 1110 300 ee, :;)
11:2000 :Ii
D T·IOO·, 1&1
e 0 TaZOO·' ~
Z .. T.300'"
1&1 >-
:Ii ...
~ :r
ii 100
>- 1500 :;)
I- ..J
:; 0
II)
iii ..,
::;) Z
....I
0 C
II) %
I-
1&1 '000 11.1
Q
8 0
is
z
0
GI
II:
C 500
u fig. 9-Natu,. .......... lxture eoIubillty In Mentor 28 011.

1000 PRESSURE. plio

1500

2000

o

Fig. 1D-CO. IOlublllty In Mentor 28011.

drilling fluid. This can be represented as

R .. =R,J'o+R.fb,+R,efe' (1)

The solubilities of gas in the oil, emulsifier, and brine phases can be estimated as

RItJ,e,br=R,,,f,, +RSC02fcoz' (2)

SPE Drillina £naineerinI. March 1988

Prtl"". T~,a,u,. Met."", SOl

-!!.!!.. _!!I!!!.!. -WL.!!.L

1100 100 U

"10 100 ...

2100 100 315

770 200 73

1725 zoo IS •

3215 zoo 315

7&0 300 13

1745 300 lat

3200 300 211

aT. 100·' o T-200·' A T*IOO·'

1000 2000 scoo

PRESSURE. palO

fig. 11-C1 eoIubillty In emu18lt1er.

~,v,. r,,"PI'o,,,,. E,"on, SOl

-2.!!,!._ dig'" F Ie f IItOI

42, 100 31

1025 100 U

1300 100 172

510 200 37

955 200 13

1210 200 137

110 300 21

1075 300 64

1275 300 1011

D T Ii 100.' o Tc200·' A T.:I300·'

~~~:_~~----~--------~

500 1000

PRESSUR E. plla

The general equation for the solubility of gas in oil and emulsifier is given as

( P )"

R ... --

ltJ,e aTb '

... " , , , .. , " (3)

when values of a, b. and II are shown in Table 5. Sq. 3 is valid only at low to moderate pressures and should not be used above about 50 % of the pressure at which the gas and oil are miscible in all proportions. For C 1. this full miscibility pressure corresponds to the vertical portion of the curves shown in Fig. 2.

The solubility of gas in the brine phase is determined from correlations previously discussed. For convenience, Figs. 23. 24. 26. and 27 have been curve-fitted and the equations are shown in the Appendix,

Once the solubility of gas is determined for each liquid component in the drilling fluid, the total gas solubility in the drilling fluid

1500

37

400 lIIftu",. ,..".fMtCI'"" No'"rat Go. Sot
__.!!!!_ d.,ro. , •• flot.
740 '00 '0'
1120 '00 '4e
'950 .00 238 600 p,.ut.We T ............... ,.. .......
2250 '00 334
:;; '110 d.' .... , ...!!!!.!!!...
... 885 200 ee IiiO '00 '51
.... '800 200 .45 D 3250 '00 37,
... 2050 200 23. 4575 '00 544
u 2895 200 30e :;;
.. '"0 200 '58
525 300 53 ... 2515 200 2e.
E 300 '215 300 .n .... 500 4'80 200 403
1975 300 208 ...
III 25110 300 280 u 2110 300 210
ii: .. 3325 300 300
in 0 T· 100·' Q 4700 300 3,.
::l
..J 0 T*200·' ~ 0 T • 100·1'
::l T·300·'
:IE .. ..J 0 T 11200·'
400
III 0 .. T :11"300·'
-z '0
...
~200 ....
:!
:J !!! 300
iii !
::l
..J >-
0 ....
V) :J
V) iii
e ::l 200
Cl) ..J
100 0
..J V)
e III
a:
::l z
.... e
e ~ 100
Z ....
..,
~ o

1000 2000

PRESSURE. pliO -

1000

fig. 13-NatufllJ.pHnlxture lOIublllty In emulsifier.

400 ~r~ssu'. Temperafur. Careon OIOllilde Sol
P$IO dOQ'" F sell Dol
------
915 100 92
1115 100 202
1285 100 311
480 200 32
• 115 2:0 82
1240 200 1<:2
~OO 595 300 34
1150 300 ~?
1375 300 128
0 T , I COOF
0 T ' 2:JCOF
Co r = 300°F
200 ..Q ..Q .....

- U

III

.

II:

IIJ

iL

en ...I ::I :Ii:

IIJ

Z

>.....

:i CD

::I

...I

o

en

IIJ

C

X 100 o

C

Z

o

CD

0::

<l

o

o

1000 2000

PRESSURE. pSio

3000

Fig. 14-00. IOlublllty In emulalfler.

can be determined as outlined in Eq. I. These calculations should be useful for estimating the annular pressure and depth at which

free gas will evolve from solution. ,

To check the validity of Eqs. I through 3, they were tested with experimental data from this study. Table 6 shows the solubility of the natural gas (having the composition given in Table 3) in the 13-lbm/gal [lSS8-kg/m3] oil-based drilling fluid at 100,200, and 300°F [37.8,.93.3, and 148.9°C] and in the 15.5- and IS-Ibm/gal

38

1000

2000 3000 PRESSURE. psia

. 4000

fig. 15-C, lOIubHlty In 13-1bm1ge1 oIl-buec1 MUng fluid.

..J

:;; 3C C I ... I ....

u

..

0200 r

g

,

; I I

>- I : '00 ~

on I ::l

..J

o

U>

z

P'Hlv'. ll"'"""" r , ..... 101

'110 'It,." leflfttlll

20' '00 "

370 '00 .75

555 .00 213

243 200 75
403 200 .,.
559 200 207
.n soo 38
362 soo 85
82' 300 .44
0 T .. 100·'
0 T" 200·'
,6 t. 300.F ...

z e ~ .... ou

500

1000

PRESSURE. plia

Fig. 18-C. IOlubillty In 13a1bm1gal oll-baecl drilling fluid.

[1857- and 2IS7-kg/m3] oilabased drilling fluid at 100 "F [37.8 oq. Note that there is good agreement between the calculated and 0bserved results.

Field Application

The quantity of drilled gas entering the mud depends on the penetration rate of the bit and the circulation rate of the drilling fluid. It can be estimated with

Pbhd&,;Sg

Qg- R, (4)

310.97zTbh

SPB Drilliq BnaiaeeriDa. March 1988

5000

1500

.' L

'.

i 400

....

-

Ii:

Pr ... ",. 1,,,,,.,..,,,,. "a,uta_ Goa Sol.

~ CIt, ... F Ie' I Dltl

1110 100 125

2080 100 241

311 3 100 S46

1090 200 102

1115 200 ItO

2600 200 212

4000

200

c :;) ::Ii .:.J

o 300

i

.... ...

1340 Ina 2735

300 300 300

14 172 211

400
:iii
.c
....
-
..
..
0
:::>
::Ii
.:.J 300
0
Ci
~
:!
s
~
>- 200
I-
::;
ii
:;)
.:.J
0
U)
U)
c(
CI
3000 100 where Qg is the gas influx rate (in scf/min) into the mud at the hole bottom. The resultant gaslliquid ratio is approximated by

aT·IOO·' o T. 200·F " T 1300·"

Q,

Rim -42-, (5)

qm

where R"" is given in scflbbl and Qg is small enough that swelling of the mud volume as a result of dissolved gas can be neglect-

SPE Drillina Engineerin,. March 1988

!!! z

>!= .:.J

iii :;) oJ o

III 100 III

C(

ell

oJ

C(

a:

:;)

~

z

1000 2000

PRESSURE. plio

o

3000

400
:iii
...
~
..
..
Q
:;)
::Ii
.:.J 300
(5
c;
coo
....
...
!!?
z
200
>-
I-
.:.J
ID
:;)
.:.J
0
U)
1&1
Q 100
)(
0
0
z
0
ID
a:
C(
u
0 Prell",. r.",peftIIIu,. carDOn DtOll,.
..!!!.G_ 4." •• F Sol. •• ctfbbl
260 100 61'
S8S 100 162
700 100 219
430 200 68
900 200 lSi
1100 200 245
!l90 300 14
900 300 139
1400 300 379
D T. 100·F
D T·200·F
A T. aOO·F 1000 2000

PRESSURE. pliO

FIg. 18-CO~ eolubllily In 13-1bmlgal oll-ba •• d drilling fluid.

800

700

:a .Q ...

'i 600

Q ;:, a

g sco

!

on 400

~ ~

~ 300

..J

iii ;:, ..J

~'200

III

C

I!>

Sot",.,h", ,c:" •• 1

!!!!'.!!!'~.~~~ "I

u •

510

Z32 JZ7

143
Z"
ZIr
SII
'75
71' CI .,hon,

o Nat",ral Ga. A EthOn,

• C.tNI'I Ot.u"

o

1000

2000

3000 4000 SOOO 1000 700II

PRESSURE. pslo

FIg. 19-Gae eolublilly In 15.5-Ibm/gal oII-bued drilling fluid (T-100°F).

500

Pressure Solubl"tY', Icflbbl

..E..!!!. Mlthme ~s E~ C!!...bonO~

340 50
600 138
284 137 271
1100 489
S84 226
670 316
1325 liS
1700 12~
2400 218
2750 2~5
3420 290
3990 319
D Methane
D Natural GQ5
6 E 'hone o

1000 2000 3000 4000

PR ESSURE I pliO

5000

FIg. 2D-Gu 80Iubility In 18-lbm/gal oll.baed drilling fluid (T-100°F).

39

800

o 13 ppg OIL MUD

o 15.5 ppg OIL MUD l> 18 ~~'1 OIL MUD

2000

4000 6000

PRESSURE. plio

Flg.11-C, eoIublllty In 130, 11.5-, _ 11-1bm1pl 01 ......... drilling flu" (1.1oo·F).

500

.Ifj

.... ... .. •

400

~ 300 ::i

iii

;:) .oJ o .,

III 200 z

c

:c

..

III

~

100

Q M£NTOII 28 OIL

o 500.000 PPM 8"IN£ l> EMULSIFIEit

o

1000

2000 3000

PRESSURE. pliO

fig. II-C, aolubility In Mentor 18 oil, 3oo,OGO-ppm brine, and .mul ....... (1 •. 1oo·F).

ed. This is generally true for drilled gas but does not hold for gas kicks. The depth at which R.rm given by Sq. I is equal to the value of R.rm calculated from Sq. S is the approximate depth at which free gas will begin to flash from the mud.

Conolualo ...

1. Experimental data for the solubility of C I, C2, CO2, and a natural gas mixture in base oils, oil drilling-fluid emulsifiers, and several oU-based drilling fluids have been detennined.

2. Base-oil composition has negligible effects on the solubility of gases in oil-based drilling fluids at low pressures, but gas solubilities in the three oils differ at high pressures,

40

8000

4000

.e

cr W t-

;

W cr ;:)

CI.

Z

-_

.~

Wi' Zo ~. %t-.Q w.Q

~~

Co)

I&.~ o

>t-

...J II)

;:)

...J o

t/)

64~--------------------------~

Faa. 24-Correct1on of C,aolubility In pure .... r for .. Unity.·

tn 050 ...J ~

~ (,!)

~ ~ 0.40

~ §

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I&. ~ 030 o

>-~ ~ >...J ...

II) ::; 020

;:) - ...JCD

°3

(1)0

tn

fig. 230-C, eoIubility In pure water. 4

015~------------------------~

o 10 20 30

TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (%l

3. Over the range of pressures studied, as temperature increases, gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids decreases.

4. As pressure increases, gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids increases.

S. As solids content of oil-based drilling fluids increases, gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids decreases.

6. As the volumes of brine and emulsifiers in oil-based drilling fluids increase, gas solubility in oil-bued drilling fluids decreases. 7. As the specific gravity of hy_drocarbon gases increases, bydrocarbon gas solubility in oil-based drilling fluids increases. 8. A method for estimating the solubility of drilled gas in oilbased drilling fluids at low to moderate pressures has been developed.

SPa Drillina Enaineerina. Mardi 1988

.
TABLE S-CORRELATION CONSTANTS
011 • b n
Hydrocarbon 1.922 0.2552 0.3578 + 1.188'Y I + (0.0027 - 0.00492-y ,)T
gas In baa oil - (4.51 )( 10 - - 8.198)( 10 -''Y ,)T2
CO2 In 0.059 0.7134
base oil
Hydrocarbon 4.182 0.1770 _.
gas In emulsifier 0.40 + 1.8&y, -1.01'Y I
CO2 in 0.135 C:t8217
emulsifier 800

..J

o 600

N

II:

o

...

Z

III 2400

!

> ...

C CI ( SPGR •. 55 I

o III GAS( SPGR •. &41 6 Cz (SPGRoIoOMI • COl (SpeRo 1.111)

o

1000 2000 5000

PRESSURE, pala

fig. 2s-o.IOIublilly In Mentor 28 011 (7-1OO°F).

Nom ,.

a constant, dimensionless

A,B,

C,D ... regression constants

b = constant, dimensionless B $ .., salinity correction

db - bit diameter, in. [mm] I",. ... volume fraction brine

fCOl - volume fraction CO2

Ie = volume fraction emulsifier

Ih volume fraction hydrocarbon

10 volume fraction oil

" == constant, dimensionless p "" pressure, psi [Pa]

PM ... bottomhole pressure, psi [Pa] qm == mud flow rate, gal/min [m3/s] a, == gas rate, sef/min [ltd m3/min]

R ... penetration rate, ftJbr [m/s]

Rib, == gn-to-brine ratio, seflbbl [std m3/m3]

R,co2 = CO2 gas-to-oil, -brine, or -emulsifier ratio, seflbbl [ltd m3/m3]

Rn ,.. gn-to-emulsifier ratio, seflbbl [std m3/m3]

R,h ,. hydrocarbon gas-to-oil, -brine, or -emulsifier ratio, seflbbl [std m3/m3]

R,m - gn-to-mud ratio, seflbbl [std m3/m3J R,o .. gas-to-oil ratio, scflbbl [std m3/m3]

s = solids, %

S,I = gn saturation, fraction

SPB I>riJlina Bnaineerina, March 1988

4000

280

:ii

~ 240

- ..

..

';200 III

i

! 180

ON

u 120

~

>-

~ 10

-'

i 40

o

2

3 4 5 6 7

PRE SSURE. 1000', lllio

8

9

10

fig. 21-C02 _Iubllily In pure ....... -

1.0

0.9 \ \

'-- - - - -- _ 2~.e.oo_!P~ _

III

Z

i 011

100.000 PPM

".",..-------- ------

/ _/

II: 01

e

u

~

Z 0.6 o

~

U III

II: 05

~ .. /-~---~-~!!!.-----

0.50~-'710-f:O::0:---:2~OO::0:---::SOOO~--~~0~0--5000-'---6000-L..----I,000 PRESSURE, PIlla

Fig. 27-Correctlon of CO. _Iublilly In pun water for aIlnlty.1

TABLE I-EXPERIMENTAL va. PREDICTED GAS
SOLUBIUTY IN OIL-BASED DRlWNG FLUIDS
T P Pm R., experimental R., predicted
(oF) (psla) (Ibm/gal) (scflbbl) (acflbbl)
100 2,080 13 249 281
200 1,050 13 103 111
300 2,735 13 288 225
100 1,375 15.5 144 150
100 2,400 18 218 205 ,.

41

T .. temperatu~, "F ["C]

TIM .. bottombole temperatu~, "R (K]

% .. au deviation factor, dimensionless , 'Y, .. au lIPCCific gravity

Pm .. mud density, Ibm/gal [kgIml) • .. porosity, fraction

Aokn ....... lMIIt.

Organizatioas contributing to this project were Amoco, Arco, 8ritish Petroleum, Chevron, Cities Service, Conoc:o, Exxon, Tenneq" Union Oil, and the MineralsMauagemem Service. Special ~are due Doug Eberts and Joe Billingsley for their assistance and guidance throughout the project.

..............

, '

I. O'BrieIl, T.B.: "HandliDl au ill an Oil Mud Talces Special Precautiou," World Oil (Jan. 1981) 83-86.

2. Thomu, D.C., Lea, J.F. Jr., and Turek, B.A.: "Gas Solubility in OilBuecI Drillinl Fluids: Bffects on Kick Detection," IPT (JUDe 1984) 959-74.

3. Matthews, W.R.: "How to Handle Acid au HzS and COz ICicb," Pet. Eng. Inti. (Nov. 15, 1984) 22-29.

4. McCain, W.D.: 1M Propertks of Petrok"", FhUtb. PennWe!1 Publisbilll Co., Tu~ (1973) 284-85.

5. Crawford, H.R. et Ill. "Carbon Dioxide-A Multipurpose Addilive for

Bffective Well Sdmu1ation," IPT (Mardi 1963) 237-42.

Appendbr Ion. for .............

Q .... ~In '

Carbon DIoxide.

R,cOz =(A +Bp+Cp2 +Dp3)B, .•.....•............ (A-I)

A -9S.08-0.93T+2.28X 10-3T2 (A-2)

42

....

B-0.1626-4.02S X 10 -4T +2.S X to -7T2. • (A-3)

C- -2.62x 10-5 -S.39x to-BT+S.t3x to-JOT2 (A-4)

D-1.39x 10-9 +S.94x 10-12T-3.6Ix IO-J4T2. , (A-S)

B" -0.92 -0.0229($). . ' ..........•......•... (A-6)

Hydrocarbon Gas.

RIIt-(A+BTof'CT2)B, (A-7)

A-S.S60I+8,49XIO 3p-3.06XIO-7p2 ..........• (A-8)

B- -0.03484-4.0 X 1O-5p. . ..........•.......... (A-9)

C-6.0xlO-s +UI02xtO-7p (A-tO)

B,-exp [(-0.06+6.69 X 10 -5 T)($». . ...•........ (A-Il)

.. ...... 0 COnv ...... n '1IOton

°API 141."(131.S+ °API) _ "em3

bbl X I.S89 873 B-Ol _ m3

ft3 X 2.831 68S B-02 _ m3

"F ("F-32)/1.8 - OC

in.3 X 1.'638 706 B+OI - em3 ,

psi X 6.894 157 B+OO - kPa

Ibm X 4.S3S 924 B-OI - kg

Ibm/gal X 1.191 264 . B+02 _ kg/m3

scflbbl X 1.801 17S B-Ol - ltd m3/ml

SPEDE

OrigIneISPE IIIeII-'PI rIOINed far .... COt. 5. , 1ICCIpIed for pubIIoIIIon

.1M. '5. ,...,.AevIIId--'P!IWCIIMdOct.1, '1I7 (8PEt54t4) ........

... till SPEAnnIIII T ......... ConIINnae ... EIIhIbIIIan hIId In Newer.., Oct. 5-1.

SPB DriIlina BnaIfteerin8. March 1988

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