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1 BY M.G.ERANDE B.Sc. ENGG (CIVIL) F I E CHARTERED ENGINEER
1 BY M.G.ERANDE B.Sc. ENGG (CIVIL) F I E CHARTERED ENGINEER
1 BY M.G.ERANDE B.Sc. ENGG (CIVIL) F I E CHARTERED ENGINEER
1 BY M.G.ERANDE B.Sc. ENGG (CIVIL) F I E CHARTERED ENGINEER
1 BY M.G.ERANDE B.Sc. ENGG (CIVIL) F I E CHARTERED ENGINEER
  • 1 BY

M.G.ERANDE

B.Sc. ENGG (CIVIL)

F I E CHARTERED ENGINEER

“Judicious Application of Technical Knowledge

and Skill to Suit Site Conditions is the

Mantra of Successful Site Engineer”

COMPILED BY

MR. M.G. ERANDE

B.Sc, (Engg.- Civil) F.I.E. India, Chartered Engineer

A word from M.G.Erande

This compact book has been prepared based on my field experience and information collected from various hand books and standards of civil engineering. The aim is to provide maximum information which are required by a site engineer in day to day work in a compact form at one place. Please note that matter given is only for guidance and not an authentic document, In any project whatever standards and norms mentioned on drawings and in contract should be followed if any contradiction is found. My heartiest thanks first go to Mr. EKLAVYA SINGH. Managing Director of ESPIC and to all others who have helped in preparing sketches, typing, and have taken pains to go through the text and giving suggestions. As a whole of it the entire work is dedicated to my guru late professor Shri D.G. DHAWALIKAR who constantly encouraged me during my studies in Shri S.G.S.T.I and even during my working in various projects. Your suggestions for corrections and addition are always most welcome.

M.G. ERANDE

(All Rights to reproduce or print of this booklet are reserved with ESPIC and Author) (For Private Circulation only)

INDEX

 
  • 1. PART-1

CIVIL

Page 01 to 56

 
  • 2. PART-2

FABRICATION

Page 57 to 127

 
  • 3. PART-3

ERECTION

Page 128 to 153

 
  • 4. PART-4

SITE- SELECTION

Page 154 to 159

 
  • 5. PART- 5

INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS LAYOUT PLAN

Page 160 to 164

PART-1 (CIVIL)

USE FULL INFORMATION FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING

SOIL INVESTIGATION

Once land for a particular project is acquired, immediately this activity starts as beginning of the first step and presence of site engineer is compulsory. Following procedure is to start.

  • 1. Take a thorough look of the piece of land and mark presence of big, trees, water bodies, bushes etc. which may obstruct with actual construction of various shades for the proposed plant. Mark them on plan of the piece of land.

  • 2. Mark clearly high tension and low tension lines on plan so that H.O. / Project coordinator may decide about removal / diversification of these lines and necessitate action in advance.

  • 3. Observe on contoured map general slope and directions of natural drainage of water.

  • 4. A pit is to be dug at suitable location preferably in the center of 2M square size, the depth of upper most 300mm should be neglected as in this depth natural vegetation and roots of bushes etc. exist. After 300 mm depth take observation of type of soil at every 1meter and store samples, clearly indicating the depth at which it is taken. If a hard stratum is not available up to 4M depth from surface then further deep samples are taken by means of auger by boring. Like wise samples should be collected up to 10M depth taking samples at every 1Meter. If hard strata like morram or rocks are available at say 4 meter depth then there is no need to go further unless desired specifically. This observation has to be confirmed by further

digging at

5

to

10

places

(depending on size of plot and type of soil) at various places in the plot in order to

get an over all idea of underneath ground strata.

If water is struck at any depth it should be noted specifically and mentioned in the report. A comprehensive report should be send to H.O. This is an important step since based on this information designer will decide on type of foundation to be provided.

In addition following information should be collected and sent to H.O. along with soil investigation report. In case any construction work is going on in neighboring area it should be visited and following information should be communicated to H.O.

  • 1. Type or name of building / factory.

  • 2. Type of foundation being provided.

  • 3. Whether the excavated depth soil matches with the excavation done in our area.

4.

Water table in dry season (lowest water table).

  • 5. Water table in rainy season (highest water table).

  • 6. If there is near by sea or river, what is the highest flood level? This information can be collected from local government record and from inhabitants who are residing in the near by area for more than 10 to 15 years.

All the above information should be collected and communicated to H.O. as quickly as possible. This will be the base depending on which further work of design and planning will depend. Delay in sending this information will delay the final completion of the project indirectly.

In some projects responsibility of soil investigation is given to a local established laboratory or to a technical institute in the locality. In this case also a site engineer must be present and observe the various procedures and keep soil samples at various depths and send his observations to H.O. even though final decision will be taken based on laboratory findings.

It is necessary that site engineer should be well conversant with some soil mechanics terminology given below.

Soil is a widely used term in civil engineering project sites. In general sense it is the natural material excavated at site from ground at various depths. Soil is not a single material but it is mixture of clay, sand gravel etc. which are present in various percentage and grains sizes in a mixture.

Nature of Soils

All types of soils have following properties of varying intensity.

  • 1. Cohesion Cohesion is the internal molecular attraction which resists rupture or shear of a material. In fine grained soil cohesion is due to water film which holds material together. It is the particular characteristic of the fine-grained materials with particle size below 0.002mm (commonly known as clay). Cohesion decreases with increase in water content, cohesion is greater in well compacted clays.

  • 2. Internal Friction It is the resistance offered by grains in sliding over each other. It is exhibited pertinently by coarse materials having particle size greater than 0.002mm. The magnitude of internal friction depends mainly on grading, shape, surface texture and degree of compaction, moisture content of the mass and super imposed load to which it is subjected. For the course materials it is usually assumed that the particle size distribution giving greatest dry density has greater internal friction. The strength of non cohesive soils depends solely on internal friction.

3.

Angle of Internal Friction.

The resistance in sliding of grain particles of a soil mass mainly depends upon angle of internal friction. The value of angle of internal friction is independent of the normal pressure but it varies with degree of packing of particles (density).

The soils subjected to the higher normal stresses will have lower moisture contents and higher bulk densities at failure than those soils which are subjected to lower normal stresses and thus angle of friction in both cases may be different.

The true angle of friction of clay is never 0 and may vary up to 26º.

  • 4. Capillarity It is the nature of soil due to which it transmits moisture in all directions regardless of any gravitational force. The capillarity action of soil is similar to a piece of cotton cloth with one end immersed in water. The maximum height of capillary rise depends upon the pressure, which forces the water into the soil. This force increases as the soil particle size decreases. The capillary rise in a wet soil may be 4 to 5 times the height of capillary rise in same soil when dry. Following table shows capillary rise in various materials.

Sr. No.

Type of Soil

Capillary Rise

1.

Coarse Gravel

Nil

2.

Coarse Sand

30

cm

3.

Fine Sand & Silt

120 cm

4.

Clays

90

to 120 cm

5.

Dry Sand & Pure Clay

Negligible

Coarser the grain size faster is the rise of capillarity moisture.

  • 5. Permeability It is the property of soil due to which water flows through it under the action of (unit) hydraulic gradient. The passage of moisture through the pores of the soil is called percolation. Those soils porous enough for percolation to occur are called pervious or permeable soils. Where as those soils which do not allow percolations are called impervious or impermeable soils

  • 6. Elasticity It is the property of soil due to which it suffers a reduction in size or volume under a load and regains its original shape and volume when load is removed. The important aspect of this property is that it does not matter as to how many times the load is applied and removed provided the stresses set up in the soil due to application of load is within yield stress. This elastic behavior is typical characteristic of peat.

7.

Compressibility

Due to compressibility present in a particular soil when it is subjected to

compression it undergoes significant change in its volume.

Gravel, sands and silts are incompressible where as clays are compressible. In moist clay mass when compressed air and or moisture may be expelled and this air and or moisture, which has escaped is not immediately recovered after removal of pressure.

In

this case decrease

in

volume

per unit increase

of

pressure

is known

as

“compressibility” of the soil and a measure of the rate at which consolidation

proceeds is given by the co-efficient of consolidation of the soil.

Compressibility of sand and silt varies with density i.e. denser the material less is the compressibility. For clay the compressibility varies directly with water content i.e. more is the water higher is the compressibility.

Clays and other compressible soils are known to removed.

swell

when over burden is

Density

  • 8. Bulk Density It is the total wt of the mass including solid particles and effect of voids whether filled with air or water per unit volume i.e.

  • 9. Dry Density

Total wt of soil ----------------------- is termed as

Total Val of soil

bulk density

This is a ratio of the weight of the dry solid matters contained in a unit volume of

soils. This means weight of soil parties divided by total volume of soil (determined after the water has been dried without bulk volume changes).

  • 10. Specific Gravity Of Soil Particles It is known as the ratio of their density to that of water. The specific gravity of soil particles varies from 2.0 to 3.3; generally it is between 2.65 to 2.75. The usual soil weight (void less) is between 2600 to 2700Kg per M 3 .

  • 11. Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) It is the specific moisture content in the soil at which specific amount of compaction will produce the maximum dry density, in a particular type of soil. It is expressed as percentage by wt of dry soil. For moist soils there is a percentage of moisture at which the soil will compact to its greatest density which is known as OMC. Following table gives values of OMC for different soils.

Sr. No.

Type of soil

OMC %

Remarks

1.

Sands & Gravels

8 to 10

These are general observation for dry

2.

Silts

15

soils, variation of moisture content

3.

Clays

15

to 20

present in soils will change the values

  • 12. Angle of Repose When a mass or heap of earth (clay, sand, gravel etc. or a mixture of these) is left exposed to whether for some time then its sides will slip and will gradually attain a stable slope without tending to slide further. At this stable state of the mass of a particular material, the angle between the horizontal and this slope is termed the natural angle of repose for that particular material. The table below shows angle of repose for different materials.

Sr. No.

Type of Soil

Angle of Repose

1.

Wet clay, wet sand and clay of wet gravel and clay soils not properly drained

  • 20 0

2.

Dry clay, wet sand, gravel

  • 27 0

3.

Dry sand, loose earth, dry or wet damp clay, gravel, sand and clay, common soil (properly drained)

  • 33 0

4.

Sand & clay gravel sand

  • 37 0

  • 13. Bearing Capacity of Soil The bearing capacity of soil is ultimate load per unit area, which will not disturb the shape of soil or at which load, no sinking or appreciable sinking of foundation will occur, with moisture conditions particularly in clay, sand or mixture of clay & sand remains unaltered. The foundations are never loaded to this ultimate pressure but a factor of safety of 2 to 3 is taken and safe bearing capacity is decided. Thus safe bearing capacity.

Ultimate Bearing Capacity = ----------------------------------- Factor of safety.

Bearing capacity of soil depends upon nature of soil, particle size, mixture of sand, clay, gravel in various proportion, moisture content, hardness of rocks and ingredients etc. and thus it differs from place to place even if some components of ingredients are same.

To find out safe bearing capacity tests are to be conducted in field and as well as in laboratory. The most commonly used and dependable field test is PLATE BEARING TEST.

In this test a steel plate 16mm thick and min. size of 60cm 2 or a round steel plate of 75cm ø is used. The size of plate can be bigger also. It is placed in a pit bottom at which footing is proposed. The bottom of ground below plate is leveled accurately as much as possible.

The plate is rotated over the area so that any irregularity over the surface is trimmed off. In case of coarse grained soils where proper leveling is not possible a layer of 6mm thick of fine dry sand is provide and than plate is seated over this sand layer. The plate is loaded by actual super imposition of load or by hydraulic jack against a reaction.

Following method of loading is adopted

  • 1. Load the soil 4 times the proposed designed load and read every 24 hours settlement of the plate in soil, this is done until no settlement occurs.

  • 2. Further load the soil with 50% more load (50% of load applied in 1 st stage). Now read settlement every 48Hrs. until no settlement occurs in 48 Hrs.

The settlement under the test load should not show more than 20mm or increment of settlement under 50% of overload should no exceed 60% of settlement under test load.

If the above limitations are not met repeat test with reduced load and in that case the reduced load will be taken for safe bearing capacity of the soil, minimum 2 tests should be conducted preferably with different sizes of plates.

It should be clearly understood that soil load test alone is not the only criteria for deciding bearing capacity of the soil. This test must be accompanied by other laboratory tests. How ever in general conditions it gives a fairly accurate idea of bearing capacity of the soil.

Following table gives fairly correct idea of SAFE BEARING CAPACITY on common soils.

Rocky Soils

Sr.

Name

Tons / M 2

No.

1.

Hard Rock

220

2.

Ordinary Rock

110

3.

Sand Stone

130

to 200

4.

Lime Stone

100

to 150

5.

Soft Rock

  • 20 to 90

6.

Morram (Disintegrated rock)

  • 20 to 30

7.

Marl & firm Shale

  • 50 to 60

Intensity of pressure on rock foundation should at no paint exceed 1/8 of crushing pressure of rock.

Cohesive Soils

Sr.

Name of Soil

Safe

Bearing

Capacity

No.

MT/M 2

1.

Very stiff boulder clays

 

65

2.

Hard or stiff clays and sand clays

 

30

to 40

3.

Firm clays and sand clays

 

20

4.

Ordinary clays

 

20

5.

Sand & clay mixed or inlayers

 

20

6.

Red earth

 

25

to 30

7.

Moised clay

 

10

8.

Soft clays & silts

Not allowed

 

9.

Very soft clays and silts & peat

Not allowed

 

10

Black cotton soil

5

to 10

11.

Alluvial soil

3

to 9

12.

Alluvial loam

9

to 10

13.

Made up ground (consolidated)

5

Non-Cohesive Soils

Sr.

Name

Safe bearing capacity

No.

MT/M 2

1.

Compact gravel or sand well cemented

50

to 80

2.

Compact gravel or sand and gravel

40

to 50

3.

Loose gravel or sand and gravel

30

4.

Compact coarse sand (confined)

40

5.

Loose coarse sand

20

6.

Compact fine sand (confined)

30

7.

Loose fine sand

10

8.

Sand with clay

15

9.

Kankar

25

Note:

  • 1. Bearing capacity of soils under long rectangular footing should be taken only 75% of bearing capacity under square footing.

  • 2. The above bearing capacity values are only approximate and actual allowable bearing pressure on soils may differ considerable depending upon existing conditions on a particular site. These can be taken as general guide line. Actual figures are to be taken from various field and laboratory tests.

General Classification of Soils

Field classification on particle size

Sr.

Type

With 90% of Parts Greater

But less

than

or

No.

than mm

equal to mm

 
  • 1. Boulders

200

-

 
  • 2. Cobbles

80

200

 
  • 3. Pebbles

2.36

75

 
  • 4. Gravels

2.0

60

 
  • 5. Sand coarse

0.6

2.0

 
  • 6. Sand Medium

0.2

0.06

 
  • 7. Fine Sand

0.06

0.02

 
  • 8. Coarse Silt

0.02

0.06

 
  • 9. Medium Silt

0.006

0.02

 
  • 10. Fine Silt

0.002

0.006

  • 11. Clay

 

-

0.002

Average weights of soils

1.

Earth dry to wet

1600-2400 Kg/M 3

2.

Sand dry to wet

1450-2000 Kg/M 3

3.

Sand and clay

  • 2000 Kg/M 3

4.

Gravel

  • 1450 Kg/M 3

5.

Gravel & sand

  • 1750 Kg/M 3

6.

Silt dry to wet

1600-1750 Kg/M 3

Testing Piles for Loads

Ordinarily 1/3 of the total piles on an area should be tested but in no case less than 2 No. of piles for the entire area should be tested for loads, or the no of piles to be tested should be as per contract condition.

When a designer wishes to confirm in advance the load carrying capacity than pile of designed dimension and specifications is castled in the plot (preferably in center) or near center so that it will not interfere with foundations for machines or column footings to be constructed in future and is subjected to load test A suitable platform is build on top of piles which has completed at least 24 hours in case of pre-cast pile and 14 days in case of cast in situ concrete pile.

The total test load should be 1.5 times the proposed working load, which should be applied in 4 to 6 increments starting with 50% of the working load. The next increase should be after 12hours when there is no settlement. Final load is allowed to remain at least for 48hours after there is no settlement and which should not exceed 0.3mm in 48hours (total net settlement after deducting the rebound). In case settlement is more the load should be reduced.

The above procedure is a brief general procedure the detailed procedure is specified by the designer and is to be followed after thorough study. Usually pile testing agencies are there who conduct and record test result and submit their report. During testing site engineer must be present and witness observations and sign the observation/ recordings.

Extraction or Pulling Out Test.

Piles can be pulled out by (1) a direct pull from a winch in the case of short and easily removable piles (2) By hydraulic jocks acting on a large grip surrounding the pile (3) By an inverted double acting hammer. The pile to be pulled out should be kept constantly lubricated with water to reduce friction of soil.

The pulling force is calculated from the frictional resistance of the soil. Safe uplift strength of friction piles in sand, clay or gravel is generally taken half of the safe bearing load.

Ultimate Strength of Pile.

The ultimate strength of a pile is that load which when applied; the pile begins to show settlement. Alternately the maximum load, which can be carried by a pile, is at which the pile continues to sink without further increase of load. A suitable factor of safety (generally 2 to 3) has to be applied to arrive at the ALLOWABLE LOAD.

Following is the requirement as per contract conditions, which has already been followed in various projects where pile foundations have been provided. This can be adopted for other sites also

LOAD TEST ON PILES: Individual pile or a group of pile shall be tested as directed by engineer to the required load as specified below:

Individual pile Group of piles

1.5 times safe load carrying capacity of pile. No. of piles x 1.5 times safe load carrying capacity of individual pile.

LOAD TEST PROCEDURE:

The loading shall be done by reaction from the Kent ledge of adequate capacity for the full test load. Test pit shall be excavated by open excavation through all types of soils and disintegrated rock to required depth. The base of the pit shall be minimum 3m x 3m size with adequate side slopes with provision for shoring dewatering etc. The excavated materials shall be dumped sufficiently away from the edge of the excavation so as not to endanger the stability of pit. After completion of the test the pit shall be back filled as directed by the engineer.

The hydraulic jack for transferring the load to the pile shall be of capacity 25% in excess of the test load and shall be provided with calibrated pressure gauge. The contractor shall furnish to the engineer necessary test certificates form approved authority to certify the pressure gauges which are calibrated before putting in to operation.

The deflection dial gauges to measure the settlement of pile shall have 0.02mm sensitivity and the reading shall be taken to an accuracy of 0.1mm. The contractor shall include charges for calibration of dial gauges in his rates and shall furnish to the engineer

necessary test certificates for each dial gauge from approved authority before putting the dial gauges into operation.

Before any load test is performed the contractor shall obtain approval of the set up and the load frame from the engineer. Care shall be taken to ensure that the center of gravity of Kent ledge is on the axis of pile and load applied by jack is co-axial with the pile.

The pile cap for the selected pile or pile group to be tested shall be cast of a mix capable of sustaining the test load or preferably of same mix as prescribed for the pile cap, and shall be perfectly level. The pile cap shall be absolutely free from surrounding ground. One M.S. plate of 50mm thick shall be set on the pile cap such that its surface is horizontal and perfectly level. The hydraulic jack shall be inserted between the M.S. plate and the Kent ledge frame. The jack shall be so placed as to transfer the load centrally to the pile. The dial gauges shall rest on diametrically opposite ends of the pile cap and shall be fixed to a datum bar whose ends shall rest upon non-movable supports. The supports for the datum bar with reference to which settlement of the pile would be measured shall be at least 5D away clear from the pile, where D is diameter of the pile.

Loading and unloading procedure for conducting the test shall be as per IS 2911 or any other procedure agreed by the engineer.

INTERPRETATION

The safe allowable load on the pile shall be the least of the following:

  • a) Two third of the final load at which the total settlement attains a value of 12mm.

  • b) Two third of the final load at which the net settlement increases to 6mm.

No payment shall be made to the contractor for conducting the load test, if the safe allowable load is found to be less than the specified working load and also the pile shall be rejected.

RECORDS

The contractor shall keep the following records of all the tests and shall obtain counter signature of the engineer.

  • i) Details of Piles.

    • a) Pile designation / location etc.

    • b) Date of casting of pile.

    • c) Cube strength of concrete in the pile.

    • d) Description of strata at which the pile was founded.

    • e) Pile test commenced on.

    • f) Pile test completed on.

ii)

Details of Instruments used.

  • a) Make and specification of jack, pressure gauge and dial gauge.

  • b) Capacity of jack.

  • c) Calibration of pressure gauge & dial gauge used.

  • d) Design load of pile, description of location and identification mark of the pile.

  • e) The readings for settlement and rebound shall be entered in the following from:

iii)

Test recordings

Time

Load

Dial-1

Settlement

Dial-2

Settlemen

Mean

Remarks

/

t /

Settlement /

Rebound

Rebound

Rebound

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

               
               
               
               
               
               

Two Sketches sk1 and sk2 are given here for typical arrangement of load test on piles and typical arrangement for tensile load test to pile using hydraulic jacks.

13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

(BRIEF NOTES ON C.F.A. PILES.)

This is a continuous flight auger pile hence it is called C.F.A. pile. This type of piles are being used extensively in UK, U.S.A Gulf countries and other places where there is a problem of low water table and collapse of sides. For these piles codes are still to be made and published officially. In INDIA the use in not known.

METHOD

As the name suggests operation of drilling and concreting are continuously done. The concrete used is with high water cement ration and it is necessarily pumped in the central hollow pipe of augur from the top. The cutting edges are fixed in a helical shape on the central pipe which is rotated by a drilling rig, the digging head of the auger is fitted with a expandable cap. When auger has reached to required depth concrete is pumped inside the hollow pipe from top and auger is lifted simultaneously without rotation. The pressure of concrete blows off the expandable cap. Stuck material in the fins of cutting blades is removed manually as the auger is lifted above ground. When the boring is filled up to the top, steel reinforcement which is kept ready in advance is inserted in the bore filled with concrete with the help of drilling rig.

Post insertion of reinforcement in the bore filled with concrete makes it different from the cast in situ piles which are generally used in INDIA. Reinforcement cages with lengths up to 12 meters are common, greater lengths can be installed with the assistance of cage vibrators.

SUITABILITY OF C.F.A. PILES

C.F.A. piles are best suited to places where unstable ground conditions and high level of ground water table exist. These piles can be terminated in clays, granular soils, in soft rock or can be taken to hard load bearing strata i.e. bearing type of piles or friction piles due to their continuous operation.

C.F.A. PILE SIZE & DEPTH.

Diameter wise; - 300 to 900 Ø (i.e

12 to 36 inches.)

.. Depth wise: - 18 mater to 21 meter (i.e. 60 to 70 feet)

Note:

- C.F.A.

piles have

been

installed for more than

30.5 meter (100 feet)

in

some

cases.

ADVANTAGES OF C.F.A. PILES.

1) The construction of piles is without significant vibration or excessive noise being

2)

produced. This makes it very useful in urban areas and in unstable soil conditions, high water table areas and environmentally sensitive areas. Since rigs used are very powerful, it saves lot of time of constriction of foundations.

3)

When used in large scale the process is economical.

SOIL CONDITIONS

Most of the ground conditions can be penetrated by C.F.A. system as the rig used is very powerful, unstable conditions of ground like sandy or muddy soil filled up area, reclaimed land etc. and water. C.F.A. piles do not require support and piles can be terminated with penetrations into clays granular strata, chalk or soft rocks, with end bearing on hard material.

CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

Following figures give an idea of construction of continuous flight auger piles.

SOIL CONDITIONS Most of the ground conditions can be penetrated by C.F.A. system as the rig

1)

The digging head of the auger is fitted with an expandable cap.

2)

The auger is screwed into the ground to the required depth.

3)

Concrete is pumped through the hollow stem, blowing off the expendable cap

4)

under Pressure. Maintaining positive concrete pressure the auger is withdrawn and the

reinforcement is placed into the pile up to the required depth. Following table describes some C.F.A. pile specification and clearance required for C.F.A. piling rig.

C.F.A. PILE SPECIFICATION

 

TYPICAL C.F.A. PILING RIG.

 

Diameter

Compression

Clearance

front

Clearance

from

Working Width

Mast Height

mm.

kn.

corner

mm.

mm.

mm.

mm.

300

600

750

1500

  • 2700 18000

 

350

  • 1100 750

1500

  • 2700 18000

400

  • 1350 750

1500

  • 2700 18000

500

  • 1700 1000

1500

  • 2700 18000

600

  • 2400 1000

1500

  • 2700 18000

Note :- above figures are as published by m/s SKANSKA who under take design and

construction of C.F

A

piles and have large fleet of rigs.

.. C.F.A. piles if used in INDIA will save lot of time in construction of foundations for high rise

buildings bridges for road and railways.

It is expected that in future INDIAN standard shall be published for C.F.A piles.

REFERENCE LEVEL

The next important step for site engineer is to fix reference level which will be used during all construction work. The reference level is generally taken (i) with reference to existing floor of other units existing in the premises or (ii) with reference to outside road levels or H.F.L (Highest Flood Level) as desired and instructed by H.O.

In general proposed floor level i.e. F.F.L. (Finished Floor Level) is marked as 0.00.

The reference level should be marked +1.00 or more like +1.5 or +2.00 at 3 or 4 places on permanent existing construction for all future reference. Once cols (Steel or R.C.C.) are constructed this reference level should be transferred permanently on cols. This will be useful during other civil construction as well as mechanical erection.

INITIAL GROUND LEVELS

After reference level as above is fixed immediately existing plot should be divided in a grid of 1 or 2 meter intervals and existing ground levels should be marked on map of the plot. Special care is to be taken for deep & raised part where additional levels are to be taken. This will be required to work out volume of filling or cutting when area is leveled, 3 copies of such plot drawings are to be made and one copy sent to H.O., one copy to be kept by site engineer and one copy given to the owner. These copies should be duly signed by surveyor, representative of owner and site engineer.

It may be highlighted that the contoured map should not be the criteria for calculating either volume of filling or cutting since the ground levels change due to action of whether or man made actions. However contoured map is useful for knowing the general topography of the ground and presence of hillocks or Natural River or ponds etc. in the plot and help in deciding the floor and ground levels for future construction.

EXCAVATION

Normally excavation drawing is provided by designer and excavation is to be done as per this plan only. At site at which place excavation is to start, following guide lines be kept in mind. Please remember here excavation in one shade of project only is under consideration.

After studying excavation plan carefully mark area 1, 2, 3------ etc. in the increasing order of depth to which excavation is to be done. In all cases those foundations, which are deepest should be excavated first, whether it is for column, footing or machine foundation.

In case of machine foundations like that of un-coilers, exit & entry accumulators, zinc pot, mill foundation etc. these must be excavated first leaving 3 cols- on both rows from corners of excavation including in between col. If the strata which are encountered are rocky there may not be much problem. But when strata is made of sand, sand and silt, clay and excavation of deeper foundation is done later it may endanger the shallow foundations Again if water table is high or any water stream is struck, the water can be pumped out by providing 2 or more temporary sumps in the corner and water is pumped out during work constantly.

If large quantity of water is struck and with water sand or silt is also observed in that case

stop the excavation immediately and back fill the area with excavated material to a height so that water stops coming. After this cordon the excavation area by providing sheet piling all around. The area covered by sheet piling should be at least 3 meter more in length as well as in width. To make it further clear if excavation area has a length of „a‟ and width of „b‟ then the area covered by sheet piling should be minimum (a+3) meters in length and

(b+3) meters in width, after providing sheet piling, further excavation should be started the depth of sheet pile to which it has to go is bottom level of P.C.C. for foundation +3 meters minimum. Proper struts must be used to hold sheet piles in position, other wise sheet pile may it self collapse due to back pressure from soil and water or back pressure from both.

The concreting and construction activities in case of deep foundation has to be much faster (day night work should be organized) and all efforts should be made to complete work up to at least 3 to 4 meters in height from P.C.C level. Following is a hint for stopping ground water when met in excess:- Fill empty cement bags with a mixture of sand and cement 1:6 ratio and tightly close both ends and keep on the area in a orderly manner. This will put weight on the ground and cement and sand will get hardened, since cement will not flow away with water. The bags may be in one or two layers till water stops coming up or comes in manageable quantity, over this hardened layer P.C.C. can be laid and further construction can proceed. In filling bags with sand and cement even sweeping cement can be used if available.

STACKING OF EXCAVATED EARTH

This is an important factor often neglected at site and causes lot of problems. The excavated material should be staked minimum 6-meters away from excavated edges.

It will be observed that generally it is stacked with in 1 to 3 meters which exerts excess pressure and help in slippage at a faster rate which causes many problems during further excavation and further construction.

DEWATERING FROM DEEP EXCAVATION

First of all keep sufficient no of dewatering pumps ready prior to starting excavation particularly in areas where water is likely to be met during excavation. Secondly where dewatering is going on ensure that water is thrown away from excavation area in such a way that it does not stagnate in one place but immediately flows away. Never throw water near excavated portion or on the excavated material. The obvious reason is, first that this water will increase weight of excavated material and which in turn increase the rate of side slips. Secondly this water will percolate through ground and come back in the excavated pit making the effort of dewatering futile.

THE GOLDEN RULE FOR EXCAVATION

“Excavate from deepest portion to shallow portion”

THE GOLDEN RULE OF SURVEY

Always proceed from WHOLE TO PART and never follow reverse.

SOME THUMB RULES FOR EXCAVATION & FILLING

1)

Excavation in soft to moderately hard (morram type) one laborer‟s capacity to dig.

2)

In 8 hrs. Working is 2 to 2.5 m3 up to a depth of 2 meter and lead of 3 meter. One laborer‟s capacity in 8 hours filling including ramming and watering in 150mm

3)

layers, can be assumed 5 to 6m3 Excavation in soft rock & hard rock per man 8 hours working.

Soft Rock

0.5m3

Hard Rock

0.25m3

Brick work and Concrete.

  • 1. Cement Mortars Mortars of various proportions are used for plastering and brick work. Quantities bellows are dry cement and sand required for one cubic meter of WET MORTOR

Sr.

Mix. Ratio Cement &

Cement

Sand M 3

Remarks

No.

Sand

Kg.

  • 1. 1:1

 

1020

0.71

These

quantities

of

  • 2. 1:2

 

680

0.95

cements and sand are

  • 3. 1:3

 

510

1.05

including

wastage

and

  • 4. 1:4

 

380

1.05

as

such

no

extra

  • 5. 1:5

 

310

1.05

quantities

are

to

be

  • 6. 1:6

 

250

1.05

taken for wastage

  • 7. 1:7

 

220

1.05

 
  • 8. 1:8

 

200

1.05

  • 2. Brick Aggregate In Bangladesh and eastern parts of India where stone aggregate availability is scares and costly it is common practice to use brick aggregate made by breaking of slightly over burnt bricks manually or by brick crushers. Brick aggregate is used at places where strength is not major criteria from design point of view, the example will be P.C.C. below R.C.C., filling of gaps etc. How ever in local buildings brick aggregate is used even for slab & beams of residential buildings. But columns. Footings, beams, floor and roof slabs of factory buildings should be concreted by using stone aggregates only.

    • 1 M 3 of brick aggregate is obtained from breaking of 420 to 430 No. of 9” size brick or 450 to 460 No. of Indian standard bricks.

    • 1 M3 of brick aggregate

=

430 No. of 9” Brick.

450 No. of I.S. Brick.

=

When brick aggregate is used in R.C.C. following factors are recommended by P.N. Khannas hand book of civil engineering. Extracts from P. 8 /122. “The following stresses may be adopted in brick aggregate reinforced concrete for design

calculations”.

1.

Compressive

stress

for

1:2:4

40

Kg/ Cm 2

concrete

 

2.

Tensile stress in steel untested

   

3.

Shear stress

1200 Kg/ Cm 2 3 Kg/ Cm 2

4.

„m‟ modular ratio

 

20

5.

„kd‟- neutral axis

   

0.400d

6.

„jd‟ (leaver arm of resisting moment)

 

0.867 d

7.

„p‟ (reinforcement)%

 

0.0067bd

8.

Q‟ (Moment factor) = BM

   

7.136bd 2

“The proportion of voids can be estimated by filling a measure with the aggregate and then pouring water until the water is level with the top of aggregate, the ratio of the volume of water added to the volume of aggregate is that of the volume of voids

to that of the aggregate. “

Cement Concrete

Important information about cement.

1 Bag of cement of any grade

wt. Of cement

=

50Kg.

Vol. Of cement

=

34.72 Say 35 liters =

0.035M 3

Wt. Of 1M 3 of cement

=

1440 Kg/ m 3 net. Wt. Of sack or bag is excluded.

Equivalent size of a box for 1 bag (50kg. of cement) is 40cmx 35 cm x 25 cm 400 x 350 x 250 dimensions in mm

Quantities of cement stone aggregate, sand, (all dry) for 1M 3 of wet volume of concrete for various ratios is as per following tabel, when mixing is done in a mixer machine.

Sr.

Nominal

Cement

Dry

Sand

Stone Aggregate

Remarks.

No.

Mix

Kg.

Vol. M 3

12 to 20mm

  • 1. 1:1:2

 

580

0.4

0.8

 
 
  • 2. 1: 1.5:3

390

  • 0.42 0.84

 
  • 3. 1:2:3

 

380

  • 0.54 0.81

 

Cement should

  • 4. 1:2:4

 

310

  • 0.45 0.90

 

always be weighed.

 
  • 5. 1:2:5.5

270

  • 0.46 0.92

 

Equivalent size of

  • 6. 1:3:6

 

210

  • 0.46 0.92

 

box for 1 bag (50Kg)

  • 7. 1:4:8

 

160

  • 0.47 0.94

 

of cement is 40CM x

  • 8. 1:5:10

 

130

  • 0.48 0.96

 

35CM x 25CM

  • 9. 1:6:12

 

110

  • 0.49 0.98

 

10.

1:6:18

80

  • 0.35 1.00

 

Water cement ratio

It is a ratio of wt. of water added to 50Kg of cement (1 bag of cement). Since wt. of water

is 1 Kg per litter it will be volume of water in liters added to 50Kg or 1 bag of cement. Generally water cement ratio varies from 0.4 to 0.55 depending upon dryness of coarse and fine aggregates.

Percentage of Voids in Sand and Aggregate

Sr.

Material

Voids % average

No.

1.

Fine sand moist

43

2.

Coarse sand moist

35

3.

Coarse & fine sand mixed moist (ordinary sand)

38

4.

Coarse & fine sand mixed dry.

30

5.

Gravel

27

to 37

6.

Gravel & sand mixed

22

to 25

7.

Ballast 20mm and under with 6% coarse sand

33

8.

Broken stones 25mm and under

46

9.

Broken stones 40mm and under

41

10.

Broken stones 50mm and under most small stones screened out

45

11.

Same as below 63mm & below

41

12.

Brick ballast

35-40

Weight in kg per cubic meter for aggregate and sand and other materials used in civil engineering works

1.

Brick aggregate

930-1260

2.

Stone aggregate

2250

3.

Sand dry & clean

1450-1600

4.

River sand dry

1840

5.

Wet sand

1760-2000

6.

Cement mortar

2080

7.

Cement concrete plain

2300

8.

Reinforcement cement concrete with 2 to 5% of steel.

2500-2700

9.

Common bricks hand made

1600-2700

10.

Machine made

2400

11.

Mild steel

7850

12.

Stone masonry mortar rubble

2500

13.

Stone masonry random rubble

2100

to 2200

14.

Water clean & potable

1000

Reinforced concrete short theory

Plain concrete has tensile strength which is 1/10 of its strength in compression. A plain beam of concrete when loaded will fail at bottom while top portion can still take ten times the stress. In order to over come above weakness of concrete steel reinforcement bars are introduced at the bottom and the same size of beam of only concrete can be made 10 times stronger. Volume for volume steel costs 60 to 70 times to the cost of concrete. For the same cross section steel resists about 280 times in tension and 28 times in compression. Considering above combination steel and concrete i.e. reinforced cement concrete is used for economy. In R.C.C. design two methods are used.

  • 1. Working stress or elastic method.

  • 2. Load factor or ultimate load method.

Both methods give some what different type of results. Most commonly used is working stress method of design.

Factor of Safety.

It is the relation between ultimate strength at failure and permissible stress.

Factor of Safety

=

Ultimate Stress at Failure. ---------------------------------- Permissible Stress

Factor of safety is 3 for concrete based on cube test crushing strength. Factor of safety for steel adopted is 2 for steel which is based on

=

Modular Ratio

Yield Stress ------------------- Permissible stress

It is the relation between modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel and modulus of elasticity of concrete. It is represented by notation „m‟. Since there is no relative movement between concrete and steel in reinforced concrete, the elongation or contraction of both steel and

concrete is same. This means that modular ration „m‟ will vary with change in modulus of

elasticity of either or both steel and concrete.

m (modular ratio) =

Modulus of Elasticity of Steel. ---------------------------------------- Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

=

Stress in Steel. -------------------- Stress in Concrete

The modulus of elasticity of steel is taken constant value of 200000N/mm 2 but the modulus of elasticity of concrete is most variable and changes with strength of a particular concrete. The modulus ratio as specified in Indian standard is 2800 / 3fc where fc is maximum permissible compressive stress due to bending is concrete in kg/sq. Cm. The modular ratio for various grades is as given in the table on next page.

Sr. No.

Grades of Concrete

Ratio

Modular Ratio

  • 1. M100

 

1:3:6

31

  • 2. M150

 

1:2:4

18.7

  • 3. M200

 

1:1.5:3

13.3

  • 4. M250

 

1:1:2

11

Grades of Concrete :

Concrete is of 2 grades

  • 1. Ordinary Concrete

  • 2. Controlled

Ordinary Concrete :-

In ordinary concrete proportions of cement, sand and aggregate are arbitrarily mentioned

like those mentioned in above table.

Controlled concrete (Design Mix) :

In controlled concrete proportions of ingredients cement, sand and aggregate are decided

after conducting several tests in laboratory. A controlled concrete gives 25% higher strength from the arbitrary proportion. The proportions of ingredients in controlled concrete are slightly different from the proportions in ordinary concrete.

Concrete consolidated by vibrations gives 10% higher strength than manually consolidated concrete, hence proper consolidation by use of mechanical vibrator is always insisted in construction.

Site Tests for Concrete:

  • 1. Workability test.

  • 2. Slump Test.

  • 3. Cube / Cylinder crushing test.

  • 1. Workability Test : It is carried out for proper specified proportioning of fine and coarse aggregates and water. For this size of boxes for feeding coarse and fine aggregates to mixer machines are measured by site engineer and standard can of 5,10 or 20 litters for feeding water to mixer is checked.

  • 2. Slump Test : Slump cone test is used to decide volume of water to be adjusted as per site and whether conditions and wetness or dryness of aggregate. The apparatus is a steel mould of frustum of cone shape. The top diameter is 10 cm and bottom diameter meter 20 cm and vertical height 30 cm, fixed with foot pieces at bottom and handle on sides.

The cone is placed on smooth non-absorbent surface, which may be a steel plate. Freshly mixed concrete is placed in the cone in 4 layers one after the other each layer is compacted 25 times with a bullet pointed rod of 16 mm, diameter and 600mm long. When filled up to top and leveled to top surface, mould is immediately with-drawn with the help of handles and the slump or subsidence of the concrete is measured from a straight edge held across to top of concrete lightly. Slump is the vertical settlement of concrete after removal of steel mould. The required limits of slump are given by the designer and are mentioned in the drawing.

  • i. If slump value obtained is with in required limit, water added is correct. If slump value obtained is less than required limit, more water is to be added. If slump value obtained is more than the required limit, it indicates more water is being added and water quantity should be reduced and adjusted.

ii.

iii.

Recommended Values for Slump

 

Sr.

Type of Work

   

Slump Value in mm

No.

 

With mech.

 

Manual

Vibrations

Consolidation

1.

Mass concrete large sections, roads ect.

 

10

to 25

50

to 75

2.

Foundations footings, substructure walls and other heavy sections

26

to 50

40

to 115

3.

Thin sections such as slabs, beams, columns with congested reinforcement.

40

to 80

100 to 175

Permissible Working or Design Stress for Cement Concrete

 
 

Sr.

Grade of

Ratio

In Compression

 

In Bond

Bearing

Direct

No.

Concrete

Due to

 

Direct

Average

pressure on

Tensile

 

Bending

Compression

 

for

Full area of

Stress

Anchorage

concrete

 

M100

1:3:6

30Kg/Cm 2

25

Kg/Cm 2

4

Kg/Cm 2

25

Kg/Cm 2

12Kg/Cm 2

 

1.

Or

     
 

M10

3.0N/mm 2

2.5

N/mm 2

0.4

N/mm 2

2.5N/mm 2

1.2N/mm 2

 

M150

1:2:4

50Kg/Cm 2

40

Kg/Cm 2

6

Kg/Cm 2

37.5Kg/Cm 2

20Kg/Cm 2

 

2.

Or

   
 

M15

5.0N/mm 2

4.0

N/mm 2

0.6

N/mm 2

3.75N/mm 2

2.0N/mm 2

 

M200

1:1.5:3

70Kg/Cm 2

50

Kg/Cm 2

8

Kg/Cm 2

50

Kg/Cm 2

28Kg/Cm 2

 

3.

Or

     
 

M20

7.0N/mm 2

5.0

N/mm 2

0.8

N/mm 2

5N/mm 2

 

2.8N/mm 2

 

M250

1:1:2

85Kg/Cm 2

60

Kg/Cm 2

9

Kg/Cm 2

62.5Kg/Cm 2

32Kg/Cm 2

 

4.

Or

   
 

M25

8.5N/mm 2

6.0

N/mm 2

0.9

N/mm 2

6.25N/mm 2

3.2N/mm 2

Concrete mixes are indicated like M100 or M10, M150 or M15, M200 or M20, M250 or M25 both type of nomenclatures are commonly used. But strength is same.

Explanation

  • 1. The table is based on IS Code 456 published in 1964 and 1987. in the code in 1964 metric units were used. While is 1987 code SI units have been used and the values are expressed in N/mm 2 (10Kg/cm 2 = 1 N/mm 2 )

  • 2. M in above table refers to grade of concrete and number refers to the specified 28 days compressive strength of the mixed in Kg/cm 2 or N/mm 2

  • 3. Grades lower than 1:2:4 are not to be used normally for reinforced concrete works.

  • 4. In case of high yield strength deformed bars are used the permissible bond stress be increased by 40%. For bars in compression, the values of bond stress for bars in tension shall be increased by 25%.

Compressive strength for concrete Crushing strength tests are made on 15cm 3 the maximum grade of aggregate should not be more than 40mm.

If the aggregate size is less than 20mm the cube size need be only 10cm. If aggregate size is more than 40mm the cube size can be increased. Normally the cube size should be 4times the maximum size of the aggregate. When cylinders are used the size of the cylinder size is 15cm diameters and 30cm high. The compressive strength is 0.8 times compressive strength specified for 15cm cubes.

The permissible working strength is adopted as 1/3 of its cube crushing strength at 28 days. Normally 7 days tests of cubes / cylinder for crushing strength are used in order to asses strength of concrete pending results of 28days strength of crushing test.

Concrete is deemed to be satisfactory if 7 days crushing strength is at least 2/3 of the required test strength at 28 days. For 3 days crushing strength of concrete cubes should come about 1/3 of crushing strength required for 28 days).

However it should be clearly understood that governing factor for acceptability 28 days strength is only considered 3 days and 7 days crushing strength test though important but are only guiding factors.

Method of cube filling for crushing strength of concrete.

The concrete cubes are filled in 3 layers and each layer is consolidated by giving 25strokes with 16 MS rod bullet pointed and finished on level. The cube sides are opened after 24 hours and are gently placed in a water tank. For each testing 6 Nos. of cubes are taken and date of casting and location of concreting is written on top surface of each cube.

Out of these 3 cubes are tested for crushing strength after 7 days. If 7 days test gives result 2/3 of strength required after 28 days further testing is not required. If 7 days test results are less than required then in that case balance 3 cubes are kept in water for 28 days and tested if results are OK. The concrete is acceptable.

Guide lines for no of samples to be taken.

Sr.

Quantity of

 

No.

Concrete in the work in M 3

 

No of samples

  • 1. 1-5

 

1

  • 2. 6-15

 

2

  • 3. 16-30

 

3

  • 4. 31-50

 

4

 
  • 5. 51 & above

4

plus 1 additional sample for each 50M 3 or part there of

Note : for each sample means 6 cubes. 3 for 7 days test and 3 for 28 days.

Test strength of sample.

The test strength of each sample shall be average of the strength of 3 specimens. The

individual variation should not be more than 15% of the average.

Required Crushing Strength of Test Cubes.

Sr. No.

Concrete mix Ratio

7 Days Strength Kg/cm 2

28

Days

Strength

Kg/cm 2

  • 1. M100

 

70

100

  • 2. M150

 

100

150

  • 3. M200

 

135

200

  • 4. M250

 

170

250

  • 5. M300

 

200

300

  • 6. M350

 

235

350

  • 7. M400

 

270

400

Density of Concrete Generally less attention is paid o this factor. This can be easily worked out if concrete cubes are weighed before they are subjected to crushing for finding crushing strength. For finding out density average weight of 3 or 6 cubes should be taken. Average wt of cube in kg. Density of concrete = ------------------------------------ Volume of cube in M 3

The average density with use of stone chips in concrete. Should be 2200-2300 kg/M 3 the average density with brick aggregate should be between 1800-1900 kg/M 3 . More density indicates soundness of concrete. If density is less it indicates that quality of stones used for making aggregate is not up to the mark.

Opening of Shuttering in Various R.C.C. Structures.

In normal circumstances and where ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is used form work or shuttering can be opened or removed after expiry of the following periods.

Sr.

Type of Work

Period After which shuttering can be

 

No.

removed

1.

Vertical faces of walls, columns, beams

24

to

48

hours

as

decided

by

and vertical faces of all R.C.C. structures

Engineer In charge

 

2.

Slabs (with props left under intact)

3

Days

 

3.

Beams softs (with props left under intact)

7

Days.

 

4.

Removal of props under slabs

 

a.

Spanning up to 4.5M

7

Days

 

b.

Spanning over 4.5M

14

Days

5.

Removal of props under beams and arches

 

a.

Spanning up to 6M

14

Days

b.

Spanning over 6M

21

Days

Form Work Deviations

 

Following deviations in shape, size etc. from dimensions shown in drawing. Can be accepted.

a.

Deviation from specified dimensions of

-6mm

 

Cross section of columns & beams

+12mm

b.

Deviation from dimensions of footing

I Dimensions In Plan

-12mm,

 
 

+50mm

Ii .Eccentricity

iii. Thickness

0.02 the width of the footing in the direction of deviation but not more than 50mm 0.05 times the

Specified thickness. Note: The above tolerances apply to concrete dimensions only and not to positioning of vertical reinforcement steel or dowels.

Curing Period for concrete

  • 1. Moist Curing. All exposed surfaces of concrete shall be kept continuously in a damp or wet condition by ponding or by covering with a layer of sacking, canvas, hessian or similar materials and kept constantly wet for at least 7 days from the date of placing of concrete.

  • 2. Membranes Curing Approved curing compounds may be used in lieu of moist curing with the permission of the engineer in charge such compounds shall be applied to all exposed surfaces of the concrete as soon as possible after the concrete has set.

Steel Reinforcement

Tor Steel is generally used as reinforcement bar. Care should be taken to ensure that Tor Steel bar is not damaged during straightening or giving bends as per drawing. Some steel reinforcement breaks during above process. This indicates that bars are hard and most probably carbon percentage in steel is more, such bars sample should be sent for chemical analysis. 3 Nos. of samples at random from unused rods should be selected. The lot of reinforcement bar should not be used till OK report is obtained.

Placing and Binding of Reinforcement Bars.

Bars should be placed as per drawing and every cross should be binded by binding wires tightly. Cross-bars should not be tack welded unless permitted by engineer in charge. The reinforcement bars should be placed with in following limits.

  • a. For effective depth up to 200mm or less

10mm

  • b. For effective depth above 200mm or more

15mm

The total no of bars should however be as per drawing, and should in no case be reduced.

The Cover :

The cover shall in no case be reduced by more than 1/3 of specified cover or 5mm, which

ever is less.

Cover Blocks

The cover blocks are very important for maintaining specified cover. Generally 50mm, 40mm, 25mm and 20mm covers are provided by designers for different type of R.C.C. construction. Concrete blocks with 1:4 mortars (cemented and sand) with one binding wire inserted should be casted in at least 15days in advance and kept in water for curing and used as per requirement. 300 to 500 nos. of each may be kept ready and further cover blocks be casted as per consumption in work.

Welded Joints in Reinforcement Rods.

Generally welded joints should be avoided in R.C.C. and lap joints as per design should be provided. Welded joints should be used only in extreme cases. Minimum lap up to 16mm ø rods should be 200mm and welded on 2 sides properly. Above 16mm ø, a lap length of 250mm may be kept and welded properly on both sides.

PERMISSIBLE DESIGN STRESSES IN TOR STEEL.

In N/mm 2

Sr.

Type

of

stress

Mild Steel bars

Medium Tensile Steel or

Deformed

No.

in

steel

and

and deformed

Deformed Medium Tensile

bars as per

deformed bars

bars

Steel bars.

FE415

1.

Tension

       
  • a. Up

 

to

and

  • 140 N/mm 2

Half

the

guaranteed

yield

230

N/mm 2

including 20mm

stress max up to 190

 
 
  • b. Over 20mm

"

Half

  • 130 guaranteed

the

yield

230

"

stress max up to 190

 

2.

Compression in Col Bars

  • 130 "

130

190

"

Note:-

Compression bars in a slab are beam when the compressive resistance of the concrete is taken into account the permissible stress in compression in all types of is taken as below.

Permissible stress in surrounding concrete x 1.5 times the modular ratio or permissible compressive stress for col. Bars (which ever is less).

NOMINAL SIZE AREA AND WT. PER METE OF DEFORMED STEEL (RIBBED BARS)

Nominal Size mm

Cross Sect. Area mm 2

Wt/ Meter kg.

6

28.3

0.222

8

50.3

0.395

10

78.6

0.617

12

  • 113.1 0.888

 

16

  • 201.2 1.58

 

18

  • 254.6 2.00

 

20

  • 314.3 2.47

 

22

  • 380.3 2.98

 

25

  • 491.1 3.85

 

28

  • 616.0 4.83

 

32

  • 804.6 6.31

 

Precaution

Heavily rusted, pitted and corroded rods should not be allowed to be used in work. However slightly rusted bars can be used after cleaning and removing rust by wire brush.

PLACEMENT OF REINFORCEMENT RODS IN COL. FOUNDATIONS

Different views are expressed as to which rods should be placed at bottom i.e. either longitudinal or cross (width wise). This point is always raised at site. To find out correct answer to above quarry following line of thinking is to be followed to come to a correct conclusion.

Foundation in plan is either square shape or rectangular shape.

Square shape

a.

a.

Note:- Compression bars in a slab are beam when the compressive resistance of the concrete is

a.

a.

Bottom reinforcement can be

  • 1. Same ø for both ways.

  • 2. One thick e.g. 20 mm and other 16mm.(for exmple)

  • 3. When both are same ø any way it can be placed.

  • 4. When different ø of rods are used always put higher ø rods at bottom and less ø rods on top as below. 16 ø rods

20 ø. Rods
20 ø. Rods

Rectangular shape

When footing sides are of different length as below

Rectangular shape When footing sides are of different length as below Considering axial load from col.

Considering axial load from col. P is down words and earth pressure will be up wards the overhanging part „X‟ of foundation will act. as reverse cantilever with maximum tension on bottom. Since main reinforcement has to take this tension this reinforcement should be

below. If you consider cross section along „a‟ the over hang portion will be „Y‟ but since „X‟

bigger than „Y tension produced along „X‟ will always be bigger than the tension produced along „Y‟. Again this concludes that reinforcement rods along direction „b‟ should be placed at bottom and should be thicker rods.

Summarizing above explanation as a thumb rule always place thicker ø rods at bottom along length.

In case of discrepancy in drawing i.e. reinforcement ø along shorter side is shown of higher ø and along longer side shorter ø. such problem should be referred to H.O. / designer and after getting proper clarification reinforcement should be placed accordingly.

Brick Work

Materials and labour required for 1M 3 of brick work on an average including wastage is as below

Qty.

=

1M 3 of Brickwork

Bricks Cement Mortar (wet)=

=

500 Nos. (for both IS bricks and 9” size bricks) average. 0.23M 3 for IS Brick. 0.25M 3 for 9” Brick.

Quantities of cement and send required for 1M 3 of brick work.

Mortar Proportion

1:2

1:3

1:4

1:5

1:6

1:7

   

For IS Bricks wet Mortar qty. = 0.23M 3

 
 

156

117

  • 87 71

   
  • 58 51

Cement in Kg. Sand in cum

0.22

0.243

  • 0.243 0.243

   
  • 0.243 0.243

   

For 9” Bricks wet Mortar Qty. – 0.25cum

 
 

170

128

 
  • 95 78

 
  • 63 55

Cement in Kg. Sand in Cum

0.238

0.275

  • 0.275 0.275

   
  • 0.275 0.275

For half brickwork mortar will be 2.5 cum for IS bricks and 2.4 cum for 9” bricks per 100

sq. m of construction

Labour (approximate) per M 3 of brick work.

Mason

-

1 No.

Unskilled labour

-

1 No.

Stone Masonry.

Per cubic meter of finished work.

Type

 

Mason

Labour

   

1/3

1/3

Boulder filling dry hand packed as in pitching Un coursed random rubble walling laid dry is superstructures.

 

1/2

1

Stones

1.05

cum

1.20

cum

Mortar Wet

  • 1.20 0.3 to 0.35

Stone Masonry in Wet Mortar

Quantities and labour per cum of work.

Sr.

Type

Stones

 

Mason

labour

No.

M

3

M

3

Nos.

Nos.

1.

Un Coursed random rubble walling laid in mortar in super structure

   

1.5

2

2.

Coursed rubble walling laid in mortar in super structure

 
  • 1.25 1.5

0.30

 

2

3.

Ashlar

masonry

in

super

  • 1.30 0.20

 

3

3

structure

If ashlar masonry in super structure is done in 1:6 mortar with pointing in cement mortar 1:2, quantity of cement required will be 54kg.

Note:- In above quantities of stones are measured in loose stack.

Partition Walls (Brick or Concrete Blocks)

1.

Walls with adequate lateral restraint at both ends but not at the top:

  • a. The panels may be of any height provided the length does not exceed 40 times the thickness:

Or.

  • b. The panel may be of any length provided the height does not exceed 15 times the thickness (that is, it may be considered as a free standing wall):

Or

  • c. Where the length of the panel is over 40 times and less than 60 times the thickness, the height plus twice the length may not exceed 135 times the thickness.

2.

Wall with adequate lateral restraint at both ends and at the top:

  • a. The panel may be of any height provided the length does not exceed 40 times the thickness:

Or.

  • b. The panel may be of any length provided the height does not exceed 30 times the thickness:

Or.

  • c. Where the length of the panel is over 40 times and less than 110 times the thickness, the length plus three times the height should not exceed 200 times the thickness.

  • 3. When walls have adequate lateral restraint at the top but not at the ends, the panel may be of any length provided the height does not exceed 30 times the thickness. Note: Strength of bricks used in partition walls should not be less than 3.5 N/mm 2 or the strength of masonry units used in adjoining masonry, whichever is less. Grade of mortar should not be leaner than M2 (1:6).

Flooring

  • 1. Brick flooring per 10 Sq. meter with 9” bricks laid flat for 10 sq. m of flooring of depth 4.5” over 12mm thick mortar

Bricks

=

380 Nos.

Mortar (wet)

=

0.28cum

 

for 1:4 cement mortar

  • 110 kg cement + 0.28 cu m sand.

  • 70 kg cement + 0.28 cu m sand.

1:6 cement mortar

Labour mason

=

1 No.

Un skilled labour

=

2 Nos.

  • 2. Brick flooring per 10 Sq. m with IS Bricks laid flat (10 cm depth) over 12mm thick mortar bed.

Bricks

=

500 Nos.

Mortar wet

=

0.30M 3

 

for 1:4 cement mortar

  • 115kg cement+0.3cu m sand

1:6 cement mortar

  • 75kg cement + 0.3 cu m sand.

Labour mason

=

1 No.

Un skilled labour

=

2 Nos.

  • 3. Brick flooring per 10 Sq. meters with 9” bricks laid on edge (4.5” depth) over 12mm thick mortar

Bricks

=

570 Nos.

Mortar Wet

0.39M 3

= 1:4 cement mortar 150 kg cement + 0.39 cu m sand.

1:6 cement mortar 100 kg cement + 0.39 cu m sand.

Labour mason

=

1 No.

Un skilled labour

=

1 No.

Concrete flooring

  • 1. 25mm thick cement concrete 1:2:4 finished with floating coat of neat cement per 10 sq. m. Cement - 102 Kg (80 Kg for flooring + 22 kg for floating) Sand

- 0.12 cu m

Stone aggregate 0.24 cu m of 12.5mm nominal size aggregate for 40mm thickness. If thickness of floor is more than 40 mm use 20 mm size aggregate.

Labour mason

=

1 No.

Un skilled labour

=

1 No.

  • 2. 25mm thick cement concrete 1:1.5:3 and other things same as in (1) Cement 122 Kg (100kg for concrete + 22kg for floating) Sand 0.11 cum. Stone 0.22 cu m: - 12.5 mm nominal size Aggregate Labour same as in (1) For 40mm and above thickness of floor use 20mm nominal size of aggregate.

  • 3. 40mm thick cement concrete 1:3:6 with 12mm thick wearing coat on top, (fine grit 1:2) per 10 sq. m.

    • a. For bottom layer

Cement: -

85 Kg.

Sand: -

0.18 Cum

Stone: -

0.36 cum (12mm nominal size)

Aggregate

  • b. For top layer Cement: -

85 Kg.

Stone aggregate: -

0.12 cu m (3mm to 6mm size).

If pointing is done add for pointing, quantities as given under heading “POINTING‟.

Pointing

On brick walls for 100 sq. m in cement mortar 1: 3

Wet mortar

=

0.31 cu m.

Cement

=

1.55 Kg.

Sand

=

0.32 cu m.

Labour (including racking joints and watering)

Flush pointing

Mason

=

10

Unskilled labour

=

5

Ruled Pointing

Mason

=

12

Unskilled labour

=

5

On Stone Walls

1.

Flush or ruled pointing on random rubble walls for 100 sq. m area. Wet mortar 0.60 cu. M. In 1:3 cement mortar Cement 306 kg. Sand 0.630 cu m.

 

2.

Same on ashlar rubble walls. Wet mortar In 1:3 cement mortar: - 0.23 cu m. Cement 117 kg. Sand 0.20 cu m.

 

On brick flooring in cement mortar per 100sq. m area

 

Wet mortar

1:2 cement 136 Kg. Sand 0.186 cu m. 1:3 cement 102 Kg. Sand 0.205 cu m. 1:4 cement 76 Kg. Sand 0.205 cu m. 1:6 cement 50 Kg. Sand 0.205 cu m.

Plastering

 

Cement plaster on walls per 100 Sq. m.

 

Proportion of

12mm thick

15mm thick

 

20mm thick

 

plaster

1.44 cu m of wet plaster

1.72

cum

of

wet

2.24

cu

m

of

wet

plaster

plaster

 

Cement

:

Cement Kg.

Sand M 3

Cement

Sand M 3

Cement

 

Sand

 

sand

Kg.

Kg.

M

3

1:2

979

1.731

1170

1.638

1523

2.132

1:3

734

1.541

877

1.842

1142

2.398

1:4

547

1.532

654

1.831

851

2.383

1:5

446

1.516

533

1.812

694

2.360

1:6

360

1.512

430

1.806

560

2.252

Extra Mortar

20%

15%

12%

Note :

1.

Extra percentage is required for filling up joints in brick work and uneven surfaces.

2.

When plaster is to be finished with a floating coat of neat cement lake 220kg /100 sq. m. extra cement.

3.

For plastering on ceiling 6mm thick the quantities will be half of 12mm plaster.

 

WHITE WASHING & PAINTING

Qty. of un slaked white lime per 100 sq. m. of new surface

One coat

-

12 kg.

Two coats

-

22 kg.

Three coats

-

32 kg.

Note : Old surface will require 10kg of lime for 1 st coat

Labour for 100 Sq. m.

One coat white wash Two coats white wash Three coats white wash

1/2 white washer + ½ helper 1 white washer + 1 helper 3/2 white washer + 1.5 helper

For ceiling white washing add 25% extra labour

Snocem or cement paint for 100 sq. m.

1 st coat 2 nd coat

-

30kg.

-

20kg.

1 painter + 1 helper 2 painter + 2 helper

Roofing Roofing with G.I. sheets per 10 sq. m

15cm end laps and 2 corrugation side laps (GI sheets 22 gauge 0.8mm thick) Sheets reqd. 12.8 S. m. Seam bolts & nuts 2.5x6 mm size 30 Nos. J or L hooks bolts & nuts 8 mm dia = 25 Nos. Bitumen and GI washer = 55 Nos.

Labour sheeter 1 No. helper 1 No.

Sheeting with corrugated asbestos cement sheet per 10 sq. m area

AC sheets 7mm thick

=

11.5 sq. m.

J Or L hooks or crank bolts and nuts 8mm dia 25 Nos.

Bitumen & flat washers -25 Nos.

Labour:- Sheeter 1 No. helper 1 No. Add for ridge according to length and sheeter and helper 5% to above labour. No. extra bolts or screws are required for fixing of ridge. Holes in asbestos cement sheet should never be punched but should always be made by drilling.

CONCRETING IN COLD WEATHER

The rate of hardening and setting of concrete is very much retarded when the temperature falls below 21 deg. C (70 deg. F). At about 10 deg. C. (50 deg. F.) the action of setting slows down to about one-half of what it is at 21 deg. C. In addition to the slowing down or stopping of hydration and hardening, there is also danger of disintegration of unset concrete due to the disruptive effect set up by the expansion of the mixing water as it freezes.

During cold weather concreting shall be abandoned when the temperature falls below 4.5 dg. C (40 deg. F.). (Use immersion thermometer inserted in concrete near forms or surface for recording temperature.) it can be carried out with complete success provided certain remedial measures and precautions are taken.

The most convenient method is to heat the mixing water and, for very low temperatures to heat the aggregate as well. Heat the mixing water to 66 deg. C. (150 deg. F.). On no account shall the hot water be added to cement alone. Aggregates may be heated to 21 deg. C, mixer drum may also be warmed. Cement must not be heated.

Temperatures of fresh concrete exceeding 21 deg. C. (70 deg. F.) are undesirable due to the higher water requirement, and likelihood of cracking when the concrete contracts on cooling, and relatively low strength. For most constructions, the right temperature of concrete at placement is somewhat below 21 deg. C. Concrete with a low water / cement ratio is less liable to damage by frost, and for good resistance to frost it is considered that the average water / cement ratio should not exceed 0.60 (30 liters per 50 kg of cement).

Fresh concrete must not be allowed to freeze. If concrete is frozen, setting and hardening ceases. Avoid the use of frozen aggregate. The concrete placed shall be protected against frost by suitable covering. Concrete damaged by frost shall be removed and work redone.

Provide layers of straw or other insulating material on the freshly laid concrete surface as soon as the concrete is hard enough to sustain it without detriment. An insulating layer for covering concrete may be composed of waterproof paper overlaid with a layer of straw and finally with second layer of water proof paper.

In

frosty

or

other

adverse

weather conditions, use of colloidal concrete may be

considered.

 

An increase of cement content of the mix by about 20 to 25 per cent, use of rapid hardening cement with an admixture of calcium chloride or, high alumina cement are usually recommended. With high alumina cement concreting can proceed without any further precautions provided that the temperature is not at freezing point or below and the materials are not frozen.

“Accelerators” are used in cold weather to increase the rate of hardening and thereby

reduce the likelihood of failure. They accelerate the hydration of the cement and increase the rate of evolution of heat; thus the temperature of the concrete is raised and the freezing point of the mixing water is lowered, enabling concreting to be carried out when the air temperature is near or slightly below freezing point.

As far as practicable, the use of accelerators or admixtures should be avoided. Calcium chloride is the most commonly used material for accelerating hardening of the concrete and is perhaps the most reliable, which may be used up to 2 per cent max : (prefer 1.5 per cent) of the weight of cement. Quantity in excess of this proportion is harm full.

In no circumstances should this chemical be added to high alumina cement. Calcium chloride is a white deliquescent and hydroscopic salt commercially available at low cost in flakes or granular form and delivered in moisture proof bags or airtight drums, and should be stored in a dry place. It is dissolved in the mixing water to which cement is added after wards. Calcium chloride should not be placed in contact with water or mixed dry with aggregate. Calcium chloride shall not be used where reinforcement is provided in the concrete. The use of calcium chloride approximately halves the setting time, the concrete must be placed in position and finished with the minimum of delay because of the repaid setting.

Common salt (sodium chloride) lowers the freezing point of water. For temperatures below 0 deg. C. dissolve 1 kg. of salt in 170 liters of water and which may be slightly more for lower temperatures. Larger percentages of salt appear to weaken the concrete. Salt over 5 per cent by weight of cement is injurious as it not only affects the strength of the concrete but may also cause rusting of the reinforcement and efflorescence. Much dependence should not be placed on salt for prevention of freezing. Salt should be thoroughly dissolved or the results will not be satisfactory.

Timber form work is a valuable insulating agent and should be used in cold weather. The concrete must be kept warm and protected from frost after it has been placed and until it has hardened. Heat losses from concrete are greater in the first few hours, therefore, protective methods must be applied as soon as possible after placing. Suitable methods of protection are wrapping or covering the concrete with dry Hessian or backing, straw blankets, old paper cement bags, tarpaulins or a 15 cm layer of dry straw.

If timber formwork is used it should be left in position as long as possible. Since the rate of hardening of concrete will be slower in cold weather, formwork will have to be left in position somewhat longer. Before any formwork is stripped it must be made certain that concrete has hardened sufficiently. Precaution must be taken against coverings being displaced by wind.

Reinforcement that is left protruding from the concrete constitutes a danger spot since it offers an easy path for heat losses. It should therefore be wrapped.

Steam is sometimes used for heating the concrete, which is introduced between the coverings and the concrete.

KNOW YOUR CEMENT AND CONCRETE

As a site engineer one must know the type of cement which is being used or recommended for the project. For any type of cement O.P.C.i.e. ordinary Portland cement is the basic cement. In practice either OPC or slag cement or pozzolona cement may be used. The ultimate compressive strength is more or less same. Further to these cements various additions and admixtures are added, to form quick setting cement, rapid hardening cement, and high strength cement, shrink free cement. Water proof cement, low heat emission cement, colored cements etc. These additives and admixtures must be used as per recommendations of the Manufacturers. O.P.C. which is the base contains essentially following materials.

1)

lime

60 to 70 %

2)

silica

17 to 25 %

3)

alumina

3 to 8 %

These in gradients are thoroughly mixed with water to form a slurry which is heated and dried to form clinkers, small proportion of gypsum is added to control rate of setting and then ground to very fine powder packed and is ready to use. The various exact proportions of ingredients vary for different manufacturer depending upon the quality of materials available. Again now a days OPC. Of 33, 43, and 53 grades are available. Out of these 43 grade is most commonly used. The grade of cement depend upon the fine ness of particles, higher the grade finer is the particle size. When higher grade of cement is used more care should be taken for curing, if curing is not proper, shrinkage cracks are common in concrete and plasters made by using higher grade of cement.

Following requirements are essential for various toypes of cements. 1. SETTING TIME

TYPE OF CEMENT

INITIAL SETTING TIME

FINAL SETTING TIME

Normal setting

Not less than 30 minutes.

Not more than 10 hrs.

Rapid hardening

Same

Same

Quick setting

Low heat

Not less than 5 minutes.

Not more than 30 minutes.

High alumina

Not less than 1 hour. Not less than 2 hrs not more than 6 hrs.

Not more than 10 hrs. Not more than 2 hrs after initial set.

The compressive strength of concrete varies with different type of cement as shown below concrete under reference is in ratio 1:2:4 and water cement ratio 0. 60 .28 days strength with ordinary port land cement if taken as .1

Mix

with

ordinary cement ----

----

1.00

Aluminous cement

2.00

rapid hardening cement---

1.200

low heat cement----------

0.82

Loss of strength of cement with time.

As a result of long storage of cement the compressive strength gets reduced following table is for general guidance.

Fresh cement has strength Cement stored for 3 months

100%

has strength Cement stored for 6 month has strength Cement stored for 12 months has strength Cement stored for 24 months has strength

75 to 80 % 60 to 65 % 55 to 60 % 45 to 50 %

The time is estimated from the date It leaves the factory this indicates that cement should be used when it is fresh say within a month or two from the time it arrives at site. If cement is to be used which is 3 month or more old, it should be retested in the laboratory and should be used only when results of test are satisfactory, for any load bearing structures like columns, footings, rafts, beams, slabs or in machine foundations. When old cement is to be consumed it should be used in lean mixes like providing mud met or P.C.C. below R.C.C. or where filling is to be done, or below ground stabs etc.

EFFECT OF MOISTURE.

Cement has great affinity for water and as soon as it comes in contact with water process of hydration starts, and hard lumps are formed and strength is lost. Even moisture absorbed from atmosphere by cement kept in bags gets hydrated and looses strength; hence cement should always be stored above 1 to 2 feet from ground and kept properly covered. Absorption up to 1 % can be tolerated and if observed, such cement should be used immediately. If absorption exceeds 4 to 5%, cement is useless for all ordinary purposes. Cement bags should be opened only when it is to be emptied in the mixer drum.

PORTLAND SLAG CEMENT.

Portland slag cement: is intimately ground mixture of port-land cement clinker and granulated slag with addition of gypsum and permitted additives or and intimate uniform blend of port-land cement and finely ground granulated slag. A short description of the in gradients is as given below.

PORTLAND CEMENT CLINKER.

It consists mostly of calcium silicates obtained by heating to incipient fusion a predetermined and homogenous materials mainly containing c a 0 (lime) and Si0 2 (silica) with smaller portion of Al 2 0 3 (alumina) and Fe 2 0 3 (iron oxide)

GRANULATED SLAG.

Slag in granulated form is used for manufacturing hydraulic cement. It is basically non metallic product which has necessarily glass containing silicates and aluminum-silicates of lime and other bases. Blast furnace slag contains all above ingredients. Slag which is produced simultaneously along with iron in Blast furnace or in electric pig iron furnace. The slag produced is in molten form, this molten slag is granulated by rapid chilling or by quenching the molten slag with water or steam and air.

MANUFACTURING OF PORTLAND SLAG CEMENT.

It can be produced by 2 methods. In first method granulated slag in required quantity is added to the Portland cement ingredients like clinker etc. as explained in above and grinded together to the required fineness. In second method final grinded powder of granulated slag is mixed in required proportion to ready Portland cement and mixed thoroughly to give a homogeneous mass to be used as Portland slag cement in various construction activities.

PERCENTAGE OF CRANULATED SLAG IN CEMENT.

The granulated slag powdered content in Portland cement varies from 25% to 70% of the port land slag cement.

SETTING TIME.

Setting time of Portland slag cement when tested by Vicat Apparatus as per IS 4031 part V should be as below.

Initial setting time. Final setting time.

Not less the 30 minutes. Not more then 600 minutes.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH.

The average compressive strength of minimum 3 nos. of mortar cubes area of face 50 cm 2 , and mortar composed of 1: 3 ratio (one part of Portland slag cement and 3 parts of standard sand by mass and (p/4+3.0) percent (of combined mass of cement + sand), water and prepared, stored and tested in the manner described in IS 4031 (part 6) ; 1988 shall be as below. 1) 72+1hour Not less than 16 MPa. (3 days) 2) 168 ±2hour Not less than 22 MPa (7 days) 3)672±4hour Not less than 33 MPa (28 days) Where 1 MPa. = 1N/mm 2 = 0.102 kg/mm 2 Standard sand shall confirm to I.S. 650: 1966.

“p” is the percentage of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency.

ADVATAGES OF PORTLAND SLAG CEMENT.

1)

Physical properties are similar to port land cement.

2)

It has low heat of hydration.

3) It is better resistant to soils and water which contain excessive amounts of Sulphates of alkali metals, Alumina, and iron and also resistant to acidic waters. Due to these qualities it is suitable for use in marine works.

4) It uses Blast furnace slag which is otherwise a waste product. The disposal of slag from blast furnace and electric are furnace was a big problem be-fore port land slag cement production came in to practice.

5)

It also increases production of cement by the percentage of slag is mixed in port- land cement and thus gives economical benefit.

For more details IS 455; may be referred.

POZZOLANA CEMENT.

Pozzolana cement is ordinary Portland cement in which fly ash obtained from thermal power stations where coal is used as fuel for boilers. Huge quantity of fly ash is produced and is practically a waste product. The disposal of fly ash is a big problem to power houses. Using fly ash as admixture in cement has led to saving of scares construction minerals. For using fly ash as admixture to Portland cement, it is necessary to have proper collection system of quality fly ash from its source of production (thermal power houses). Use of fly ash in cement concrete or cement mortar has three different and specific purposes. One, use of fly ash as admixture, Second, use of fly ash as fine aggregate and Third, use of fly ash as Pozzolana.

Considering all three above aspects Indian standard bureau has made IS 3812-1981 based on the current knowledge and experience gained from the use of fly ash. It has been established that fly ash up to 12%may be used for replacement of cement without affecting the quality and strength safely. Fly ash to be used in cement can either be added along with clinker and gypsum at the time of grinding to produce Pozzolana cement or it can be added separately to Portland cement and mixed thoroughly to produce a homogeneous mass and used in construction.

GRADES OF FLY ASH.

Fly ash which is used in mixing is divided in 2 grades as per is 3812 - 1981 GRADE 1:- for incorporation in cement mortar and concrete and in Lime Pozzolona mixture and for Manufacture of Portland Pozzolana cement. GRADE2:-for incorporation in cement mortar and concrete and in Lime Pozzolona mixture for more details regarding fly ash, type and quality IS 3812 part 1 and 2 may be referred. An article published in journal of structural engineering volume 33 number 3 gave following results which are worth noting.

Mechanical properties of hardened concrete modulus

     

28

days strength N /mm 2

Modulus

Type of

concrete.

%dosage

of waste

Mix

proportion

Compressive

strength.

Split

tensile

strength.

Flexural

strength.

of

elasticity

X10 -4

N/mm 2

Conventio

           

nal

0

1:2:4

24

  • 3.24 4.81

3.91

concrete.

Fly ash

 
  • 10 (0.9+0.1):2:4

27

 
  • 3.68 4.94

5.12

concrete.

  • 20 0.8+0.2.):2:4

25

  • 3.20 4.50

4.18

Observation: - There is 5 to 12.5% increase in compressive strength at 10% replacement of cement by fly ash compared to strength of Conventional concrete. There is marginal decrease in direct tension and flexural strength at 20% replacement of cement by fly ash. There is scope for research to test concrete in which cement up to 20% is replaced partly by granulated slag and partly by fly ash and study results as to how with various combinations of both of these items the concrete will behave

CEMENT CONCRETE.

cement concrete is either made at construction site by using mixers, which are available in different capacities and types, for this coarse aggregate in the form of crushed stones and fine aggregate in the form of river sand are stocked at site and mixed in required designed proportion as per mix design to cement, water and admixtures are added. As per design proportions and mixed in the mixer machines and desired concrete is produced and used. The precautions required are that aggregate and sand should be of good quality and free from dust. If dust is observed both aggregate and sand should be thoroughly washed before use. Dust or clay should be less the 1.5 to 2% only. The dust are clay present forms a very thin film on the particles of sand and aggregate and reduces grip or adhesion of cement. Presence of clay also retards the setting action of concrete and increases drying shrinkage and has an adverse effect on final crushing strength of concrete. Hence all precautions must be taken to remove clay or silt from aggregates be fore use.

SUPPLY OF CONCRETE FROM BATCHING PLANTS.

When concrete is required in huge quantities it is supplied from batching plants in transit mixers. The batching plants are located 15 or 20 kilometers (even more) from the site of construction, order is placed on batching plants for required grade of concrete (M15,M20,M25,M30 etc.) along with quantity required. At batching plant required mix design is done along with additives required and ready made concrete is supplied. To the consumer. At worksite slump test is carried out as soon as concrete in Transit mixer is received. The concrete is poured through concrete pumps with the help of delivery pipe in foundations and vibrated. Readiness of shuttering and reinforcement binding before ordering is a pre condition. In all big projects concrete is supplied through batching plants only. Use of mixer machine is common only in residential building and small projects like, bridges culverts or projects where batching plants. Do not exist with in a reasonable distance. Test cubes are taken from the concrete during filling the foundation and are tested for 7 and 28 days strength, to asses and ensure quality of concrete. Even when concrete is supplied through Batching plants the quality of concrete depends upon type of cement and coarse and fine aggregates used. In any of the method of supply quality control by taking cubes during concreting is a must. These cubes are to be kept on or near concreted surface and cured as per curing of main foundation to arrive at proper conclusion from the results of 7 or 28 days crushing strength. It is a general practice that cubes are kept fully immersed in water for 7 or 28 days and taken out of water just before testing. This is a wrong practice and must not be allowed. From such results you can never get correct idea of mass concrete which is cured only 2 or 3 times a day, hence testing cubes should be given same treatment of curing as the mass concrete. It will be clear from above that for good and dependable quality of concrete strict supervision at every stage i. e. during binding reinforcement, shuttering, mixing, pouring and vibrating is required. Any laps at any stage will result in week concrete structure and will fail in serving the purpose for which it has been provided in due course of time. Another point which is worth paying attention is that once the concrete sets, (what ever quality it may be) and if the cube test shows less strength and defects are observed after removal of shuttering any type of remedial measure is very costly. Remedial measures like pressure grouting with cement or with chemical can only make up the loss to some extent only but no agency takes guarantee that after rectification the concrete will be as good as dependable concrete during the life time of the structures. Some time concrete structures like columns, pedestals and foundations are to be broken and rebuild. This is done by using pneumatic or electrically operated chisels These tools induce hair cracks in the concrete below the broken surface which are not visible. Cracks provide passage for underground water and damage the reinforcement by rusting and loosing the grip of reinforcement with concrete in due course of time. Following general defects are observed in concrete, since it is practically impossible to control each and every activity, it becomes more difficult when so many agencies, and suppliers are involved at site.

DEFECTS OF CONCRETE.

Cracks

Cracks in concrete can be categorized as minor hair cracks and major cracks.

minor hair cracks.

These appear on the surface film of cement layer on concrete and do not extend in side .Such cracks do not affect strength of concrete and can be removed by hard wire brushing the top cement film, easily. The main cause of appearance of hair crack is mainly due to unequal shrinkage of the surface concrete and concrete mass behind it. It is also due to bulging of shuttering. On tension side hair cracks appears due to week tensile strength of concrete compared

to steel. These cracks appear after the steel reinforcement takes load, improper curing also contributes to above reasons. After removal of top skin by hard wire brushing soon after the concrete is set and a thin coat of cement based water proof chemical is given.

MAJOR CRACKS.

These types of cracks can be seen by naked eye on the top surface near projecting heavy vertical reinforcement and foundation bolts in column and pedestals. These are wider and extend quite deep say 50 to 200 mm and more. These also extend up to corner of surfaces. Their appearance is haphazard and crisscross. Here also the reasons are 1) improper curing 2) use of high grade of cement 3) in sufficient cover 4) providing excessive reinforcement steel. 5) Difference in rate of cooling between upper layer of concrete and concrete mass in side which causes unequal shrinkage of surfaces. Shrinkage in dry and hot areas is much greater in summer and in Gulf countries, where temperature during day rises up to 50`c, and above. Due to this special arrangement for keeping the concrete surface continuously wet and cool is required. It may be mentioned that curing after concreting is taken casually and is seldom paid serious attention, which is wrong, many of cracks can be avoided if serious attention is paid for making special arrangements for proper curing prior to concreting.

REMEDIES.

1) For major cracks the best thing is to break the concrete about 100 mm below the limit to which crack is extending and recast by using concrete mixed with special non shirking cement based compound. These are available in market and are produced under different brand names. 2) Cracks can also be filled with non shirking chemicals by pressure grouting. These chemicals are very thin (even thinner than water) and fill up all cracks and cavities and solidify with in 24 to 48 hours. 3) Grouting can also be done with, epoxy based non shrinking and free flowing grouting materials with pressure. These are also available in market under different brand name. One caution in using chemical grouting material is, to discuss with representative of the supplier/ producer of the material and decide a particular type of material as recommended by him. Do not decide a particular brand of material only after reading the literature which is often confusing. It is a big relief that in India and other countries now a days manufacturers themselves under take such grouting with guarantee. It is better to engage such agencies rather purchasing the grouting chemical from supplier and carrying out the work locally or through labor contractor. Please note in later case the guarantee/warranty does not stand valid.

Honeycombs in concrete: - Honeycombs are hollow spaces and cavities left in concrete mass on surface or in side the concrete mass where concrete could not reach. These look like honey bees nest. Honey combs which are on sides are visible to naked eyes and can be detected easily as soon shuttering is removed. Honey combs which are inside mass of concrete can only be detected by advanced techniques like ultrasonic testing etc. Honey comb is due to non reaching of concrete to all places due to which cavities and hallow pockets are created, main reasons are 1) improper vibration during concrete. 2) Less cover to reinforcement bars 3) use of very stiff concrete (this can be avoided by controlling water as per slump test). 4) Places like junction of beam to beam to column and to one or more beams are the typical spots where honey combs are observed. This is due to jumbling of reinforcement of beams and column rods at one place; special attention is required at such place during concreting and vibrating. 5) Presence of more percentage of bigger size of aggregate in concrete also prevents concrete to fill narrow spaces between the reinforcement rods.

REMEDIES FOR HONECOMBS.

Strictly speaking wherever honeycombs are observer concrete should be broken and the portion should be re concreted after applying grouting chemical to the old surface. Honeycombs as a defect not only reduces the load bearing capacity but water finds a easy way to reinforcement rods and rusting and corrosion starts. Corrosion is a process which continues through reinforcement‟s rods even in good concrete, this result in loosing grip between rods and concrete, which is very dangerous to safety and life of concrete structures. R.C.C. structures have failed with in 20 or 30 years of there construction which is less than half their projected life. Especially no risk should be taken in case of columns, Machine foundations, Rafts, Beams etc, where breaking and recasting is the only best way. In case of honey combs on surface pressure grouting with cement based chemicals which are non shrinkable can be adopted after taking opinion of the designer and acting as per his advice.

It will not be out of context to point out that contractors and their supervisors are in the habit of hiding honey combs by applying super facially cement plaster on the honey combs, hence site engineer must be very cautious. At places of junction of columns and beams concrete with strictly 20mm and down aggregates should be used with slightly more water and cement to avoid honeycombs. Taping with wooden hammer the sides of shuttering from outs side during concreting and vibrating will help minimizing honeycombs to a great extent in case of columns and beams. Use of thinner needle say 25mm or less with vibrator at intricate places of concreting will also help in reducing honey combs.

Segregation

Segregation is separation of ingredients of concrete from each other. In good concrete all concrete aggregates are evenly coated with sand and cement paste and forms a homogeneous mass. During handling, transporting and depositing due to jerks and vibrations the paste of cement and sands gets separated from coarse aggregate. If concrete segregates during transit it should be remixed properly before depositing. How ever a concrete where initial setting time is over, should not be used.

MAIN CAUSES OF SEGREGATION.

1) Use of excess quantity of water. This is a general tendency when concrete is made at site in mixer machine by workers. 2) Excessive vibration of concrete when mechanical needle vibrators are used, as a result of excessive vibration heavier particles sink to bottom and liquid comes on top. 3) Depositing concrete from top in underground foundations and rafters, concrete should never be thrown from a height when brought in buckets by laborers, which is a general tendency observed at site.

REMEDY.

Where ever depth is more than 1.5 meters it should be deposit