Introduction: Transactional Analysis Transactional analysis is a social psychology developed by Eric Berne, MD (d.1970). (Click here for a biography of Eric Berne.) Over the past four decades Eric Berne's theory has evolved to include applications to psychotherapy, counseling, education, and organizational development. (Also see Key Ideas in Transactional Analysis.) Psychotherapy Transactional analysis is a powerful tool to bring about human well being. In psychotherapy, transactional analysis utilizes a contract for specific changes desired by the client and involves the "Adult" in both the client and the clinician to sort out behaviors, emotions and thoughts that prevent the development of full human potential. Transactional analysts intervene as they work with clients in a safe, protective, mutually respectfulOK/OK--- environment to eliminate dysfunctional behaviors and establish and reinforce positive relationship styles and healthy functioning. Transactional analysts are able to use the many tools of psychotherapy, ranging from psychodynamic to cognitive behavioral methods in effective and potent ways. Examples of transactional analysis psychotherapy can bee seen in our Master Therapists series, the Ellyn Bader and Peter Pearson Couples Therapy Videotapes and the Carlo Moiso-Isabelle Crespelle DVD. (See our Products page.)
Counseling Counselors who utilize transactional analysis work contractually on solving "here and now" problems. Counseling work focuses on creating productive problem solving behaviors. Using transactional analysis, counselor's establish an egalitarian, safe and mutually respectful working relationship with their clients. This working relationship provides tools clients can utilize in their day-to-day functions to improve the quality of their lives. Educational Transactional Analysis is a practical educational psychology that offers a way of transforming educational philosophy and principles into everyday practice. TA concepts provide a flexible and creative approach to understanding how people function and to the connections between human behaviour, learning and education. Teaching them to both teachers and students is a process of empowerment, enhancing effective methods of interaction and mutual recognition. Educational TA is both preventive and restorative. TA concepts are developed and used with people of all ages and stages of development in their various social settings. The aim is to increase personal autonomy, to support people in developing their own personal and professional philosophies and to enable optimum psychological health and growth. The key philosophical concepts that underpin Educational TA are: • Effective educators offer empathic acceptance of all human beings as people together with respect for their dignity. These qualities are at the heart of successful learning relationships. • People at any age and stage can learn to take responsibility for their own decisions and actions.
Through presenting the basic concepts of transactional analysis and using it as the basic theory to undergird the objectives of their clients. Throughout the process the ideas and methods of TA are used openly to promote informed co-operation and the sharing of power between all parties. TA can be used to address important issues in: • initial and continuing teacher education • institutional climate and culture • developmental and educational needs • self esteem building • parent education • student motivation • staff morale and teacher well-being • blocks to learning and teaching • behaviour management Above all educational TA is invaluable in helping people to thrive and in promoting healthy and effective learning in a wide variety of contexts. and what agreements have been made for what purposes.
. organizational development specialists build a common strategy with which to address the particular needs of organizations and to build a functional relationship.• Educational difficulties can be addressed effectively with co-operative goodwill and a coherent theoretical framework that makes sense of the human dynamics involved. so that all parties know where they stand. as well as eliminate dysfunctional organizational behaviors. Organizational Transactional Analysis is a powerful tool in the hands of organizational development specialists. The process of educational TA is contractual.
M. it is outstanding in the depth of its theory and the wide variety of its applications. Transactional Analysis is practiced worldwide and has national organizations for training and certification in most countries. Among psychological approaches. transactional analysis gives us a picture of how people are structured psychologically using the three part ego-state model. Transactional analysis also provides a theory of communication that can be extended to analyze systems and organizations.D.Transactional analysis is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change that was developed by Eric Berne. Transactional analysis
. As a theory of personality.
It is also used in educational settings to help teachers and learners stay in clear communication and avoid setting up unproductive confrontation. transactional analysis can used in any field in which there is a need for understanding individuals. This is a statement of essence rather than behavior. and dignity as a human being and deserves to be treated accordingly. from everyday problems of living to severe psychosis. relationships. transactional analysis offers a system of psychotherapy that can be used with individuals. The concepts of Rackets and Games provide explanations of how we may continue to replay childhood strategies in grownup life. Everyone has the capacity to think. In fact. 2. problem-solving. and organizational analysis to improve working relationships. Transactional analysis provides a complete theory of psychopathology. communications training. and treatment. and families to treat all types of psychological disorders.further offers a theory of human development. value. It means that each of us has worth. couples. In the area of applications. diagnosis. It is one of the clearest conceptual frameworks for understanding psychological issues and how those can be changed. The Philosophy of Transactional Analysis The philosophical assumptions of transactional analysis are : 1. The concept of life script explains how our present life patterns originated in childhood. groups. It is further used in management. even when these produce results that are ultimately self-defeating or painful. and communication.
. and organizational efficiency. People are okay.
Autonomy is defined as awareness. From these assumptions follow two basic principles of transactional analysis practice: 1.3. 2. The use of open communication so that the client and the practitioner both have full information about what is going on at each step in their work together. spontaneity. and the capacity for intimacy.
transactional analysis . The use of contracts to provide mutual collaboration and joint responsibility in the therapeutic or consulting process. In this case we are likely to
. The Goal of Transactional Analysis The goal of transactional analysis is the achievement of autonomy through updating the strategies for dealing with life that we decided on in childhood.life positions Life positions are basic beliefs about self and others. waiting to emerge into the world once we have grown sufficiently to be able to survive in the outside of the womb. which are used to justify decisions and behaviour. When we are conceived we are hopefully at peace. People decide their own destiny in making early script decisions and these decisions can be changed. If nothing untoward happens we will emerge contented and relaxed.
or the birth was difficult or even life threatening. Our behaviour then comes into the I am OK and You are not OK quadrant. Let's take another situation. These life positions are perceptions of the world. If we were treated punitively. and not held. and the birth was easy enough. However. Of course this may cover up our belief that we are really not OK. Rather than "I don't know how to do this. go into "I am not OK and You are not OK either". and in fact we may have forgotten all about our negative feelings about ourselves as we have tried so hard to deny the pain of believing we are not OK. The reality is I just am and you just are. I'm useless". therefore how I view myself and others are just that "views" not fact. we tend to act as if they are a fact. for example. This might be the only sense we can make of our experiences. talked down to. What then? Well life experiences might reinforce our initial somatic level life position. or contradict it. Perhaps we were picked on and bullied as a child. even at the somatic level.perceive the world from the perspective of I am OK and You are OK. However. Let's take it that the pregnancy went fine. but nobody sees that. perhaps our mother had some traumatic experiences. we may begin to believe "I am not OK and You are OK". They just see our behaviour. Will you show me?" The latter is staying with the fact that they do not
. This experience is likely to have an effect on the way we experience the world. Just like when somebody says "I can't do this. We learnt that the way to get by was to bully others and that way we felt stronger and in control. In which case we might emerge sensing that life is scary and might.
which he called the OK Corral (1971). There are a number of ways of diagramming the life positions. We have put these into red and green to show the effective and ineffective quadrants for communication and healthy relationships. By shading in the quadrants according to the amount of time we think we spend in each we can get an idea of the amount of time we spend in each. Franklin Ernst drew the life positions in quadrants. 1971)
the ok corral (franklin ernst.yet know how to do it. Ernst used the term 'Corralogram' for this method of self-assessment using the OK Corral matrix. whilst the former links being useless with not being able to do something.
In this way the two dimensional model of okayness i. but an individual or gang from another neighbourhood are not okay. The difference between Berne and Ernst is important.e. i. We find other people who we like and then we gossip and put other people down.Berne talked about the life positions as existential positions. then the world would be a scary place and we are likely to experience life as tough and believe we will only be
. These positions can change as we develop and grow. Chris Davidson (1999) writes about the three dimensional model of Okayness. This is significantly different to the concept Ernst uses.e. We are therefore saying that we believe we are okay but those others are awful (underneath this there may be a belief that we are not okay either but we feel better by putting someone else down). when in reality there are often more. the behaviour of young people in gangs may say that they believe they are okay and perhaps other gangs in their neighbourhood are okay. one of which we are more likely to go to under stress. and that others are not to be trusted and are not OK either. that we move around them all during the day. becomes three dimensional model where there can be three or more involved. that there are only two people involved. All of the previous diagrams talk as if there were only one other person in the equation. Whilst there is some truth in this we could agree with Berne that there will be one major position we go into under stress. For example. with perhaps another position underneath this one. We often do this at work as well. There is also the way in which we view life itself. If we consider that there is something wrong with us.
and the mindset should be: "It's no-one's fault. which each correlate to a position on the Okay Corral: I'm to blame (You are okay and I'm not okay 'helpless')
You are to blame (I'm okay and you are not okay 'angry')
We are both to blame (I'm not okay and you are not okay .
blame model The Transactional Analysis 'Okay Corral' can be linked to 'blame'. behaviours and language.all right if we keep alert and on the look out for danger and difficulties. Two of the states subdivide into two further facets: PARENT Critical Parent makes rules and sets limits disciplines.'hopeless')
None of these is a healthy position. Commonly when emotions are triggered people adopt one of three attitudes relating to blame. Instead the healthy position is. feelings. for which Jim Davis TSTA developed this simple and helpful model. each with characteristic attitudes. judges and criticises
." (I'm okay and you are okay . blame isn't the issue .what matters is how we go forward and sort things out.'happy')
Berne defined three basic personalities or Ego States.
The quotation in each box typifies the attitude of each Life Position: I'M NOT OK I'M OK YOU'RE OK YOU'RE OK "I wish I "Hey. shown as a grid that became known as the "OK Corral". LIFE POSITIONS The other building block of TA is the view we have of ourselves in relation to other people around us. There are four life positions. we're could do that making good as well as progress you do" now" I'M NOT OK I'M OK YOU'RE NOT YOU'RE NOT OK OK "Oh this is "You're not
Nurturing advises and guides Parent protects and nurtures concerned with data and facts considers options and estimates probabilities makes unemotional decisions plans and makes things happen Free fun-loving and energetic (Natural) creative and spontaneous Child Adapted compliant and polite Child rebellious and manipulative
and so usually don't bother. I'm not OK.terrible . who they view as incompetent and untrustworthy. They don't see the point of doing anything. I'm OK. They tend to get angry and hostile. even when they disagree. and are smug and superior. I'm not OK. They belittle others. and interact by collaboration and mutual respect. "I'm OK. you're not OK" is the 'get nowhere' position. They undervalue their skills and contribution and withdraw from problems. you're OK" people are in the 'get on with' position.let me it" show you" People will move around the grid depending on the situation. These people feel confused or aimless. These people feel sad. you're OK" is the 'get away from' position. They're confident and happy about life and work. you're not OK" people are in the 'get rid of' position. inadequate or even stupid in comparison to others. and are often competitive and power-hungry. This is strongly influenced by experiences and decisions in early life.
.we'll doing that never make right . but have a preferred position that they tend to revert to.
PAC) model At any given time. feel. creation. according to TA. and children. While a person is in the Adult ego state. recreation. Child ("archaeopsyche"): a state in which people behave. a person who receives a good evaluation may respond with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. thoughts and feelings. feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. Typically. a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor. Conversely. a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture of behaviours. there are three ego-states that people consistently use:
Parent ("exteropsyche"): a state in which people behave. or how they interpreted their parent's actions. as they used to when scolded as a child. parents. Adult. and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted. Adult ("neopsyche"): a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that could affect its operation. and Child ego states from actual adults. spontaneity and intimacy. and crying or pouting. The Child is the source of emotions. by using capital letters when describing them.The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child. These egostates may or may not represent the relationships that
. a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked. For example.
Berne differentiated his Parent. For example.
It has been subsequently demonstrated that there is in fact a fifth way of diagnosis. in the workplace. social diagnosis. When we do this. Berne states that there are four types of diagnosis of ego states. feelings and behaviours from our parents and caretakers. historical diagnosis and the phenomenological diagnosis of ego states. Or a child. For a complete diagnosis one needs to complete all four types.they act out. feelings. and scold an adult employee as though they were a Child. that can be functional (beneficial or positive) or dysfunctional/counterproductive (negative). beliefs. Thus Parental figures are often either more nurturing (permission-giving. They are the behavioural diagnosis. For example. These subdivision categorize individuals' patterns of behaviour. could scold their actual parent as though the parent were a Child. Childhood behaviours are either more natural (free) or more adapted to others. If we live in an extended family then there are more people to learn and take in from. It is known as the contextual diagnosis of ego states
Parent ego state This is a set of feelings. As we grow up we take in ideas. it is called introjecting and it is just as if we take in the whole of
. thinking and behaviour that we have copied from our parents and significant others. security-giving) or more criticizing (comparing to family traditions and ideals in generally negative ways). an adult supervisor may take on the Parent role. Within each of these ego states are subdivisions. using their Parent ego-state. and ways of thinking.
you are useless". The Adult ego state is about being spontaneous and aware with the capacity for intimacy. the internal Parent ego state may beat up on the internal Child. mother. Integrating means that we are constantly updating ourselves through our every day experiences and using this to inform us. we don't want to. even though. For example.the care giver. saying "You are no good. we may notice that we are saying things just as our father. look at what you did wrong again. When in our Adult we are able to see people as they are. consciously. I never get anything right". The Child may then respond with "I am no good. We deal with things that are going on today in ways that are not unhealthily influenced by our past. So this can be called the Integrating Adult. Many people hardly hear this kind of internal dialogue as it goes on
. Taking the best from the past and using it appropriately in the present is an integration of the positive aspects of both our Parent and Child ego states. or treat others as we might have been treated. We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions. In this structural model. We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us. look how useless I am. the Integrating Adult ego state circle is placed in the middle to show how it needs to orchestrate between the Parent and the Child ego states. For example. grandmother may have done.
Adult ego state The Adult ego state is about direct responses to the here and now. rather than what we project onto them.
If this were explored we might remember the time the head teacher called us in to tell us off. We may well use that person in our imagination when we are stressed to counteract our old ways of thinking that we must work longer and longer hours to keep up with everything. Of course. Perhaps the boss calls us into his or her office. we may immediately get a churning in our stomach and wonder what we have done wrong. Alternatively. and did not get. For example. This might be done by stating that this kind of parenting is not helpful and asking if it is prepared to learn another way. do just that and then return to the work
. not everything in the Child ego state is negative. the Integrating Adult ego state can just stop any negative dialogue and decide to develop another positive Parent ego state perhaps taken in from other people they have met over the years. to be fun and joyous.so much they might just believe life is this way. An effective Integrating Adult ego state can intervene between the Parent and Child ego states. and all the same warm feelings we had at six year's of age may come flooding back. We might go into someone's house and smell a lovely smell and remember our grandmother's house when we were little. We might ask ourselves "I wonder what X would say now". Then on hearing the new permissions to relax and take some time out. we may meet someone who gives us the permission we needed as a child. Both the Parent and Child ego states are constantly being updated. thoughts and feelings which are replayed from our own childhood.
Child ego state The Child ego state is a set of behaviours.
The parent is either nurturing or controlling. The positive experiences can then be drawn on to remind us that positive things do happen.renewed and ready for the challenge. but saying "I" reminds us to take responsibility for our actions Complementary transactions occur when both people are at the same level. who is either adaptive or ‘natural’ in their response. etc. The ideal line of communication is the mature and rational Adult-Adult relationship
. It is important to remember that ego states do not have an existence of their own. Therefore it is important to say "I want some fun" rather than "My Child wants some fun". their wires get crossed and conflict results. Problems usually occur in Crossed transactions. rather than beating up on ourselves for what we did or did not do. Subsequently. We may be in our Child ego state when we say this. The process of analysing personality in terms of ego states is called structural analysis. where the other person is at a different level. they are concepts to enable understanding. Positive experiences will also go into the Child ego state as archaic memories. Thus Parent talking to Parent. Here. Alternatively. and often speaks to the child. what tends to happen is we automatically start to give ourselves new permissions and take care of ourselves. we might have had a traumatic experience yesterday which goes into the Child ego state as an archaic memory that hampers our growth. When both people talk as a Parent to the other’s Child. both are often thinking in the same way and communication is easy.
not advice. or hidden. after a training program. transactions occur when the words seem to be coming from one ago state. Plan your message before you send it.Ulterior Transactions Ulterior. When the consultant gave advice. one of the participants came up to a consultant asking advice on an adult ego sate. On the whole we prefer to receive negative strokes than no strokes at all. When possible.it is still important. the participant twice had quick responses as to why the advice would not work (child rather than adult behavior). When receiving messages look for ulterior transactions and turn them into complimentary transactions. but in reality the words or behaviors are coming from another. It apparently makes no difference whether the touching induces pain or pleasure . The consultant stopped making suggestions and listened actively. Sometimes people don’t know what they want or how to ask for it in a direct way. so they use ulterior transactions. at least that way we know we exist and others know we exist. The consultant realized that what the participant actually wanted was sympathetic understanding for his situation. Avoid making people search for your hidden meanings.
. using reflective responses. as stated above. This name came from research which indicated that babies require touching in order to survive and grow. For example. transactional analysis .strokes In Transactional Analysis we call compliments and general ways of giving recognition strokes. The consultant changed from the adult to the sympathetic parent ego state in order to have a complimentary transaction. it is best to avoid ulterior transactions because they tend to waste time.
For example. and our brother is creative.
• • • • •
don't give strokes when we have them to give don't ask for strokes when we need them don't accept strokes if we want them don't reject strokes when we don't want them don't give ourselves strokes
Together these five rules are the basis of what Steiner calls the stroke economy. verbal or nonverbal. It is likely that the great variety of stroke needs and styles present in the world results from differences in wealth. we are all indoctrinated by our parents with five restrictive rules about stroking.." We therefore need to change the restrictive rules to unrestrictive ones:
. says Steiner. By training children to obey these rules. Stroking can be physical. a situation in which strokes could be available in a limitless supply is transformed into a situation in which the supply is low and the price parents can extract for them is high. From this frame of reference only one person in the family can be the creative one and so on.We all have particular strokes we will accept and those we will reject. if we have always been told we are clever. but not for being creative.
the stroke economy Claude Steiner suggests that. and methods of parenting. then we are likely to accept strokes for being clever. as children. parents ensure that ". cultural mores.
Conversely we might use them negatively to reinforce the negative strokes we give to ourselves.negative unconditional "I don't like you when you're sarcastic" . both positive and negative. The rain is the strokes that are available to us. For instance: "I like you" .
. Of course.negative conditional People often have a stroke filter. There is a hole in the umbrella and some of the strokes go through and we save them in a bucket to enjoy in lean times. An unconditional stroke is a stroke for being whereas a conditional stroke is a stroke for doing.unconditional "I like you when you smile" .conditional As negative strokes these might be: "I don't like you" . They only let in strokes which they think they are allowed to let in. One way to think about this to consider being out in the rain. For instance they allow themselves to receive strokes for being clever and keep out strokes for being good looking.• • • • •
give strokes when we have them to give ask for strokes when we want them accept strokes if we want them reject manipulative strokes give ourselves positive strokes
Strokes can be positive or negative:
A) "I like you" B) "I don't like you"
Strokes can be unconditional or conditional.
Sometimes it may be that we like to help people and then it goes wrong as the person we were trying to help says that we didn't do it well enough and that we got it wrong. Some might come in but fall straight onto the floor transactional analysis .
transactional analysis .games I am sure that every one of us must have been in the situation where we have said. I was only trying to help" and feel got at.
. We all structure time in a variety of ways:
• • • • • •
Withdrawal Rituals Pastiming Activities Games Intimacy
Obtaining balance means ensuring that we have sufficient time for play and intimacy and if this does not occur then it would be beneficial to explore what we might be avoiding. "Why does this always keep happening to me" or "I always keep meeting people who hurt me and then go off and leave me". We might think "Well.time structuring The way in which we structure time is likely to reflect the different hungers.some just bounce off the umbrella and we might not accept the good strokes that are coming our way.
Second Degree games occur when the stakes may be higher. First Degree games are played in social circles generally lead to mild upsets not major traumas. Third Degree games involve tissue damage and may end up in the jail. Games are learned patterns of behaviour. A game is a familiar pattern of behaviour with a predictable outcome. Some can take seconds or minutes while others take weeks months or even years. and most people play a small number of favourite games with a range of different people and in varying intensities.When similar situations keep happening over and over again then the term Transactional Analysis uses for this is a game.where the outcomes involve whole communities. Games vary in the length of time that passes while they are being played. This usually occurs in more intimate circles. countries or even the world. hospital or morgue. Games are played outside Adult awareness and they are our best attempt to get our needs met . People play games for these reasons:
• • •
to structure time to acquire strokes
to maintain the substitute feeling and the system of thinking. Chris Davidson (2002) has argued that world politics can involve fourth degree games . and ends up with an even greater negative payoff.although of course we don't. beliefs and actions that go with it to confirm parental injunctions and further the life script
(A discount is when we minimise. when a person says "I can't do this.
replace the game strokes.
pick up the ulterior rather than the social message e. Such as saying in a whiny voice "This is too difficult for me to do". There are further discounts at each stage of the game. By detecting discounts we can identify game invitations and defuse them with options.g. even if they are negative. However." instead say. We can: cross the transaction by responding from a different ego state than the one the stimulus is designed to hook. We get a great many strokes from games. so we automatically help them). "Let me do this for you. "It sounds like you have a problem. if we don't obtain sufficient
. What do you want me to do about it?" (said from the Adult ego state)
the opening message to the game always entails a discount. I'm useless". Rather than saying.to maintain the person's life position by "proving" that self/others are not OK
to provide a high level of stroke exchange while blocking intimacy and maintaining distance
to make people predictable. maximise or ignore some aspect of a problem which would assist us in resolving it. including the use of different options than the one automatically used. Loss of strokes to the Child ego state means a threat to survival.
ways to deal with games There are various ways to stop a game.
This loss of strokes is also a loss of excitement that the game has generated. We need to consider what our own responsibility is in this . we will go for quantity rather than quality of strokes and play games to get them. How does it end? 6. and then consider how to do things differently. where we might switch to.
The drama triangle is a psychological and social model of human interaction in transactional analysis (TA) first described by Stephen Karpman.if the situation is too violent for us to get involved what options to we have? We could call for help. How do feel after it ends? (John James. We need to choose the appropriate assistance and take the action required. One way to discover this is to ask the following questions: 1. get others to come with us to intervene and so on. What happens next? 4.  The model posits three habitual psychological roles (or roleplays) which people often take in a situation:
. or give ourselves positive strokes. What keeps happening over and over again 2.positive strokes. How does it start? 3. 1973) We can then consider the reason we might have taken up a particular role. And then what happens? 5. Another way to think about this is to consider the game role we or the other person is likely to take. which is used in psychology and psychotherapy.
a victim • The person who pressures. powerless. oppressed. people may suddenly switch roles.
PERSECUTOR .The person who is treated as."Poor Me"
(Note that the rescuer role is one of a mixed or covert motive. ashamed Looks for a Rescuer that will perpetuate their negative feelings. who intervenes out of an ostensible wish to help the situation or the underdog. and others will often switch unconsciously to match this. For example. and • The rescuer. or change tactics. the victim turns on the rescuer. helpless. or the rescuer switches to persecuting."It's All Your Fault"
• • • • • • •
Sets strict limits unnecessarily.
. Blames Criticizes Keeps Victim oppressed Is mobilized by anger Rigid. hopeless. authoritative stance "Critical" Parent
TO GET OFF THIS TRIANGLE. not an honest rescuer in an emergency. coerces or persecutes the victim. or accepts the role of. see below) As the drama plays out. MOVE TO CLEAR STRUCTURE VICTIM .
Keeps victim dependent. pleasure and self-understanding. Gives permission to fail. Feels guilty if doesn't rescue. "Dejected" stance.
TO GET OFF THIS TRIANGLE. will block self from making decisions. First you need to be aware and recognize which role(s) you play in life. "Marshmallow" Parent
TO GET OFF THIS TRIANGLE.
. solving problems.•
If stays in Victim position. Be conscious what your behavior is towards others and how you can assist them in becoming more independent. MOVE TO PROBLEM SOLVING RESCUER . instead of making them dependent on you. MOVE TO CLEAR NURTURING The winner’s triangle There’s a way out of the drama triangle and it’s called the winner’s triangle."Let Me Help You"
• • • • • •
Rescues when really doesn't want to. Expects to fail in rescue attempts.
We may not realise that we have set ourselves a plan but we can often find this out if we ask ourselves what our favorite childhood story was.we read the lines and decide what will happen in each act and how the play will end. made when we are growing up.
The script is a life plan. It is like having the script of a play in front of us . The script is developed from our early decisions based upon our life experience. making sure they can stand on their own two feet knowing everyone is responsible for their own happiness. Then consider the beginning. middle and end of the story. And once you stop being the rescuer you can become caring towards others. Transform victimhood into vulnerability and take responsibility for your own life. helping other only when they ask for it. who was our favorite character in the story and who do we identify with. Sometimes the best help you can offer is to do nothing.Instead of being the persecutor you can become more assertive. How is this story reflected in our life today?
be healthy.Another way of getting to what script is may be to think about what we believe will happen when we are in old age. social. It is mostly complete by the age of seven. a story that we tell ourselves about what's possible for usIt might mean we don't take up opportunities even if they are there.like a story . Basically. familial. which we tend to keep to and follow even when we are adults. Do we believe we will be alive at 80 or 90 years old. and contented? What do we think will be on the headstone for our grave? What would we like to be on it? Life script is another major theoretical concept within transactional analysis.that we make up as children about ourselves and our lives. because they are outside our script
. happy. Such a decision becomes an emotionally laden commitment to live in a certain wayThis "certain way" becomes an unconscious life plan or a narrative. In other words. life script is a personal life plan developed under parental. These script decisions are made in response to family and cultural messages but based on the child's very limited information and reality processing skills. life script is the idea that we tend to have an unconscious life plan . cultural and religious pressure.