TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ( TQM

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WHAT IS QUALITY ? # THE QUALITY DEFINITION MUST BE INEXTRICABLY ( IMPOSSIBLE TO SEPARATE ) TIED TO THE MAIN OBJECT OF ANY COY, THAT IS THE GENERATION OF WEALTH. THUS THE DEFINITION MUST BE CUSTOMER ORIENTED, SINCE THE ONLY SOURCE OF SUCH WEALTH ARE CUSTOMERS, WHO EXCHANGE MONEY FOR GOODS & / OR SERVICES, THAT THEY VALUE. # HENCE, QUALITY IS MEETING THE NEGOTIATED REQUIREMENTS & EXPECTATIONS OF THE CUSTOMER. AS PER OXFORD DICTIONARY THE DEFINITION IS, “ DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE, RELATIVE NATURE OR KIND OR CHARACTER, GENERAL EXCELLENCE” # THE TOTALITY OF FEATURES & CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT BEAR ON ITS ABILITY TO SATISFY GIVEN NEEDS. # CUSTOMER : THE CUSTOMER IS THE PERSON TO WHOM YOU PASS THE FRUITS OF YOUR LABOUR. CUSTOMERS ARE DEPENDENT ON THEIR SUPPLIERS FOR THE QUALITY INPUTS NECESSARY, TO ALLOW THEIR TASKS TO BE COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY. WE ALL ARE CUSTOMERS. WE ALL HAVE CUSTOMERS. THE REAL INSPECTOR OF QUALITY OF YOUR PRODUCTS IS THE CUSTOMER. WHAT IS TQM ? # AS PER ISO8402, TQM IS, “ MANAGEMENT APPROACH OF AN ORG, CENTRED ON QUALITY, BASED ON THE PARTICIPATION OF ALL ITS MEMBERS & AIMING AT LONG-TERM SUCCESS THROUGH CUSTOMER SATISFACTION & BENEFITS TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE ORG & TO SOCIETY”. # THE CONSTANT ATTAINMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF TOOLS, TECHNIQUES & TRG. THIS INVOLVES THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL PROCESSES, RESULTING IN HIGH QUALITY PRODUCTS & SERVICES. # TQM IS AN EVOLVING SYSTEM FOR CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVING PRODUCTS & SERVICES TO INCREASE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN A RAPIDLY CHANGING WORLD.

# A TOTAL COY-WIDE EFFORT THAT INCLUDES ALLEMPLOYEES, SUPPLIERS & CUSTOMERS & THAT SEEKS CONTINOUSLY TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS & PROCESS TO MEET THE NEEDS & EXPECTATIONS OF CUSTOMERS. # AN ORG- WIDE PROGRAMME THAT INTEGRATES ALL FUNCTIONS & PROCESSES OF THE BUSINESS SO THAT DESIGN, PLANNING, PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION & FIELD SERVICE ARE FOCUSED ON MAXIMISING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT. # TQM IS THE MUTUAL CO=OPERATION OF EVERYONE IN AN ORG & ASSOCIATED BUSINESS PROCESSES TO PRODUCE PRODUCTS & SERVICES WHICH MEET & HOPEFULLY, EXCEED THE NEEDS & EXPECTATIONS OF CUSTOMERS. TQM IS BOTH A PHILOSOPHY & A SET OF GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR MANAGING AN ORG. ( HERE PHILOSOPHY MEANS ATTITUDE THAT GUIDES ONE’S BEHAVIOUR ) THE EVOLUTION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT # SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVING & MANAGING QUALITY HAVE EVOLVED RAPIDLY IN RECENT YEARS. IT HAS MOVED FROM SIMPLE INSPECTION TO QUALITY CONTROL TO QUALITY ASSURANCE TO TQM. # INSPECTION -----ACTIVITY SUCH AS MEASURING, EXAMINING, TESTING OR GAUGING ONE OR MORE CHARACTRESTICS OF AN ENTITY & COMPARING THE RESULTS WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH WHETHER CONFORMITY IS ACHIEVED FOR EACH CHARACTERISTIC. IT INVOLVED SALVAGE, SORTING, GRADING, REBLENDING, CORRECTIVE ACTIONS & IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF NON-CONFORMANCE. # QUALITY CONTROL ( QC ) -----OPERATIONAL TECHNIQUES & ACTIVITIES THAT ARE USED TO FULFIL REQUIREMENTS FOR QUALITY. IT INVOLVED :1. DEVELOP QUALITY MANUAL. 2. PROCESS PERFORMANCE DATA. 3. SELF-INSPECTION. 4. PRODUCT TESTING. 5. BASIC QUALITY PLANNING. 6. USE OF BASIC STATISTICS. 7. PAPERWORK CONTROL. # QUALITY ASSURANCE ( QA )------FINDING & SOLVING A PROBLEM AFTER A NON-CONFORMANCE HAS BEEN CREATED IS NOT AN EFFECTIVE ROUTE TOWARDS ELIMINATING THE ROOT CAUSE OF A PROBLEM. A LASTING & CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED BY

DIRECTING ORGANISATIONAL EFFORTS TOWARDS PLANNING & PREVENTING PROBLEMS OCCURRING AT SOURCE. THIS CONCEPT LEADS TO THE THIRD STAGE OF QM DEVELOPMENT THAT IS QA. # QA IS ALL THE PLANNED & SYSTEMATIC ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTED WITHIN THE QUALITY SYSTEM & DEMONSTRATED AS NEEDED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE CONFIDENCE THAT AN ENTITY WILL FULFIL REQUIREMENTS FOR QUALITY. IT INVOLVES :1. QUALITY SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT. 2. ADVANCED QUALITY PLANNING. 3. USE OF QUALITY COSTS. 4. FMEA----FAILURE MODE & EFFECTS ANALYSIS. 5. SPC---STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL. THE KEY ELEMENTS OF TQM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. COMMITMENT & LEADERSHIP OF THE CEO. PLANNING & ORG. USING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES. EDUCATION & TRG. INVOLVEMENT. TEAMWORK. MEASUREMENT & FEEDBACK. ENSURING THAT THE CULTURE IS CONDUCIVE TO CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITY. ( CONDUCIVE MEANS HELPING TOWARDS )

DEVELOPING TQM # WE WILL NOW SUMMARISE A LIST OF POINTS WHICH ORGS SHOULD KEEP IN MIND WHEN DEVELOPING TQM. THESE ARE :# ORGANISING :1. THERE IS NO IDEAL WAY OF ASSURING THE QUALITY OF AN ORG’S PRODUCTS OR SERVICES. WHAT MATTERS IS THAT IMPROVEMENT DOES OCCUR, THAT IT IS COST-EFFECTIVE, & THAT IT IS NEVER-ENDING. 2. THERE IS NO ONE BEST WAY OF STARTING A PROCESS OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT WHICH SUITS ALL ORGS & CULTURES. 3. SENIOR MANAGEMENT’S COMMITMENT IS VITAL TO GAIN CREDIBILITY, ASSURE CONTINUITY & ESTABLISH LONGEVITY OF PROCESS. 4. PLANNING SHOULD HAVE A TEN-YEAR HORIZON TO ENSURE THAT THE PRINCIPLES OF TQM ARE FIRMLY ROOTED IN THE CULTURE OF THE ORG.

5. QUALITY OBJECTIVES & STRATEGIES MUST BE DEVELOPED ALONG WITH AGREEING GOALS FOR IMPROVEMENT. 6. IMPROVEMENT PROCESS NEEDS TO BE INTEGRATED WITH OTHER ORGANISATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS. 7. A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TQM STEERING COMMITTEE, CHAIRED BY CEO, MUST BE ESTABLISHED. 8. AT THE OUTSET, THE MAIN QUALITY PROBLEMS MUST BE IDENTIFIED & TACKLED BY THE Sr MANAGEMENT TEAM---LEAD BY EXAMPLE. # SYSTEMS & TECHNIQUES 1. THEQUALITY MANAGEMENT SYATEMS MUST BE WELL DOCUMENTED, PROVIDE DIRECTION & FEEDBACK & BE AUDITED INTERNALLY ON A REGULAR & EFFECTIVE BASIS. 2. THE DAY-TO-DAY CONTROL & ASSURANCE ACTIVITY MUST BE SEPERATED FROM THE IMPROVEMENT PROCESS. 3. THERE MUST BE A DEDICATION TO REMOVING BASIC CAUSES OF ERRORS & WASTAGE. 4. AT THE DESIGN STAGE, ALL POTENTIAL NON-CONFORMANCES MUST BE IDENTIFIED & ELIMINATED. 5. A SYSTEM BY WHICH ALL STAFF CAN RAISE THOSE PROBLEMS WHICH PREVENT THEM TURNING IN AN ERROR-FREE PERFORMANCE SHOULD BE IN PLACE. 6. IT SHOULD BE RECOGNISED THAT TOOLS, TECHNIQUES, SYSTEMS & PACKAGES ARE USED AT DIFFERENT STAGES IN DIFFERENT ORGS IN THEIR DEVELOPMENT OF TQM. 7. THE TIMING OF THE INTRODUCTION OF A PARTICULAR TOOL, TECHNIQUE, SYSTEM OR PACKAGE IS CRUCIAL TO ITS SUCCESS. 8. MISTAKE PROOFING OF OPERATIONS SHOULD BE INVESTIGATED. MISTAKE PROFFING MEANS PREVENTING THE OCCURANCE OF A DEFECT & DETECTING THE DEFECT. IN SHORT, THE PURPOSE IS TO STOP PROCESSES FROM OPERATING WHEN CONDITIONS EXIST THAT WILL LEAD TO DEFECTS. 9. STATISTICAL METHODS SHOULD BE USED. # MEASUREMENT & FEEDBACK 1. IT SHOULD BE RECOGNISED THAT CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IS A BUSINESS ISSUE. 2. ALL AVAILABLE MEANS MUST BE USED TO DETERMINE CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS & TO DEVELOP SYSTEMS & PROCEDURES TO ASSESS CONFORMANCE. 3. IT SHOULD BE EASY FOR THE INTERNAL & EXTERNAL CUSTOMER TO COMPLAIN. ENSURE THAT ALL CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS ARE PICKED UP & ANALYSED & THAT THERE IS APPROPRIATE FEEDBACK.

4. THE ATTITUDE THAT ‘THE NEXT PROCESS /PERSON IS THE CUSTOMER’ MUST BE ENCOURAGED. 5. MEASURES OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION & QUALITY INDICATORS FOR ALL INTERNAL DEPTS MUST BE DEVELOPED. AND 6. REGULAR SELF-ASSESSMENT OF THE PROGRESS BEING MADE WITH CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE & BUSINESS EXCELLENCE SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT. THIS WILL ASSIST IN MAKING THE IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS MORE EFFICIENT & COST EFFECTIVE. # CHANGING THE CULTURE : 1. ALL ASPECTS OF CUSTOMER & SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIPS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED, IMPROVED & ASSESSED ON REGULAR BASIS. 2. TEAMWORK MUST BE PRACTISED AT ALL LEVELS. 3. PEOPLE MUST BE INVOLVED AT ALL STAGES OF THE IMPROVEMENT PROCESS & NOT SIMPLY IN THOSE ASPECTS WHICH DIRECTLY AFFECT THEIR ROLE. AND 4. EDN & TRG SHOULD BE CONTINUOUS & WIDESPREAD TO FOSTER CHANGES IN ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOUR & TO IMPROVE THE SKILLS BASE OF THE ORG. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES # TO SUPPORT, DEVELOP & ADVANCE A PROCESS OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT, IT IS NECESSARY FOR AN ORG TO USE A SELECTION OF TOOLS & TECHNIQUES. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES HAVE DIFFERENT ROLES TO PLAY IN CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT & IF APPLIED CORRECTLY, GIVE REPEATABLE & RELIABLE RESULTS. SOME OF THEIR ROLES COULD BE :1. SUMMARISING DATA & ORGANISING ITS PRESENTATION. 2. DATA COLLECTION & STRUCTURING IDEAS. 3. IDENTIFYING RELATIONSHIPS. 4. DISCOVERING & UNDERSTANDING A PROBLEM. 5. IMPLEMENTING ACTIONS. 6. FINDING & REMOVING THE CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM. 7. SELECTING PROBLEMS FOR IMPROVEMENT & ASSISTING WITH THE SETTING OF PRIORITIES. 8. MONITORING & MAINTAINING CONTROL. 9. PLANNING. AND 10.PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT & CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT. # THERE ARE A CONSIDERABLE NUMBER OF TOOLS & TECHNIQUES & PERHAPS THE POPULAR & MOST WELL KNOWN COULD BE :1. FLOW CHARTS. 2. CHECK LISTS.

3. THE SEVEN QUALITY CONTROL TOOLS ( QC-7 ) 4. QUALITY COSTING. 5. SPC---STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL. 6. FMEA---FAILURE MODE & EFFECTS ANALYSIS. 7. FTA---FAULT TREE ANALYSIS. 8. DOE----DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS. 9. QFD-----QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT. 10.THE SEVEN MANAGEMENT TOOLS ( M-7 ) 11.DPA---DEPARTMENTAL PURPOSE ANALYSIS. 12.MISTAKE-PROOFING. AND 13.BENCHMARKING. 14.KAIZEN # NOW LET US UNDERSTAND SOME OF THESE TOOLS. # FLOW CHARTS---A FLOW EMPLOYED TO PROVIDE A DIAGRAMATIC PITCURE, OFTEN BY MEANS OF A SET OF ESTABLISHED SYMBOLS, SHOWING ALL THE STEPS OR STAGES IN A PROCESS, PROJECT OR SEQUENCE OF EVENTS AND IS OF CONSIDERABLE ASSISTANCE IN DOCUMENTING & DESCRIBING A PROCESS AS AN AID TO EXAMINATION & IMPROVEMENT. # CHECK LISTS----THESE HIGHLIGHT THE KEY OF A PROCESS, EQPT, SYSTEM, PRODUCT OR SERVICE TO WHICH ATTENTION NEEDS TO BE GIVEN TO ENSURE THAT THE PROCEDURES FOR AN OPERATION, HOUSEKEEPING, INSPECTION, MAINTAINANCE etc. HAVE FOLLOWED. # THE SEVEN QUALITY CONTROL TOOLS ( QC-7 ) : THESE ARE :1. CHECK SHEETS. 2. HISTOGRAMS. 3. GRAPHS 4. PARETO DIAGRAMS. 5. CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM OR FISH DIAGRAM OR ISHIKAWA DIGRAM. 6. SCATTER DIAGRAM. AND 7. CONTROL CHARTS. # THE SEVEN MANAGEMENT TOOLS ( M-7 ) ------THESE ARE :1. AFFINITY DIAGRAMS. 2. RELATIONS DIAGRAMS. 3. SYSTEMATIC DIAGRAMS. 4. MATRIX DIAGRAMS. 5. MATRIX DATA ANALYSIS. 6. PROCESS DECISION PROGRAM CHARTS. AND 7. ARROW DIAGRAMS.

# NOW LET US TRY TO UNDERSTAND KAIZEN ( WHICH IS JAPANESE FOR IMPROVEMENT ). # CONCLUSION-- TO CONCLUDE WE CAN SAY THAT TQM IS THE NEED OF THE TIME TO REMAIN IN COMPETITION.

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