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5 Piling

5 Piling

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Published by: libanpires on Oct 17, 2010
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Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai

(Deep footings)


 

Cerucuk Required when
 strong  deep
 

soil is located > 3m under ground excavation is difficult

weak soil high water level

 footings

are not economical


Types of Piles
Driven Cast insitu Pre-cast Partly pre-cast


Wood and Concrete

Steel and Concrete




SAB3122 Construction Technology 1

Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Types of Piles Bored Drilled Hammered Water jet Concrete 9 Load Transfer Friction Pile Hard clay Soft clay or Weak sand End Bearing Pile Stronger soil or rock 10 Driven Piles 11 SAB3122 Construction Technology 2 .

reinforcement. 12 Cast In-situ (cont.  Withdraw tube.Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Cast in-situ     Quick and versatile for most ground conditions Normally pre-stressed Use tube & shoe. driving resistance and set.)  Piling machines are  track  equipped mounted with high performance hydraulic hammers an electronic instrumentation system depth.  Hydraulic hammer rigs  have  display  Data downloaded from the rigs into laptops.  Help to reduce or eliminate static load tests. 13 Driving the tube using an external driving hammer Reinforcement cage is placed. and the tube filled with concrete Cast In-situ Completed pile ready for trimming Driving continued until the required depth is reached The concrete is compacted as the tube is withdrawn by vibrating the top of the tube with the external driving hammer or vibrator If required the pile can be formed with an integral enlarged head during installation 14 SAB3122 Construction Technology 3 .  Drive tube  Place to the required depth.  Fill with high slump concrete.

)  20m long each (no limitation on total depth) Steel protection at both top and bottom ends  A bitumastic slip coating can be applied to reduce skin friction.  Diesel pulley. frame and driver or electrical  Gravity (1000 to 5000 lb)  Slow (4 to 8 strokes/min) 16 Types of Hammer (cont)  Single-action hammers  Steam and compressed air (10.  15 Types of Hammer  Drop hammers  Cable. hexagon or round)  Solid & hollow (example: 230x230mm and 270x270mm square sections.000 to 800.Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Pre-cast Piles  Concrete (square.000 lb)  Moderate (36 to 60 strokes/min)  Gravity 17 SAB3122 Construction Technology 4 .

000 lb)  Fast (300 strokes/min)  Forced 18 20 Precast Piles Driven Precast Piles 21 SAB3122 Construction Technology 5 .Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Types of Hammer (cont)  Double-action hammers  Steam and compressed air light weight (200 to 5.

Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Precast piles cutted to be joined with pile cap 22 Formwork and reinforcement for pile cap construction 23 Sheet piles 24 SAB3122 Construction Technology 6 .

sheet pile wall  25 26 27 SAB3122 Construction Technology 7 .Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Enclosing/Surrounding Technique  blocking underground water from getting into the work area.

Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai 3 38 41 SAB3122 Construction Technology 8 .

e. 4 checks boring per piers. more for larger piers Equipments  Drilling machine  Water pump  Working platform (4m x 4m) 44 SAB3122 Construction Technology 9 .Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Bored Piles 42 Locate Pile (surveyor) Check boring Install Casing Bore in Soil Install Platform (off-shore) Pilot Hole Core Cement grout/ jet grout Encounter cavity? No Check core Drill rock Insert re-bar cage Fill in concrete Integrity testing 43 Yes Cut and bend re-bar Check boring     To determine the casing length for the pile To avoid wall from collapse i.

Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai 45 46 Install Casing  Drive casing until  50cm  Sit above limestone on the limestone  Into the limestone  Sit on hard strata  Use water jet (100-150 bar) & vibro hammer 47 SAB3122 Construction Technology 10 .

Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai 48 Pilot Hole Do soil boring first Must not overlap with the result from check boring  To determine the actual soil strata below the check boring  One core per pile   49 50 SAB3122 Construction Technology 11 .

integrity and load tests  Inclination is done prior to reinforcement   Install inclinometer casing into the pile casing sensor down to the toe  Read during upward movement (done twice)  Lower  Integrity uses sonic transmitter to test homogeneousity of concrete 56 SAB3122 Construction Technology 12 . use jet grouting to push out the clay  54 Filling the concrete Use Tremie pipe Concrete must not mixed with water inside the casing (use polystyrene beads)  Base grouting (24 hrs) after concreting    Grout (cmt&wtr) are pumped into the GI pipe @ 30kg/m2 for 3 min to smooth the surface and fill any void 55 Tests Inclination.Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Cavity For empty cavity use cement grout grade 30 mix and the pilot hole casing to fill in grout  If filled with clay.

65 SAB3122 Construction Technology 13 . and the quake and damping parameters. Reaction to the jack load is provided by a steel frame that is attached to an array of steel H-piles located at least 3 m away from the test pile. and damping parameters.Dr Shaiful Amri Mansur FKA UTM Skudai Static Load Test Methods Static load tests were performed during the test phase of each contract to verify the design assumptions and load-carrying capacity of the piles. The measured acceleration is used as input to the pile model along with reasonable estimates of soil resistance. the forces and accelerations acting on the actual pile during initial impact are recorded with a strain gauge and accelerometer mounted at the pile head. the distribution of soil resistance along the pile. the solution yields an estimate of ultimate static capacity. First. The soil-resistance distribution. Telltale rods installed at various depths within the piles were used to evaluate the load transfer behavior of the piles with regard to the surrounding soil and bearing stratum. Once an acceptable match is achieved. Pile head and telltale deflection data were recorded for each loading increment. The force-time signal at the pile head is calculated using the model and is compared to the measured forcetime signal. 61 Dynamic Load Test The dynamic resistance is formulated using a viscous damping model that is a function of a damping parameter and the velocity. Telltale measurements were made in reference to the pile head or the reference beam using dial gauges. and damping parameters are subsequently modified until agreement is reached between the measured and calculated signals. Pile head deflections were measured relative to a fixed reference beam using dial gauges. quake. Static loads were applied and maintained using a hydraulic jack and were measured with a load cell. quake.

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