WRITING TASK 1 The table shows sources of student income over a ten-year period in the United Kingdom
. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. You should write at least 150 words. Sources of student income (aged under 26 in higer education) United Kingdom 1988/89 Student loan Parental contribution Grant Earnings Other All income (=100%) (£ per student per year at July 1999 prices) Source: Student income and Expenditure Survey, Department for Education and Employment. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ + 32 38 6 24 4,395 1992/93 8 26 38 7 21 4,048 1995/96 14 22 23 14 27 4,951 1998/99 24 16 14 12 34 5,575 Percentages
Viết report cũng dễ thôi, mọi người đừng sợ. Chỉ cần cùng Bear làm xong bài mẫu này, bảo đảm.. mọi người sẽ ‘ghiền’ viết report thôi [Những ai đang học thi TOEFLibt thì đừng có đọc nhé.. bởi vì.. đọc xong.. coi chừng.. thấy easy quá.. chuyển sang thi IELTS luôn không chừng] 1. Paragraph 1: Intro what the diagram shows (do not copy the question) Trong phần mở bài, mình có thể bắt chước cấu trúc này: The diagram shows the trend / a rise / a fall / a change / the percentage. Nhớ là đừng copy nguyên xi cái đề bài, mà phải biến đổi chút chút: Ví dụ: The table shows the trend which took place in student income in the United Kingdom during the ten-year period from 1988 to 1999. (23 words) 2. Paragraph 2 or 3: The body of the report – giving details, numbers Phần thân bài này, nên chia thành 2 đoạn: 1 đoạn nói về sự gia tăng, 1 đoạn nói về việc giảm xuống. Nhớ sử dụng những từ ‘tăng-giảm’ và cấu trúc ‘tính từ-danh từ’ , ‘trạng từ-động từ’ như đã đề cập ở bài trước.
Nhớ là chỉ pick up những con số nào tiêu biểu để report thôi, không phải report hết tất cả các con số. Vì mình chỉ có 20 phút để làm mà thôi. Ví dụ: Even though the data of student loan is not presented in 1988/89, there was a dramatic increase from 8% in 1992/93 to 24% in 1998/99. The percentage of earnings also rose sharply from 6% in 1988/89 and reached the peak at 14% in 1995/96, then fell slightly by 2% in 1998/99. (51 words) On the other hand, there was a steep fall in parental contribution from 32% in 1988/89 to 16% in 1998/99. At the same time, grant went down by 24% from 38% in 1988/89 to 14% in 1998/99. (37 words) 3. Paragraph 4 (conclusion): Overall statement about the trend (analysis) Phần kết luận, mình sẽ nói tóm tắt lại xu hướng chung. Có thể bắt chước cấu trúc này: Overall,… went up… while… went down Ví dụ: Overall, the annual income per student rose gradually from 4,395 pounds in 1988/89 to 5,575 pounds in 1998/99, and there was a shift from being dependent to independent of the students at that period. (34 words) ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Report structure 3. grant went down by 24% from 38% in 1988/89 to 14% in 1998/99. there was a steep fall in parental contribution from 32% in 1988/89 to 16% in 1998/99. the annual income per student rose gradually from 4. and there was a shift from being dependent to independent of the students at that period. nhưng mình làm trên 141 từ là ok. (23 words) Even though the data of student loan is not presented in 1988/89.395 pounds in 1988/89 to 5. bài này đạt 4 yêu cầu: 1. Task fulfillment 2. (51 words) On the other hand. The percentage of earnings also rose sharply from 6% in 1988/89 and reached the peak at 14% in 1995/96. At the same time. (37 words) Overall. there was a dramatic increase from 8% in 1992/93 to 24% in 1998/99. Thầy Nick nói. then fell slightly by 2% in 1998/99. Vocabulary
.Bear trình bày lại nguyên bài để mọi người dễ theo dõi: The table shows the trend which took place in student income in the United Kingdom during the ten-year period from 1988 to 1999. (34 words) => Total: 145 words (mặc dù đề yêu cầu là ít nhất 150 từ. nếu mình làm 140 từ thì sẽ thua người 141 từ 0.5 điểm) Như vậy.575 pounds in 1998/99.
In the final step.. Grammar
Marks: 8 Còn nhiều dạng của TASK 1 lắm: process. nên phải sử dụng sequence markers này để nói lên trình tự bước thứ 1. Như vậy. Next. Finally. In the second stage. Như vậy. After that. Vì mình đang diễn tả 1 quy trình. mình cũng làm trong vòng 20 phút và viết ít nhất là 150 từ. in the first step. Mình nhìn vào những hình đó và viết report về những steps của quy trình đó. 5/ uống
I . bước thứ 2. 4/ cho thêm đá. P/S: @ leotran: you’re welcome
Hôm nay Bear xin nói về cách viết A PROCESS REPORT.. etc. khuấy lên. thuộc WRITING – TASK 1. Enjoy phần easy này trước nhé Nice weekend. Đề bài là: người ta cho mình nhiều hình nói về tiến trình của 1 việc nào đó. không có điểm dừng và không có điểm
. Ví dụ: 1/ mở gói lipton ra . Nhưng cũng có 1 số quy trình. Đây cũng là 1 dạng report. nhất định bài report phải sử dụng 2 cấu trúc quan trọng sau đây:
1. changes. Sequence markers: Firstly (first of all). 2/ đổ vào ly .4. 3/ cho nước vô.
kết thúc (mưa => rơi xuống đất/ biển => bốc hơi lên => mây => mưa) thì mình sẽ không dùng FIRST và FINALLY.
Body: chỉ cần 1 đoạn cho phần thân bài. Chỉ chọn đại 1 mốc nào đó. rồi mô tả tiếp. After a minute.
2. a tea bag is put in a cup.
Nếu vẫn chưa đủ 150 words thì mới cần đến phần conclusion này: Finally. Bear sẽ post bài này sau để mọi người rõ. Cấu trúc của bài process report:
Thường thì chỉ cần 2 phần: 1. water is boiled. First of all. In the final step.
II . After that the water is poured into the cup.
Introduction: phần này cũng giống như những phần khác: không
được copy y chang đề. This report will discuss the process in stages / in detail. mô tả rõ từng step của quy
trình. Next. mà phải biến đổi. 2.
3. milk and sugar are added and stirred. the cup of tea is served. Có thể dùng mẫu này cho bất kỳ process report nào: The diagram shows the process of making a cup of tea with a lipton teabag. there are 5 steps in making a cup of tea with a lipton tea bag. Passive Sử dụng càng nhiều càng tốt.
Chứ thi mà viết như vậy thì chưa đủ 150 từ. The worms penetrate the skin of any person who happens to be standing in the water. the eggs are exreted into the water. the embryoes enter the bodies of water snails.Đây chỉ là ví dụ để mọi người rõ cách làm easy như thế nào. Finally. Lần sau Bear post bài mẫu. nhà xuất bản tổng hợp TPHCM. 42. When the eggs hatch. Once inside the human body. Enjoy ly thuyet trước nhé. chú giải tiếng Việt: Nguyễn Thành Yến.000VNĐ) 3. chú giải tiếng Việt: Nguyễn Thành Yến. They remain in the liver until they are adults.
. The first stage takes place in the water. chú giải tiếng Việt: Nguyễn Thành Yến. and then move to the bladder. ACADEMIC WRITING PRACTICE FOR IELTS (Tác giả Sam McCarter. A BOOK FOR IELTS (Tác giả Sam McCarter.000VNĐ) 2. where they lay their eggs. too. có thể tham khảo nhiều sách dạy viết WRITING dành cho IELTS rất hay: 1. At this stage. nhà xuất bản tổng hợp TPHCM. the worms return to the water.000VNĐ)
THE LIFE CYCLE OF CHISTOSOME The life-cycle of schistosome can be divided into two main stages. nhà xuất bản tổng hợp TPHCM. they move through the blood vessels to the liver. They develop into worms inside the snails. 78. Eventually. causing severe inflammation. Ah. The second stage takes place in the water. 42. A BOOK ON WRITING (Tác giả Sam McCarter. the lifecycle of schistosome begins all over again.
sudden (suddenly) Đều: steady (steadily). a trough (điểm đáy) Reduce khác với fall. marked (markedly) Vừa phải: moderate (moderately) Nhẹ: slight (slightly) Ít: small. nose-dive (v). significant (significantly).g. peak (v) 2/ Giảm (decrease): fall (v.Tăng và giảm Dùng động từ: 1/ Tăng (increase): rise. grow.lên tới đỉnh: to reach a peak. climb (v) . to be up . go down (v). Vd: The company reduced their prices. swift (swiftly).. escalation (n)). đáng kể: substantial (substantially). sharp (sharply).giảm nhanh: plunge (v). n). thị phần): diminish. quick (quickly). tremendous (tremendously) Nhiều.Chạm đáy: to reach/hit rock-bottom. but their prices fell. augment. plummet . contract . shrink.tăng nhanh: soar (v).leo thang: escalate (v. to stay constant Dần dần: gradual (gradually) Chậm: slow (slowly) Chiếm/bao gồm
. considerable (considerably). tumble (v). little Tối thiểu: minimal (minimally) + Để chỉ tốc độ: Nhanh.tăng chậm. decline (v). steep (steeply). sky-rocket (v). + Để chỉ cường độ: Mạnh: dramatic (dramatically). slump (v). thình lình: rapid (rapidly). huge (hugely). to be down . go up (v). Thường dùng kiểu như to remain unchanged/stable/steady. 3/ Ổn định: level out (v) Dùng thêm tính từ/trạng từ: Chúng ta có thể dùng adj hay adverbs để bổ sung cho động từ. enormous (enormously).Thu hẹp (e. hay drop ở chỗ to reduce là transitive verb (to reduce ST) trong khi fall và drop là intransitive verb. n). nhích từng chút một: inch up (v) . drop (v. shoot up (v) . constant (constantly).
the reel or cassette is removed from the camera to be processed. to avoid over. to comprise. The tank is tightly closed to keep out light.or under-developing. Trích blog của Thầy DUSYR: http://dusyr1. (2) passive voice. Chiếm dịch là: to represent. to be composed of.
. First. Bao gồm: to be made up of. to make up. to consist of. in a spiral to avoid contact between its surfaces. the tank is filled with developer. which is a dilute solution of hydroquinone and sodium sulphite and other chemicals.Chi tiêu cho quần áo chiếm 20% tổng chi tiêu. A thermometer is needed as the developing time depends on the temperature as well as on the strength of the solution.
HOW TO DEVELOP A FILM After all the photographs on a film have been taken. the film itself must be stripped from its backing paper in complete darkness. Some developers can be reused.wordpress. or the tank is inverted and the developer must be poured off at the right moment. to constitute. The film is turned round from time to time in the developing tank.com/?s=charts
Chú ý: (1) Sequence markers. Next. It is then immediately loaded into a developing tank.
It is then treated with fixing solution to remove any undeveloped silver bromide. just tighten the valve. if there is no fault in the valve. which has light and dark parts. glue. must now be wahsed in a 2% solution of acetic acid to remove all the developer. But first of all. an abrasive surface. when thoroughly dry. it would be a good idea to check if the flat tyre is just due to a faulty valve.The developed film. Punctures which are not huge holes can be repaired. However. tyre irons and chalk.g.
HOW TO MEND A FLAT BICYCLE TYRE Flat tyres are often caused by punctures which leak air with varying degrees of speed. In this case. You should begin by deflating the tyre. Then you should work the
. it is washed in running water. you should begin. are now finally ready for printing. sandpaper. The negatives. e. You can do this by replacing a drop of spit or water on the end of the valve stem. by deflating the tyre. Before the film is removed from the developing tank to dry. A leaky valve will bubble or spit back. You’ll need a tube patch kit containing patches. as mentioned before.
tyre back and forth with your hands to get the edge of the tyre free of the rim. If you can’t. This is the whole process of mending a flat tyre. you should inflate the tube and rotate it past your ear. you take out a piece of patch and put it right on the spot. When the glue is dry enough.
HOW TO MAKE PAPER Modern paper is manufactured from a mixture of various fibres like rags. You can use the sandpaper to rub the spot rough enough and then apply glue to the spot. you should push the valve stem up into the tyre. If this doesn’t work. linen. When the edge is off the rim. and remove the tube. You will wait for two or three minutes. wood pulp produced from complete trees after the bark has been
. The main ingredient is. wood. and then mark the spot with the chalk. of course. use the tyre irons as levers to free the tyre. look for escaping air bubbles. it is a good idea to mark the spot with chalk. If you can find the puncture through the hiss of escaping air. waste paper. then press it hard. At this stage. then you should place all of the tube in the water.
. which is wound into a large roll at the end of the manufacturing process.
HOW A CAMERA WORKS A camera is basically a simple instrument. and chopped up. which is dried and passed through many rollers to press it into shape. The pieces fo wood are then ground up and mixed with other substances.removed. the camera obscura (Latin for dark chamber). This captures the image which is brought in by the rays of light. Photographs are produced when rays of light enter this chamber through a small opening (the aperture). where the trees are cut down. The aperture contains a convex lens which refracts the light. to make a paper fibre mixture. This process produces one continuous sheet of paper. These are large areas of wire mesh – sheets of metal with a large number of holes in them. The main ares of production are Findland and Canada. and strike against a sensitive film. such as glue. Here the water is extracted from the mixture. The surface of the film is covered with silver bromide emulsion. Its name comes from its most important part. taken to the saw mill. and then poured out onto wire screens.
to vary the length of an exposure and the quantity of light to be allowed in.aperture is closed or opened by a shutter. a condenser and a set of thin. the refrigerator mechanism includes a motor-driven compressor. it absorbs heat and.
HOW A REFRIGERATOR WORKS A refrigerator is really nothing more than a box in which articles can be kept at a cool temperature. it absorbs heat. the
. and a wider aperture lets in more light on a dull day. The temperature inside the box is regulated by means of thermostat. It is. As this happens. as a result. usually closed. of course. into which is pumped a liquid refrigerant called Freon. which is the only moving part in a simple camera. In more refined cameras. shorter exposures are needed to photograph moving objects. This is mounted behind the lens. Apart from the thermostat. metal evaporator coils. When a liquid evaporates. The refrigerant used in a refrigerator has a very low boiling point and it evaporates in the metal coils. the speed of the shutter and size of the aperture can be adjusted.
that is. The information may be presented to you in a number of ways. the thermostat causes the motor to start. reducing the pressure and allowing liquid refrigerant to move into them. make assumptions. chart or table. graph. As soon as the temperature inside the refrigerator rises above a predetermined level. Freon vapour is drawn from the evaporator coils by the compressor. The process continues until a pre-set temperature is reached. This liquid in its turn evaporates. often as data within a diagram. When the temperature rises above the pre-determined level. for instance. as: • a graph • a diagram of the stages of a process or procedure
. The cool refrigerant passes through the condenser.evaporator coils cool down. absorbing heat and cooling the refrigerator. or draw conclusions about the information given. The minimum number of words you are required to write is 150. where it is changed back into a liquid form and is eventually forced back into the evaporator coils. the thermostat cuts out the compressor and the refrigerator remains idle. You are not asked to give opinions. At this point. the thermostat triggers the compressor into action once more and the cooling cycle recommences. You must present the information in your own words as complete sentences within paragraphs.
Writing Task 1 is designed to test your ability to interpret and present information that is given in short form. not in note form unless specifically requested.
Decline and increase . + The price shot up. + The price enjoyed/ saw a leap/ a steady rise/ a sharp increase. chart. + The table/ chart/ diagram/ graph/ figures/ statistics/ diagram + shows (that/how)./ describes (that/ how)/ illustrates (that/ how). + The price soared/ leaped/ climbed to a new peak/ hit a peak/ reach a peak/ reach a high.. USE "REFERENCE" STRUCTURES When referring to a diagram.=suddenly and quickly decrease.declined .. + The price fluctuated/ moved up and down. and will effectively lead in to what you have to say. + The price rose and fell over the period. + The price tumbled = to decrease quickly and by a significant amount = to fall greatly in value in a short time without control. + The price soared spectacularly more than nine times its value in the previous year. + There was a plunge/ steep fall/ drop/ decline/ decrease in the price... 1.• a bar or pie chart • a sequence of events • a table of information • a picture of an object showing how it works. + The price sank to a new low/ go into free fall/ sank to a low point. 2. This will assist the reader to know where your information comes from. use "reference" structures such as those given below. Fluctuate: + The price is erratic. + The price had soared a further twenty percent.decreased steeply + The price collapsed = suddenly decrease + The price plummeted/ plunged.. + The price went through/ experienced a period of erratic behaviors/ erratic period/ a
. + According to the/ As (is) shown in the/ As can be seen from the/ It can be seen from the/ We can see from the table/ chart/ diagram/graph/figures + that + It is clear-apparent from the + table/ chart/ diagram/graph/figures + that Be careful not to use these "reference" structures too frequently to avoid unnecessary repetition.. + The price suffered/ experienced/ saw a steep/ sharp decline/ decrease/ fall.fell . table etc. Increase: + The price increased/ grew/ went up/ rose rapidly.task 1 Decline: + The price went down . + The price fluctuated sharply/ wildly/ slightly.dropped .
period of volatility/ a volatile/ wild fluctuation.+ will-clause.. Recover: + The price then recovered. however.. In that case you can not say that something will happen. or could are generally too vague and uncertain to be used. + The price bounced back to 200. For example:
3. + The price made a steady recovery.
.. Stable: + The price was steady.. The most common expressions for discussing possible future trends are: + It is predicted/ forecast/ projected/ expected/ suggested/ likely/ probable that. might. + The price leveled off. + The price . regaining its previous level. + The price shot up again to 200.. + The price remain stable/ constant. before stabilizing at. Making predictions. The modals may. only that it may or could. + The price did not change over the period. + The price bounced back after a steep plunge earlier this week. + The price dropped/ fell back to the January level./ settling down to a more stable period. Occasionally a graph showing trends predicts what may happen in future.. Trend: + The trend was definitely/ obviously upward/ downward. + The price regained its previous level.
.A lot of: This is very common. + The prediction is that A will-clause + The prediction for A to increase. too weak. This is a way of making the style more formal.Big is not a formal word: Large is.. shouldn’t. . Avoiding Informality The above is a typical example of a style which contains a number of informal usages. there is .The personal pronoun (they) is avoided and the passive is used. don’t. These should not be used. A large number of students do not realise that there is a problem. . Similarly. Here is an example of what to avoid: Here are two graphs. is too uncertain. and so you should not use a story-telling style.Abbreviations: Here’s. narrative style.
USING THE CORRECT STYLE AND AVOIDING COMMON ERRORS 1. since there is no main clause. however. a
. use many (what many students do…) and for uncountable nouns use a great deal of (there was great deal of expansion in the 1990s) . b. They show that there were many changes in the kinds of jobs the people of Alia mostly did in the last century: In the 1920s most people worked in agriculture. informal expression. and which should be avoided.A sentence beginning with And... there’s.. For countable nouns. Remember walk before you try to run. redundancy and repetition. A little number of students should be A small number of students.might/ may/ could +. . but you need to be careful not to use the passive if the result sound awkward.. An improvement of the above two sentences would read: This is a typical example of a style which many students use.The weak adjective good is replaced by a more exact one: typical Note: It is better to be a little informal and correct then to attempt to be very formal and make bad errors. and they continued in this way for many years. Later...... Avoiding a Narrative Style A report is not a story. Can you indentify them? . And what they shouldn’t do: A big number don’t realise there’s a problem of stylistic errors to avoid: informality. do not. A will likely/ probably increase to. + By 2020. Can you see the additional improvements as well as the corrections? . You should also avoid starting sentences with But and So. + An increase/ decrease in A to.. THEORY First there are a number Here’s a good example of what a lot of students do.An incomplete sentence: The last sentence is not a complete sentence.+ It is predicted that A will-clause + A is predicted to increase/ decrease. a. => Write here is. should not. as farmers. Note: It is predicted that + .The repetition of do is avoided .by 2020 is expected.
There are two important reasons to avoid using more words than necessary: .change gradually happened in the workforce. because they fear that they can not produce 150 words about a graph or table. any grammatical or vocabulary errors in your writing become very noticeable. when it is not necessary. you should aim to use the fewest number of words necessary to convey your meaning. c. Students often use both redundancy and repetition either because they are translating from a language where these forms are commonly used. (Such sentences should simply be omitted) In other words. Even if you use a phrase correctly. Repetition is another very common form of redundancy and should be avoided for the same reasons: It is not academic in style. However. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods.It produces an unacademic style. your work will look bad. Avoiding Repetition. while the other 80% happen during daylight hours (only the first half of the sentence is necessary) . being more suited to story-telling or literature . Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below You should write at least 150 words. but are actually empty of content.
. Here is an example:In contrast. From the graph we can see the various rates of change. you can not gain good marks in a test if you do not show your ability to use a variety of expressions. as the test question requires. the position of women was just the opposite to that of men. Avoiding Redundancy Redundant means more than is necessary. Here is an example: Twenty percent of car accidents happen after dark. in contrast) . it is better to write down more about details than to fill up your paper with statement that contain no real information. Redundant statements include the following: . The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. (Omit the introductory phrase. or to fill up space. The trends are not the same.Those that make a contrast explicit.Those that are used like topic-sentences.Because there is no real information for the reader (or examiner) to focus on. Moreover. Here are some examples: There are some differences between two countries. if you have a mistake in a phrase your are using.Those that provide information that is so obvious it is not worth stating. Examples Bar Chart and Line Graph connection in Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. If you feel that you are not writing enough (150 words for the ielts exam) you should add more detail. d. and you continue to use that same phrase repeatedly.
and fish and chips consumption rising above pizza around 1987 The consumption of pizza was in decline over much of the period until 1985. followed by fish and chips at 24 pence. Low income earners spent the least money. however fish and chips were their most popular fast food. The consumption of hamburgers and fish and chips rose steadily over the 20 year period. then 11 pence on pizza. hamburgers exceeding pizza around 1982.
. spending at least 12 pence more on hamburgers than on the other foods. we can see that in 1970. From the graph. followed by hamburgers and then pizza. The chart shows that high income earners consumed by far the most fast foods.
Examples Bar Chart and Line Graph connection in Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.Sample Answer The diagrams give information on expenditure and consumption of fast foods in the UK. pizza was by far the most popular fast food. but experienced a slight recovery to 1990. Average income earners also favoured hamburgers (33 pence per week).
.The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast foods in Britain. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below You should write at least 150 words. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast foods.
and fish and chips consumption rising above pizza around 1997. followed by hamburgers and then pizza. The chart shows that high income earners consumed by far the most fast foods. pizza was by far the most popular fast food.
. hamburgers exceeding pizza around 1982. From the graph. 1991 and 2001. The table below describes visitor numbers for various museums and galleries in the UK over three decades: 1981. then 11 pence on pizza. we can see that in 1970. Low income earners spent the least money. Average income earners also favoured hamburgers (33 pence per week). spending at least 12 pence more on hamburgers than on the other foods. The consumption of pizza was in decline over much of the period until 1985.Sample Answer The diagrams give information on expenditure and consumption of fast foods in the UK. followed by fish and chips at 24 pence. The consumption of hamburgers and fish and chips rose steadily over the 20 year period. but experienced a slight recovery to 1990. however fish and chips were their most popular fast food. Examples Table in Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
visits to the Tate Britain increased most dramatically from 1. visits declined dramatically before 1991. becoming the fourth most popular cultural attraction. however. because these attractions started charging entrance fees. Three of the museums and galleries saw a general increase in the number of visits over the period. Finally.5 in 2001. in pints. from 2. Example Pie Chart in Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. Although the Natural History Museum and the Science Museum recorded the highest figures in 1981.3 million (despite a marginal decline in 2001).9 million visits in 1981).5. There were no figures for the Tate Modern for the first two decades. despite a rise in 2001. In spite of starting at lower than any other attraction (0. and. 1991 and 2001. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
. and again to 2. Firstly. for the National Gallery. The charts show the quantity of milk.
Sample Answer The table illustrates visitor figures for various UK cultural attractions in 1981.9 million in 1991. secondly. consumed daily by children in the UK in 1997. figures are still to reach previous levels. it enjoyed 4.7 million visitors in 2001.7 to 4. figures for the British Museum jumped significantly by 2.Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below You should write at least 150 words.
. Considerably more boys than girls consumed between three quarters and 1 pint. as can be seen earlier in the paragraph.
Sample Answer The bar charts give information about the daily milk consumption (in pints) of children in Britain in 1997. For girls. Finally a very insignificant proportion of girls (3%) drank no milk at all. 8% of boys consumed more than one pint per day (equal to the proportion consuming no milk).below You should write at least 150 words. half a pint (25%) and more than 1 pint (23%) were the most significant proportions. The two largest proportions for male children were for a quarter of a pint and half a pint (33% and 27% respectively). however. is in stark contrast with the fraction of the girls who said they drank more than one pint every day. This.
But assembly first depends upon
. Example about Process in Writing Task 1 The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods manufacturing. these are stored for later assembly.When we combine the proportions. Once obtained. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process shown. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The lowest of the total was for children drinking no milk at all (6% of the total).
Model answer: Most consumer goods go through a series of stages before they emerge as finished products ready for sale. The next most significant proportion was for those drinking more than three quarters of a pint. we can see that the majority of the children drank between a quarter and a half pint daily (both at 26%). You should write at least 150 words. Raw materials and manufactured components comprise the initial physical input in the manufacturing process. including the process by which information is fed back to earlier stages to enable adjustment.
which is the end point of the manufacturing process. Market research. It is formed of volcanoes and the active ones are at the
. A product's design is not only the result of product research. market research. which examines the extent and nature of the demand for products. then adjustments will have to be made to the product's design. Thus the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes well beyond a simple linear production process.
model answer: The Hawaiian island chain.the production planning stage. despatched and offered for sale in retail outlets. The production planning stage itself follows the requirements of the goods' design stage that proceeds from extensive research. but is also influenced by testing and market research. also serves to foster future sales by devising suitable advertising for the goods. has the role of guiding product design to suit consumer demands which may change with time. Similarly. The level of sales. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.700 km in length. while influenced by product sales. If the testing stage (after assembly and inspection) reveals unacceptable problems in the finished product. You should write at least 150 words. in the centre of the Pacific Ocean. is approximately 2. Example about Structure or Chain of Something in Writing Task 1 IELTS Essay Task 1: Hawaiian island chain The diagram below gives the information about the Hawaiian island chain in the centre of the Pacific Ocean. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown. helps determine production planning. After assembly. where it is decided how and in what quantities the stored materials will be processed to create sufficient quantities of finished goods. the products are inspected and tested to maintain quality control l Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are then packaged.
further eruptions took place. a volcano forms as it passes over the hotspot and then become inactive when it has passed it. It is believed that the chain began to form nearly 80 million years ago. You should write at least 150 words. it emerged above the surface of the ocean.
IELTS Writing Task 1
Written by Rad Danesh Wednesday. and make comparisons where relevant.
. First. a `hot spot' existed on the ocean bed. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features. The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different age groups and the amount of support they received from employers. Each island started to evolve after an eruption on the sea floor. Next. where Hawaii itself is located. which let out a plume of material called magma. Eventually.south-east tip of the archipelago. As it moves.883km below the ocean bed. the spume of magma has remained static as the Pacific tectonic plate moves in a north-west direction across it at a speed of 79cm per year. This magma may originate as deep as 2. 01 August 2007 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. which built up the volcano. Since that time.
The second graph shows that employer support is maximum (approximately 60%) for the under 26yr students. It is unclear whether employer support is only for career-focused study. It drops rapidly to 32% up to the third decade of life. and then increses in late adulthood up to about 44%. study for their career. the first graph also shows that study stemming from interest increases with age. The percentage increases slowly till the beginning of the fourth decade. but the highest level is for those students who mainly study for career purposes. (192 words)
This is an answer written by a candidate who achieved a Band 8 score. However 70% of over 49yr olds study for interest in comparison to 18% studing for career reasons in that age group. Clear trends are identified and supported with appropriately-selected figures.model answer: The first graph shows that there is a gradual decrease in study for career reasons with age. Nearly 80% of students under 26 years. There are only 10% of under 26yr olds studing out of interest. Conversely. This percentage gradually declines by 10-20% every decade. Nearly same number of 40-49yr olds study for career and interest. and increases dramatically in late adulthood. The answer could only be improved by adding an introduction to the general topic of the
. Here is the examiner's comment: This answer summarises the key features of both charts and integrates them well. Only 40% of 40-49yr olds and 18% of over 49yr olds studing for career reasons in late adulthood.
Paragraphing is used well initially. You should write at least 150 words. The table below shows CO2 emissions for different forms of transport in the European Union.
. Words are used precisely and there are no errors in spelling or word form. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. although there is occasional omission. A wide range of structures is used and most sentences in this answer are accurate. The Pie Chart shows the percentage of European Union funds being spent on different forms of transport. IELTS Writing Task 1 .Graph #43 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. but lapses in the later section. Errors are rare and do not affect communication in this answer. with a clearly-signalled progression.charts. The information is well organised. A very good range of vocabulary is used to convey the information concisely and accurately with only occasional inappropriacy. Linking words are used accurately and precisely.
Nearly a third of EU transport funds are spent on railways. Emissions of CO2 per passenger kilometre from coaches are half those of buses. Buses emit less than half as much CO2 per passenger kilometre as cars. Very little is spent by the EU on air travel while roads make up more than half of the EU transport budget. Ships are a clean form of transport and produce about the same amount of CO2 per passenger kilometre as trains do. Coaches are the cleanest form of transport.
.model answer: The chart shows CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre for variuos methods of transport in the European Union while the pie chart shows European Union spending on transport. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features. A further one percent is spent on inland waterways. Trains produce about three times less CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre than passenger cars and eight times less than air travel. such as buses and coaches. only 2 percent of EU funds are spent on ports. and make comparisons where relevant. approximately three times as much as passenger cars which are the next largest producers. Flying by air produces by far the greatest CO2 emissions. However. (197 words)
IELTS Writing Task 1 . The European Union spends 10 percent of its transport budget on public transport.Graph #31 The graph shows Underground Station Passenger Numbers in London.
numbers decline. Example about System in Writing Task 1 IELTS Essay Task 1: Central heating system The diagram below shows how a central heating system in a house works. with 400 people using the station at 8 o'clock. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. After 7 pm. the graph shows that the station is most crowded in the early morning and early evening periods.
. * You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. numbers fall significantly. and make comparisons where relevant. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features. with less than 100 using the station at 4 pm. with a plateau of just under 300 people using the station. tailing off after 9 pm. After this the numbers drop quickly to less than 200 at 10 o'clock. There is then a rapid rise to a peak of 380 at 6pm.* You should write at least 150 words. The busiest time of the day is in the morning. You should write at least 150 words. Between 11 am and 3 pm the number rises.
model answer: The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London underground station over the course of a day. There is a sharp increase between 06:00 and 08:00. In the afternoon. with only a slight increase again at 8pm. Overall.
radiator tubes Paragraph breaks: The paragraph breaks mark stages in the process. The boiler. Some of the water is directed to the taps to provide hot water for the house. stored. located. From there ü flows down to the boiler. Once the water has been through the pipes and radiators. It shows how the tank. again Reference words: it. circulation of hot water to radiators and taps. Key features: Entry of cold water into boiler. Supporting information: direction of flow. it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated and circulated round the house again. Linkers: and. then. ground floor. which. location of radiators.SAMPLE ANSWER : This diagram provides an overview of a domestic central heating system. The cold water enters the house and is stored in a water storage tank in the roof. Introduction: First sentence. from there. heats up the water as it passes through it. flows. which is fuelled by gas or oil. there. and this warms each of the rooms.
. both. The water circulates through the radiators. roof. this Topic vocabulary: enters. The hot water is then pumped round the house through a system of pipes and flows into the radiators. Overview: Second sentence. types of boiler. once. return of water to boiler. passes. located in different rooms. which have small tubes inside them to help distribute the heat. located on the ground floor of the house. boiler and pipes ensure a constant flow of hot water to both the radiators and the taps.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown. returned. warms Structures: An appropriate mix of active and passive structures and a range of sentence types are used.pumped. system. heat. distribute the heat. circulates.
. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. Length: 172 words Example about Project or Plan in Writing Task 1 IELTS Essay Task 1: Eiffel Tower in Paris The diagrams below give information about the Eiffel Tower in Paris and an outline project to extend it underground. You should write at least 150 words. heats up. re-heated Less common vocabulary: ensure. directed. fuelled by.
the principle is that the five floors will be connected by two vertical passenger lifts on either side of the tower. shopping facilities.417 tonnes.665 steps that can be climbed in order to reach the two viewing platforms. and there are 1. when it was built.Model answer: The Eiffel Tower is situated close to the Seine River in Paris. The tower has been a tourist attraction since 1889. It is a metal structure that is 1. the floor immediately below the tower. a cinema and museum and two floors of underground parking. which is planned to house the ticket office. (162 words) Source: Ukgate. There are now plans to build below the foundations of the tower. will also consist of a large atrium with a glass ceiling so that visitors can look directly up at the tower itself. These plans include the development of five underground levels that will incorporate the tower's ticket office. Although details have yet to be finalised. In addition.com
.063 feet high and weighs 7.