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÷im of the Experiment

General objective:

This project is being carried out with a view to increase the appreciation of alloy-analysis as an important branch of
chemistry. The hands-on laboratory experience gained is highly beneficial in understanding the general procedure of
qualitative analysis of an unknown sample.

cpecific objective:

In this project, we shall be analyzing the constituents of Brass and Bronze.

M÷TERI÷ c REQUIRED

1) BR÷cc ÷D BROE PIECEc

) china dishes

3)) FI TR÷TIO ÷PP÷R÷TUc

) ITRIC ÷CID
a) HYDROGE cU PHIDE G÷c

)) ÷MMOIUM CH ORIDE

8)) POT÷ccIUM FERROCY÷IIDE

9) ÷MMOIUM cU PHIDE

10) DI HYDROCH ORIC ÷CID

Theory

Brass

Brass contains Cu and n . Both dissolve in nitric acid.

n+ 10 HO3= n{O)i + O + aHO 3Cu + 8 HO3= 3Cu(O3) + HO+O

Further analysis is carried out for respective ions.

Cu dissolves in Hc to give black ppt. of Cuc. It is filtered to get the soln of inc culphide. It precipitates out in the form of
nCl in an ammoniacal soln. of ÷mmonium chloride. The precipitate is dissolved in dilute HCl and then treated with
Potassium ferrocyanide to get a bluish-white ppt. of nFe(C)6].

Bronze

Bronze contains Cu and cn. Their nitrates are obtained by dissolving the sample in conc. itric acid. The nitrates are
precipitated as sulphides by passing Hc through their solution in dil. HCl.

The Cuc is insoluble in yellow ammonium sulphide, while cnc is soluble. The ppt. is separated by filtration.

The ppt. is dissolved in cone HO3 and then ÷mmonium hydroxide solution is passed through it.Blue colouration confirms
the presense of Cu.

The filtrate is treated with conc. HCl followed by inc dust to obtain cnCl . Then HgCl solution is added. Formation of
slate-coloured ppt. indicates the presence of cn.

cnc +HCl(conc)= cnCh + Hc

cnCl +Fe= cnCh+FeCh

cnCl + HgCl = HgCl + cnCh

Detail of Procedure/Observations Brass,:

"&| 1. ÷ small piece of brass was placed in a china dish and dissolved in minimum quantity of a0%conc.1¥UOs.
,&| . The soln. was heated to obtain a dry residue. The residue was dissolved in Dilute H(?l.
gas was passed and a black.ppt. was (observed. The soln. was filtered and the ppt. was dissolved in HOH soln. ÷ blue
coloration observed indicates the presence of Cu. . The filtrate was tested for presence of n.

÷mmonium hydroxide and chloride solutions were added and then Hc gas was passed. ÷ dull grey ppt. was separated and
dissolved in dil. H(£l followed by addition of Potassium

ferrocyanide. ÷ bluish white ppt. confirms the presense of n.

Bronfe:

"&| 1. The sample was dissolved in a0% HO3 and then heated to obtain nitrates.
,&| . The nitrates were dissolved in dil. H(£l and then precipitated as sulphides by passing Hc
gas.

"&| 3. The precipitates were treated with yellow amm.sulphide when a part of it dissolves. The soln. was filtered.
,&| . The ppt. was tested for Cu as in the case of
brass.

a. The filtrate was treated with conc.

HCl followed

by Fe dust.
6. Then HgCl soln. was added. Formation of a
slate-coloured ppt. confirmed the presence of
cn.

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