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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
An automated guided vehicle system is a material handling system that uses independently operated , self propelled vehicle that are guided along defined pathways on the floor. The vehicles are powered by means of on board batteries that allow operation for several hours (8-16 hrs.) between recharging. Guidance is achieved by using sensors on the vehicles that follow the guide wires. The vehicle is controlled by an off board controller or a micro- processor. This controller sends commands to the vehicle such as identification of load, its destination and other special instructions. An AGV system provides a material handling system i.e. both flexible and readily adaptable to either production or production changes.
Audible signal Emergency stop Status indicator Obstacle sensor Protective bar Side protection rails Flasher Protective bar Photobarrier
Figure 1.1 Basic Diagram of Automated Guided Vehicle
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AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE
Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT, Shirpur (2010-11) AGV systems are originally developed for the distribution of material in warehouse environments although this is an imp. use, two major growth areas have been evolved the movement of material to and from production areas in manufacturing facilities, reflecting manufacturing work lifts and use of carriers of work in progress in assembly plants, replacing serial type asynchronous or fixed index assembly conveyor system and small packages, in hospitals to deliver meals, and for material handling. (Miller, 1987). AGV system were first introduced in 1950 in USA and later in Europe in early 1960, the technology caught on much faster in Europe.
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AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE
Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. Figure 2. carts pallets jacks and wheeled racks.000 pounds.1 Towing type Automated Guided Vehicle Page 3 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . These vehicles can move loads up to 50. They are used where large volume of product to be moved or in retro fit applications where product in historically been moved by trailers.1 Towing Vehicles: These vehicles consist of an AGV with no load carrying facility but with a hitch or tow bar that can pull trailers. Shirpur (2010-11) CHAPTER 2 TYPES OF VEHICLES 2.
000 pounds. belt conveyors. special fixtures. Page 4 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .3 Standard Automatic Guided pallet Trucks: These vehicles are designed to service palletized loads to and from floor level positions. Unit load transporter scan lift loads ranging between 12.2 Unit Load Transporter Type Automated Guided Vehicle 2. Shirpur (2010-11) 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. power lifts. or on board robot arm. The shadow fork region has limited fork travel and is designed to move pallets to and from floor positions exclusively. These AGV can be either bi-directional or unidirectional and are used in house as well as on factory flowers.2 Unit load Transporters: These vehicles are designed to carry individual loads. The fork truck version has travel up to 20 feet and can move pallets both at floor level and on stands or racks.000 to 60. Figure 2. which permits them to be equipped with rollers. Unit load transporter can have an extremely versatile deck design.
It generally has a footprint allowing its use in tight spaces and narrow aisles. with any other unitized container. 2. Page 5 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .5 Light Load Transporters: These vehicles are design to carry boxes. The vehicle is routed through the various manufacturing stations of the factory where parts and assembly are added to the product. Shirpur (2010-11) 2. these AVG can provide total automatic transfer of material these are known as material handling system on automated assembly line. etc.4 Assembly Line Vehicles: These vehicles have a fixture on board that accept the frame initial parts of the product that is to be assembled. baskets. They can skip assembly section if required in particular section breaks down. These vehicles are used for a wide range of functions from mailrooms to clean rooms in every type of manufacturing and office environments.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. small parts.
Opportunity charging or full cycle charging. electrical system drive unit. precision stop unit. communication unit. on board controller. Page 6 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . The carrier drive commands are generated either through the microprocessor or at the hand control unit. Battery charging is accomplished by one of two techniques viz.2 Batteries and charging : AGV systems are typically powered by 24 or 48v D. industrial batteries.C.1.1. 3. with 3.1 Frame : The frame is usually constructed of welded steel member aluminum cover Plate. The vehicle consists of a frame.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. in general they consist of following components: 3. Shirpur (2010-11) CHAPTER 3 AGV SYSTEM COMPONENTS Although all AGV system are different.3 Drive unit : The main components of motor speed controller and drive mechanism. batteries on board charging unit. steering.1. The driver speed controller mechanism is usually a pulse width modulated four-quadrant servo drive unit. safety system and work platform. 3.1 Vehicles: The component of an AGV system that is most readily identified is vehicle itself.
At some point before an up coming precision stop location.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. four directional.7 Communication Unit : Instructions to the vehicle microprocessor are usually generated by the Area controller and then relayed to the vehicle. AS it approaches stop point the vehicle¶s metal detector is activated and AGV slows to the end of the plate. The first system uses photo cells mounted on AGVs leading edge and reflecting material on trailing edge to avoid collision of vehicles. Shirpur (2010-11) 3.8 Safety : Safety systems may be divided in to three specific categories. activation of safety devices.1.6 On board controller : The vehicle controller is used to monitor vehicle performance through encoder data to determine position and velocity discrete digital input. steering linkage and steering limit switches. status. Vehicle to object Page 7 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .1. monitor functions as controls. battery conditions. 3. steering limit. the steering motors and their controllers.4 Steering: Vehicles are designed to maneuver in three different ways forward only. vehicle to Vehicle. and vehicle to people.1. forward and reverse.1.1. break release. the vehicle will receive a precision stop command from off board controller or by code bar on board on the floor. vehicle to object. running light drive controller 3. 3. The major components of power steering system are the steering antenna. 3.5 Precision stop controller : A precision stop controller is used to stop AGV with close location accuracy at workstation and charge station. The communication System may be either continuous or discrete.
Page 8 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. The guide path techniques used are known as passive or active tracking. Passive tracking depends upon either optical or metal detection principles where as active tracking involves inductive principle¶s. If guide path becomes dirty. It is based on bonding fluorescent particles to the floor surface and stimulating these particles with ultra violet light and causing them to omit a generated light in the sensing head an oscillation mirror scans the guide path and reflect the generated light in to photo reflector..2. which follows the tape on floor. A variation of optical method is lightening patented optical system. It depends upon contrasting floor surface so that variation in reflecting light that is sensed by photocell can be detect ed when the vehicle begins to stray from them guide path. Generally most AGV s need guide path to follow. 3. which intern relays signal to microprocessor. or damaged or if the ambient light distorts the light level sensed. Tran scar patterned guidance system consists of two sensors packs each containing five sensors and located at each end of AGV. The other passive tracking techniques involve vehicle with metal detecting sensor s following a stainless steel ribbon. toe born limit switches. 1989)) 3. 1988. Shirpur (2010-11) system uses bumpers . The three central sensors allow the vehicle to center itself on the guide path.2 GUIDE PATH AND GUIDENCE SYSTEM.( (Taghaboni and Tanchoco. proximity sensors to protect both vehicle and any object in AGV path generally vehicle have warning light buzzers or toner which flashes or sounds to indicate automatic mode. The two remaining sensors assist the vehicle in transverse curve. the vehicle may stray from guide path. Gaskins et al.1 Passive Tracking : The optical method may be simply involved a light sensitive photocell mounted on the vehicle. faded.
trying the vehicle to the guide path and integrating the system. The vehicle system stores in memory exact vehicle location at all the times and provides network access. 3.1 vehicle control system : The top level of vehicle control system often communicates with and under the control the facility¶s host computer. vehicle control system. floor control system and vehicle on board processor.2 Floor control Unit : This level is referred to as the data concentrator and acts as traffic manager and communicating directly with the vehicles and providing them with formatted detailed commands.3. Shirpur (2010-11) The sensor locates the presence of guide tape and transmit this information to the onboard microprocessor. Most of the decision making takes place at this level as it oversees the system operation. 3.2. 3. 3.2 Active Tracking : Active tracking involves use of guide wire and most commonly used Technique in industry. Not only does it control the AGV system but it also integrates with automatic assembly facility. A low voltage ( less than 40 v).) and signal is conducted through a wire buried in a slot in the floor. low frequency (Ñ to 15 kHz.3. Page 9 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . A small electromagnetic field is radiated from the wire and two inductive type sensors are compared and as long as they are equal.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT.3 Floor and system controls: The controller is the brain of the whole system. the vehicle is centered on the guide path if vehicle begins to stray. low current (less than 400 ma). signal magnitudes sensed are no longer equal and sensor difference is used to steer the vehicle back on the guide path. The AGV system itself will usually contain three levels of controller architecture.
and it can interpret commands received from floor control unit and can monitor on board safety devices. The two type of vehicle control processors are intelligent type and non-intelligent type Page 10 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . Generally the vehicle processor knows the vehicle location.4 Vehicle processor : . Shirpur (2010-11) 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT.
(1992)) Figure 4. which have sophisticated microprocessor on board and are known as smart or intelligent vehicles. Shirpur (2010-11) CHAPTER 4 AGV GUIDENCE & CONTROLES INTRIDUCTION Some AGV system use vehicles. direction. This is accomplished by turning on and off the path at decision points or by commanding vehicle to follow a particular frequency. The central computer dispatches the vehicle to next location. proper rout and path of the vehicle. All decision is making is made by central computer in smart vehicles. though it¶s on board microprocessor. Other systems have minimal vehicle computing ability and use a central computer for all process. the vehicle it self makes decision as to which path it takes. (et al.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT.1 Controlling Of Automated Guided Vehicle Page 11 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . (1990) and Smith et al. In such systems central computer decides location.
Shirpur (2010-11) 4. thumbwheel switches or push button numeric pad for programming the vehicle to go to specific station. 1984. Russell and Tanchoco. Finally these types of systems controller cannot determine vehicle location while it is in transits. 1989). rout and automatic load/ unload commands to the vehicle this control system allows the vehicle to circulate on guide path looking for work.( (Ozden. The advantage of manual system is that it is the least expensive and simplest system. Another passive method involves vehicles with metal detecting sensors following stainless steel tape. Bartholdi and Platzman. this system does not allowed tracking capabilities. Communication of commands and positional information to the vehicle may be accomplished by placing guide path codes along the guide path. These system ranges from basic toggle switches. passive techniques: It involves the use of chemical.1 method of Programming the smallest system uses manual programming to direct the vehicle to specific destination and to dispatch the vehicle. Page 12 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .2 Guide Path Techniques: a. The disadvantages of manual system are that its efficiency depends upon operators.( (Egbelu and Tanchoco.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. The third level is more complex and expensive and is referred to as the central computer controlled system. In such systems operator intersects with the local controller who in turn transmit information such as destination . paint and adhesive strips or tape where by the AGV focuses a beam of light on the reflective tape and tracks the path by measuring the amplitude of reflected beam.) The second level of sophistication in control system is referred to as remote dispatch. 1984)) 4. 1988.
continuous & discrete. route frequency. speed. blocking instruction.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. 4. With multiple wire method a path is selected at decision points according to the assigned frequency. The vehicle can be programmed by system controller at decision points to follow the appropriate frequencies and thus the vehicle is directed on the desired path. one using either one wire in the slot operating on one frequency or one multiple overlaid frequencies and other using several wires in the slot each operating at a different frequency.5 inch deep). direction of travel speed of travel & battery status. The vehicle must be able to receive such commands as work assignments. Each AGV is equipped with transmit / receive antenna. Shirpur (2010-11) Active Techniques : By for most commonly used method in industry is the wire guide path. The optical method involves stopping the AGV at set stations along the guide path where information is passed to the vehicle using infrared light. There are two different wire guide path techniques. Radio frequency communication is widely used from in an continuous communication. when to start and stop and auxiliary equipment commands used similarly vehicle must be able to transmit it¶s status to the system controller by sending such informations as vehicle identification. There are two AGV systems viz. This method involves cutting a slot in the floor (1/8 to ¾ inch wide ) and (1/2 to 1. Page 13 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . Continuous indicates that the area controller always communicates with any vehicle where as discrete means that area controller can only communicate with a particular vehicle at times. Each AGV may be on a different frequency. destinations. location. in to which one or more wires are placed and grouted and epoxyed.3 Communication Technique : Irrespective of guidance technique used it is essential for individual vehicle to be able to communicate with the system controller.
e. Figure 5.1 Driverless train operation : These applications involved the movement of large quantities of material over large distances. this become an efficient handling method. For the movement of trains consisting of ¹ to 10 trailers. Shirpur (2010-11) CHAPTER 5 APPLICATION OF AGVS Introduction : AGV is used in various growing number and a variety of applications. the moves within a large factory building or buildings in large storage depot.1 AGV Used In Driverless Train Page 14 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT.g. 5.
5. In these applications rate is relatively low and there are variety of different models made on production line. The application often interfaces the AGV with some other automated handling or storage system this type of storage / distribution can also be used in light manufacturing and Assembly operation in which work in process is stored in a central storage area and distributed to different work station for assembly or processing.3 Assembly line operation : AGV system is being used in a growing number of assembly line applications. In these storage or distribution operation.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. Page 15 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . the movement of material is in unit load form.2 AGV Used in ASRS 5.4 Miscellaneous Applications : Other applications of AGV system including non-manufacturing and non-warehouse applications such as mail delivery in office building and hospital material handling applications between different floors of the hospital. Shirpur (2010-11) 5. Figure 5.2 Storage / Distribution system : Unit load carriers and pallet trucks are particularly used in these applications.
3 system controller: System will be designed to have capability to track material and store this information.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. they can at least indicate their problems to maintenance and repair person. Although vehicle cannot repair themselves. 6. 6. 6. They will be able to follow and control material flow to support just in time concepts. On board controller is becoming more sophisticated and at same time they are becoming smaller and less expensive the vehicle controllers are exhibiting such features as expanding diagnostics. The system controller will also be able to be integrated with network allowing it to communicate with any other facility controller. Page 16 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE .1 Guidance : The research is being accomplished to expand capability and even to eliminate the need for guidance using guide path on board controller. Controller sophistification will also allow the vehicle to operator more intelligently in complex handling situation and will increase the system integrity in the event of host computer failure. it can be concluded from the trends that seem to indicate future status of AGV systems.2 Vehicle communication: The trend is towards continuous as opposed to discrete communication So that vehicle will be able to communicate and receive updated instruction at any time. Shirpur (2010-11) CHAPTER 6 FUTURE TRENDS Although it is difficult to predict the future with absolute certainty.
5 Improved Graphical Display : There will be probability the increased use of color graphical display showing entire guide path.6 Safety: New safety sensors for proximity detection will be developed and coupled with computing power of on board controller to produce on even vehicle that readily negotiate pedestrian clogged aisle.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. 6. Figure 6.1 Safety Features of Automated Guided Vehicle Page 17 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . every vehicle location. 6. Shirpur (2010-11) 6. thus lowering the coast of vehicle to a particular task. thus lowering the coast of vehicle to a great extent this will make them easier to justify for many users.4 Vehicle : Vehicle will become more standard requiring less engineering to adapt the vehicle to a particulate task. the vehicle identification. the vehicle status and vehicle load.
7.2 Disadvantages of AGV Following are the disadvantages of AGV 1. 3. Page 18 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . Requirement of specially designed floor space. Reduction in space requirement Reduction in product damage. Ease of removal and relocation.1 Advantages of AGV Following are the advantages of AGV 1. Job enrichment and worker satisfaction. System adaptability and flexibility. Advantages and Disadvantages 7. 2. 4. Expensive 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. Shirpur (2010-11) 7. 8. Reduction in labor force. 3. Improvement in house keeping. Performance is affected if guide path bed is not stable. Integration with other type of automations. 7. 6. Improved productivity and quality. 9. 5.
Page 19 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . it provides the foundation for the long-term development of an automated guided vehicle system design aid. It provides a mechanism for organizing the academic literature on AGVS and comparing the application domains of different techniques. The ultimate goal is to use the classification scheme as a design aid. Shirpur (2010-11) CONCLUSION This paper presents a classification scheme for automated guided vehicle systems. The paper provides a discussion of the functionalities required of a generic AGVS controller. It also provides helpful information to the system designer about the impact of design decisions on the required controller functionality and resulting complexity. The classification scheme is then developed based on the impact the AGVS design alternatives have on the control system. This scheme is developed from a system control perspective. The classification scheme presented in this paper provides an organization mechanism for AGVS from a control perspective. More importantly.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. The scheme is useful as a structured method for understanding the impact of design decisions on the control system.
H. 9.1992 8. Grand Rapids. Groover ³Automation.R.´ Proceedings of the 1994 International Material Handling Research Colloquium. Bakkalbasi. June. Department of Industrial Engineering.. C. Struger.18 Dec 1987) 7. ³Material Handling Requirements in Holonic Manufacturing Systems. and Control of Flexible Manufacturing Systems: A Petri Net Approach (Series in Intelligent Control and Intelligent Automation) by MengChu Zhou and Kurapati Venkatesh (Hardcover . 493-502. Ben-Daya (Hardcover . 1994.. A controle classification of Automobile vehicle system by Brett A. Modeling..F. M.´ Proceedings of AGVS¶88. E. 1988.H. Christensen. First Edition. BASc northest university of technology of P. and Skaar. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: Recent Developments (Manufacturing Research and Technology) by A. Chaina 1982. MHI.1995. D. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: Design. O. S. J.´ IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. Analysis and Simulation (Manufacturing Engineering and Materials Processing) by Joseph Talavage (Hardcover . ³An Autonomous Vision-based Mobile Robot. Raouf and M.1 May 1999) 10.T. Peters. Tata McGraw Hills Publications. O. Norrie. 5. and Schaeffer.. P. and McGinnis. ³ABC¶s of Preliminary InHouse Planning and Analysis of AGVS Applications. Michigan. September 27-28. 3. Fuchs ³Advanced Manufacturing Methods´. vol.´Second Edition. Baumgartner. 4. Journal paper of Flexible Manufacturing System with AGV based material handling by FUHONG DAI.9 Feb 1995) 6. Shirpur (2010-11) REFRANCES 1.B. 2. Cincinnati. Texas A&M University Page 20 of 20 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE . Production Systems and Computer integrated Manufacturing ³ TATA McGraw Hills Publications. OH. L. pp. Simulation. 39. 1994..J.Department of Mechanical Engineering RCPIT. J.
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