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Acceptence on ASME

Acceptence on ASME

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ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME Sec VIII Div.

1):
UW-51: RADIOGRAPHIC AND RADIOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS

(a) All welded joints to be radiographed shall be examined in accordance with Article 2 of Section V except as specified below. (1) A complete set of radiographs and records, as described in T-291 and T-292 of Article 2 of Section V, for each vessel or vessel part shall be retained by the Manufacturer until the Manufacturer’s Data Report has been signed by the Inspector. (2) The Manufacturer shall certify that personnel performing and evaluating radiographic examinations required by this Division have been qualified and certified in accordance with their employer’s written practice. SNT-TC-1A11 shall be used as a guideline for employers to establish their written practice for qualification and certification of their personnel. Alternatively, the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP),11 or CP-18911 may be used to fulfill the examination and demonstration requirements of SNT-TC-1A and the employer’s written practice. Provisions for training, experience, qualification, and certification of NDE personnel shall be described in the Manufacturer’s Quality Control System [see Appendix 10]. (3) A written radiographic examination procedure is not required. Demonstration of density and penetrameter image requirements on production or technique radiographs shall be considered satisfactory evidence of compliance with Article 2 of Section V. (4) The requirements of T-285 of Article 2 of Section V are to be used only as a guide. Final acceptance of radiographs shall be based on the ability to see the prescribed penetrameter image and the specified hole or the designated wire of a wire penetrameter. (b) Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and characterized as imperfections are unacceptable under the following conditions and shall be repaired as provided in UW-38, and the repair radiographed to UW-51 or, at the option of the Manufacturer, ultrasonically examined in accordance with the method described in Appendix 12 and the standards specified in this paragraph, provided the defect has been confirmed by the ultrasonic examination to the satisfaction of the Authorized Inspector prior to making the repair. For material thicknesses in excess of 1 in. (25 mm), the concurrence of the user shall be obtained. This ultrasonic examination shall be noted under remarks on the Manufacturer’s Data Report Form: (1) Any indication characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration; (2) Any other elongated indication on the radiograph which has length greater than: (a) 1⁄4 in. (6 mm) for t up to 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) (b) 1⁄3t for t from 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) to 21⁄4 in. (57 mm) (c) 3⁄4 in. (19 mm) for t over 21⁄4 in. (57 mm) Where, t = the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. (3) any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t, except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group; (4) Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards given in Appendix 4. (c) All welded joints to be examined by Real Time Radioscopic Examination shall be examined in accordance with Appendix II of Article 2 of Section V as specified below.

qualification. It must be realized that an accepted vessel under these spot radiography rules may still contain defects which might be disclosed on further examination. The location of the spot shall be chosen by the Inspector after completion of the increment of welding to be examined. If the work is unsatisfactory. and evaluation of examination data shall be described in the Manufacturer’s Quality Control System [see Appendix 10]. The spot radiography rules are also considered to be an aid to quality control. and (4) are unacceptable and shall be repaired as provided in UW-38 and the repair reexamined by either film or Real Time Radioscopic Examination. (a) Butt welded joints which are to be spot radiographed shall be examined locally as provided herein. (2). However. except that when the Inspector has been notified in advance and cannot be present or otherwise make the selection. shall be evaluated by the Manufacturer prior to being presented to the Inspector. or on the two sides of a doublewelded butt joint. as described in II-292. UW-11(a)(5)(b). The minimum length of spot radiograph shall be 6 in. a sufficient number of spot radiographs shall be taken to examine the welding of each welder or welding operator. (3) The use of Real Time Radioscopic Examination shall be noted under remarks on the Manufacturer’s Data Report. If all radiographically disclosed weld defects must be eliminated from a vessel. Records shall be retained by the Manufacturer until the Data Report has been signed by the Inspector. (2) Provisions for training. operation. and UW-14(b). calibration. which unquestionably will improve the weld quality. experience. Imperfections listed in UW-51(b)(1). for identical vessels or parts. Spot radiographs made directly after a welder or an operator has completed a unit of weld proves that the work is or is not being done in accordance with a satisfactory procedure. shall not be used to satisfy the requirements for spot radiography. (3). The acceptability of welds examined by spot radiography shall be judged by the following standards. and certification of personnel responsible for equipment setup. (1) Welds in which indications are characterized as cracks or zones of incomplete fusion or penetration shall be unacceptable. UW-52: SPOT EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS NOTE: Spot radiographing of a welded joint is recognized as an effective inspection tool. Spot radiography in accordance with these rules will not ensure a fabrication product of predetermined quality level throughout. one spot may represent the work of all welders or welding operators. Spot radiographs may be retained or be discarded by the Manufacturer after acceptance of the vessel by the Inspector. (4) Radiographs required at specific locations to satisfy the rules of other paragraphs. Under conditions where two or more welders or welding operators make weld layers in a joint. the fabricator may exercise his own judgment in selecting the spots. 50 ft (15 m) increments of weld may be represented by one spot examination.(1) A complete set of records. (2) For each increment of weld to be examined. . (c) Standards for Spot Radiographic Examination: Spot examination by radiography shall be made in accordance with the technique prescribed in UW-51(a). each with less than 50 ft (15 m) of weld for which a joint efficiency from column (b) of Table UW-12 is selected. then 100% radiography must be employed. (b) Minimum Extent of Spot Radiographic Examination (1) One spot shall be examined on each vessel for each 50 ft (15 m) increment of weld or fraction thereof for which a joint efficiency from column (b) of Table UW-12 is selected. (3) Each spot examination shall be made as soon as practicable after completion of the increment of weld to be examined. corrective steps can then be taken to improve the welding in the subsequent units. such as UW-9(d).

and nonferrous materials. the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t. . (b) If either of the two additional spots examined shows welding which does not comply with the minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) or (c)(2) above. (d) Evaluation and Retests: (1) When a spot. the tail shall be included. the welds shall be judged acceptable if the sum of the longest dimensions of all such indications is not more than t in a length of 6t (or proportionately for radiographs shorter than 6t) and if the longest indications considered are separated by at least 3L of acceptable weld metal where L is the length of the longest indication. or tungsten. If several indications within the above limitations exist in line. radiographed as required in (b)(1) or (b)(2) above. When evaluating the size of an indication. (19 mm). elliptical. (a) If the two additional spots examined show welding which meets the minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) and (c)(2) above. the entire weld increment represented by this radiograph is acceptable. 4-1 APPLICABILITY OF THESE STANDARDS These standards are applicable to ferritic. at the fabricator’s option. The entire rejected weld shall be removed and the joint shall be re-welded or. The indication may be from any imperfection in the weld. austenitic. or irregular in shape and may have tails. The weld repaired area shall be radio-graphically examined in accordance with the foregoing requirements of UW-52. is acceptable in accordance with (c)(1) and (c)(2) above. conical. shall be spot radio-graphically examined at one location in accordance with the foregoing requirements of UW-52. the entire weld increment represented by the three radiographs is acceptable provided the defects disclosed by the first of the three radiographs are removed and the area repaired by welding. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld. or the weld repaired areas. MANDATORY APPENDIX 4: ROUNDED INDICATIONS CHARTS ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR RADIOGRAPHICALLY DETERMINED ROUNDED INDICATIONS IN WELDS. 4-2 TERMINOLOGY (a) Rounded Indications: Indications with a maximum length of three times the width or less on the radiograph are defined as rounded indications. The maximum length of acceptable indications shall be 3⁄4 in. such as porosity. (2) When a spot. (3) Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds not required to be fully radiographed. The re-welded joint. t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. slag. two additional spots shall be radio graphically examined in the same weld increment at locations away from the original spot. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld. Any such indications shorter than 1⁄4 in. The locations of these additional spots shall be determined by the Inspector or fabricator as provided for the original spot examination in (b) (3) above. has been examined and the radiograph discloses welding which does not comply with the minimum quality requirements of (c)(1) or (c)(2) above. These indications may be circular. (6 mm) shall be acceptable for any plate thickness. (c) Repair welding shall be performed using a qualified procedure and in a manner acceptable to the Inspector. the entire increment of weld represented shall be rejected. the entire increment of weld represented shall be completely radiographed and only defects need be corrected.(2) Welds in which indications are characterized as slag inclusions or cavities shall be unacceptable if the length of any such indication is greater than 2⁄3t where t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. radiographed as required in (b)(1) or (b)(2) above.

(6 mm to 50 mm). the thickness of the throat of the fillet shall be included in t.4mm) for t from 1⁄8 in. or 5⁄32 in. (c) Maximum Size of Rounded Indication. (10 mm). (6 mm). The charts in Figs. The distributions shown are not necessarily the patterns that may appear on the radiograph. The length of groups of aligned rounded indications and the spacing between the groups shall meet the requirements of Fig. The length of an acceptable cluster shall not exceed the lesser of 1 in. to 2 in. randomly dispersed and clustered rounded indications for different weld thicknesses greater than 1⁄8 in. or 1⁄4 in. (4 mm). (25 mm) or more may be 1⁄3t. (3 mm to6 mm). (150 mm) length of weld. (f) Rounded Indication Charts: The rounded indications characterized as imperfections shall not exceed that shown in the charts. (g) Weld Thickness t less than 1/8 in. (3 mm) (2) 1⁄64 in. These charts represent the maximum acceptable concentration limits for rounded indications. (3 mm) the maximum number of rounded indications shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. For t greater than 2 in. (150 mm) in length. whichever is less. (50 mm) the maximum permissible size of an isolated indication shall be increased to 3⁄8 in. but are typical of the concentration and size of indications permitted.): Only those rounded indications which exceed the following dimensions shall be considered relevant. (150 mm) radiographs. (3 mm): For t less than 1⁄8 in. See Fig. The charts for each thickness range represent full-scale 6 in.6mm) for t greater than 2 in. to 1⁄4 in. except as required for isolated indications or groups of aligned indications. (25 mm) or 2t. (e) Spacing: The distance between adjacent rounded indications is not a factor in determining acceptance or rejection. 4-2. incl. as that shown in the illustrations for random indications.(b) Aligned Indications: A sequence of four or more rounded indications shall be considered to be aligned when they touch a line parallel to the length of the weld drawn through the center of the two outer rounded indications. (1. excluding any allowable reinforcement. 4-1.): The maximum permissible size of any indication shall be 1⁄4t. (0. whichever is smaller. For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses at the weld. Where more than . If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld. incl. (3 mm). (0. except that an isolated indication separated from an adjacent indication by 1in.8mm) for t greater than 1⁄4 in. (b) Relevant Indications: (See Table 4-1 for examples. (See Table4-1 for examples. 4-3 through 4-8 illustrate various types of assorted. (1) 1⁄10t for t less than 1⁄8 in. (c) Thickness t: t is the thickness of the weld. and shall not be enlarged or reduced. A proportionally fewer number of indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in. (h) Clustered Indications: The illustrations for clustered indications show up to four times as many indications in a local area. (3) 1⁄32 in. (50 mm). (a) Image Density: Density within the image of the indication may vary and is not a criterion for acceptance or rejection. t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. (d) Aligned Rounded Indications: Aligned rounded indications are acceptable when the summation of the diameters of the indications is less than t in a length of 12t. (4) 1⁄16 in.

Over50 3.79 16 3.96 6.) Less than 1⁄4t 1⁄3t 1⁄10t 1⁄8 1⁄8 0. (in.1) Maximum Size of Maximum Size of Non Acceptable Rounded Indication (in.incl.031 9⁄16 0.79 17 3.60 NOTE: This Table contains examples only (P. Random Isolated t.156 0.77 3.015 5⁄16 0. Over 2 0.79 19 to 3. 0.031 3⁄4 to 2.8 Page: 370~375(ASME Sec VIII Div.091 0.031 incl.31 3.79 14 3.146 0. in.104 0.109 0.07 0. *For more information see Table 4.125 0.64 0.) Thickness Random Isolated t.) Less than 1⁄4t 1⁄3t 1⁄10t 3 3 0.60 2.38 5 1.18 0.156 0.142 0.063 0.27 0.one cluster is present.79 1.33 0.61 4. ***Table for maximum size of acceptable rounded indication (Table 4.19 1.031 0.125 0.210 0.083 0.38 8 1.156 0.138 UW-51.063 0.375 0. (25 mm) in a 6 in.60 0.79 10 2.015 3⁄16 0.031 11⁄16 0.79 11 2.031 3⁄8 0.78 0.230 0.79 13 3. (150 mm) length weld. mm. 368 editions: 2004).35 0.96 5.53 1.84 0.1): (ASME Sec VIII Div.71 0.) Thickness relevant Indication.031 1⁄2 0.250 0.031 5⁄8 0.96 9. .156 0.063 Maximum Size of Acceptable Rounded Indication (mm.1editions: 2004) Maximum Size of Non relevant Indication.2-4. (mm.047 0.18 4.168 0.031 7⁄16 0.078 0.042 0.11 0.015 1⁄4 0.98 2.188 0.96 5.79 50. the sum of the lengths of the clusters shall not exceed 1 in.38 6 1.

c. The aggregate length of indications of ICP in any continuous 12 in.3. (300 mm) in length. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 14.5 Incomplete Fusion Due to Cold Lap Incomplete fusion due to cold lap (IFD) is defined as an imperfection between two adjacent weld beads or between the weld metal and the base metal that is not open to the surface. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 13. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 1 in. (25 mm). This condition . b. 9.ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (API-1104): 9. The length of an individual indication of ICP exceeds 2 in.3. 9. The aggregate length of indications of IF in any continuous 12 in. c.2 Inadequate Penetration Due to High-low Inadequate penetration due to high-low (IPD) is defined as the condition that exists when one edge of the root is exposed (or unbonded) because adjacent pipe or fitting joints are misaligned. The aggregate length of indications of IPD in any continuous 12 in. IF shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a.3 RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING: Note: All densities referred to in 9. (300 mm) in length. (50 mm).3.3. (25 mm). The aggregate length of indications of IP exceeds 8% of the weld length in any weld less than 12 in. (25 mm). (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 1 in. 9.3. b.1 through 9. (50 mm). b. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 15. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. (75 mm). The length of an individual indication of IPD exceeds 2 in.13 are based on negative images. 9. The length of an individual indication of IP exceeds 1 in. IP shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. b. The length of an individual indication of IF exceeds 1 in.4 Incomplete Fusion Incomplete fusion (IF) is defined as a surface imperfection between the weld metal and the base material that is open to the surface. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 16. (25 mm). IPD shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. ICP shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. 9.3.3 Inadequate Cross Penetration Inadequate cross penetration (ICP) is defined as a subsurface imperfection between the first inside pass and the first outside pass that is caused by inadequately penetrating the vertical land faces.1 Inadequate Penetration without High-low Inadequate penetration without high-low (IP) is defined as the incomplete filling of the weld root.3. (50 mm). The aggregate length of indications of IF exceeds 8% of the weld length in any weld less than 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 3 in. The aggregate length of indications of IP in any continuous 12 in.

a BT shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. For evaluation purposes.2 For pipe with an outside diameter greater than or equal to 2. 9. Note: Parallel ESI indications separated by approximately the width of the root bead (wagon tracks) shall be considered a single indication unless the width of either of them exceeds 1/32 in. Elongated slag inclusions (ESIs)—e. c. The aggregate length of indications of IFD in any continuous 12 in. and the density in any portion of the BT’s image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material.7) are applicable. and the density in any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material. the criteria for burn through (see 9.3. For areas that exceed the density of the thinnest adjacent parent material. More than one BT of any size is present and the density in any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material.8 and is shown schematically in Figure 18.375 in. (300 mm) length of weld or the total weld length. 9.3.3 mm).7.3. The aggregate length of indications of IFD exceeds 8% of the weld length.8. .2 For pipe with an outside diameter greater than or equal to 2.375 in.3 mm). slag inclusions shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. 9.8. (60.3.3 For pipe with an outside diameter less than 2.3. b. (50 mm).7. c. Any length of internal concavity is acceptable..g. The length of an individual indication of IFD exceeds 2 in. the indication’s maximum dimension shall be considered its length. (50 mm). In that event. b. The maximum dimension exceeds the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined.8 mm). 9. (6 mm) and the density in any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material.7 Burn-through 9. they shall be considered separate indications.is shown schematically in Figure 17. (50 mm).3 mm). The sum of the maximum dimensions of separate BTs whose image density for any portion of the BTs exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material and exceeds 1/2 in. when the size of a radiographic indication of slag is measured. (6 mm) and the density in any portion of the BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent parent material. a BT shall be considered a defect when any of the following conditions exists: a. The maximum dimension exceeds 1/4 in. (13 mm) in any continuous 12 in. IFD shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. Isolated slag inclusions (ISIs) are irregularly shaped and may be located anywhere in the weld.6 Internal Concavity Internal concavity (IC) is defined in 3.8 Slag Inclusions 9.2. b.375 in.3.1 A slag inclusion is defined as a nonmetallic solid entrapped in the weld metal or between the weld metal and the parent material.3.3.3. 9. (60. continuous or broken slag lines or wagon tracks-are usually found at the fusion zone. 9. provided the density of the radiographic image of the internal concavity does not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent parent material. The length of an ESI indication exceeds 2 in. The maximum dimension exceeds the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined.7. whichever is less. (0. c.1 A burn-through (BT) is defined as a portion of the root bead where excessive penetration has caused the weld puddle to be blown into the pipe. (60. The maximum dimension exceeds 1/4 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in.

b. (13 mm).3. The width of an ISI indication exceeds 1/8 in.6 mm). b.3 Cluster porosity (CP) that occurs in any pass except the finish pass shall comply with the criteria of 9.9. 9. The size of an individual pore exceeds 1/8 in. The length of an individual indication of HB exceeds 1/2 in. 9. The aggregate length of ESI and ISI indications exceeds 8% of the weld length. g. The aggregate length of ESI and ISI indications exceeds 8% of the weld length. 9.3 mm). In that event. (3 mm).9. Note: Parallel ESI indications separated by approximately the width of the root bead (wagon tracks) shall be considered a single indication unless the width of either of them exceeds 1/32 in.4 Hollow-bead porosity (HB) is defined as elongated linear porosity that occurs in the root pass. a.1 Porosity is defined as gas trapped by solidifying weld metal before the gas has a chance to rise to the surface of the molten puddle and escape. The aggregate length of ESI indications in any continuous 12 in. The aggregate length of ISI indications exceeds two times the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined and the width exceeds one-half the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined.9. (50 mm).2 Individual or scattered porosity (P) shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. The width of an ESI indication exceeds 1/16 in. Porosity is generally spherical but may be elongated or irregular in shape. (1. the maximum dimension of the indication shall apply to the criteria given in 9. 9. such as piping (wormhole) porosity.8 mm). The diameter of the cluster exceeds 1/2 in.3. .3.8.3. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. More than four ISI indications with the maximum width of 1/8 in. (3 mm) are present in any continuous 12 in. CP that occurs in the finish pass shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist. The aggregate length of CP in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 1/2 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 1/2 in. The aggregate length of ISI indications in any continuous12 in. d. The width of an ESI indication exceeds 1/16 in. (13 mm). b.3. c.9. When the size of the radiographic indication produced by a pore is measured. f. (50 mm).9. d.6 mm).375 in. The distribution of scattered porosity exceeds the concentration permitted by Figures 19 or 20. they shall be considered separate indications. (13 mm).3 For pipe with an outside diameter less than 2. The length of an ESI indication exceeds three times the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined. HB shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. (13 mm). The aggregate length of indications of HB in any continuous 12 in.9. 9.2. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. e.9 Porosity 9.3. slag inclusions shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a.3. c.4.3.2 through 9. (60. b. (300 mm) length of weld. c. (1.3.9. (3 mm). b. The size of an individual pore exceeds 25% of the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined. (0.

API-1104.3. exceeds one-sixth of the weld length. (6 mm) in length. The crack is a shallow crater crack or star crack with a length that exceeds 5/32 in. The aggregate length of indications exceeds 8% of the weld length.3. (50 mm). (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. 20TH Edition Nov’2005). in any continuous 12 in. in any combination. any accumulation of imperfections (AI) shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exist: a. d. (50 mm).7 for acceptance standards for undercutting when visual and mechanical measurements are employed. The crack. .12 Accumulation of Imperfections Excluding incomplete penetration due to high-low and undercutting. Individual indications of HB. (4 mm). The aggregate length of all indications of HB exceeds 8% of the weld length. 24~26. of any size or location in the weld. b. Note: See 9. ***( For more information see page: 22.10 Cracks Cracks (C) shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exists: a.3. (50 mm). The aggregate length of indications of EU and IU. 9. each greater than 1/4 in. The aggregate length of indications of EU and IU. b. 9. is not a shallow crater crack or star crack. are separated by less than 2 in. (300 mm) length of weld exceeds 2 in. The aggregate length of indications in any continuous 12 in. Note: Shallow crater cracks or star cracks are located at the stopping point of weld beads and are the result of weld metal contractions during solidification. b. 9. Undercutting adjacent to the cover pass (EU) or root pass (IU) shall be considered a defect should any of the following conditions exists: a.c.11 Undercutting Undercutting is defined as a groove melted into the parent material adjacent to the toe or roots of the weld and left unfilled by weld metal. in any combination.

e. Welds not requiring examination (i.2 Visual Examination: Visual examination as defined in para. as indicated on the radiograph. if a weld joins two members having different thickness at the weld.0 mm).4) lack of fusion on surface.4) porosity in excess of that shown as acceptable in Appendix A-250 of Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. as necessary. MT.1). (A.4.2.4.2.2. I) cracks-external surface.07 in.1 Nondestructive Examination.4.4. (A.1) 1/4 in. Welds that are shown by radiography to have any of the following types of discontinuities are unacceptable: (A.3) 3/4 in. (A. 136.3) any group of indications in line that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12. (A. the detection capabilities for the examination method are shown in Table 136.2 and the pressure test requirements specified in Para. (A.4 Examination Methods of Welds 136.5 Radiography: When required by this Chapter (see Table 136.1): 136. (A.6.2) 1/3t for t from 3/4 in. except that the requirements of T-285 are to be used as a guide but not for the rejection of radiographs unless the geometrical unsharpness exceeds 0.2.0 mm) to 2 1/4 in.4. In addition.) (A. during the fabrication and erection of piping components to provide verification that the design and WPS requirements are being met.0 mm) deep.4.0 mm) where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld. (1. .ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME B31.4.1) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration.2) any other elongated indication which has a length greater than: (A. Welds requiring nondestructive examination shall comply with the applicable acceptance standards for indications as specified in paras.2 through 136.2.2) undercut on surface which is greater than 1/32 in. UT. RT. (A. except where the distance between the successive indications exceeds 6L where L is the longest indication in the group. 136.0 mm) for t over 2 1/4 in. only visual examination is required.4). (19. (A) Acceptance Standards.(57. The types and extent of mandatory examinations for pressure welds and welds to pressure retaining components are specified in Table 136.1. incl.3) above pertains to the thickness of the weid being examined. (A) Acceptance Standards.0 mm). (NOTE: z referred to in (A. inclusive. 136. (A. 100. (19. shall be performed. (A.5) incomplete penetration (applies only when inside surface is readily accessible). For welds other than those covered by Table 136.4. t is the thinner of these two thickness.2.0 mm) for t up to 3/4 in.. (6.2.0 mm). Nondestructive examinations shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of this Chapter.5) root concavity when there is an abrupt change in density. radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Article 2 of Section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.4. Table 127.2). As a guide.2. or PT) by this Code or the Engineering design shall be judged acceptable if they meet the examination requirements of para. (57. 136. visual examination shall be performed to verify that all completed welds inpipe and piping components comply with the acceptance standards specified in (A) below or with the limitations on imperfections specified in the material specification under which the pipe or component was furnished. (2.4. (19.3) weld reinforcement greater than specified in (A. 137. The following indications are unacceptable: (A. and (A.

4. Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of pigmentation which would mask indications of defects are unacceptable. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: (B. (A.3 Magnetic Particle Examination: Whenever required by this Chapter (see Table 136.2) Any indication which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. (A.7) surface porosity with rounded indications having dimensions greater than in.0 mm) or less edge to edge.2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. j in.4). however.1) any cracks or linear indications. (5. however. of the ASh4E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 136.3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by t / . 136. (B. the size of the indication and not the size of the discontinuity is the basis of acceptance or rejection.4) Ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq in. (A. (B) Acceptance Standards. certain metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may produce similar indications which are not relevant to the detection of unacceptable discontinuities.]) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by bleeding out of the penetrant. Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. (B.(A.0 mm) long. All indications are not necessarily defects.6) any other linear indications greater than 3/16 in. (2. (A.4).4 Liquid Penetrant Examination: Whenever required by this Chapter (see Table 136.0 mm) or less edge to edge in any direction. (A. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with their length less than three times their width. such as may occur from machining marks or surface conditions. however. (A. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length less than three times the width. Rounded indications are indications which are circular or elliptical with the length less than three times the width.3/16 in. magnetic particle examination shall be performed in accordance with the methods of Article 7.4.4) An indication of a discontinuity may be larger than the discontinuity that causes it.(5.0 mm) or four or more rounded indications separated by 1/16 in. localized surface imperfections. (A) Evaluation of Indications (A. (A) Evaluation of Indications (A.0 mm). (5. liquid penetrant examination shall be performed in accordance with the methods of Article 6. . Section V. may produce similar indications which are nonrelevant to the detection of unacceptable discontinuities. (2. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated. (3870 mm’) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. Linear indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width. Section V. of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 1) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface will be indicated by the retention of the examination medium. Nonrelevant indications which would mask indications of defects are unacceptable.3) Relevant indications are those which result from mechanical discontinuities. Linear indications are those indications in which the length is more than three times the width.2) Any indication which is believed to be nonrelevant shall be regarded as a defect and shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. (B.3) Relevant indications are those which result from unacceptable mechanical discontinuities.

(B) Acceptance Standards. (A.1). Indications whose major dimensions are greater than 1/16 in.0 mm) for t over 2 1/4 in. (A. (19. (B.2. (B. lack of fusion. =0= ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME B31.5 mm). Details on page129. (B) Acceptance Standards: Welds that are shown by ultrasonic examination to have discontinuities which produce an indication greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that ultrasonic examination personnel can determine their shape. (19. t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. Article 5 and the following additional requirements.0 mm) or less edge to edge. (B. 136. 1/3 t for t from 3/4 in.4) An indication of a discontinuity may be larger than the discontinuity that causes it. (3870 mm2) of surface with the major dimension of this area not to exceed 6 in. The procedure shall have been demonstrated to perform. Section V.0 mm) (B.0 mm) where t is the thickness of the weld being examined. (A. (2.2) rounded indications with dimensions greater than 3/16 in. 127-129. however.0 mm) shall be considered relevant. (150 mm) with the area taken in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.3) four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16 in. 71-76.3).2. (A) The following criteria shall also be met when performing ultrasonic examinations.2) Other discontinuities are unacceptable if the indication exceeds the reference level and their length exceeds the following: (B.3) NDE personnel collecting and analyzing UT data shall have demonstrated their ability to perform an acceptable examination using written procedures.1) The nominal thickness of the material being examined shall be greater that 5. 1/4 in. the size of the indication and not the size of the discontinuity is the basis of acceptance or rejection.0 mm) to 2 1/4 in.0 mm). 3/4 in (19.l) and (B. (B. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld. in (12. and location so that they may evaluate each discontinuity for acceptance in accordance with (B. (B. (57.1) Discontinuities evaluated as being cracks.4.(A. (2.6 Ultrasonic Examination: When required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4). (5.4) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq in. . (6.0 mm).2) The equipment used to perform the examination shall be capable of recording the UT data including the scanning positions. (57.2. 98. The following relevant indications are unacceptable: (B.3): Process Piping See Page: 68. identity. or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length.2) below. (Page: 95~99). Acceptably on a qualification block with imbedded flaws.2).0 mm) for t up to 3/4 in.1) any cracks or linear indications. (B. ultrasonic examination (UT) shall be performed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

1 The Manufacturer shall be responsible for assuring that nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel have been qualified and certified in accordance with their employer’s written practice prior to performing or evaluating radiographic or ultrasonic examinations required by this Section. may be used to fulfill the examination and demonstration requirements of the employer’s written practice.2 A single-welded circumferential butt joint with backing strip may be radio-graphed without removing the backing strip. (19 mm) to 21⁄4 in.4). (57 mm). PW-51. except that the requirements of T-274 are to be used as a guide but not for the rejection of radiographs unless the geometrical unsharpness exceeds 0. Recertification may be based on evidence of continued satisfactory performance or by reexamination(s) deemed necessary by the employer.3. When NDE personnel have been certified in accordance with a written practice based on an edition of SNT-TC-1A or CP-189 earlier than that referenced in A-360. education. (19 mm) (b) 1⁄3 t for t from 3⁄4 in. or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration. where t is the thickness of the weld . (19 mm) for t over 21⁄4 in. their certification shall be valid until their next scheduled recertification. Provisions for training.ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME Sec.3 Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and characterized as imperfections are unacceptable under the following conditions.3 Recertification shall be in accordance with the employer’s written practice based on the edition of SNT-TC-1A or CP-189 referenced in A-360. PW-50.1): FOR INSPECTION: REQUIRED RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION OF WELDED BUTT JOINTS: SEE TABLE PW-11 PW-50. and experience.1 All welds for which a complete radiographic examination is required by PW-11 shall be radiographically examined throughout their entire length by the X-ray or gamma-ray method in accordance with Article 2 of Section V. qualification.2 NDE personnel shall be qualified by examination.3. provided it is not to be removed subsequently and provided the image of the backing strip does not interfere with the interpretation of the resultant radiographs. PW-51. such as the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP).1 Any indication characterized as a crack. PW-50. QUALIFICATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION PERSONNEL PW-50. and certification of NDE personnel shall be described in the Manufacturer’s quality control system (see PG-105.2 Any other elongated indication on the radiograph that has a length greater than (a) 1⁄4 in. PW-51. (6 mm) for t up to 3⁄4 in. experience. National or international Central Certification Programs. SNT-TC-1A3 or CP-189 shall be used as a guideline for employers to establish their written practice. Such qualification shall be specifically addressed in the written practice. (1. Qualification of NDE Level III personnel certified prior to the 2004 Edition of Section I may be based on demonstrated ability. Edition: 2004 (page.07 in. and shall be repaired as provided in PW-40 and the repair radio-graphed to PW-51: PW-51.105. (57 mm) (c) 3⁄4 in. achievement. ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS FOR RADIOGRAPHY .106) PW-51.8 mm). PW-51.

1 Image Density: Density within the image of the indication may vary and is not a criterion for acceptance or rejection.2 Terminology A-250. whichever is least. PW-51. These indications may be circular. and nonferrous materials. and location. as required by T-490 of Section V. When evaluating the size of an indication.4 Rounded indications in excess of those shown in A-250. (19 mm) to 21⁄4 in. or of the thinner of the sections being joined.4 A complete set of radiographs for each job shall be retained by the Manufacturer and kept on file for a period of at least 5 years.1 Cracks. or irregular in shape and may have tails.2 Aligned Indications: A sequence of four or more rounded indications shall be considered to be aligned when they touch a line parallel to the length of the weld drawn through the center of the two outer rounded indications. inclusive . (19 mm) (b) 1⁄3t for t from 3⁄4 in.2 for Examples): Only those rounded indications which exceed the following dimensions shall be considered relevant: (a) 1⁄10 t for t less than 1⁄8 in. of the pressure–retaining material.PW-51. (3 mm) (b) 1⁄64 in.1 and PW-52. Acceptance-Rejection Standards.1 Applicability of These Standards: These standards are applicable to ferritic. PW-52 ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS FOR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION PW-52. A-250. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld. the tail shall be included. (6 mm).3. such as porosity. (6 mm) for t up to 3⁄4 in.2.3.3. PW-52. PW-52.2 The Manufacturer’s report. Where t is the thickness of the weld being examined.3 Thickness t. A-250. or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length. A-250.3. (57 mm) (c) 3⁄4 in. (57 mm).2. PW-51. conical. If a full penetration weld includes a fillet weld. ACCEPTANCE STANDARD FOR RADIOGRAPHICALLY DETERMINED ROUNDED INDICATIONS IN WELDS: A-250. identity. A-250.3. A-250. and evaluate them in terms of PW52.2. 80).3 Any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12t.3. Article 4.250.3. slag. PW-52. to 1⁄4 in. Imperfections that cause an indication greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the ultrasonic examination personnel can determine their shape. The indication may be from any imperfection in the weld. except when the distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group. 79. (For more information See page no.3. lack of fusion.2 Relevant Indications (See Table A. the indication exceeds the reference level and their length exceeds the following: (a) 1⁄4 in. austenitic.1 Technique and standards for ultrasonic examination shall follow Section V.3 Acceptance Criteria A-250. shall be retained by the Manufacturer for a minimum of 5 years. elliptical. or tungsten. (0. the thickness of the fillet weld throat shall be included in t. t is the thickness of the weld.4 mm) for t 1⁄8 in. (19 mm) for t over 21⁄4 in. t is the thinner of these two thicknesses.2. A-250.3.1 Rounded Indications: Indications with a maximum length of three times the width or less on the radiograph are defined as rounded indications.

(50 mm). (0. inclusive (d) 1⁄16 in.) Less than 1⁄8 1⁄8 3⁄16 1⁄4 5⁄16 3⁄8 7⁄16 1⁄2 9⁄16 5⁄8 11⁄16 3⁄4 to 2.031 0.) relevant Indication.07 1.063 0.18 3.031 0. (4 mm).3 Maximum Size of Rounded Indication (See Table A-250.015 0. 1⁄10t 0. For t greater than 2 in.18 3. page: 178) Maximum Size of Maximum Size of Non Acceptable Rounded Indication (in. TABLE A-250. (1.031 0.79 1.78 Maximum Size of Non relevant Indication.19 1. (50 mm) A-250.083 0.015 0.8 mm) for t 1⁄4 in.168 0.) Random 1⁄4t 0. mm.11 2.031 0. whichever is smaller.64 3.60 2. in.146 0.(c) 1⁄32 in.042 0. except that an isolated indication separated from an adjacent indication by 1 in.38 0.078 0.125 0. incl.3. Over 2 (ASME Sec.031 0.250 0.77 3.125 0.156 0.6 mm) for t greater than 2 in.27 4.091 0. or 5⁄32 in.61 Isolated 1⁄3t 1.031 0. Edition 2004.79 0.015 0.063 0. (6 mm). (mm.142 0.031 0.156 0.156 1⁄3t 0.38 0.031 0.79 0. (6 mm) to 2 in. (in.31 2.375 1⁄10t 0. (25 mm) or more may be 1⁄3t. Random Isolated 1⁄4t 0. whichever is less. (10 mm).3.71 4.2 for Examples): The maximum permissible size of any indication shall be 1⁄4t.063 Thickness t.188 0. or 1⁄4 in. (50 mm) the maximum permissible size of an isolated indication shall be increased to 3⁄8 in.104 0.109 0.3.047 0.210 0.79 0.38 0.79 0. I.79 .156 0.031 0.230 0.2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SIZE OF ROUNDED INDICATION (Examples Only) Thickness t.60 1.) Less than 3 3 5 6 8 10 11 13 14 Maximum Size of Acceptable Rounded Indication (mm.98 2.

96 9. randomly dispersed.6 Rounded Indication Charts: The rounded indications characterized as imperfections shall not exceed that shown in the charts.96 3.4 Aligned Rounded Indications: Aligned rounded indications are acceptable when the summation of the diameters of the indications is less than t in a length of 12t. A-250.3. the maximum number of rounded indications shall not exceed 12 in a 6 in. (150 mm) radiographs.79 1. A-250. The distributions shown are not necessarily the patterns that may appear on the radiograph.3.3. and shall not be enlarged or reduced. Weld Thickness t Less Than 1⁄8 in.79 0. as that shown in the illustrations for random indications.8 Clustered Indications: The illustrations for clustered indications show up to four times as many indications in a local area.33 5. (150 mm) in length. A-250.4-2.6-1 through A-250.96 3. A250.3.5 Spacing: The distance between adjacent rounded indications is not a factor in determining acceptance or rejection.7. (3 mm): For t less than 1⁄8 in. (See Fig. A-250. The length of an acceptable cluster shall not exceed the lesser of 1 in. A-250-3.4-1.60 Over50 3. 3. (3 mm).3.3.3. These charts represent the maximum acceptable concentration limits for rounded indications. (3 mm). and clustered rounded indications for different weld thicknesses greater than 1⁄8 in.53 *For more information see Page: 179~185 (ASME Sec. but are typical of the concentration and size of indications permitted.16 17 19 to 50. A-250.35 0. A proportionally fewer number of indications shall be permitted in welds less than 6 in.79 0. I Editions: 2004) A-250. . The chart for each thickness range represents full-scale 6 in.) The length of groups of aligned rounded indications and the spacing between the groups shall meet the requirements of Fig. (150 mm) length of weld. the sum of the lengths of the clusters shall not exceed 1 in.84 6.6-6 illustrates various types of assorted. The charts in Figs. (25 mm) in a 6 in. (25 mm) or 2t. except as required for isolated indications or groups of aligned indications. Where more than one cluster is present.3. (150 mm) length of weld.incl.96 5.

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