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MANUAL MAKMAL CHE465 (0)

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY I (CHE465) NAME STUDENT NO. EXPERIMENT DATE PERFORMED SEMESTER PROGRAMME / CODE

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Title Abstract/Summary Introduction Aims/Objectives Theory Procedures Apparatus Results Calculations Discussions Conclusions Recommendations References Appendices TOTAL

: WAN ZULKARIM BIN WAN NADZRI : 2004624899

: FLOW OVER WEIRS : 4 FEBRUARY 2004

**: NOV 2004 – MAC 2005 : Bachelor of Engineering Engineering/ EH220
**

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Summary Introduction Objectives Theory Procedures Apparatus Results Sample of calculations Discussions Conclusions Recommendations Reference Appendices

SUMMARY

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The experiment result will be compared with theory INTRODUCTION 3 . For the triangular (vee) notch.What we can summarized about this experiment are we want to know the characteristics of open-channel flow over a rectangular notch and a triangular (vee) notch and the values of the discharge coefficient for both notches. We applied the Bernoulli Equation to get the flow over notches. After we get the reading for volume flow rate we can we can know what the coefficient of the discharge of the notches. Fetching its known volume because we want to get more observation of its time collects this. where as volume. The importance is the equipment must be set up carefully to observe appropriate results. In this experiment we use the difference notch. we can observe the difference of flow rate of water that flows into both of channel. The coefficient values can be determined from measurement of the height of the free surface of water above the notch and the corresponding volume flow rate. All this observation values will be applied in the coefficient of discharge equation to determine whether our observation is right or not. here we must carefully to adjust the increment of its height with 5-6 mm. which is rectangular and triangular. Here. time and for calculating flow rate.

4 . firstly. a rectangular notch and a vee notch. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass.Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of static’s. provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range for the hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory. these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behavior of the fluid. To determine values of the discharge coefficient for both notches. The specific hydraulic model that we were concerned with for this experiment was the Basic Weir Apparatus. This consists of two simple weirs. F1-10. The Hydraulic Bench Description service module. energy and momentum and. F1-13. in each application. dynamics and thermodynamics. a rectangular notch and then a triangular (vee) notch. OBJECTIVES • • To observed the characteristics of open-channel flow over. to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media.

THEORY Because the depth of flow above the base of notch is related to the volume flow rate through it. 5 . and Cd = 15Qt 8 tan θ√(2gH5/2) 2 for a vee notch. The classical results for flow over notches are obtained by an application of the Bernoulli Equation. which has to be determined by experiment (The coefficient Cd is required to accommodate the effects of the simplifying assumptions in the theory. This approach requires a number of very substantial assumptions and it yields the following results: For a rectangular notch Qt = Cd 2/3 b √(2gH3/2) For a vee notch Qt = Cd 8/15 tan(θ/2)√(2gH5/2) Where Qt = volume flow rate H = height above notch base B = width of rectangular notch θ = angle of the Vee in the triangular notch Cd = the discharge coefficient. from a point well up-stream to a point just above the notch. the notch forms the useful flow measurement device.) These can be arrange to give: Cd = 3Qt 2b√(2gh3/2) for a rectangular notch.

For a notch of any shape shown in figure. Care must be taken to have the approach channel sufficiently large. The volume may be obtained directly from the observed depth of liquid in the collecting tank by use of a calibration curve or indirectly by weighing the liquid and division by the specific weight. This equation may be used for the heads from 0. For rectangular weirs having complete contractions. as detailed in the specification. this amounts to saying that we are interested in the mean value of velocity taken over normal section rather than velocities at particular points. B.S. For a 90o V-notch Cd has a value of about 0. When the flow is steady the rate of discharge of a liquid is easily determined by collecting the liquid. The coefficient Cd is subject to slight variations as the head varies and B. Cd When flow occurs in a pipe or channel we are usually interested in the total rate discharge rather than in the velocity.59. 3680: Part 4A: 1965 gives the following relationship Q = 2 √(2gCdbh3/2) 3 Cd = 0. 6 .1h/b) in which where b is the length of the weir and h is the observed head above the crest for negligible velocity approach.616(1 .S. which passes in measured interval time.05m< h< 0. consider a horizontal strip of width b at a depth h below the free surface and height h. Head h is measured as the head of free surface at a stagnation point above the apex of the notch.THE MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE COEFFICIENTS.075m to 0. The method of determining the theoretical flow through a notch is the same as that adopted for a large orifice.0. 3680: Part 4A : 1965 contains tables giving values of Cd for 0.021 m3/s a rectangular weir may be used. For measurement of large discharges the most useful devices are the 90o V-notch and the rectangular weir. which varies considerably across the section of the conductor. In accordance with equation. the discharge over a V-notch is given by Q = 8 Cd tan θ √(2gh5/2) 15 2 where θ is the total included angle of the notch and h is the head.38m. Stagnation points occur in the corners where the notch bulkhead meets the sides of the channel.60m provided that b/h is greater than 2. The rate of discharge is usually taken as a volume per unit when the fluid is liquid. When the discharge exceeds 0.

Rectangular Notch: For a rectangular notch. Integrating from h = 0 at the free surface to h = H at the bottom of the notch. Velocity through strip = (2gh) Discharge through strip. 1 Before the integration of equn.1 can be carried out.Area of strip = bh.1. giving p /2) 7 . put b = constant = B in equn. Q = Area x velocity = bh (2gh).1 giving. Total theoretical discharge(Q). b must be expressed in terms of h. 2 V-Notch: For a V-notch with an included angle ut b = 2(H-h)tan( in equn.

Where v1 is the mean velocity of the liquid in the approach channel. not that of the notch. 8 . As a result. the discharge through the strip will be Q = bh (2gx). it can also be assumed that the velocity through any horizontal element across the notch will depend only on its depth below the free surface. is the notch or weir is placed at the end of a narrow channel. the velocity of approach to the weir will be substantial and the head h producing flow will be increased by the kinetic energy of the approaching liquid to a value x = h + v12/(2g). This is a satisfactory assumption for flow over a notch or weir in the side of a large reservoir. As in the case of orifice. any desired relationship between Q and H could be achieved.2 and 3 suggests that.Inspection of equns. Note that the value of v1 is obtained by dividing the discharge by the full cross sectional area of the channel itself. it has been assumed that the velocity of the liquid approaching the notch is very small so that its kinetic energy can be neglected. by choosing a suitable shape for the sides of the notch. but. In the forgoing theory. the actual discharge through a notch or weir can be found by multiplying the theoretical discharge by a coefficient of discharge to allow for energy losses and the contraction of the cross-section of the stream at the bottom and sides.

the gauge was adjusted until the point just touched the notch bottom and a reading would be taken. The instrument carrier was mounted as shown in the diagram and it would be approximately located half way between the stilling baffle and the notch plate. Then carefully the gauge was lowered until the point was just above the notch base and the coarse adjustment screw was locked. Then. by using the fine adjustment. the instrument carrier was positioned in the opposite way round from that shown in the diagram. here we must be careful not to damage the notch. To help achieve this. The rectangular notch was mounted into the flow channel and the stilling baffle was positioned as shown in the diagram. 9 . the valve was adjusted to give approximately 10mm depth above the notch base. The bench control valve was opened and water was admitted to the channel. I founded it useful to pre-set the height gauge position to give a rough guide. In order to measure the datum height (with the height gauge) of the base of the notch.PROCEDURES Equipment Set Up The hydraulic bench is positioned so that its surface is horizontal (necessary because flow over notch is driven by gravity).

The rectangular notch plate was replaced with the Vee notch plate and procedure above was repeated. After determined the volume collected. Before starting this test. This procedure was repeated by having opened the bench valve further. The flow rate was ensured large enough to prevent the outflow from the notch “clinging” to the notch plate. (to achieve this. the valve was opened again at the end of the measurement. Using the ball valve to close the tank outflow did this and then the volume collected would be determined from the sight-glass. take care not to allow spillage to occur over the plate top adjacent to the notch. the level was checked in stable condition before taking readings. Readings with increasing flow rate were continued had been taken until the level reached the top of the notch. 10 . the fine adjustment was used to lower the gauge until the point just touched its reflection in the surface. maximum height above notch).Taking a Set of Results The general features of the flow were observed and recorded. I need to have my eye level just above the surface). to produce an increase in depth of approximately 10 mm. there was sufficient water in the bench main tank checked to allow the pump to operate without drawing in air at the maximum flow rate (i. The volume flow rate was determined by measuring the time required to collect a known volume in the volumetric tank. To take an accurate height reading. it was projected clear of the plate.e. For this notch I need to work with height increment 5-6 mm.

The F1-13 Stilling baffle The F1-13 Rectangular and Vee Notches Vernier Height Gauge (supplied with F1-13) Stop Watch Spirit Level 11 .APPARATUS In order to complete the exercise we need a number of pieces of equipment: • • • • • • The FI-10 Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection.

To connect the delivery nozzle. The gauge is provided with a coarse adjustment locking screw and a find adjustment nut. 12 . The stilling baffle is slid into slots in the wall of the channel. These slots are polarized to ensure correct orientation of the baffle. The instrument carrier is located on the side channels of the moulded top. to allow measurement of the dept of flow above the base of the notch. Finally. the weir plates incorporate captive studs to aid assembly. The carrier may be moved along the channel to the required measurement position. The hook and point is clamped to the base of the mast by means of a thumbscrew. the weir notches are mounted in a carrier at the outlet end of the flow channel. the quick release connector is unscrewed from the bed of the channel and the nozzle screwed in place. A stilling baffle and inlet nozzle combine to promote smooth flow condition in the channel A Vernier hook and point gauge is mounted on instrument carrier. The vernier is locked to the mast by screw and is used in conjunction with the scale. The weirs may be clamped to the weir carrier by thumbnuts.The apparatus has five basic element used in conjunction with the flow channel in the moulded bench top of Hydraulics Bench Description.

0 21.0 20.003 0.0 Volume (m3) 0.0 19.5 13.0 12.0 21.02 0.0 16.04 0.003 0.5 11.69 10.84 11.013 collection Rate.5 19.RESULT RECTANGULAR NOTCH Height of datum ho: 0 m Height of water level.2 14. (m) NO 1 2 3 4 5 x 10-3 4.003 Time of (s) 69 30 25 15 12 Volume Flow x 10-5 4.5 13. T.008 19. Qt (m3/s) above notch RECTANGULAR NOTCH 13 .7604 0.3817 0.003 0.003 0.2 14.8714 0.003 0. Volume Flow Rate Qt (m3/sec) x 10-5 2.2689 0.0096 32.009 49.35 10.003 0.5 19.0 VEE Notch VEE Notch H5/2 (m) discharge x 10-6 Coefficient Cd 4.0 39 29 20 14 Collected collection.0 Volume Collected (m3) 0.20 Rectangular Coefficient Cd 0.04 Height above Notch (m3/2) Notch discharge VEE NOTCH Height of datum ho: 0 m SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS Height of water level (m) NO 1 2 3 4 5 x 10-3 7.46 26.91 7.003 0.0 25.0 Height H (m) 7.0 19.0 H3/2 Rectangular X 10-4 2.003 Time of (sec) 103.0 8.03 0.5 11.53 7.3 15.0 16.012 63.0 21.003 0.03 0.4 notch H (m) 4. h.0 8.85 17.9069 0.

021 VEE NOTCH Cd = 15Qt 8 tan θ√(2gH5/2) 2 Qt = 4.8714 x10-6 m Cd = 15 (4.81m/s2 x 4.81m/s*2.Cd = 3Qt 2b√(2gH3/2) Qt = 2.53 x 10-4 m) = 0.35 x 10-5 m3/s) 8tan45o√(2 x 9.35 x 10-5 m3/s θ = 90o g = 9.03m)(√2*9.53 x 10-4 m Cd = 3(2.03 m H3/2 = 2.81 m/s2 H5/2 = 4.91 x 10-5 m3/s) 2(0.91 x 10-5 m3/s b = 0.8714 x 10-6 m) = 8.34 x 10-3 14 .

021 x 100% 0. From the rectangular notch table.021 = 0.34 x10-3 x 100% 0. the Cd value is 0.Calculation of error the Discharge Coefficient (Cd) From the theory. take the value of Cd. = 0.theoretical value Theoretical value of Cd x 100% Rectangular notch. take the value of Cd = 8.685.685 = 97% Vee notch .685 = Experimental value of Cd .34 x 10-3 = 0.8. From the vee notch table.685 = 99% DISCUSSIONS 15 .685-0.

From the theory. For V-notch. Secondly.03 m3/s. So the results we get are suitable because the most ideal volumetric flow rate for a rectangular notch is 0. we observed that the trend of the coefficient discharge for rectangular are increasing. So the volume flow rate that we use less than the volume flow rate of theory because of that the values of Cd also less from the theory. The values of Cd for vee notch at low flow rate were not in wide variations because the low height increments. But the values of Cd for rectangular notch at lower flow rates were in quite wide variations because the difference of values of height was in wide range. Cd values at low flow rate were not in wide variations. Firstly.021m3/s and above.5 ft is due to incomplete contraction. From the experimental result. the phenomenon can longer be classed as weir flow. This was because the difference of values of height was in wide range. the values of coefficient discharge calculated increased when the head increased for rectangular notch. The rise in Cd at heads less than 0. we are able to determine the flow rate and the coefficient of discharge for flow over a triangular and rectangular notch using the Basic Weir apparatus. from the result we get. This is because the low height increments. We only know the volume flow rate by measuring the data that we have. At a very low heads. but in the experiment we can’t constant the value of volume flow rate. volume flow rate that is suitable for this notch is about from 0.After we have done this experiment. We get the average of coefficient discharge is 0. We can make a few discussion based on this experiment. For experimental values for Cd for water flowing over V-notch with central angles varying from 100 to 900. when the nappe clings to the weir plate.021m3/s and above. CONCLUSIONS 16 . Cd values at lower flow rates were in quite wide variations. At lower heads the frictional effects reduce the coefficient. For rectangular notch.

03 0.0096 0. a rectangular notch and then a triangular (vee) notch and to determined the discharge coefficient for both notches. • V-notch has small range of variations for the value of Cd. This is because this notch has width with 0. H5/2 in there has given equation. This angle might affect the values of flow rate and Cd.009 0.013 1 2 3 4 5 17 .008 0.03 0.02 0. For triangular notch. This is because this notch has an angle at its bottom where about 90o. The coefficient of discharge corresponds differently to the height of the water level (H) to the type of notch used. • Rectangular weir has wide range variations of Cd. We have also concluded that the coefficient of discharge of both.03 m. triangular and rectangular notch depends on the volumetric flow rate of the water and the height of the water level from the base of the notch. firstly.012 0.What we can conclude after we have done this experiment. For rectangular notch. our objectives are to observed the characteristic of open-channel flow over.04 Triangular Notch 0. the coefficient of discharge also depends on the angle of the vee shape. H3/2 and triangular notch.04 0. The Cd values for both notches. Rectangular Notch 0.

If this happened. The data that was observed in the experiment that was time gain should be taken twice. John Wiley & Sons. Bruce R Munson. This can avoid the very wide deviation because of only take once of each observation 2. it would effect the collection of known volume. 4. 3. The readings of height should be taken carefully by avoiding sight error. REFERRENCES 1. page 650-651. The height datum must be constant and the observation should be done once round for the little increment of height especially for V-notch. Okiishi. Take care not to allow spillage to occur over the plate top adjacent to the notch. Young. The time collection should be taken much appropriately. the procedure cannot be reverse to find the value of time collection by adjusting the height. Fundamental Of Fluid Mechanics. Laboratory manual 1(CHE 465) APPENDICES 18 . Theodore H. Once the data were taken. fourth edition.RECOMMENDATIONS 1. This would affect the value of height datum. Inc 2. Donald F.

Volume Collected m3 V Measured Taken from the scale on hydraulic bench.NOMENCLATURE Column Units Nom. Type Measured Measured Description Vee Notch or Rectangular Notch Datum height. The water level is measured in millimeters. Used to describe relationship between flow rate and height for a rectangular notch. The height datum is measured in millimeters. Cd = 3Qt 2b√(2g3/2) Used to describe relationship between flow rate and height for a Vee notch Cd = 15Qt 19 . This is read from the vernier. Time taken to collect the known volume of water in the hydraulic bench. It has been converted to cubic meters for the Time for s t Measured calculations (divide reading by 1000). This is read from the vernier and used to calculate height of water level above the notch. It has been converted to meters Water Level m h Measured for the calculations. which is the base of the notch. The time is m /sec Qt m H 2 Heading Notch Type Height m Datum ho Collection Volume Flow Rate Height Above Notch H3/2 Rectangular Notch Rectangular Notch Discharge Coefficient H5/2 Vee Notch Vee Notch Cd Calculated Calculated Cd Calculated Calculated Calculated Calculated measured in seconds. The volume collected is measured liters. Qt = V/t = Volume collected/Time for collection H = h-ho = Height of Water Level – Height Datum. It has been converted to meters for the calculations.

Discharge Coefficient 8 tan θ√(2gH5/2) 20 .

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