ROBOTICS

DEFINITION A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunction manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for performance of variety of tasks. CLASSIFICATION OF ROBOTS Industrial robotic manipulators can be classified into following ways: • • • Based on the basis of technology involved. Based upon the mechanical configuration of device Based upon the general method to control its individual members. Based upon method of input of information and teaching • • Based upon manipulative functions. Based upon level of sophistication. BASED UPON THE MECHANICAL

CLASSIFICATION

CONFIGURATION OF DEVICE. All robots must be able to move a part (or load) to some point in space. The major area of the device, normally consisting of two to three joints or degrees of freedom are used for this purpose. The majority of robots, fall into one of four categories with respect to the co-ordinate system employed in the design of axis. They can be described 1. 2. 3. as being either to possess one of the four basic configuration. Polar configuration / Configuration (spherical). Cylindrical configuration / cylindrical Cartesian co-ordinate configuration / certesian (rectangular)

4.

Joined arm configuration / articulated (revolute on jointed arm)

1. Polar configuration: It bears a resemblance to tank trust. It uses a telescoping arm that can be raised or lowered – lowered about a horizontal pivot. The pivot is mounted on the rotating base. The various joints provide the capacity to move its arm with in a spherical space and hence applied to this robot. It terms of reach example of such robots are unimation series and united states robots. Cylindrical Configuration It uses a vertical column and a slide that can be moved up or down along the column. The robot arm is attached to the slide so that it can be moved radially wet column or direction. Base can not rotate to an angle of (360o) due to restriction imposed by hydrollic, pre????? Or electrical connections or lines. By rotating the column robot is capable of achieving a woebspace that approximates a cylinder e.g. GMF Model. Cortesian configuration( xyz or box type) This configuration uses three perpendicular slides to construct x, y, z axes. By moving the three slides relative to one another, robot is capable of operating with in a reachangular woeb envolpe. In terms of repeatability of motion the box frame possess the advantage because of its inchrently rigid structure. It has high rigidiling and thus more load carrying capacity. E.g. RS-I robot.

Joined arm configuration or articulated robot. In this all the links of robot are pivoted and hence can move in a rotary or revolute manner. Its configuration is similar to the human arm. It consist of two straight components are connected by two rotary joints corresponding to shoulder and elbow. A wrest is attached to the forearm, thus providing additional joints. The was envelope of this type of robot is close to sphere. Reach of this type of robot is excellent and ability of robot to reach into small opening without interference with sides of opening is important. The advantage of this type of robot is that, it is possible to reach close to the base of the robot, over any obstacles which are there in the wars space. These are of many types like parallogram jointed, jointed cylindrical, pure spherical etc. e.g. SCARA robot. Classification by control method This method of classification looks at the technique used to control various axes of robot. Non servo-controlled robots: Other name given to these is limited sequence robot. The major characteristics of device is that their axes remain in motion until the limits of travel (or and stops) for each are reached. Thus only two position for individual axis are assumed. Non selvo emplies that once the manipulator has begin to move, it well continue to do so, until appropriate and stop is reached. There will be no monitoring of the motion at intermediate points. So, this class of robot is controlled in an open look manner.

Programming of a limited sequence robot is accomplished by setting a desired sequence of moves and adjusting the end stops accordingly. A typical operating sequence for a hydraulic or prenumatic non servo controlled robot is as follows:

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