An Investigatory Project Presented to the Faculty and Staff of SMU Grade School during the Local Science Fair 2010

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Science & Health VI Submitted to: Mrs. Marina A. Alvarez, Science & Health VI teacher Mrs. Myla Duenas, Math, ICT & Science Coordinator Mrs. Ma. Reggie R. Taboy, Coordinator for Student Activities Dr. Macrino A. Raymundo, Principal

Samuel Heinrich L. Soliven Grade VI – St. Lorenzo

August 2010

2 Table of Contents Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 6

Chapter I. Background of the Study Rationale . . . . . . . .

Statement of the Problem Statement of Hypotheses Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation Definition of Terms .

Chapter II. Review of Related Literature and Studies Related Literature Related Studies . . . . . . . .

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8 8 17

Chapter III. Materials and Methods Materials Methods . . . . . . . .

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22 22 22 24 24 25 25

Research Environment Experimental Designs .

Data Gathering Instruments and Procedure . Data Analysis Procedure . . .











Plastics in rivers and seas pose danger. The Creation was promising. Different diseases infested the living system. Some are simple plastics. nanotechnology. Most of these are non-biodegradable and pose danger to humans and their environment. others are complex plastics. Deaths were not simply natural occurrences but were consequences of the destructive man-made activities. Plastics for food wrapping abound. God made a paradise that men must love and take care. Burning plastics poses great danger to living things. Plastics come in various composition and structures. clean and fresh water. Clean and fresh air. But the sinful ways of men put this paradise into trouble. Vis-a-vis the generation tempered with computer technology. including all these nice plastic items and plastic bags we use every day. The comfort that these plastics give to the consumers is temporary but the dangers they bring are lifelong. Plastic consumption is rising and with it .3 CHAPTER I BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Rationale In the book of Genesis. everything we use and consume becomes waste. and other advanced technologies is the continuous production of plastics. animals of different species abound this paradise. plants of various types. Sooner or later. They are even scattered elsewhere. Many inventions ruined the natural stability of the Earth. Advances in technology polluted the water and the air.

Clean. Because of this. There is a need for environmental sound solutions as environmental considerations gain ground legislation changes all around the world. Plastics are the most dangerous of all. Managing plastic waste is a global problem with increasing amounts of waste in developing countries as well as industrialised nations. reuse and recycle. there is a need to employ the environmental principles of reduce. In one way or the other. Solid wastes come in various forms. Specifically. Thus. Sustainable development is at the top of all agendas in the UN. Healthy.4 the amount of plastic ending up as waste. EU and national governments. it is important to advocate solid waste management. Better solutions for the rapidly growing amounts of plastic waste are in demand. Safe and Friendly) Statement of the Problem This investigatory project seeks to produce useful hollow blocks out plastic wastes. It is therefore the aim of this investigatory project to recycle plastics by using them as mixture components in making hollow blocks. it sought answers to the following: . this will support the environmental campaign of Saint Mary’s University and the Municipality of Bayombong on SWM-CHSF (Solid Waste Management. the Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 also known as Republic Act 9003 was enacted into law. In the Philippines. High prices of virgin materials will also make recycling attractive.

Are the compressive strengths of the hollow blocks not significantly equal to or higher than the standards? Significance of the Study This study will help the following: Plastic Waste Collectors. these plastic waste collectors can find a way to systematically collect them. Is there a significant difference in the (a) compressive strengths and (b) mean unit weights of the different hollow blocks? 3. Are the unit costs of different hollow blocks different? Statement of Hypotheses 1. Are the compressive strengths of the hollow blocks significantly equal to or higher than the standards? 4. . Is there no significant difference in the (a) compressive strengths and (b) mean unit weights of the different hollow blocks? 2. What are the (a) compressive strengths and (b) mean unit weights of the hollow blocks out of different percents of sand and plastic wastes at constant cement? 2. The hollow blocks as outputs from plastic wastes may inspire them to engage themselves in the business of making hollow blocks from plastic wastes. Since plastic wastes are just thrown anywhere.5 1.

Definition of Terms Compressive strength. When the limit of compressive strength is reached. This refers to the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed pushing forces.6 Household workers. . It is the maximum stress that a material can sustain under crush loading. Unit Weights. Hollow Block Makers. Knowing that plastic wastes could be used in making hollow blocks. These wastes then can be sold to plastic waste collectors. Their compressive strengths and unit weights will be determined and compare them with the commercial ones. in Newtons. It refers to the average weight. The hollow blocks with plastic waste components will be made using the same process as the commercial ones. materials are crushed. of the hollow blocks produced in this study. they can station waste sorters for plastic wastes. Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study was focused only on the making of hollow blocks by considering as part of the mixture in making them through the use of plastic wastes from food wrappers. They can make hollow blocks with plastic waste components and be made available to those who advocate war on plastic wastes.

7 Unit Cost. . It refers to the approximated expense in producing the hollow blocks produced in this study.

are often used in electrical applications and are not suitable for recycling. to utilization and disposal. natural gas. Environmental concerns of plastics Plastics have their impact on the environment through all stages of their existence from manufacture. making them suitable for a wide variety of applications including food and product packaging. hygienic and economic. Various types of polymers can be made from hydrocarbons derived from coal.8 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature Plastics Plastics are made up of long chain molecules called polymers. hazardous substances and green house gases. The smoke contains small particulates. Manufacturing requires significant quantities of fossil fuels. a non-renewable resource. oil and organic oils which are transformed into materials with desirable properties. Thermoplastics are light. agriculture and housing products. Thermoplastics can be repeatedly reformed into new products and are the focus of this technical brief. mouldable. Thermosetting Plastics harden when heated. Plastics that can be readily recycled are Thermoplastics which means they will soften when heated. durable. Burning of plastics releases smoke which contaminates the environment. . car manufacturing.

chlorine and reactive thermal environment. or PCB’s. Exposure to dioxin causes skin rashes. With more and more plastics products. Plastics can cause blockage of drainage and sewage systems resulting in water logging. It would be difficult to know from a mixed waste as to what are the likely volatiles it would create. Most plastics are not biodegradable and can persist in the environment for many years.9 The disposal of plastics products also contributes significantly to their environmental impact. there should be immediate ban of burning of any material whether hazardous or nonhazardous There are different kinds of plastics with different results on burning. liver damage etc. With regard to burning of waste. particularly packaging. Burning Plastic Wastes is Illegal Burning and incineration mean the same. volatiles released from plastics in house fires are a major cause of death. Compostable part of garbage assists in the production of dioxin that requires organic matter. or cyanides. flooding and spread of water born diseases. Dioxin has also been responsible for . Notably. Waste burning (incineration) releases dioxins. the landfill space required by plastics waste is a growing concern. Dioxin causes various cancers and a big health hazard. Generally. being disposed of soon after their purchase. discoloration of skin. or lots of other substances. the former means open burning and the latter is used to refer to combustion under claimed "controlled" conditions of a furnace using state-of-art technology. It could result in a hydrocarbon.

(Retrieved from http://practicalaction. illegal. appropriating funds therefore. It also saves non-renewable sources like oil and gas. In the Declaration of Policies. and for other purposes.10 psychological damage.blogspot. reduced level of male sex hormone and cardiovascular deterioration.html http://toxicswatch. 9003 otherwise known as Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 is an act providing for an ecological solid waste management program. recycling provides livelihood for millions of people and families in developing countries. it hereby declared the policy of the State to adopt a systematic. In addition to that. declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties. comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which shall: (a) Ensure the protection of the public health and environment.php? products=190) Legal Foundations of Solid Waste Management Republic Act No.org/practicalanswers/product_info. either in the form of formal employment or informal economic activities. creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives.com/2010/04/burning-plastic-wastes-is- Recycling plastics Recycling plastics has many benefits. . It contributes to energy savings and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

(e) Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management and resource conservation techniques. and (j) Strength the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and nonformal education in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry. (h) Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of market-based instruments. other local government units. and the private sector.chanrobles. more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous and improved methods of waste reduction. non. (Retrieved from http://www. storage. re-use. (g) Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government. treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles. green charcoal process. before collection. (c) Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures. and ecological waste management programs. collection. (i) Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and local integrated.11 (b) Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resource conservation and recovery. (f) Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management. treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practice in ecological waste management excluding incineration. comprehensive. recovery. and others. transport.com/republicactno9003. including composting. separation and recovery. collection. (d) Ensure the proper segregation. recycling.government organizations.htm) Causes of climate change .

Let's look at them in a little detail. Proof of this comes from the similarity between plant and animal fossils and broad belts of rocks found on the eastern coastline of South America and western coastline of Africa.don't they seem to fit into each other like pieces in a jigsaw puzzle? About 200 million years ago they were joined together! Scientists believe that back then. which are now widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean. ocean currents. must have been situated . The discovery of fossils of tropical plants (in the form of coal deposits) in Antarctica has led to the conclusion that this frozen land at some time in the past. and sea sediments. the earth was not as we see it today. pollen samples. volcanoes. and comets and meteorites. What the world is more worried about is that the changes that are occurring today have been speeded up because of man's activities. Continental drift You may have noticed something peculiar about South America and Africa on a map of the world . the earth's tilt. ice cores.those that are due to natural causes and those that are created by man. Some of the more prominent ones are continental drift. but the continents were all part of one large landmass. Natural causes There are a number of natural factors responsible for climate change. These changes are being studied by scientists all over the world who are finding evidence from tree rings.12 The earth's climate is dynamic and always changing through a natural cycle. The causes of climate change can be divided into two categories .

The separation of the landmasses changed the flow of ocean currents and winds. water vapour. the Himalayan range is rising by about 1 mm (millimeter) every year because the Indian land mass is moving towards the Asian land mass. The continents that we are familiar with today were formed when the landmass began gradually drifting apart. Volcanoes When a volcano erupts it throws out large volumes of sulphur dioxide (SO2). Winds in the upper levels of the atmopshere. and ash into the atmosphere. leading to cooling. where the climate was tropical. yet the large volumes of gases and ash can influence climatic patterns for years. and screen the ground from some of the energy that it would ordinarily receive from the sun. called the stratosphere. millions of years back. This drift also had an impact on the climate because it changed the physical features of the landmass. with swamps and plenty of lush vegetation. slowly but steadily. dust. They are efficient reflectors of sunlight. Sulphur dioxide combines with water to form tiny droplets of sulphuric acid. Movement of aerosols north and south is always much slower. This drift of the continents continues even today.13 closer to the equator. This should give you . Although the volcanic activity may last only a few days. Millions of tonnes of sulphur dioxide gas can reach the upper levels of the atmosphere (called the stratosphere) from a major eruption. The gases and dust particles partially block the incoming rays of the sun. carry the aerosols rapidly around the globe in either an easterly or westerly direction. their position and the position of water bodies. These droplets are so small that many of them can stay aloft for several years. which affected the climate.

The extent to which this occurs is an ongoing debate. For one half of the year when it is summer.more tilt means warmer summers and colder winters. It is tilted at an angle of 23. If there was no tilt we would not have experienced seasons. Mount Pinatubo. In the other half when it is winter. the northern hemisphere tilts towards the sun. lowering temperatures in the lower levels of the atmosphere (called the troposphere).14 some idea of the ways by which cooling can be brought about for a few years after a major volcanic eruption. often referred to as "the year without a summer. . the earth is tilted away from the sun. less tilt means cooler summers and milder winters.5° to the perpendicular plane of its orbital path. Another striking example was in the year 1816." Significant weather-related disruptions occurred in New England and in Western Europe with killing summer frosts in the United States and Canada. The earth's tilt The earth makes one full orbit around the sun each year. Changes in the tilt of the earth can affect the severity of the seasons . and changing atmospheric circulation patterns. Volcanic eruptions of this magnitude can reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. in 1815. These strange phenomena were attributed to a major eruption of the Tambora volcano in Indonesia. in the Philippine islands erupted in April 1991 emitting thousands of tons of gases into the atmosphere.

When the pyramids were built. and consumption.15 The Earth's orbit is somewhat elliptical. So Polaris has not always been. the pole was near the star Thuban (Alpha Draconis). it always seems to point toward Polaris (also known as the Pole Star and the North Star). This trend is continuing even today. it is not quite constant: the axis does move. around 2500 BC. Ocean currents The oceans are a major component of the climate system. and will not always be. called precession is responsible for changes in the climate. Consumerism (our increasing want for material things) has increased by . They cover about 71% of the Earth and absorb about twice as much of the sun's radiation as the atmosphere or the land surface. transport. Natural resources are being used extensively for construction. after all. Human causes The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw the large-scale use of fossil fuels for industrial activities.roughly the same amount as the atmosphere does. people moved from rural areas to the cities. the star pointing to the North. Ocean currents move vast amounts of heat across the planet . We usually think of the earth's axis as being fixed. This gradual change in the direction of the earth's axis. Actually. so heat transport through the water is through channels. at the rate of a little more than a half-degree each century. But the oceans are surrounded by land masses. These industries created jobs and over the years. industries. which means that the distance between the earth and the Sun varies over the course of a year. More and more land that was covered with vegetation has been cleared to make way for houses.

and sheep. households. generate electricity for industries. 1/5 of the methane emissions and a large quantity of nitrous oxide. goats. Fossil fuels such as oil. About ¼ of all methane emissions are said to come from domesticated animals such as dairy cows. etc.16 leaps and bounds. Changes in land use pattern. horses. The energy sector is responsible for about ¾ of the carbon dioxide emissions. deforestation. Methane is also released from rice or paddy fields that are flooded during the sowing and maturing periods. creating mountains of waste. Under such conditions. methane-producing bacteria and other organisms decompose organic matter in the soil to form methane. Also. agriculture. coal and natural gas supply most of the energy needed to run vehicles. All this has contributed to a rise in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Methane is another important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Nearly 90% of the paddy-growing area in the world is found in Asia. camels. It also produces nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) which are not greenhouse gases but do have an influence on the chemical cycles in the atmosphere that produce or destroy greenhouse gases. and other activities have all led to a rise in the emission of carbon dioxide. buffaloes. These animals produce methane during the cud-chewing process. as rice is the staple . land clearing. When soil is covered with water it becomes anaerobic or lacking in oxygen. our population has increased to an incredible extent. the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. pigs. Greenhouse gases and their sources Carbon dioxide is undoubtedly.

Methane is also emitted during the process of oil drilling. If the waste is put into an incinerator or burnt in the open. Contributions are also made by leguminous plants. coconut trunk particles. carbon dioxide is emitted. .in/explore/climate/causes. Methane is also emitted from landfills and other waste dumps. agricultural waste and soil mixed with minimum amount of cement. China and India. coal mining and also from leaking gas pipelines (due to accidents and poor maintenance of sites). have 80-90% of the world's rice-growing areas.htm) Related Studies on Hollow Blocks The following were borrowed from the research of Rosario (2010): Hollow Blocks out of Wood Waste and Agricultural Waste A new type of hollow blocks can be fabricated out of wood waste. Its compressive strength ranges from 197 to 386 pounds per square inch (psi).res. This in turn depends on the type of fertilizer that is used. As far as strength and durability are concerned. it is very satisfactory for low cost housing. such as beans and pulses that add nitrogen to the soil. sugar cane bagasse or ordinary soil. between them.teri.17 food there. First step is to gather agri-wood waste such as sawdust. Although considered strictly non-load bearing. results of test showed that this type of blocks is comparable to some of the commercial or traditional concrete hollow blocks. (Retrieved from http://edugreen. The latter has to be pulverized and sifted using a 1/4 inch wire mesh. A large amount of nitrous oxide emission has been attributed to fertilizer application. how and when it is used and the methods of tilling that are followed.

Using the cubic foot measuring box. makes use of a minimum amount of cement to make a stronger hallow block. February. With the materials form a hill with a crater on the top. Rice hull works too. This simple technology.18 Abaca waste. or the equivalent proportions. Dexter B. as well as coconut coir dust. The mixture must be neither too dry or too wet such that they would stay packed when molded and when not spread out when removed from the mold. Ian B. but additional soil is needed when mixing this with the cement. There is a growing interest in utilizing alternative aggregate like bagasse. mix together one box of cement and three boxes of agriwaste. 1. 2008 http://www. posted June 26. the fibrous residue . 2004) Conventional Hollow Concrete using Bagasse Conventional hollow concrete masonry units (CMU) use sand as aggregate. developed by the Forest Product Research and Industries development Commission.html) Hollow Blocks out of Burned Rice Hull This study was made to know the effect of mixing burned rice hull in making Concrete Hollow Block (CHB) and to compare its compressive strength with the standard CHB. SMU-PEAR. Pour water slowly. ( Hollow Blocks from Farmwastes. The study showed that the CHB with burned rice hull passed the allowable compressive strength of standard CHB so that burned rice hull could be used as a material to reduce the amount of cement in making CHB for low cost housing projects. can also be used. Journal of Engineering & Architecture. Dugyon.net/hollowblocks-from-farm-wastes. thoroughly mix them with shovel until the paste is formed. Vol. then.agripinoy. the residue from processing coconut husk in coirflex plants. left after extracting fiber from the stalk. Burned Rice Hull Mixed Concrete Hollow Block( Tayaban.

Diliman. is 1 part cement and 12 parts aggregates. 6%. The first proportion. SEAMEO-INNOTECH UP. For the six other proportions.( BAGASSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATE IN HOLLOW CMU1VFE Banaag. amounting to about 7 million tons per annum as a potential use for recycled materials since large quantities are left unused or burnt. they found the following: 1. 10% to 12% of the total aggregate volume. et al (2010) on the “use of recycled polystyrene pellet for the production of lightweight non-load bearing concrete hollow blocks”. without bagasse. In the research. seven different proportions were designed with ten samples each tested on the 7th day. 8%. The average compressive strength of normal concrete hollow block is higher than the average compressive strength of concrete hollow block mixed with different proportions of styrofoam pellet. 4%. The average compressive strength of concrete hollow block mixed with 25% styrofoam pellet is lower than the average compressive strength of normal .) Hollow Blocks out of Recycled Polystyrene Pellets In the study of Felipe.19 generated when the juice has been extracted from sugarcane. DS Lo. MO Meñes. quantity of the aggregates were replaced by bagasse ranging from 2%. KQ Saldivar. 2. This paper explores the possibility of utilizing bagasse as an alternative aggregate for hollow CMU by replacing a fraction of sand with bagasse. ALC Cañada.Symposium on Infrastructure Development and the Environment 20067-8 December 2006.

the possibility of utilizing CFM as an additional component to the production of building blocks was established. 4. to produce a block which is lighter and cheaper but with strength comparable to the regular blocks made out of pure cement and sand. Building Blocks out of Chicken Feather (Rosario. 20 to 30% with CFM. 5. There is a significant difference between the weight of normal concrete hollow block and the concrete hollow block with different proportions of styrofoam with respect to the time of curing. By virtue of the results presented in this research. 3. In terms of time. It may be said that as much as 10. 20 to 30% of the aggregate volume may be substituted by CFM and still attain a high compressive strength that meet the requirements of ASTM for . weight and proportioning.20 concrete hollow block. And also it gives a higher average value as compared to concrete hollow block mixed with 50% styrofoam pellet. The compressive strength of concrete hollow block mixed with 50% styrofoam pellet gives the lowest average value as compared to the average compressive strength of both the normal concrete hollow block and concrete hollow block mixed with 25% styrofoam pellet. 2010) This study showed that CFM could be a possible component in the production of building blocks by substituting a portion of the sand component from 10. the concrete hollow block mix without styrofoam obtained the highest average weight when compared to the concrete hollow block mixed with styrofoam in different curing age with different styrofoam composition.

21 non-load bearing purposes. of hollow blocks made from farm wastes and soil. . maximum ASTM standard. it has produced a building block that is lighter and cheaper up to 30% because of the sand reduction and its replacement by CFM which at present could be used for free.66 Mpa could be used for load-bearing purposes because it has exceeded the 4. The compressive strengths of S2 (80-20%) which is 5 Mpa and and S3 ( 90-10%) which is 5.66 Mpa and it was recommended for non load bearing purposes for low cost housing.36 Mpa to 386 Psi or 2.83 Mpa. At the same time. developed by the Forest Product Research and Industries development Commission (FPRIDC). the compressive strength derived from the resulting products ranges from 197 Psi or 1. If we compare this study with the simple technology.

Then these dried plastic wastes are cut into strips. Preparing the Aggregates .22 CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials • • • • Aggregates Plastic wastes sand cement Tools • • • • • • • • CHB Moulder Testing Machine Sieve #4 Weighing scale Container Fan trowel shovel Procedure Collecting and Cutting Plastic Wastes into Strips Visit the different waste bins in the school and even outside the school. Plastic wastes in non-biodegradable receptacles are collected. They are washed and dried.

5 12. Place flat wood on top of the mold and invert it. Nueva Vizcaya. 3 parts sand and 0 part plastic waste strip) 1. numbered sieves. Bayombong. If necessary add more mixture of cement and sand. Cement-Sand/Plastic Wastes Mixture Cement Sand 25% 1. 3. Compress it like the first one and scrape the top. 6.5 62.0 50% 25% 2. Sprinkle water from time to time to prevent cracks. 2. 8. Put in a “hollow block” shaped mold the mixture of cement and sand 4. Lay mold on its side on top of a level platform. 7. Let it age for 7 days outside. Remove the lock and push carefully the molded block. Remove the three sets of blocks from the mold.5% 1 25% .5% 25% 3 75% Mixtures Mixture 1 Mixture 2 Mixture 3 CONTROL 1 1 1 1 Plastic Wastes 1.23 Collect aggregates at the river bank of the Magat River along Salvacion. Mix well to attain desired consistency. Mix the materials well with the aid of shovel. Sand and Strips/Bits of Plastic Wastes The table below will serve as guide in preparing the mixture of cement. Fill the mold completely and scrape excess. 5. sand and plastic waste strips. Separate the coarse and fine aggregates using the Preparing the Mixture of Cement. Let the block dry under the shades for a few hours to one day after removing from the mold. .5 37.5% 0 0 The Control Mixture (1 part cement.5 37.5 25% 2. In drying let it lie on longer sides so it will slide on the longer side.

5 part plastic waste strips) Research Environment This study took place in different environments. Mixture 1 (1 part cement. Bayombong. 14 days and 21 days Specimens Control Mixture1 Mixture2 (25-75-0) (25-62. The Treatment Mixtures Follow steps 1 – 8 above by taking into consideration the parts of sand and plastic waste strips as specified below. 14th and 21st day.5-12.0 parts sand and 1 part plastic waste strips) Mixture 3 (1 part cement.5) (25-50-25) CHB1 CHB2 CHB3 Mixture3 (25-37. Experimental Designs Experimental Design1 IV: Mixture Types DV: Compressive Strengths after 7days. 1.24 9. the determination of their compressive strengths and unit weights were done in an Engineering Laboratory of Saint Mary’s University.5 parts sand and 0.5 parts plastic waste strips) Mixture 2 (1 part cement. 2.5-37. Nueva Vizcaya. Then.5) . 2.5 parts sand and 1. Gather the compressive strengths of the specimens on the 7th. The making of hollow blocks was done in Salvacion.

5-12. 14 days and 21 days Control Mixture1 (25-75-0) (25-62.5) CHB1 CHB2 CHB3 Mixture2 (25-50-25) Mixture3 (25-37.5-37. Data Analysis Procedure The following statistics were used: The means and standard deviations for the compressive strengths and unit weights of the hollow blocks were computer.5) Experimental Design3 IV: Mixture Types DV: Cost per Hollow Block Control (25-75-0) Mixture1 (25-62.5) Mixture2 (25-50-25) Mixture3 (25-37. The compressive strengths were also compared against . subject the blocks to a laboratory test making use of the Compression Testing Machine Do the same after 14 days and 21 days.5-37.25 Experimental Design2 IV: Mixture Types DV: Weights after 7 days.5) Data Gathering Instruments and Procedure On the 7th day.5-12.

has approved the blocks with a compressive strength of 197 Psi or 1. Furthermore.4 Mpa or 348. On the other hand.26 the standards using t-test. . the Forest Product Research and Industries Development Commission (FPRIDC) in a product research entitled Hollow Blocks from farm Wastes. for non-load bearing purposes especially for low cost housing as cited in the study of Rosario (2010). these properties were further compared considering the curing periods of the hollow blocks.61 Psi. The Compressive Strength Standards According to the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).13 Psi to 4.36 Mpa to 386 Psi or 2. the compressive strength requirement for non-load bearing blocks is 2.83 Mpa or 700.66 Mpa.

et. al (2010). Unpublished Research. J.res.blogspot.com/2010/04/burning-plastic-wastes-is-illegal.php? products=190 http://www.htm . Potential Use of Chicken Feather Materials (CFM) as a Component for Building Blocks.teri. Samuel R (2006).com/republicactno9003.chanrobles.html http://practicalaction. School of Engineering and Architecture. SMU Publishing House Retrieved sites http://toxicswatch. SMU Bayombong.in/explore/climate/causes. . Grade School. Wilnice Pica D (2010). Science Research and Statistics.org/practicalanswers/product_info.27 Bibliography Felipe. Nueva Vizcaya Rosario. M. Nueva Vizcaya Soliven.htm http://edugreen. Unpublished Research. Use of Recycled Polysterene Pellet for the Production of Lightweight Non-load Bearing Concrete Hollow Blocks. SMU Bayombong.

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