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One may consider Natural Gas a very uninteresting gas ± it is colourless, shapeless and odourless in its pure form. But it has huge energy producing potential when burnt. A typical composition table is shown below:
Typical Analysis (mole %) 95.2 2.5 0.2 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 1.3 0.7 0.02 trace
Range (mole %) 87.0 - 96.0 1.5 - 5.1 0.1 - 1.5 0.01 - 0.3 0.01 - 0.3 trace - 0.14 trace - 0.04 trace - 0.06 0.7 - 5.6 0.1 - 1.0 0.01 - 0.1 trace - 0.02
Methane Ethane Propane iso ± Butane normal ± Butane iso ± Pentane normal ± Pentane Hexanes plus Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Hydrogen
Specific Gravity Gross Heating Value (MJ/m3 ), dry basis *
0.57 - 0.62 36.0 - 40.2
* The gross heating value is the total heat obtained by complete combustion at constant pressure of a unit volume of gas in air, including the heat released by condensing the water vapour in the combustion products (gas, air, and combustion products taken at standard temperature and pressure).
As per the present situation natural gas consumption is 8% while the consumption of crude oil is nearly four times (31%) of it.Natural Gas can be produced from fossil Natural Gas reserves (oil fields. The last date for the bid acceptance is 10th of August¶09. fertilizer. Under NELP the natural gas find in KG basin was the largest gas find in 2002. Under NELP VIII 70 blocks are offered. From Iran it was the IPI pipeline. At the end of NELP VII rounds there has been 206 contracts signed and 8 hydrocarbon discoveries are made. The major consumers of this gas were the power and fertilizer sectors and gas being transmitted by Hazira-Bijaypur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) cross country pipeline. There also has been an attempt to import gas through pipelines from Iran. hydrogen production and petrochemicals. biogas and gas hydrates. As per the Government of India Hydrocarbon vision 2025¶ there would be a lot of development in improving the natural gas infrastructure in the country. A wide use of Natural Gas has made it a very important commodity in the energy market. LNG has also been a major focus from the government. transportation fuel. So far natural gas market has evolved very slowly with estimated just 0. IPI talks were almost nearing its conclusion regarding of the gas pricing before the political conflict seems to put it into a permanent halt.5 MMTPA capacity with only two LNG terminals operational. domestic fuel. Government approved New Exploration License Provider (NELP) in 1997 to allow the participation of foreign companies in production and also approved the PNGRB Act in 2007 for the structured marketing of natural gas. aviation. On the other hand GAIL failed to gain the victory in the bidding process in Myanmar for LNG and no forwards of the pipeline also seems to be in the news. Myanmar and Bangladesh. The gas production of KG basin is likely to touch 80 mmscmd in its full stream bring oxygen to the fuel starved existing power and fertilizer sector. . But so far it seems the Indian natural gas potential is such that the country not only needs any import of gas but in the due future it will start exporting gas in LNG based upon the demand and supply scenario of energy starving nations at a reasonable price. As on date natural gas has not yet acquired a significant position in the Indian Energy Basket. This was soon followed by the South Bassein free gas field in 1978. And CBM IV too underway with 10 blocks being offered. A lot of capital deficit is being faced by the Government Exchequing as 70% of the crude oil demand is met with imports. gas fields & coal fields). The production of natural gas in 1976 from Bombay High. Natural Gas is used in power generation. western coast has changed the situation dramatically in the past as far as Indian Gas market is concerned.5% of the world¶s total natural gas reserves. So far India has only 7.
It ensured full exploration/Development cost recoverable in event of discovery Cost Recovery limit & Profit petroleum sharing split are supposed to be negotiated and became biddable parameters.storage. 8 on land. Its objective is to regulate refining. The NELP Policy also emphasized on providing freedom to market oil and gas in the country at market related prices. NELP Regime Involves upfront commitment of risk money by Contractor without any liability on the Government. This is determined by the Investment Multiple (IM) in the PSC (Production sharing contract). So far a total206 contracts signed under seven rounds of NELP and 68 hydrocarbon discoveries made so far under NELP.marketing and sale of petroleum.petroleum products and natural gas excluding production of crude oil .transportation.processing. financial accrual to Government depend upon discovery size and prices obtained.. Type-S (10 blocks). PNGRB Formation of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) draft has been the most encouraging initiative taken by the government for a structured Indian Oil & Gas market. Large gas discoveries were made on East Coast ( World's largest gas discovery in 2002).Government¶s initiatives The Government approved NELP in 1997 to attract risk capital and technologies in the E&P sector.Two gas discoveries by RIL in D-6 KG deepwater block are almost developed and production has started in March 2009.distribution. GOI Profit petroleum escalates rapidly after full cost recovery. 24 deepwater blocks and 28 shallow water blocks. Royalty is first charge on Contractor take. Hence. In NELP VIII (under bid acceptance process) there are 70 blocks offered and under four categories.
own.The existing are about 6300km mainly operated by GAIL . RGTIL approached the Ministry of petroleum and natural gas for issuance of notifications for Kakinada-Hyderabad-Uran-Ahmedabad gas pipeline projects originating from Jamnagar to connect the proposed regasification terminal at Jamnagar RIL¶s block in Saurashtra and Kutch region and east coast blocks (offshore).and natural gas so as to protect the interest of consumers and entities engaged in specified activities and to ensure uninterrupted and adequate supply and to promote a competitive markets. The Growth of Gas Infrastructure With the increasing development of the new gas fields there has been a considerable expansion of natural gas pipelines across several parts of the country. operate and transfer pipelines and terminals for marketing and distribution of natural gas.The planned are around 8400 kms integrated network to link any source o any market. Reliance Gas Transportation Infrastructure Company Limited (RGTIL) to build. Reliance proposed Gas pipeline: Reliance has set up a Special Purpose Vehicle. RGTIL proposed the following three pipelines: Kakinada-Hyderabad-Goa Jamnagar-Bhopal-Cuttack Hyderabad-Uran-Ahmedabad .
Jamnagar .Bhopal .Cuttack pipeline: LNG import at Jamnagar [currently at hold] Reliance exploration blocks in Kutch and Saurashtra region CBM blocks in Madhya Pradesh NEC-25 block offshore in Orissa Gujarat Gas Grid Project: Envisages transporting indigenous natural gas from production centers and LNG from terminals to demand centers all over Gujarat through a high pressure Trunk Pipeline. Project shall be implemented in two phases.Route and Length of Proposed Pipelines Route Kakinada-Hyderabad-goa Jamnagar to Cuttack Phase-I Jamnagar to Bhopal Phase-II Bhopal to Cuttack Hyderabad ± Uran ± Ahmadabad pipeline Table. . Total length of the gas pipeline planned is 1200-1500 km. 12 billion and Phase II mainly in the Saurashtra region at an estimated cost of Rs. Phase I. from Vapi to Vadnagar at an estimated cost of Rs. 13 billion .1 Length (km) 1121 1650 828 822 1079 Kakinada-Hyderabad-Goa-Uran Ahmedabad pipeline: Sources of gas supply to the proposed pipeline are: Gas from KG D-6 Likely gas from adjoining exploration blocks of the Reliance on the Eastern Coast Gas from blocks on Western coast.
10. for implementation of the city gas distribution projects smoothly. petroleum products and natural gas excluding production of crude oil and natural gas. distribution. processing. a wholly owned subsidiary of . This has necessitated the requirement of a new establishment of GAIL dedicated to CGD projects. Based on the success of IGL and MGL. storage. Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas established the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) with effect from 01.2007. This has induced other entities to come into CGD projects and thus a competitive era in this field has been initiated. a sincere and dedicated approach. However. to regulate the refining. interested entities may submit the bids and whoever is successful in the bidding will be authorized to develop the CGD network consisting of CNG & PNG infrastructure in that particular city. Pilot projects were launched in early 1990s in two metros Delhi and Mumbai through joint venture companies Indraprastha Gas Limited (IGL) and Mahanagar Gas Limited (MGL) leading to the start of commercial operation of city gas projects.GAIL is the pioneer of city gas distribution in India : GAIL took many initiatives to introduce PNG for households and CNG for the transport sector to address the rising pollution levels. Andhra Pradesh. energy and focus have been taken to maintain GAIL's leading position in CGD projects. Accordingly. Central U P Gas Limited & Green Gas Limited in Uttar Pradesh. With the arrival of the PNGRB the implementation of PNG in various cities is being taken up in a phased manner as and when the bids are called for by the Regulator. GAIL has further set up six more JVCs viz Bhagyanagar Gas Limited. marketing and sale of petroleum. transportation. under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act 2006. The Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act2006 provides the legal framework for the development of the natural gas pipelines and city or local gas distribution networks. Maharashtra Natural Gas Limited in Pune Maharashtra and Tripura Natural Gas Company Limited in Tripura for CGD projects in various cities. The results of these ventures are quite visible through the improvement in air quality in these cities. In the future as and when the bids are called for the CGD network development by the PNGRB. Avantika Gas Limited in Madhya Pradesh. In this competitive environment.
50. Gas supplied by GAIL to retail gas distributors serves more than 6.00. GAIL Gas would be expanding the CGD business in dedicated and aggressive manner and will facilitate re-investing returns from operational CGD projects into new projects thus reducing the need for fresh equity infusions by GAIL. The details of these cities have already been forwarded to MoPNG by GAIL with a request for authorization for setting up of CGD network in these cities. Firozabad (Uttar Pradesh) and Vadodara (Gujarat). GAIL Gas Limited.000 automobiles as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and over 6.000 households as Piped Natural Gas (PNG). As per the business plan.GAIL (India) Limited. 2008 as a limited company under the Companies Act. Kota (Rajasthan). was incorporated on May 27. . Meerut (Uttar Pradesh). Various cities are covered in the network. GAIL Gas Limited has been authorized by PNGRB and MoPNG for implementing City Gas Distribution Projects in Dewas (Madhya Pradesh). Sonepat (Haryana). As per the estimate more than 200 cities have been identified for the development of CGD projects in a phased manner in synchronization with the commissioning of the pipeline.
PNG Network State Delhi UP City Delhi Noida IGL Greater Noida Ghaziabad Mumbai Thane Maharastra Mira-Bhayandar Navi Mumbai Pune Kanpur CUGL Bareilly Uttar Pradesh Lucknow GGL Agra Gujarat Vadodara Vijaywada Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad Rajahmundery Tripura Madhya Pradesh Indore Haryana Sonepat AGL GAIL Gas Agartala Dewas TNGCL GAIL Gas BGL GAIL MGL Company .
Shell CNG and Natgas. GAIL plans to develop City Gas markets worldwide in collaboration with global oil and gas majors.CNG Network State Delhi UP City Delhi Noida IGL Greater Noida Ghaziabad Mumbai Thane MGL Maharastra Mira-Bhayandar Navi Mumbai Pune Uttar Pradesh Kanpur CUGL Bareilly Tripura Madhya Pradesh Indore AGL Ujaain Haryana Maharastra Gujarat Sonepat Panvel Vadodara GAIL Gas Agartala Dewas TNGCL GAIL Gas MNGL Company GAIL's City Gas Distribution initiatives are not confined to India. It has established its presence in the CNG and City Gas arenas in Egypt through equity participation in Fayum Gas. . and has acquired a stake in China Gas Holding to pursue CNG opportunities in mainland China.
see on a map EG LNG. Petronet LNG Ltd. see on a map ADGAS Plant. Gujarat Dabhol Terminal. Malaysia Brunei LNG. Petronet LNG Ltd. Malabo. Qatar Yemen LNG(Total). Bonny Nigeria Angola LNG Asia y y y y y y y y y y y Malaysia LNG. Lumut. Gujrat Hazira Terminal.LIST OF LNG TERMINALS India y y y y Dahej Terminal.Balhaf. Ratnagiri Power (NTPC) LTD. Qatar Ras Laffan. Equatorial Guinea SEGAS Damietta LNG EGYPT ELNG IDCO LNG EGYPT Nigeria LNG. Yemen . Bioko Island. Indonesia Oman LNG Qatar gas. Abu Dhabi. Das Island. Bintulu. Tanjung Kidurong. Algeria. Brunei Arun. Kerala Existing liquefaction terminals Africa y y y y y y y Sonatrach plant. Hazira LNG Pvt Ltd. Indonesia Tangguh. Qatar. Indonesia Bontang. United Arab Emirates Rasgas. Skikda. Maharashtra Kochi Terminal. Algeria Bethioua.
) Americas y y Atlantic LNG. Russia . Trinidad and Tobago Kenai LNG.y Sakhalin LNG. operated by ConocoPhillips. This sector . Norway USE OF NATURAL GAS With the hydrocarbons finds in India way back in 1889 in upper Assam. wind energy. the journey for exploring hydrocarbons reserves continued.(Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd. Alaska Australia y Karratha Gas Plant . There had been Oil & Gas finds in various regions at various times. Snøhvit. The Indian Energy Basket has a share of Natural gas touching 9% as against 24% of the world average. Nikiski. hydel energy and hydrogen. Western Australia y Darwin LNG. The most benign use of Natural Gas is in City Gas Application. Natural gas is most eco friendly fuel among the hydrocarbons group and next only to solar energy.North West Shelf Venture operated by Woodside Petroleum in Karratha. Sakhalin. The major gas finds of Bombay High and South Basein change energy consumption pattern in India. Europe y Hammerfest LNG.
The Household use of gas has picked up in India especially when multiple use of Natural Gas in the houses was demonstrated. power generation. The concept of a single switch solution in the household sector is picking up momentum. buses. power generation and fuelling the ve hicle. The coal gas . Sibsagar in Assam. hospitals. As a matter of fact. Such locations had been Duliajan. air conditioning. Apart from this natural gas as CNG has been able to replace high priced hydrocarbon commodity like petrol and diesel. Development of City Gas in India In the early stage. The gas can be used for cooking. The structured use of Natural Gas in domestic sector in Assam. and Baroda in Gujarat. This has further helped India to reduce its Oil Import Bill. This concept provides that a household could be self contained gas users to meet its all energy needs at one go that means once the gas supply is switched on. In addition. Natural gas supply to industries in and around a city or local area has considerably helped reducing pollution in the cities apart from providing ease of operation and fuel handling to the industries. the city gas was only started on experimental basis. water heating. Nazira. trucks and cars iv. Commercial use in hotels.15% less as compared to crude oil price in energy terms. the metros of Mumbai and Kolkata used Coal Gas for City Gas Usage way back since pre -independence. primarily to utilize the locally produced gas. space heating. all these services can be secured which are all gas based of course selectively or need based. The use of Natural gas in the transport sector has contributed to a great extent to contain the pollution due to vehicular exhaust emissions.comprises of : i. Moran. restaurant and offices iii. started after formation of Assam Gas Company in 1962. Industrial Sector use in the Small Scale Industry including Power generation. Transport sector use in three wheelers. In the commercial sector the city gas has found to be very useful in the application like cooking. refrigeration. the international Gas Price is always 10. This system has much higher thermal efficiency as compared to other conventional services. In fact a concept of Combined Heat & Power (CHP) is getting popular in India. Domestic household use ii. air conditioning.
Delhi 10. This company has been performing very successfully since then. however it is on the retardation phase. In early 90¶s Supreme Court on a PIL filed by Sh N. Mahanagar Gas Ltd (MGL). Gujarat Gas Company Ltd (GGCL). Green Gas Ltd. UP 12. Mumbai and Baroda by GAIL (I) Ltd. Surat. Bhagyanagar Gas Ltd.which is also known as Synthesis Gas did not find a commercial business model and abandoned in Mumbai way back in 1981. there have been various initiatives in the City Gas Distribution (CGD) Projects. Hyderabad. the CNG was introduced in all these three towns in 1993. Gujarat 4. Mumbai. Baroda. As of now. In pursuant to this direction. The development of City Gas in India remained localized for quite long time. Agartala. of NCT of Delhi and created a new company in 1998 by the name of Indraprastha Gas Limited. Duliajan. Ahmedabad. Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Ltd. of India allocated gas for development of City Gas in Ankleshwar and Bharuch. Indraprastha Gas Ltd (IGL). Assam 2. Pune. Maharashtra Natural Gas Company Ltd. Tripura 3. Baroda Municipal Corporation Ltd. of Maharashtra was formed to pursue City Gas Business. and Govt. Ltd. It was only in 80¶s when structured development of City Gas took place in India. Charotar Gas Sehkari Mandali Limited 6.C. Maharashtra 9. In Kolkata this concept is still working after the original company the Oriental Gas was succeeded by Greater Calcutta Gas Supply Corporation in 1987. Subsequently. Great Eastern Energy Corporation Ltd. Lucknow. In Delhi after continuing its activities for 5 years. Maharashtra 8. MP 14. In Mumbai a JV of GAIL. Tripura Natural Gas Company Ltd. Central UP Gas Ltd. UP 13. A company was registered in 1995 as Mahanagar Gas Limited. Avantika Gas Ltd. Mehta directed that the City Gas should be implemented in Delhi. BG and Govt. The Gujarat Gas Company is the example of this initiative when Govt. 7. the numbers of companies operating in CGD are as under: 1. AP 11. GAIL formed a JV with Bharat Petroleum Corp. Assam Gas Company Ltd. Gujarat 5. Kanpur. Gujarat .
Ahmedabad. commercial unit.000 58. These are as follows: i. CNG kits. CNG Compressors.000 1. filters. Their major achievements in regard to market penetration and infrastructure are as under: Traits Domestic Connection Vehicle Conversion CNG Outlet Gas Sold (MMSCMD) MGL 3. iv. safety devices. Reliance Energy Ltd* 22. v. Sity Energy Limited. pressure reduction unit and metering installation including plumbing of the household connections. Haryana City Gas Limited. CNG Cylinders and Car manufacturers. Gandhinagar. Gurgaon.12. IGL and GGCL.000 154 1.15. Kolkata City Gas Co. The users which comprise of household.83.17. which include Industrial also City Gas Stakeholders There are many other stakeholders in the business of CGD implementation apart from the entities which develop and own the assets. Adani Energy Ltd. Manufacturers of Equipments such as compressors. Gas Suppliers ii. Haryana* 19. pipes and pipe fittings.Operation yet to start The major players among above companies are MGL. Gujarat 17. Contractors. Consultants.75. Sabarmati Gas Ltd. Gujarat 16. vehicle . Kolkata WB 18. iii. metering equipments.000 22 0. Krishna Godavari Gas Ltd (JV of GSPCL & Govt of AP) *.55 GGCL 2. Delhi* 20. Reliance Industries Ltd* 21.000 127 1. develop basic engineering and network design etc.31* * Total gas marketed is more than 3mmscmd. who execute the project for steel pipe laying. who prepare feasibility report. filters.26 IGL 95. PE pipe laying.000 1.
. University of Petroleum and Energy Study. An exercise done by the one of organizing company indicates that around 130 cities/towns are expected to get city gas project in various stages in next XI ± Five Year Plan. of Indi a: The conference has support from the Government of India through Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas Ltd. Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board. media partner and knowledge partner etc. academia and Govt.. There are proposals for extending the existing transmission pipe line network from nearly 7000 Kms to more than 10000 Kms in the coming years and subsequently to 15000 plus Kms. This Eurasian conference cum exhibition is the first endeavor to bring various stakeholders together for mutual benefits. Support from statutory authorities. FUTURE OF CGD IN INDIA With the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board in position and good prospects of new gas finds in India the future of CGD Project is expected to see an asymptotic growth. To summarize with. IIT Mumbai. there would be a lot of opportunities in India for all stakeholders associated with City Gas Distribution Projects.owners and industrial units. Infraline Energy and Technology Publications through their participation as speakers.