7 Important points to remember about this essay: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Essay Introduction The Meaning of Poverty Nature of Poverty in India Measurement of Poverty
5.The Causes of Poverty in India 6. 7. Removal of Poverty Conclusion
Essay Introduction: The problem of poverty is an economic problem. It is one of the most important problems that India is facing today. Poverty is one of the important challenges in many developing countries. In past times India was known as 'Sone ki Chiriya' or 'Land of Plenty' was full of riches. But coming of the Turks, the Mughals, the Arabs, the Mongols and the British for extending their empires or for trade depleted its resources to a great extent, and today, poverty is a harsh reality for a large section of the Indian population. The Meaning of Poverty: Poverty is a situation in which a person is unable to get minimum basic necessities of life, i.e. food, clothing and shelter for his or her sustenance. It is defined as the state of person or family to take care of basic needs. Such as food, clothing and housing. Denial of minimum consumption needs causes human misery.
Image Credit: http://www.pbase.com/ira_morenberg/image/44611669 Nature of Poverty in India: According to the Human Development Report of 1977, poverty is the denial of opportunities, to lead a long, healthy creative life and to enjoy a decent standard of living, freedom, dignity, self-respect and the respect of others. Hungers are the extreme situation of poverty. Measurement of Poverty: In our country, we might see some of our neighbors finding it difficult to get food even twice a day. Some children in our neighborhood may look weak and highly
Because of their illiteracy the farmers in the villages and workers in the towns are cheated by everybody and they roam about as a man in the wilderness. were encouraged. caste-system. Social factors like-large size of families. security of tenant farmers. child labour. both in the urban and the rural areas are forced to lead the life of want and hunger. Illiteracy is also another important cause of poverty in our country. Poverty line is drawn on the basis of minimum desirable nutritional standards of calorie intake. Efforts for the development of green revolution and heavy industries have been made to create employment opportunities and incomes. removal of poverty has been one of the major objectives of the economic planning in India.02 crore people were living below the poverty line. Several land reforms measures such as abolition of Zamindari system. which employ more labourers and less machinery. In the rural areas poverty is mainly due to low and base. In 1999 using income approach the government found 720 lakh families living below poverty line. Removal of Poverty: Since Independence. All the progress made by us is neutralized by the alarming rise of population. They may not even be having enough clothes to wear. The Causes of Poverty in India: The problem of poverty is grim in India. Improper sectoral investment and widening inequalities of incomes are also responsible for aggravating poverty.malnourished because they do not get sufficient and nutritious food. According to the UNDP Human Development Report 2003. 26. Poverty line is a line of measurement to judge the intensity of poverty prevailing among different classes of the people. Poverty is the cumulative effect of many factors operating in the Indian society. In Orissa. It largely emanates from the semi-feudal relations of production in the agriculture unemployment. In the 1980s the government has undertaken some of the poverty alleviation programmes. corruption and prostitution are some of them. One of the main causes of poverty in our country is the continuous population growth. Poverty leads to many ills in the society. law of inheritance. Cottage and small-scale industries. India is home to the largest number of hungry people 23. and corruption are also responsible for prevalence of povertyridden people. In 1999-2000. Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS
. extreme poverty has forced parents to sell their children for money. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) was launched in April 1999 to help the families below poverty line by providing financial assistance and technology arrangement. and fixation of rents and distribution of surplus land among small and landless farmers were undertaken by the government. crime. In our country larger section of people are deprived of these basic necessities. During 1999-2000 about 26 crore people in India are reported to be poverty ridden.3 million. Illiteracy.
97% people have been estimated to live below the poverty line. In India 35. universal that poverty divides families. keeping psychological and political. religious groups. it’s expressed through the poverty line which is different in different nations. Some castes seem to suffer from a feeling that all human beings are not equal. creed or religion. become organized and assert themselves. too. Eradication of poverty needs very great strength.
The Indian social system is based on a strong social hierarchy in the form of birth castes. Poverty is a state of want of subjective and objective means and opportunities to develop and utilize potential of the individual to minimized sense of being left behind. One thing is. however. to any part of the country. We have been able to alleviate poverty to some extent through various governmental programmes and schemes. and forces children to work. to any educational background or to any occupation. may belong to any political affiliation. economic and cultural factors in view. Thus subjective articulation and objective measures are applied onto the persons to be designated as poor. social scientists. The poor and their poverty continue to attract and repel alternatively politicians. It may seem paradoxical that many people do not wish to improve their current condition either due to their lack of awareness of societal policies or religious beliefs or prolonged deprivation conditioning or personal reasons. to any caste. A health condition. Social class. the objective of removal of poverty can be fulfilled if the poor themselves become conscious improve their education and capabilities. The caste system in India is a traditional drag on society since early times. Though poverty is a universal phenomenon. is apparent through money power. Here is another attempt to define poverty.and Pradhanmantri Gramodya Yojana (PMGY) were launched in 1999 and 200001 respectively. Poverty is a negative but relative term denoting absence or lack of material wealth to fulfill one’s needs. Poverty tends to be characterized by the denial of rights as well as material insufficiency. This superiority complex among some castes has brought a situation in which the
. Conclusion: Finally. The benefits did not percolate to the lower levels too much because of adverse institutional framework. The objective of these schemes was to create wage employment for families below poverty line and improving the quality of life in rural areas.
denial and refusal by few. and underemployment are some of the critical reasons of poverty.untouchables are the poorest among the poor and suffer as bonded labor. Recently the suicides by farmers in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra have been attributed to losses in crops. agriculture or job. because there is no limit to wealth acquisition and it is changeable over a period of time. According to a UNDP-HPI Report of 1998. A UNDP report shows components and measurements of human development and poverty. The term minimization appears better and more practicable than elimination in regard to poverty. theft. land consolidation and land ceilings. two approaches could be thought of poverty minimization-community-based as well as individual-based programmes. prostitution. a selected community. crime or migrating options. exploitation. child labor and prostitution. reservations for scheduled castes and schedules tribes. In recent past. and food stuffs distributed through fair price shops. been grabbed by a few privileged Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes. However. Zamindari abolition.
. provision of subsidies on agricultural inputs. however. conflict. slum. The poorest still remain poor. floods or other natural calamities rendering people in poor health. stopping the privy purses. A family may be a victim of chronic poverty on account of the absence of the earning member or fatal illness of any of its members. disabled and many other specific poverty-elimination programmes are all exemplary actions taken by the government. There are numerous causes of poverty which operate in a vicious circle. neglect and social injustice are still prevalent in the roots of society. beggary. The HPI-1 measures poverty in developing countries while HPI-2 measures it in industrial countries. These could be divided into two groups broadly: chronic or prolonged and acute or critical. deprivation. village. steep rise in prices of commodities. loss in business. It was only after independence that the government carried out certain legal reforms to abolish untouchability and to reserve seats in schools and colleges for the scheduled and backward communities. transport. water lines. the question of poverty and development has been discussed both at national and international levels. Fire. on cottage industries. The major part of the benefits has. Repeated draught. abolition of untouchability. block or district may be provided with the infrastructure. Using excising indicators. women. The Government of India has been aware a sincere about eradicating poverty. Human Development Index (HDI) measures overall progress in a country in achieving human development and the Human Poverty Index reflects the distribution of progress and measures the backlog of deprivation that still exists. The HPI measures deprivation in the same dimensions of basic human development. including roads.
basic health centers. If the poverty-invaded area has people of different backgrounds. However.
What is poverty?
Poverty is the economic condition in which people lack sufficient income to obtain certain minimal levels of health services. Relative poverty is that experienced by those whose income falls considerably below the average for their particular society. and education generally recognized as necessary to ensure an adequate standard of living. It will instill feelings of participation in construction and maintenance of facilities provided three. the needs would be different. fair price shops. illiteracy. They should follow the norm of two children per family if they are in the reproductive age. People without access to education or health services should be considered poor even if they have adequate food. Absolute poverty is that experienced by those who do not have enough food to remain healthy. He/she may need financial help to send a baby to the school or may have to marry his grown-up son/daughter. to buy animals like buffaloes/cows. sanitation facilities. The entrants to the programme may require monetary help to repair his house damaged by rain or earthquake. and agricultural and cottage industrial consultancy. Community area specific programme should be made environmentfriendly. malnutrition. The needs of everyone should be related to pay loans.
. schools. Hence first of all a needs assessment should be undertaken employing nay suitable technique. Generally few conditions may be enforced before helping such individuals and communities. CAUSES OF POVERTY One of the greatest challenges facing many least developed countries especially in the African continent is the worsening scourge of poverty with its attendant effects of unemployment. clothing. People should be nominally for contribution in these programmes of development. food. housing. estimating poverty on an income basis may not measure essential elements that also contribute to a healthy life. The addicts should be advised to seek the treatment. seeds or fertilizers. to buy instruments. Some help in getting such treatment should be undertaken.electricity lines.
in nature. Such a policy should be able to facilitate the delivery of basic needs to ordinary citizens and these include access to affordable food. economical. education. No one should be alienated from these basic and fundamental human rights on account. public information among many others. water and sanitation. political and social exclusion. shelter.. They involve among many others gender inequality..
. There should be a clear linkage between macro level policies and micro level impacts in terms of reducing poverty or at least providing an environment for poverty reduction. health.