P. 1
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

|Views: 93|Likes:
Published by resham_manaktala

More info:

Published by: resham_manaktala on Oct 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/02/2013

pdf

text

original

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

CODISSIA
Trade Related
Intellectual Property
Rights
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
1. Trade Related Intellectual property Rights 1
2. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 3
3. TRIPS - What are IPRs? 8
4. Intellectual Property : Protection and Enforcement 9
5. Trips : A more detailed overview of the TRIPS Agreement 13
6. Patenting an Invention 20
7. What are “Intellectual Property Rights” 29
8. Trips : Agreement on Trade Trade Related Aspects of
Intellectual Property Rights
Part - ! General Provisions and Basic Principles 35
Part - II Standards concerning the availability, scope and use
of Intellectual Property Rights 37
Part - III Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights 45
Part - IV Dispute Prevention and Settlement 51
Part - V Institutional arrangements; final provisions 53
9. Built in Agenda for Review of the TRIPS Agreement 55
Index
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRADE RELATED INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION
India and IPR
We were always taught that India was a land of sadhus and sanyasis. India was also the land of scientists, technologists,
inventors and physicians among many other intellectual groups known anywhere in the world. India was the birth
place of many important inventions. From ayurveda to decimal system, from agriculture to wootz steel, India pioneered
inventions in all the areas of life. The 350 A.D. ayurvedic text susruta samhita mentions 300 different plastic surgery
operations using more than 120 surgical instruments. Even in 1700 India’s share in the gross products of the world
was 22.6% and ours was the largest civilisational group in the world. But the Indian system believed that ‘knowledge
is not for sale’. That is the reason why for thousands of years we have allowed our wisdom to go everywhere without
restrictions.
But now things have changed with the advent of WTO. Intellectual property, meaning all the creation of the intellect,
have rights – rights to exclude everybody from using a product unless they pay the price to the one who registers it
first. Many consider Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to be the single most disadvantageous
agreement for India. Even the noted free trade supporter Prof. Jagadish Bagawati has pointed out the biased nature
of the present IPR agenda.
Why should we be aware of TRIPs?
a) It is going to affect all of us. For example, increase in the prices of drugs. Even common cures
become costly. 5 million South Africans suffering from HIV are not able to get medicine as the prices
are very high. Battles are going on between the government and the multinational companies in
South Africa.
b) For a country like ours, where we have been following traditional healing system for thousands of
years, the new IPR systems might make us aliens in our own society. Global corporations have
already started snatching our system from us. For example, patents for Ginger remedies of India.
c) Community resources are under threat. International NGOs have documented a number of instances
where ‘bio-piracy’ has taken place without even any recognition or reward to the communities.
d) It will seriously affect agriculture, where about 70% of our people depend upon for their livelihood.
Millions of people may find it impossible to continue their vocation.
e) Food security is threatened. It is feared that it will not be possible to get food at nominal rates for
common man.
f) TRIPS agreements is certainly not a fair agreement. The present reports say $ 1.5-2 millions are
required for countries to build an infrastructure for TRIPs. Many countries cannot afford this and
flight with a country like America, whose Patent and Trademark office with an annual budget of $1
billon and a staff of more than 3000 highly trained Scientists, Engineers and Legal experts.
Origin of TRIPS
With the signing of the Final Act of GATT, the emerging relation in international trade have become highly significant.
WTO should ensure freer trade regime. The Agreements on services, Textiles, Agriculture, Trade Related Investment
Measures (TRIMS), Trade related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) would have profound effects on pattern of
comparative advantage.
Out of eight rounds of multi lateral trade negotiations under GATT, the first six rounds concentrated almost exclusively
on reducing tariffs while the seventh i.e., Tokyo Round, focused on non-tariff barriers, apart from tariff reduction. The
eight round known as the Uruguay Round, in terms of coverage was the most extensive as well as ambitious. It took
GATT into areas which are not within the traditional preserve. These include services. TRIPS, TRIMS and focused
on agriculture also. These new areas were included in the GATT negotiations primarily at the instance of USA. The
Final Act included as many as 19 new instruments constituting multilateral agreement on Trade in goods, four Plurilateral
Trade Agreements, an agreement each on TRIPS and services, an understanding on Dispute Settlement, an Agreement
on Trade Policy Review Mechanism and Numerous decisions and declarations.
The underlying theme of TRIPS being free trade as provided in the WTO / GATT, countries are required to prepare
necessary legal frame work spelling out the scope and standards of protection for rights in regard to the intellectural
1
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
property. The WTO covers nine types of intellectual property – copy right, trademarks, trade secrets, geographical
indications, industrial designs, integrated circuits, plants, micro-organisms and plant varieties. Many disadvantages
are attributed to the IPR provisions of WTO, such as technological dependence on Foreign firms, increased outflow
of foreign exchange due to commitments undertaken in the field of TRIPS, TRIMS and services, increasing intrusion
in domestic sovereignty, etc.
The TRIPs with provisions for product patenting, process patenting, provisions for exclusive marketing rights, recognition
of IPRs as private property right, etc. confirms the belief that trade flows in the GATT – 1994 Scenario would be more
technology – driven than ever before. The Character of World Trade has undergone profound structural changes in
recent years exhibiting the following characteristics:
• Intra – industry trade: Countries engage in both exporting and importing in the same product group
such as textiles for textiles, chemicals for chemicals, etc. Intra – industry trade among developed
countries of Western Europe Measured as the bilaterally balanced proportions of total trade turnover
is more than 60 to 70 per cent for the product groups, such as chemicals, textiles and non-electrical
machinery. Product diversification, process – wide decomposition of the final product into components
and intermediate goods, product – differentiation with slight changes in designs, packaging, brands.
Etc. have changed the profile of structural characteristics of the products that enter into trade.
• There is evidence of close intra-firm and intra-industry linkages in regard to the identification of
production runs, designs, packaging etc. This has prompted the Multi-National Corporations (MNCs)
to spread across the globe. The corporate decisions of the MNCs for location of their plants for
specialization of different stages of production are governed by complex factors, such as the profit –
tax policies of the countries, credit rating of a country, policies towards foreign investment, convertibility
of currency, exchange rate policies, labour laws etc. Factor – endowments has become one of the
factors, of lesser significance.
•· The emergence of many new frontier technologies, such as biotechnology, photovoltaics, micro-
electronics, etc. has revolutionized the world production and trade; these developments carry potentials
of limitless opportunities and threats.
• The share of services in the GNP has been sharply increasing both in the developing and the developed
countries. USA has been fast losing its comparative advantage in goods sector and it is expanding
the market space for its service sectors.
• Now issues have come to the forefront to influence the trade patterns – environment, human rights,
child labour – to mention a few; these defy traditional theories of trade. The world in witnessing
transfer of polluting industries to the developing countries.
• The large debt burden in the indebted developing countries, have also generated unprecedented
forces which influence the production and trade patterns in the world as a whole. However, the
economic power centers are also getting shifted and re-structured.
2
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.
CHAPTER - 2
The Agreement on Trade – Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) provides for minimum norms and
standards in respect of the following categories of intellectual property rights –
(a) Copyrights and related rights
(b) Trademarks
(c) Geographical Indications
(d) Industrial Designs
(e) Patents
(f) Lay out designs of integrated circuits
(g) Protection of undisclosed information (trade secrets)
The Agreement sets out minimum standards to be adopted by the parties, though they are free to provide higher
standards of protection. A transition period of five years is available to all developing countries to give effect to the
provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. This period ended on 1.1.2000. No transitional period is available, however, for
grant of national treatment and most – favoured – nation treatment. Countries that did not provide product patents in
certain areas of technology as on 1.1.1995, can delay the grant of product patents in those areas for another five
years ie., upto 1.1.2005.
Where a country does not make available patent protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products as
on 1.1.1995, they have to provide a means for accepting applications for such inventions (mailbox), apply applicable
priority rights and provide exclusive marketing rights (EMRs) for such products. The EMRs have to be provided in
India only if a set of conditions have been met, i.e. where a patent application has been filed after 1.1.1995 in any
WTO member, patent and marketing approval granted in that Member country, an application has been filed in the
mailbox in India and marketing approval obtained in India. The EMR is available for five years from grant or till the
patent is granted or rejected, whichever is earlier. The Patent (Amendment) Act, 1999 was passed in March 1999 to
provide for mailbox and EMR facility.
The state of play of India’s obligations under TRIPS arising as on 1.1.2000 in respect of the seven IPRs covered
under TRIPS is briefly given below.
(a) Copyrights and related rights
Copyright
Copyright is the exclusive right given by law to the creators of literacy, musical and artistic worlds, films and records.
The creators of literacy works and artistic works such as writer, poets, composers of music and artists have rights of
ownership of their works. These rights are afforded legal protection to prevent unlawful re-protection of such works.
Copyright is an exclusive right to dispose sell and commercially exploit an intellectual work, by means of printing,
lithography, graphic protection, copying, moulds, casts, photography, a cinematography film, gramophone record, or
rolls for mechanical instruments, concerts, oral delivery or recitation, the clerical representation, translation, adapta-
tion, performance, broadcast transmission or any other form of reproduction, multiplication of copies or dissemina-
tion. It is a monopolistic right to reproduce a work and for certain works, right of public performance. It offers
protection to those who produce intellectual works in the field of literature, music and fine arts including photographs,
films and performance of artists. The law on the subject products the skill, labour and capital employed by the author.
The object of the Copyright Act is to protect the writer and the artist from unlawful re-production, plagiarism, piracy
and imitation. However, production of an identical item through independent creative research is not prohibited and
there can be no liability for infringement in such cases. The law in essence is concerned with the negative right of
preventing the copyright of physical material, existing in the field of literature and art. The copyright enables the
author to claim authorship of the work as well as to restrain or claim damages in respect of distortion or other
modifications in the work or any other action which is prejudicial to his honour or reputation in relation to that work.
While in case of patents, designs and trademarks, the rights can be acquired only by registration, in case of copyright
registration is not necessary and it subsists automatically.
Like all the intellectual property rights, copy rights protection as obtained by the domestic law of a country and the
adequacy of the present copyright Act, 1957 (The copyright (Amendment) Act, 1999. in force in India to meet the
requirements of minimum protection sought by the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement, requires analysis.
Section I of Part II of TRIPS Agreement is related to copyright and related matters. Article 9 to 14 of the TRIPS
Agreement deal with copyright and related matters.
In the area of copyright and related rights (i.e., rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting
3
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
organizations), the Agreement enquires compliance with the substantive provisions of the Berne Convention. Com-
puter programmes are to be protected as literary works, the term of protection for copyrights and right of performers
and producers of phonograms is to be no less than 50 years. In case of broadcasting organizations, however, the
term of protection is to be at least 20 years. India is already a signatory to the Berne Convention and our laws
conform to the provisions of the Convention. India’s copyright law has been amended and in some ways exceeds the
requirements of the TRIPS Agreement, for example, on the period for copyright protection (which is 60 years in
India). The law was amended in December 1999 to grant 25 – year term of protection for neighbouring rights.
(b) Trade marks
Trade mark is an identification symbol which is used in the course of trade to enable the purchasing public to distin-
guish one trader’s goods from similar goods of other traders. The word “Mark” includes a device, brand, heading,
label, ticket, name, signature, word, letter or numeral or any combination thereof. A trade mark which is distinctive
identification of manufactured produce or of a service taking the form of a name, sign motto, device or emblem,
identifies them with a particular trader or with his successor as the owner of the particular business. A trade mark
performs three functions – it identifies the product and its origin, it guarantees its unchanged quality and it helps in
advertisement of the product.
The trade marks give the consumer of final buyer a guarantee of identity of origin of marked product, by enabling him
to distinguish the product, with no risk of confusion, from products of different origin. The owner of the mark, whether
registered or unregistered gets a long term right to the exclusive use of it in relation to particular goods in respect of
which it is registered or used.
A trade mark is a commercial asset intended to be used commercially by businessmen. It is considered to be a type
of property, the owner of which gets a perpetual right to its exclusive use in relation to his goods and services.
Trade Mark Law:
When a person gets his trade mark registered under law, he acquires valuable rights by reason of such registration.
Registration of his trade mark gives him the exclusive right to the use of the trade mark in connection with the goods
in respect of which it is registered and if there is any invasion of this right by any other person using a mark which is
the same or deceptively similar to his trade mark, by an action for infringement in which he can obtain injunction,
damages, or an account of profit made by the other person.
TIPS Agreement of the WTO:-
Section 2 of Part II of the TRIPS Agreement is concerned with the “Trade Marks”. WTO member countries are
obliged to grant full protection to the registered trade marks.
The purpose of a trade mark is to indicate the source of origin of goods or such source of a service, in respect of which
also a mark may be applied for, now that the new Trade Marks Act, 1999 has provided for the registration of service
mark also.
In course of time, the mark came to represent to the customers a certain quality relating to the goods in relation to
which the marks were used. Today, a trade mark is a powerful tool to move goods and the basis of that power is the
customer’s preference for a brand, which a trade mark has helped the supplier of the goods to built over a period of
time. For all these reasons a trademark, which it is well established, is a property of considerable value to the owner
of the mark. TRIPS aims that the members provide the maximum protection to this mark, in accordance with this
Agreement (Article 15 to 21) and other relevant conventions on trade marks, to everyone carrying on business in a
Member’s territory, whether he is a national of that Member, or otherwise.
(c) Geographical Indication
Certain geographical names have acquired a lot of importance in the commercial market, particularly with regard to
the goods uniquely associated with such names.
In respect of any agricultural goods, natural goods or manufactured goods, or any goods of handicraft or goods of
industry including food stuff, generally, bears the geographical indications to attracts the attention of the consumers.
Traders attach considerable value to the public recognizing the source, particularly the place of origin of the goods,
especially when the name of that place is taken as a synonym necessarily after long and continuous use, for some
special quality associated with the product originating from that place. Example are: Darjeeling tea, Kanjeevaram
silk, etc.
There is every possibility of misusing such geographical names and wrongly applying to even those goods or prod-
ucts, not associated with such names.
Persons producing such articles will, justifiably, claim an exclusive right to use such geographical appellations in the
description of their products, which implies that they would seek to prevent traders producing those goods elsewhere
4
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
from appending these applications to their products for the simple reason that those description are not true and it
would be misleading the public as to the true suppliers of those goods.
To prevent unauthorized person from misusing geographical indications, protection should be provided. Such protection
helps the consumer from deception. It also adds to the economic prosperity of the producers of such goods.
Hence, the international community has taken note of the necessity to protect the ‘indications of source and appellations
of origin’ i.e., geographical indication.
However, it should be remembered that no individual would be able to claim this right, but it would inhere in all those
carrying on their business in that area. The Geographical Indications of Good (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
is now the law in India.
TRIPS Agreement also provided the protection of geographical indications. Section 3 of the Part II of TRIPS Agreement
deals with the Geographical Indications.
The Agreement contains a general obligation that parties shall provide the legal means for interested parties to
prevent the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in
question originates in a geographical area other that the true place of origin of the good. We currently provide
protection to geographical indications through passing off action in courts or through certification marks. However, to
provide better protection to geographical indications a new law “The Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration
& Protection) Act, 1999 has since been enacted.
(d) Industrial Designs
Consumers are influenced by the appearance of the article in their choice. Many people blindly choose the article
which catches their eye by appearance. At the time of purchase, people are attracted by a design which has an
artistic merit. Some articles with a particular design may attract the public and within a short period, the whole stock
may be sold in the market. Hence, design of goods increases profits by attracting customers. Producers hunt for an
attractive design which will increase sales. Some intellectuals do hard work by pulling much thought, time and
expense to find a design for a particular article which will increase sales. The object of design registration is to see
that the creator of a profitable design is not deprived of his reward by others applying it to their goods without his
permission.
The development of a design for commercial purposes involves considerable expenditure on research, time and
creative skills. The value of a design as an intellectual property right direct proportion to originality, novelty and eye-
appeal. Under the Design Act, 1911, Creation for registration of a design is that it should be new or original. It should
not also have been previously published.
“Design” means only the features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament applied to any article by any industrial
process or means, whether manual, mechanical or chemical, separate or combined, which in the finished article
appeal to and are judged solely by the eye; but does not include any more or principle of construction or anything
which is in substance mere mechanical device, and does not include any trade mark.
A design is something which is applied to an article and is not the article itself. An article to which the design is to be
applied must be something which is to be delivered to the purchaser as a finished goods. The buildings and structure
are not articles within the definition of design. But portable structures or models which are sold as finished articles
may subject matter for registration of design.
Design right is a new intellectual property right which applies to original, non-common place designs of the shape or
configuration of articles. It is not a monopoly right but a right to prevent copying and lasts until five years from the
date of registration, which is extendable for a further period of five years, and for another period of five years on
payment of requisite fee. A design right is a property, which like any other business commodity, may be bought, sold
or licensed. All applications for registration of design are to be made to the controller of patents by a person claiming
to be proprietor to the design.
There are four features relevant to an industrial or product design. They are shape, configuration, pattern and
ornament. The shape and configuration refer to the form of an article and is usually three dimensional in nature.
Pattern and ornament are decorative features ordinarily applied to be surface of the article and they are in the nature
of two-dimensional.
The design refer to features of shape which appeal to the eye should be judged solely by the eye and not by any
functional considerations. A design in order to be registered must be both new and original and not previously
published. The words ‘new’ or ‘original’ involves the idea of novelty either in the pattern, shape, or ornament itself. In
deciding the question of novelty or originality evidence of experts in the trade is admissible. The design for registration
should not be published previously. Publication may be of two types –
i) Publication in prior documents, and ii) Publication by prior use
5
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
If a copy of the publication is available in a public library that may be sufficient to constitute publication.
Section 4 of the part II of TRIPS Agreement covers Industrial Design.
Obligations envisaged in respect of industrial designs are that independently created designs that are new or original
shall be protected. There in an option to exclude from protection, designs dictated by technical or functional consid-
eration, as against aesthetic consideration, which constitutes the coverage of industrial designs. The Bill to amend
Industrial Design Act was passed early this year.
(e) Patents
A patent is a legal monopoly granted to the owner of a new invention which is capable of use, for a limited period of
time. It is a statutory privilege granted by the Government to inventors and other persons deriving their rights from
the inventor; Under patent system, useful proprietary knowledge moves physically across borders constantly. Under
the concept of exclusive right, an inventor may exclude all others from the manufacture, use and sale of a qualifying
invention. With regard to the duration of the exclusive right, there is a length of time, whether fixed, adjustable,
renewable or indefinite. In some cases, the patent life may be for 17 to 20 years.
A patent is a form of industrial or intellectual property. A patent being a creation of statute is territorial in extent. A
patent granted in one state cannot be enforced in another state unless the invention concerned is also patented in that
state.
Mainly states that the concept of patent and its essential ingredients like novelty, invent step, lack of obviousness and
sufficiency of description have remained the same ever since was conceived over four hundred years ago.
A patent is not granted for an idea or principle as such, but for some article or the process of making some article
applying the idea.
A patent is to encourage and develop new technology and industry. An inventor has exclusive right to keep it secretly.
The patent is granted for a statutory period and after the expiry of monopoly period others can use the invention or
improve upon it.
Patents have assumed an international character. The international convention for the protection of Industrial Prop-
erty (i.e., Paris Convention) and the TRIPS Agreement of WTO provided patent rights for industrial property in all the
countries of the union for the protection of industrial property. In India, the rights conferred on a patentee are purely
statutory rights conferred by the Patent Act 1970 and as amended from time to time.
India has had a patent system since 1856, and the present Patent Act, 1970 is a successor to the Indian Patent and
Design Act, 1911. The 1970 Act made a significant depature from the previous Act in removing the scope in the 1911
Act for obtaining product patents for drugs and medicines and certain classes of chemicals, by expressly prohibiting,
through section 5 of the Act, as it stood before the 1999 Amendment, the issue of a patent in respect of claim for the
substance itself where:
(a) The invention claimed that the substance was one intended for use, or capable of being used, as food or as
medicine or drug, or
(b) The invention related to a substance prepared or produced by chemical processes (including alloys, optical
glass, semi-conductors and intermetallic compounds).
Section 5 of Part II of TRIPS Agreement relate to the patent.
The basic obligation in the area of patents is that, inventions in all fields of technology whether products or processes
shall be patentable if they meet the three tests of being novel, involving an inventive step and being capable of
industrial application. In addition to the general security exception, which applies to the entire TRIPS Agreement,
specific exclusions are permissible from the scope of patentability. These are available in the areas of inventions
whose commercial exploitation is to be prevented to protect public order or morality, human, animal plant life or
health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment. In addition, we can exclude from patentability diagnostic
therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of human and animals, plants and animals other than microorgan-
isms, and essentially biological process for the production of plants and animals other than non-biological and micro
biological processes.
To meet our TRIPS obligations as on 1.1.2000, the Patents (Second Amendment) Bill, 1999 has been introduced in
the Parliament in December 1999 and is before the Joint Committee of the Houses.
In respect of plant varieties, there is an obligation to provide for protection either by patents or by an effective sui
generis system or by any combination thereof. The Agreement dos not spell out the elements of an effective sui
generis system and it is left to each Government to determine the elements, which could be deemed to be providing
effective protection. A decision has been taken to put in place a sui generis system as it is perceived to be in our
national interest. A Bill in this regard is before the Joint Committee of the Houses of the Parliament.
6
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
(f) Layout Designs (Topographics) of Integrated Circuits
Modern age is the electronic age. All the modern products are having transistors and other circuity elements which
are inseparably formed on a semiconductor material and these semiconductors are intended to perform an electronic
function. Layout designs of integrated circuits are considered as intellectual property. Infringement of these layout
designs is punishable. The protection of the integrated circuits and layout designs was internationally recognized and
the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated circuits was made at Washigton D.C. on May 26, 1989. It
was brought into existence in response to laws enacted in several countries for protection of integrated circuits and
layout designs. The protection is conferred on the basis of national treatment.
The nature of the subject matter of protection would, it seems, appropriately be covered by the copyright Act, 1957,
as an artistic work, defined under sec. 2C, which definition includes: “ A drawing (which would include a diagram,
map, chart or plan)…” or “any other work of artistic craftsman ship”.
However, the nature of the work, the value it would gain in certain applications and other related matters, might
require separate treatment under some specific law. And to confirm fully to the requirements of the different Articles
of the TRIPS Agreement relating to layout designs (topographics) of integrated circuits, special provisions covering
them such as the definition of the right, the limits of the right, the procedure for registration, the condition therefore,
the duration of the right and what are not infringements have been incorporated into the special enactment, ‘The
semiconductor Integrated circuits layout Design Bill 1999’ now before the parliament.
The TRIPS Agreement of WTO also protected the rights of layout designs. Section 6 (Art – 35 to 38) of Part II of the
TRIPS Agreement covers the right of the layout design (Topographics) of integrated circuits.
India is a signatory to the international agreement administered by WIPO on this subject known as the Washington
Treaty. The main obligations of the Washington Treaty are also incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement with some
enhancement and cover the protection of the intellectual property in respect of lay-out designs that are original in the
sense of being result of their creator’s own intellectual efforts. The obligations include national treatment to foreign
right holders and a term of protection for 10 years. A Bill in this regard was introduced in the Parliament in December
1999 and is awaiting passage.
(g) Undisclosed information (Confidential Information)
People in business, trade and manufacture prepare to keep the information relating to their financial management,
inventive administrative procedures which contribute to efficiency in production and value addition undisclosed. The
disclosure of such information might help his competitors and predators of knowledge. Secrecy and a belief in its
efficiency and utility are the factors which make the information undisclosed. If the undisclosed information is already
known or is in common use or ceases to be of any utility the information loses its characteristics of undisclosure or
confidentiality.
The right in undisclosed information is a civil right. It is inherent in every person acquire, retain and protect undis-
closed information about his business, trade and manufacture.
The Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of WTO protects the undisclosed information
globally.
Section 7 part II of TRIPS covers undisclosed Information.
The Agreement provides in this area that natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing informa-
tion lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by or used by others without their consent in a
manner contrary to honest commercial practices. Further, parties are required to protect against unfair commercial
uses, undisclosed or other data obtained as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricul-
tural chemical products.
In India we do not have a separate legislation dealing with trade secrets. Common law on the subject is evolving and
the courts have provided relief where allegations of wrongful disclosure have been proven. It is not felt necessary to
have a separate legislation on the subject.
7
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS : WHAT ARE IPRs
What are intellectual property rights?
CHAPTER - 3
Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the
creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.
Intellectual property rights are customarily divided into two main areas:
(i) Copyright and rights related to copyright.
The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings,
sculpture, computer programs and films) are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50years after the death
of the author.
Also protected through copyright and related (sometimes referred to as “neighbouring”) rights are the rights of performers
(e.g.actors, singers and musicians), producers of phonograms (sound recordings) and broadcasting organizations.
The main social purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work.

(ii) Industrial property.
Industrial property can usefully be divided into two main areas:
* One area can be characterized as the protection of distinctive signs, in particular trademarks (which
distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings) and geographical
indications (which identify a good as originating in a place where a given characteristic of the good is
essentially attributable to its geographical origin).
The protection of such distinctive signs aims to stimulate and ensure fair competition and to protect
consumers, by enabling them to make informed choices between various goods and services. The
protection may last indefinitely, provided the sign in question continues to be distinctive.
* Other types of industrial property are protected primarily to stimulate innovation, design and the creation of
technology. In this category fall inventions (protected by patents), industrial designs and trade secrets.
The social purpose is to provide protection for the results of investment in the development of new
technology, thus giving the incentive and means to finance research and development activities.
A functioning intellectual property regime should also facilitate the transfer of technology in the form of
foreign direct investment, joint ventures and licensing.
The protection is usually given for a finite term (typically 20 years in the case of patents).
While the basic social objectives of intellectual property protection are as outlined above, it should also be noted that
the exclusive rights given are generally subject to a number of limitations and exceptions, aimed at fine-tuning the
balance that has to be found between the legitimate interests of right holders and of users.
8
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY : PROTECTION AND ENFORCEMENT
CHAPTER - 4
Ideas and knowledge are an increasingly important part of trade. Most of the value of new medicines and other high
technology products lies in the amount of invention, innovation, research, design and testing involved. Films, music
recordings, books, computer software and on-line services are bought and sold because of the information and
creativity they contain, not usually because of the plastic, metal or paper used to make them.
Many products that used to be traded as low-technology goods or commodities now contain a higher proportion of
invention and design in their value — for example brandnamed clothing or new varieties of plants.
Creators can be given the right to prevent others from using their inventions, designs or other creations. These rights
are known as “intellectual property rights”. They take a number of forms. For example books, paintings and films
come under copyright; inventions can be patented; brandnames and product logos can be registered as trademarks;
and so on.
Origins: into the rule-based trade system
The extent of protection and enforcement of these rights varied widely around the world; and as intellectual property
became more important in trade, these differences became a source of tension in international economic relations.
New internationally-agreed trade rules for intellectual property rights were seen as a way to introduce more order and
predictability, and for disputes to be settled more systematically.
The 1986-94 Uruguay Round achieved that. The WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Prop-
erty Rights (TRIPS) is an attempt to narrow the gaps in the way these rights are protected around the world, and to
bring them under common international rules. When there are trade disputes over intellectual property rights, the
WTO’s dispute settlement system is now available.
· The agreement covers five broad issues:
· How basic principles of the trading system and other international intellectual property agreements should be
applied
· How to give adequate protection to intellectual property rights
· How countries should enforce those rights adequately in their own territories
· How to settle disputes on intellectual property between members of the WTO
· Special transitional arrangements
Basic principles: national treatment, MFN, and technological progress
As in GATT and GATS, the starting point of the intellectual property agreement is basic principles. And as in the two
other agreements, non-discrimination features prominently: national treatment (treating one’s own nationals and
foreigners equally), and most-favoured-nation treatment (equal treatment for nationals of all trading partners in the
WTO). National treatment is also a key principle in other intellectual property agreements outside the WTO.
When an inventor or creator is granted patent or copyright protection, he obtains the right to stop other people making
unauthorized copies. Society at large sees this temporary intellectual property protection as an incentive to encour-
age the development of new technology and creations which will eventually be available to all. The TRIPS Agree-
ment recognizes the need to strike a balance. It says intellectual property protection should contribute to technical
innovation and the transfer of technology. Both producers and users should benefit, and economic and social welfare
should be enhanced, the agreement says.
How to protect intellectual property: common ground-rules
The second part of the TRIPS agreement looks at different kinds of intellectual property rights and how to protect
them. The purpose is to ensure that adequate standards of protection exist in all member countries. Here the starting
point is the obligations of the main international agreements of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
that already existed before the WTO was created:
Some areas are not covered by these conventions. In some cases, the standards of protection prescribed were
thought inadequate. So the TRIPS agreement adds a significant number of new or higher standards.
9
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Copyright
The TRIPS agreement ensures that computer programmes will be protected as literary works under the Berne
Convention and outlines how databases should be protected.It also expands international copyright rules to cover
rental rights. Authors of computer programmes and producers of sound recordings must have the right to prohibit the
commercial rental of their works to the public. A similar exclusive right applies to films where commercial rental has
led to widespread copying, affecting copyright-owners’ potential earnings from their films.
The agreement says performers must also have the right to prevent unauthorized recording, reproduction and broadcast
of live performances (bootlegging) for no less than 50 years. Producers of sound recordings must have the right to
prevent the unauthorized reproduction of recordings for a period of 50 years.
Trademarks
The agreement defines what types of signs must be eligible for protection as trademarks, and what the minimum
rights conferred on their owners must be. It says that service marks must be protected in the same way as trademarks
used for goods. Marks that have become well-known in a particular country enjoy additional protection.
Geographical indications
Place names are sometimes used to identify a product. Well-known examples include “Champagne”, “Scotch”, “Tequila”,
and “Roquefort” cheese. Wine and spirits makers are particularly concerned about the use of place-names to identify
products, and the TRIPS agreement contains special provisions for these products. But the issue is also important for
other types of goods.
The use of a place name to describe a product in this way — a “geographical indication” — usually identifies both its
geographical origin and its characteristics. Therefore, using the place name when the product was made elsewhere or
when it does not have the usual characteristics can mislead consumers, and it can lead to unfair competition. The
TRIPS agreement says countries have to prevent the misuse of place names.
For wines and spirits, the agreement provides higher levels of protection, i.e. even where there is no danger of the
public being misled.
Some exceptions are allowed, for example if the name is already protected as a trademark or if it has become a
generic term. For example, “cheddar” now refers to a particular type of cheese not necessarily made in Cheddar. But
any country wanting to make an exception for these reasons must be willing to negotiate with the country which wants
to protect the geographical indication in question. The agreement provides for further negotiations in the WTO to
establish a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines.
Industrial designs
Under the TRIPS agreement, industrial designs must be protected for at least 10 years. Owners of protected designs
must be able to prevent the manufacture, sale or importation of articles bearing or embodying a design which is a
copy of the protected design.
Patents
The agreement says patent protection must be available for inventions for at least 20 years. Patent protection must
be available for both products and processes, in almost all fields of technology. Governments can refuse to issue a
patent for an invention if its commercial exploitation is prohibited for reasons of public order or morality. They can
also exclude diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods, plants and animals (other than microorganisms), and
biological processes for the production of plants or animals (other than microbiological processes).
Plant varieties, however, must be protectable by patents or by a special system (such as the breeder’s rights provided
in the conventions of UPOV — the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants).
The agreement describes the minimum rights that a patent owner must enjoy. But it also allows certain exceptions. A
patent-owner could abuse his rights, for example by failing to supply the product on the market. To deal with that
possibility, the agreement says governments can issue “compulsory licences”, allowing a competitor to produce the
product or use the process under licence. But this can only be done under certain conditions aimed at safeguarding
the legitimate interests of the patent-holder.
If a patent is issued for a production process, then the rights must extend to the product directly obtained from the
process. Under certain conditions alleged infringers may be ordered by a court to prove that they have not used the
patented process.
10
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
What’s the difference?
Obviously, copyrights, patents, trademarks, etc apply to different types of creations or inventions. They are also
treated differently.
Patents - and in many cases, industrial designs, integrated circuit designs, geographical indications and trademarks
— have to be registered in order to receive protection. The registration includes a description of what is being
protected — the invention, design, brandname, logo, etc — and this description is public information.
Copyright and trade secrets are protected automatically according to specified conditions. They do not have to be
registered.
Other conditions may also differ, for example the length of time that each type of protection remains in force.
Integrated circuits layout designs
The basis for protecting integrated circuit designs (“topographies”) in the TRIPS agreement is the Washington Treaty
on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits, which comes under the World Intellectual Property
Organization. This was adopted in 1989 but has not yet entered into force. The TRIPS agreement adds a number of
provisions: for example, protection must be available for at least 10 years.
Undisclosed information and trade secrets
Trade secrets and other types of “undisclosed information” which have commercial value must be protected against
breach of confidence and other acts contrary to honest commercial practices. But reasonable steps must have been
taken to keep the information secret. Test data submitted to governments in order to obtain marketing approval for
new pharmaceutical or agricultural chemicals must also be protected against unfair commercial use.
Curbing anti-competitive licensing contracts
The owner of a copyright, patent or other form of intellectual property right can issue a licence for someone else to
produce or copy the protected trademark, work, invention, design, etc. The agreement recognizes that the terms of a
licensing contract could restrict competition or impede technology transfer. It says that under certain conditions,
governments have the right to take action to prevent anti-competitive licensing that abuses intellectual property
rights. It also says governments must be prepared to consult each other on controlling anti-competitive licensing.
Enforcement: tough but fair
Having intellectual property laws is not enough. They must be enforcable. This is covered in Part 3 of TRIPS. The
agreement says governments have to ensure that intellectual property rights can be enforced under their laws, and
that the penalties for infringement are tough enough to deter further violations. The procedures must be fair and
equitable, and not unnecessarily complicated or costly. They must not entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted
delays. People involved should be able to ask a court to review an administrative decision or to appeal a lower court’s
ruling.
The agreement describes in some detail how enforcement have to be handled, including rules for obtaining evidence,
provisional measures, injunctions, damages and other penalties. It says courts must have the right, under certain
conditions, to order the disposal or destruction of pirated or counterfeit goods. Wilful trademark counterfeiting or
copyright piracy on a commercial scale must be criminal offences. Governments have to make sure that intellectual
property rights owners can receive the assistance of customs authorities to prevent imports of counterfeit and pirated
goods.
Transition arrangements: 1, 5 or 11 years to fall into line
When the WTO agreements took effect on 1 January 1995, developed countries were given one year to ensure that
their laws and practices conform with the TRIPS agreement. Developing countries and (under certain conditions)
transition economies are given five years. Least developed countries have 11 years.
If a developing country did not provide product patent protection in a particular area of technology when the TRIPS
Agreement came into force (1 January 1995), it has up to 10 years to introduce the protection. But for pharmaceutical
and agricultural chemical products, the country must accept the filing of patent applications from the beginning of the
transitional period, though the patent need not be granted until the end of this period. If the government allows the
relevant pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical to be marketed during the transition period, it must — subject to
11
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
certain conditions — provide an exclusive marketing right for the product for five years, or until a product patent is
granted, whichever is shorter. Subject to certain exceptions, the general rule is that obligations in the agreement
apply to intellectual property rights that exist at the end of a country’s transition period, as well as to new ones.
A Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights monitors the working of the agreement and
governments’ compliance with it.
12
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS : A MORE DETAILED OVERVIEW OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT
Overview: the TRIPS Agreement
CHAPTER - 5
The TRIPS Agreement, which came into effect on 1 January 1995, is to date the most comprehensive multilateral
agreement on intellectual property.
The areas of intellectual property that it covers are: copyright and related rights (i.e. the rights of performers, producers
of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations); trademarks including service marks; geographical indications
including appellations of origin; industrial designs; patents including the protection of new varieties of plants; the
layout-designs of integrated circuits; and undisclosed information including trade secrets and test data.
The three main features of the Agreement are:
· Standards. In respect of each of the main areas of intellectual property covered by the TRIPS Agreement, the
Agreement sets out the minimum standards of protection to be provided by each Member. Each of the main
elements of protection is defined, namely the subject-matter to be protected, the rights to be conferred and
permissible exceptions to those rights, and the minimum duration of protection. The Agreement sets these
standards by requiring, first, that the substantive obligations of the main conventions of the WIPO, the Paris
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (Paris Convention) and the Berne Convention for the Protection
of Literary and Artistic Works (Berne Convention) in their most recent versions, must be complied with. With the
exception of the provisions of the Berne Convention on moral rights, all the main substantive provisions of these
conventions are incorporated by reference and thus become obligations under the TRIPS Agreement between
TRIPS Member countries. The relevant provisions are to be found in Articles 2.1 and 9.1 of the TRIPS Agreement,
which relate, respectively, to the Paris Convention and to the Berne Convention. Secondly, the TRIPS Agreement
adds a substantial number of additional obligations on matters where the pre-existing conventions are silent or
were seen as being inadequate. The TRIPS Agreement is thus sometimes referred to as a Berne and Paris-plus
agreement.
· Enforcement. The second main set of provisions deals with domestic procedures and remedies for the enforcement
of intellectual property rights. The Agreement lays down certain general principles applicable to all IPR enforcement
procedures. In addition, it contains provisions on civil and administrative procedures and remedies, provisional
measures, special requirements related to border measures and criminal procedures, which specify, in a certain
amount of detail, the procedures and remedies that must be available so that right holders can effectively
enforce their rights.
· Dispute settlement. The Agreement makes disputes between WTO Members about the respect of the TRIPS
obligations subject to the WTO’s dispute settlement procedures.
In addition the Agreement provides for certain basic principles, such as national and most-favoured-nation treatment,
and some general rules to ensure that procedural difficulties in acquiring or maintaining IPRs do not nullify the
substantive benefits that should flow from the Agreement. The obligations under the Agreement will apply equally to
all Member countries, but developing countries will have a longer period to phase them in. Special transition
arrangements operate in the situation where a developing country does not presently provide product patent protection
in the area of pharmaceuticals.
The TRIPS Agreement is a minimum standards agreement, which allows Members to provide more extensive protection
of intellectual property if they so wish. Members are left free to determine the appropriate method of implementing
the provisions of the Agreement within their own legal system and practice.
Certain general provisions
As in the main pre-existing intellectual property conventions, the basic obligation on each Member country is to
accord the treatment in regard to the protection of intellectual property provided for under the Agreement to the
persons of other Members. Article1.3 defines who these persons are. These persons are referred to as “nationals”
but include persons, natural or legal, who have a close attachment to other Members without necessarily being
nationals. The criteria for determining which persons must thus benefit from the treatment provided for under the
Agreement are those laid down for this purpose in the main pre-existing intellectual property conventions of WIPO,
applied of course with respect to all WTO Members whether or not they are party to those conventions. These
conventions are the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, International Convention for the Protection of Performers,
Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention), and the Treaty on Intellectual Property
in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty).
13
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Articles 3, 4 and 5 include the fundamental rules on national and most-favoured-nation treatment of foreign nationals,
which are common to all categories of intellectual property covered by the Agreement. These obligations cover not
only the substantive standards of protection but also matters affecting the availability, acquisition, scope, maintenance
and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as those matters affecting the use of intellectual property rights
specifically addressed in the Agreement. While the national treatment clause forbids discrimination between a Member’s
own nationals and the nationals of other Members, the most-favoured-nation treatment clause forbids discrimination
between the nationals of other Members. In respect of the national treatment obligation, the exceptions allowed under
the pre-existing intellectual property conventions of WIPO are also allowed under TRIPS. Where these exceptions
allow material reciprocity, a consequential exception to MFN treatment is also permitted (e.g. comparison of terms for
copyright protection in excess of the minimum term required by the TRIPS Agreement as provided under Article 7(8)
of the Berne Convention as incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement). Certain other limited exceptions to the MFN
obligation are also provided for.
The general goals of the TRIPS Agreement are contained in the Preamble of the Agreement, which reproduces the
basic Uruguay Round negotiating objectives established in the TRIPS area by the 1986 Punta del Este Declaration
and the 1988/89 Mid-Term Review. These objectives include the reduction of distortions and impediments to international
trade, promotion of effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and ensuring that measures and
procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves become barriers to legitimate trade. These
objectives should be read in conjunction with Article 7, entitled “Objectives”, according to which the protection and
enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the
transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge
and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations. Article 8,
entitled “Principles”, recognizes the rights of Members to adopt measures for public health and other public interest
reasons and to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights, provided that such measures are consistent with the
provisions of the TRIPS Agreement.
Substantive standards of protection
Copyright
During the Uruguay Round negotiations, it was recognized that the Berne Convention already, for the most part,
provided adequate basic standards of copyright protection. Thus it was agreed that the point of departure should be
the existing level of protection under the latest Act, the Paris Act of 1971, of that Convention. The point of departure
is expressed in Article 9.1 under which Members are obliged to comply with the substantive provisions of the Paris
Act of 1971 of the Berne Convention, i.e. Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix
thereto. However, Members do not have rights or obligations under the TRIPS Agreement in respect of the rights
conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention, i.e. the moral rights (the right to claim authorship and to object to any
derogatory action in relation to a work, which would be prejudicial to the author’s honour or reputation), or of the rights
derived therefrom. The provisions of the Berne Convention referred to deal with questions such as subject-matter to
be protected, minimum term of protection, and rights to be conferred and permissible limitations to those rights. The
Appendix allows developing countries, under certain conditions, to make some limitations to the right of translation
and the right of reproduction.
In addition to requiring compliance with the basic standards of the Berne Convention, the TRIPS Agreement clarifies
and adds certain specific points.
Article 9.2 confirms that copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of
operation or mathematical concepts as such.
Article 10.1 provides that computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works
under the Berne Convention (1971). This provision confirms that computer programs must be protected under copyright
and that those provisions of the Berne Convention that apply to literary works shall be applied also to them. It
confirms further, that the form in which a program is, whether in source or object code, does not affect the protection.
The obligation to protect computer programs as literary works means e.g. that only those limitations that are applicable
to literary works may be applied to computer programs. It also confirms that the general term of protection of 50 years
applies to computer programs. Possible shorter terms applicable to photographic works and works of applied art may
not be applied.
Article 10.2 clarifies that databases and other compilations of data or other material shall be protected as such under
copyright even where the databases include data that as such are not protected under copyright. Databases are
eligible for copyright protection provided that they by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute
intellectual creations. The provision also confirms that databases have to be protected regardless of which form they
are in, whether machine readable or other form. Furthermore, the provision clarifies that such protection shall not
14
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
extend to the data or material itself, and that it shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in the data or
material itself. Article 11 provides that authors shall have in respect of at least computer programs and, in certain
circumstances, of cinematographic works the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public of
originals or copies of their copyright works. With respect to cinematographic works, the exclusive rental right is
subject to the so-called impairment test: a Member is excepted from the obligation unless such rental has led to
widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction conferred in that
Member on authors and their successors in title. In respect of computer programs, the obligation does not apply to
rentals where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental.
According to the general rule contained in Article 7(1) of the Berne Convention as incorporated into the TRIPS
Agreement, the term of protection shall be the life of the author and 50 years after his death. Paragraphs 2 through 4
of that Article specifically allow shorter terms in certain cases. These provisions are supplemented by Article 12 of the
TRIPS Agreement, which provides that whenever the term of protection of a work, other than a photographic work or
a work of applied art, is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, such term shall be no less than
50years from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication, or, failing such authorized publication within 50
years from the making of the work, 50 years from the end of the calendar year of making.
Article 13 requires Members to confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do
not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the
right holder. This is a horizontal provision that applies to all limitations and exceptions permitted under the provisions
of the Berne Convention and the Appendix thereto as incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement. The application of
these limitations is permitted also under the TRIPS Agreement, but the provision makes it clear that they must be
applied in a manner that does not prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.
Related rights
The provisions on protection of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations are included in
Article 14. According to Article 14.1, performers shall have the possibility of preventing the unauthorized fixation of
their performance on a phonogram (e.g. the recording of a live musical performance). The fixation right covers only
aural, not audiovisual fixations. Performers must also be in position to prevent the reproduction of such fixations.
They shall also have the possibility of preventing the unauthorized broadcasting by wireless means and the
communication to the public of their live performance.
In accordance with Article 14.2, Members have to grant producers of phonograms an exclusive reproduction right. In
addition to this, they have to grant, in accordance with Article 14.4, an exclusive rental right at least to producers of
phonograms. The provisions on rental rights apply also to any other right holders in phonograms as determined in
national law. This right has the same scope as the rental right in respect of computer programs. Therefore it is not
subject to the impairment test as in respect of cinematographic works. However, it is limited by a so-called grand-
fathering clause, according to which a Member, which on 15 April 1994, i.e. the date of the signature of the Marrakesh
Agreement, had in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms,
may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material
impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.
Broadcasting organizations shall have, in accordance with Article 14.3, the right to prohibit the unauthorized fixation,
the reproduction of fixations, and the rebroadcasting by wireless means of broadcasts, as well as the communication
to the public of their television broadcasts. However, it is not necessary to grant such rights to broadcasting organizations,
if owners of copyright in the subject-matter of broadcasts are provided with the possibility of preventing these acts,
subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention.
The term of protection is at least 50 years for performers and producers of phonograms, and 20 years for broadcasting
organizations (Article 14.5).
Article 14.6 provides that any Member may, in relation to the protection of performers, producers of phonograms and
broadcasting organizations, provide for conditions, limitations, exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted
by the Rome Convention.
Trademarks
The basic rule contained in Article 15 is that any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the
goods and services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings, must be eligible for registration as a trademark,
provided that it is visually perceptible. Such signs, in particular words including personal names, letters, numerals,
figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of such signs, must be eligible for
registration as trademarks.
15
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services, Member countries are
allowed to require, as an additional condition for eligibility for registration as a trademark, that distinctiveness has
been acquired through use. Members are free to determine whether to allow the registration of signs that are not
visually perceptible (e.g. sound or smell marks).
Members may make registrability depend on use. However, actual use of a trademark shall not be permitted as a
condition for filing an application for registration, and at least three years must have passed after that filing date
before failure to realize an intent to use is allowed as the ground for refusing the application (Article 14.3).
The Agreement requires service marks to be protected in the same way as marks distinguishing goods (see e.g.
Articles 15.1, 16.2 and 62.3).
The owner of a registered trademark must be granted the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not having the
owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services which are identical
or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would result in a likelihood of
confusion. In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a likelihood of confusion must be
presumed (Article 16.1).
The TRIPS Agreement contains certain provisions on well-known marks, which supplement the protection required
by Article 6bis of the Paris Convention, as incorporated by reference into the TRIPS Agreement, which obliges
Members to refuse or to cancel the registration, and to prohibit the use of a mark conflicting with a mark which is well
known. First, the provisions of that Article must be applied also to services. Second, it is required that knowledge in
the relevant sector of the public acquired not only as a result of the use of the mark but also by other means, including
as a result of its promotion, be taken into account. Furthermore, the protection of registered well-known marks must
extend to goods or services which are not similar to those in respect of which the trademark has been registered,
provided that its use would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered
trademark, and the interests of the owner are likely to be damaged by such use (Articles 16.2 and 3).
Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of descriptive terms,
provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third
parties (Article 17).
Initial registration, and each renewal of registration, of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years.
The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely (Article18).
Cancellation of a mark on the grounds of non-use cannot take place before three years of uninterrupted non-use has
elapsed unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark owner.
Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark, such as import restrictions or other
government restrictions, shall be recognized as valid reasons of non-use. Use of a trademark by another person,
when subject to the control of its owner, must be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining
the registration (Article19).
It is further required that use of the trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special
requirements, such as use with another trademark, use in a special form, or use in a manner detrimental to its
capability to distinguish the goods or services (Article20).
Geographical indications
Geographical indications are defined, for the purposes of the Agreement, as indications which identify a good as
originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other
characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin (Article 22.1). Thus, this definition
specifies that the quality, reputation or other characteristics of a good can each be a sufficient basis for eligibility as
a geographical indication, where they are essentially attributable to the geographical origin of the good.
In respect of all geographical indications, interested parties must have legal means to prevent use of indications
which mislead the public as to the geographical origin of the good, and use which constitutes an act of unfair compe-
tition within the meaning of Article10bis of the Paris Convention (Article 22.2).
The registration of a trademark which uses a geographical indication in a way that misleads the public as to the true
place of origin must be refused or invalidated ex officio if the legislation so permits or at the request of an interested
party (Article 22.3).
16
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Article 23 provides that interested parties must have the legal means to prevent the use of a geographical indication
identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication. This applies even
where the public is not being misled, there is no unfair competition and the true origin of the good is indicated or the
geographical indication is accompanied be expressions such as “kind”, “type”, “style”, “imitation” or the like. Similar
protection must be given to geographical indications identifying spirits when used on spirits. Protection against
registration of a trademark must be provided accordingly.
Article 24 contains a number of exceptions to the protection of geographical indications. These exceptions are of
particular relevance in respect of the additional protection for geographical indications for wines and spirits. For
example, Members are not obliged to bring a geographical indication under protection, where it has become a generic
term for describing the product in question (paragraph 6). Measures to implement these provisions shall not prejudice
prior trademark rights that have been acquired in good faith (paragraph 5). Under certain circumstances, continued
use of a geographical indication for wines or spirits may be allowed on a scale and nature as before (paragraph 4).
Members availing themselves of the use of these exceptions must be willing to enter into negotiations about their
continued application to individual geographical indications (paragraph1). The exceptions cannot be used to diminish
the protection of geographical indications that existed prior to the entry into force of the TRIPS Agreement (paragraph
3). The TRIPS Council shall keep under review the application of the provisions on the protection of geographical
indications (paragraph 2).
Industrial designs
Article 25.1 of the TRIPS Agreement obliges Members to provide for the protection of independently created industrial
designs that are new or original. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly
differ from known designs or combinations of known design features. Members may provide that such protection shall
not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
Article 25.2 contains a special provision aimed at taking into account the short life cycle and sheer number of new
designs in the textile sector: requirements for securing protection of such designs, in particular in regard to any cost,
examination or publication, must not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection. Members
are free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law.
Article 26.1 requires Members to grant the owner of a protected industrial design the right to prevent third parties not
having the owner’s consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy,
or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
Article 26.2 allows Members to provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such
exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not
unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate
interests of third parties.
The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years (Article 26.3). The wording “amount to” allows
the term to be divided into, for example, two periods of five years.
Patents
The TRIPS Agreement requires Member countries to make patents available for any inventions, whether products or
processes, in all fields of technology without discrimination, subject to the normal tests of novelty, inventiveness and
industrial applicability. It is also required that patents be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination
as to the place of invention and whether products are imported or locally produced (Article 27.1).
There are three permissible exceptions to the basic rule on patentability. One is for inventions contrary to ordre public
or morality; this explicitly includes inventions dangerous to human, animal or plant life or health or seriously prejudicial
to the environment. The use of this exception is subject to the condition that the commercial exploitation of the
invention must also be prevented and this prevention must be necessary for the protection of ordre public or morality
(Article 27.2).
The second exception is that Members may exclude from patentability diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods
for the treatment of humans or animals (Article 27.3(a)).
The third is that Members may exclude plants and animals other than micro-organisms and essentially biological
processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However,
any country excluding plant varieties from patent protection must provide an effective sui generis system of protection.
Moreover, the whole provision is subject to review four years after entry into force of the Agreement (Article27.3(b)).
17
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
The exclusive rights that must be conferred by a product patent are the ones of making, using, offering for sale,
selling, and importing for these purposes. Process patent protection must give rights not only over use of the process
but also over products obtained directly by the process. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer
by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing contracts (Article28).
Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions
do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate
interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties (Article 30).
The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of 20 years counted from the filing date
(Article 33).
Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and
complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the
best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the
priority date of the application (Article 29.1).
If the subject-matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to
order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process,
where certain conditions indicating a likelihood that the protected process was used are met (Article 34).
Compulsory licensing and government use without the authorization of the right holder are allowed, but are made
subject to conditions aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the right holder. The conditions are mainly contained
in Article 31. These include the obligation, as a general rule, to grant such licences only if an unsuccessful attempt
has been made to acquire a voluntary licence on reasonable terms and conditions within a reasonable period of time;
the requirement to pay adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the economic
value of the licence; and a requirement that decisions be subject to judicial or other independent review by a distinct
higher authority. Certain of these conditions are relaxed where compulsory licences are employed to remedy practices
that have been established as anticompetitive by a legal process. These conditions should be read together with the
related provisions of Article27.1, which require that patent rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the
field of technology, and whether products are imported or locally produced.
Layout-designs of integrated circuits
Article 35 of the TRIPS Agreement requires Member countries to protect the layout-designs of integrated circuits in
accordance with the provisions of the IPIC Treaty (the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits),
negotiated under the auspices of WIPO in 1989. These provisions deal with, inter alia, the definitions of “integrated
circuit” and “layout-design (topography)”, requirements for protection, exclusive rights, and limitations, as well as
exploitation, registration and disclosure. An “integrated circuit” means a product, in its final form or an intermediate
form, in which the elements, at least one of which is an active element, and some or all of the interconnections are
integrally formed in and/or on a piece of material and which is intended to perform an electronic function. A “layout-
design (topography)” is defined as the three-dimensional disposition, however expressed, of the elements, at least
one of which is an active element, and of some or all of the interconnections of an integrated circuit, or such a three-
dimensional disposition prepared for an integrated circuit intended for manufacture. The obligation to protect layout-
designs applies to such layout-designs that are original in the sense that they are the result of their creators’ own
intellectual effort and are not commonplace among creators of layout-designs and manufacturers of integrated circuits
at the time of their creation. The exclusive rights include the right of reproduction and the right of importation, sale
and other distribution for commercial purposes. Certain limitations to these rights are provided for.
In addition to requiring Member countries to protect the layout-designs of integrated circuits in accordance with the
provisions of the IPIC Treaty, the TRIPS Agreement clarifies and/or builds on four points. These points relate to the
term of protection (ten years instead of eight, Article 38), the applicability of the protection to articles containing
infringing integrated circuits (last sub clause of Article 36) and the treatment of innocent infringers (Article 37.1). The
conditions in Article 31 of the TRIPS Agreement apply mutatis mutandis to compulsory or non-voluntary licensing of
a layout-design or to its use by or for the government without the authorization of the right holder, instead of the
provisions of the IPIC Treaty on compulsory licensing (Article 37.2).
Protection of undisclosed information
The TRIPS Agreement requires undisclosed information — trade secrets or know-how — to benefit from protection.
According to Article 39.2, the protection must apply to information that is secret, that has commercial value because
it is secret and that has been subject to reasonable steps to keep it secret. The Agreement does not require undisclosed
18
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
information to be treated as a form of property, but it does require that a person lawfully in control of such information
must have the possibility of preventing it from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without his or her
consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices. “Manner contrary to honest commercial practices”
includes breach of contract, breach of confidence and inducement to breach, as well as the acquisition of undisclosed
information by third parties who knew, or were grossly negligent in failing to know, that such practices were involved
in the acquisition.
The Agreement also contains provisions on undisclosed test data and other data whose submission is required by
governments as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical products which
use new chemical entities. In such a situation the Member government concerned must protect the data against
unfair commercial use. In addition, Members must protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to
protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.
Control of anti-competitive practices in contractual licences
Article 40 of the TRIPS Agreement recognizes that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual
property rights which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and
dissemination of technology (paragraph 1). Member countries may adopt, consistently with the other provisions of the
Agreement, appropriate measures to prevent or control practices in the licensing of intellectual property rights which
are abusive and anti-competitive (paragraph 2). The Agreement provides for a mechanism whereby a country seeking
to take action against such practices involving the companies of another Member country can enter into consultations
with that other Member and exchange publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in
question and of other information available to that Member, subject to domestic law and to the conclusion of mutually
satisfactory agreements concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting Member (paragraph 3).
Similarly, a country whose companies are subject to such action in another Member can enter into consultations with
that Member (paragraph 4).
19
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
PATENTING AN INVENTION
CHAPTER - 6
1. Introduction
Intellectual Property like any other property owned by an individual, gives him an exclusive right on that property after
registering the same with the concerned government authority. A patent therefore, is a document on intellectual
property issued by a government office, upon application which describes an invention, and creates a legal situation
in which the patented invention can normally only be exploited with the authorization of the owner of the patent.
It is a government guarantee to the discoverer or inventor of some new and useful process or product that he will
have exclusive rights to the production, use, sale of his work for a specified period of time. The patent is granted in
return for the patentee’s disclosure in his patent application of the details of the invention or discovery. The govern-
ment grants this right for exclusive use and profit in order to provide an incentive for the advancement of science and
the useful arts.
Patents are frequently referred to as “monopolies”, but nowhere, in most laws, is the inventor or the owner of a
patented invention given the right to make, use or sell anything straightway. The effects of the grant of a patent are
that the patented invention may not be exploited in the country by persons other than the owner of the patent unless
the owner agrees to such exploitation.
Thus, while the owner is not given a statutory right to practice his invention, he is given a statutory right to prevent
others from exploiting his invention, which is frequently referred to as right to exclude others from making, using or
selling this invention. The right to take action against any person exploiting the patented invention in the country
without his agreement constitutes the patent owner’s most important right. It permits him to derive the material
benefits to which he is entitled as a reward for his intellectual effort, work and compensation for the expenses incurred
in research and experimentation leading to the invention.
Though the right to exclude all others from exploiting the potential product operates to invest the patentee with a
monopolistic franchise to make, use or sell the potential invention, it may happen, particularly when the patent of one
person improves on the patent of another, that neither patentee will be able to merchandise or utilize the improved
product without the consent of the other as illustrated in the following cases:
a) The Human race has been in search of a time keeping device, which could provide them proper and correct
time. This search came to an end to a grant extent when a mechanical watch was invented in the year 1327 by
Richard of Wallingford but unfortunately the description was not complete. This gave an opportunity to Giovanni
Dondi, a professor at the universities of Padova and of Florence to invent and produce a mechanical watch in the
year 1369. The instinct to improve it further, carried on and a significant advancement came through by providing
electric – power instead of manual power, keeping the basic principle of the mechanical watch intact. This electric
power driven clock was patented and Alexander Bain, a Scotman became the first patentee of the invention.
Had the earlier person who invented the basic clock acquired a patent for his invention, both the inventors would
prevent anyone else from making, use or selling the clocks. This sets up the necessity and importance of licensing.
Under these circumstances the original inventor of the mechanical clock would require a license from Alexander Bain
to make an Electric clock and on the other hand the Electric clock patentee would require a license from the original
patentee of mechanical clock in order to use or sell the clock.
(b) When Alexander Graham Bell received his patent for the telephone, he had the power to prevent anyone else
making, using or selling a telephone. Assume that someone else later invented a dial telephone for which that person
also received a patent as an improvement on Bell’s telephone, this second person would then be able to prevent
anyone else, including Bell, from making, using or selling a dial telephone in accordance with that patent. This sets
up the necessity and importance of licensing. In these circumstance, Bell would need a license from the owner of the
dial telephone patent and who in turn would need a license from Bell under Bell’s basic telephone patent in order to
make, use or sell the dial telephone.
It should be emphasized, however, that while the State may grant patent rights it does not automatically enforce them
and it is up to the owner of patent to bring an action, usually under civil law, for any infringement of his patent rights.
The patentee must therefore be his own “policeman”.
2. Patentability Criteria
In most countries of the world, an invention must meet the following criteria if it is to be eligible for patent protection:
(a) The invention must consists of patentable subject matter
(b) It must be new (novel)
(c) It must exhibit a sufficient “inventive step” (be non-obvious)
20
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
(d) It must be industrially applicable / useful
(e) The disclosure of the invention in the patent application must meet certain standards.
(a) Patentable subject Matter
In order to be eligible for patent protection, an invention must fall within the scope of patentable subject matter.
Patentable subject matter is established by statue and is usually defined in terms of the exceptions to patentability,
the general rule being that patent protection shall be available for inventions in all fields of technology.
Examples of fields of technology which may be excluded from the scope of patentable subject matter include the
following:
- discoveries of material or substances existing in nature
- Scientific theories or mathematical methods;
- Plant, animal varieties, or essential biological processes for the production of such plant or animal varieties,
other than microbiological processes;
- Schemes, rules or methods, such as those for doing business, performing purely mental acts or playing games;
- Methods of treatment for humans or animals, or diagnostic methods practiced on humans or animals (but not
products for use in such methods).
In addition, temporary exclusions from patent protection may be provided for certain kinds of products or processes
for reasons of public interest, such as for example, pharmaceutical, agricultural chemicals or inventions in the nuclear
field. The current trend is away from such temporary exclusions.
(b) Novelty
Novelty is a fundamental requirement in any examination as to substance and is an undisputed condition of patent-
ability. It must be emphasized, however, that novelty is not something which can be proved or established; only its
absence can be proved.
An invention is new if it is not anticipated by ‘prior art’. ‘Prior art’ simply stated is the total comprehensive knowledge
that existed prior to the relevant filing or priority date of a patent application, whether it existed by way of written or
oral disclosure. He question of what should constitute ‘prior art’ at a given point in time is one which is the subject of
debate.
One viewpoint is that ‘prior art’ should be established against a back ground of what is known only in the protecting
country. This would exclude knowledge from other countries, if it was not imported into the country before the
invention, even if that knowledge was available abroad before the said date.
Another viewpoint is based on the differentiation between printed disclosures / publications and other disclosures
such as oral and prior use.
The disclosure of an invention should be so, that it becomes a part of ‘prior art’ and may be established in three ways,
namely:
- by description of the invention in a published writing or document on, in other tangible form;
- by a description of the invention in spoken words uttered in public; such a disclosure being termed an oral
disclosure;
- by the use of the invention in public, or by putting the public in a position where any member of the public may
access it. Such a disclosure being a ‘disclosure by use’.
Publication in tangible form requires that there be some physical carrier for the information, a document in the broad
sense of the term. The document must have been published, that is, made available to the public in any manner, by
offering for sale to deposit in a public collection. Publications include issued patents or published patent applications,
writings (whether they be manuscript, typescript, or printed matter), pictures including photographs, drawings or films,
and recording, whether they be discs or tapes in either spoken or coded language.
Oral disclosure, as the expression suggests, implies that the words or form of the disclosure are not necessarily
recorded as such and includes lectures and radio broadcasts.
Disclosure by use is essentially a public, visual disclosure such as by display, sale, demonstration, unrecorded
television broadcasts and actual public use.
A document will only destroy the novelty of any invention claimed if the subject matter is explicitly contained in the
document. The subject matter set forth in a claim of an application under examination is thus compared element by
element with the contents of each individual publication. Lack of novelty can only be found if the publication by itself
contains all the characteristics of that claim, that is, if it anticipates the subject matter of the claim.
21
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
(c) Inventive Step
In relation to the requirement of inventive step (also referred to as “non-obviousness”), the question as to whether or
not the invention “would have been obvious to a person having ordinary skill in the art” is perhaps a difficult standard
to determine in the examination as to substance.
The inclusion of a requirement like this in patent legislation is based on the premise that protection should not be
given to what is already known as part of the ‘prior art’, or to anything that the person with ordinary skill could deduce
as an obvious consequence thereof.
The person having ordinary skill in the art, is a person with appropriate technical training and practical experience.
The expression “ordinary skill” is intended to exclude the ‘best’ expert that can be found. It is intended that the person
be limited to one having the average level or skill reached in the field in the country concerned.
It should be noted that novelty and inventive step are different criteria. Novelty exists if there is any difference
between the invention and the prior art. The question, “is there an inventive step?” The question only arises if there
is novelty. The expression “inventive step” conveys the idea that it is not enough that the claimed invention is new,
that is, different from what exists in the state of the art, but that this difference must have two characteristics.
Firstly, it must be “inventive”, that is, the result of a creative idea and, it must be a step that is noticeable. There must
be a clearly noticeable difference between the state of the art and the claimed invention. This is why, in some
jurisdictions, the concept is to look for an “advance” or “progress” over the prior art.
Secondly, it is required that this advance or progress be significant and essential to the invention.
In order to assess the nature of the differences, which are relied upon as constituting an inventive step, account has
to be taken of “prior art” as a whole. Thus, as distinct from the assessment of novelty, the subject matter of the claim
under examination is compared not with each publication or other disclosure separately, but with the combinations
thereof, in so far as each such combination is obvious to the person having ordinary skill in the art. The combination
may be global, whereas the claim may define a set of subject matter known separately; for instance a new form of
washing machine including a particular type of motor coupled to a particular type of pump. For inventive step to be
destroyed, it is necessary that not only the combination, but also the choice of the combined elements, is obvious. It
is the sum of the differences that have been discovered which must be compared with “prior art” and judged as to
obviousness, and not each of the new elements taken individually, except where there is no technical link between
them.
The evaluation of the differences should not neglect any of the three aspects that typifies all inventions, namely:
(a) a problem to be solved;
(b) a solution to that problem; and
(c) a result guaranteed by the application of that solution.
If the problem is known or obvious, the examination will bear on the originality of the solution claimed. If no inventive
step is found in the solution, the question arises whether or not the result is obvious or whether it is surprising either
by its nature or by its extent. If a person having ordinary skill in the art would have been able to pose the problem,
solve it in the manner claimed, and foresee the result, the incentive step is lacking.
Design patents too must show originality and exercise of inventive faculty. To be patentable, the design must be
more than some thing merely new and pleasing enough to catch the trade. Here, particularly the standard is neces-
sarily vague and generally difficult of application. Women’s were design patents for example, when granted by the
patent and Trademark Office, have generally been invalidated in the courts on the ground that they involved no more
than the skill of a good dressmaker.
(d) Industrial Applicability / Utility
An invention, in order to be patentable, must be of a kind which can be applied for practical purposes. In other words,
the invention cannot be purely theoretical. It must be an invention that can be carried out in practice and applicable
for the benefit of mankind. If the invention is intended to be a product or part of a product, that product must be
capable of being made. And if the invention is intended to be a process or part of a process, that process must be
capable of being carried out – “used”, as it is said-in practice.
It is the possibility of making or manufacturing in practice and, this possibility of carrying out or using in practice, that
are reflected in the word “applicability” in the expression “industrial applicability.”
The word “industrial” in the same expression has a very special meaning in the terminology of patent laws. In
common language, an “industrial” activity means a technical activity on a certain scale, and, “industrial” applicability
of an invention means the application (making use) of an invention by technical means on that certain scale.
22
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
(e) Disclosure of the Invention
An additional requirement of patentability is whether or not the inventions is sufficiently disclosed in the application.
A disclosure in an application, to be complete, must contain such description and details as to enable any person
skilled in the art to which the invention relates, to make and use the invention as on the filing date of the application.
While the prior art setting may be mentioned in general terms in the description, the essential novelty, the essence of
the invention, must be described in such detail, including proportions and techniques where appropriate, so as to
enable persons skilled in the art to make and use the invention.
Specific operative embodiments or examples of the invention must be set out in the description. Examples and other
descriptive passages should be of sufficient scope as to justify the scope of the claims.
3. Opposition
Whether or not there is an examination as to substance, some jurisdictions provide for an opposition procedure which
may be instituted either before or after the grant of a patent. An opposition procedure is designed to allow third
parties to present objections to the grant of a patent. So that oppositions may be filed, the public must be informed
of the content of the application, and this is done by the patent office by publication of a notice in an official journal or
gazette to the effect that
- the application is open to public inspection; and / or
- the Patent Office will, unless opposition is filed within a prescribed period, grant a patent; or
- a patent has been granted on the application.
The grounds upon which an opposition may be filed are limited by relevant legislation. Generally speaking, it should
be possible for an opposition to be based on non-compliance with any substantive requirement. However, the law in
some countries only allows an opposition to be based on non-compliance with certain substantive requirements.
Typically, these grounds are lack of novelty, inventive step or industrial applicability, insufficient disclosure of the
invention, or the fact that an amendment made to a Patent application has gone beyond the original disclosure in the
application as filed. Some jurisdictions make it possible to file an opposition on the ground that the applicant has no
right to a patent.
An example of such a conflict arose in relation to the validity of an attempt to patent a device used to light cigars and
cigarettes that could be installed in the dashboard of motor cars. Although the patentee in a case, brought before the
Supreme Court of the United States, was acknowledged to be the first to apply the technique of Thermostatic electric
circuit breakers to this use, lighting cigars and cigarettes and other purposes outside motor cars and the improvement
made by the patentee, specifically that of making it suitable for use while driving did not qualify as an invention.
4. Drafting and Filing a Patent Application
Before actual drafting of the patent application is carried out, the identification of the invention is a must. The drafting
of a patent application can therefore, be divided into two parts:
(a) Identification of the invention
(b) Practical aspects of drafting patent applications
(a) Identification of the Invention:
The first task in drafting a patent application is the identification of the invention. This involves:
- summarizing all the necessary features which in combination solve a particular technical problem; and
- an examination of this combination to determine whether it would, according to one’s own judgement, fulfill
the requirements for patentability, especially inventive step.
It is during this process that a full comprehension of the essence of the invention is obtained, as this is important in
helping to draft the description and claims.
Generally speaking, an inventor may be so involved in his own considerations that he may be prejudiced in regard to
the direct result of his work. The result of this is a limited understanding by the inventor of his own invention,
particularly the specific problem which he attempted to solve and all the specific features which lead to the most
effective solution. On the other hand there are sometimes inventors who consider their invention in such a broad light
that it easily covers the state of the art.
Often the invention contains many new features. It is essential to identify the critical feature or features and elaborate
as to how they contribute to an effective solution of the problem. There are two important reasons for this. First, the
claims should be as broad as possible; the broadest claim is the one restricted by the least number of features.
Second, having identified the critical features and their effect, it is necessary to ask how else may this effect be
achieved; can the specific features be substituted or altered while still achieving the end result. This is important not
only in drafting the claims, which must be wide enough to cover these substitutes or alternatives, but also in the
23
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
description of the invention which must include details of the substitutes or alternatives so that the broad claim can be
supported by the description.
(b) Practical Aspects of Drafting Patent Applications:
Drafting practices and requirements differ from country to country. However, there are typically three basic require-
ments to be complied with in drafting of a patent application.
Firstly, there is a requirement that the application should relate to one invention only, or to a group of inventions so
linked as to form a single general inventive concept. This requirement, referred to as “unity of invention”, is particu-
larly important when claims are being drafted.
Secondly, the description should disclose the invention in a sufficiently clear and complete manner for the invention
to be evaluated and to be carried out by a person having ordinary skill in the art. This is of fundamental importance
since one of the main functions of the description is to provide new technical information to third parties. An impor-
tant phrase to note in this requirement is “a person having ordinary skill in the art”. This allows for a simplified
description since it can be assumed that the reader will be an informed reader having the background knowledge
which makes it unnecessary to describe every basic detail of the invention.
Thirdly, the application must contain claims which determine the scope of the protection. The claims must be clear
and concise and fully supported by the description. This third basic requirement is important since the claims are the
basis of interpretation of paten protection. It is from the claims that third parties are able to know what they may do
and what they may not do. The claims may not be significantly broader or different from that which has been
described.
The first section of the description typically contains two elements namely, the title of the invention and a brief
statement of the technical field in which the invention lies. Usually this statement is in the form of a short introductory
paragraph which commences with the phrase “This invention relates to ….”
In the second section, the background of the invention is described. In drafting this section, the patent agent usually
sets out any existing problems or difficulties which the invention overcomes. Previous solution to those problems or
difficulties should be described, preferably in a way which clearly sets out the difference between the present inven-
tion and the previous solutions. This section may also describe the object of the invention, that is to say, what the
invention sets out to achieve. The second section of the description is important to provide a good understanding of
the invention and to put it into perspective against “prior art”.
The third section of the description provides a summary of the invention in terms that it may be readily understood.
The patent agent will normally describe the invention first in general terms which correspond to those he intends to
use in the main claim. By using this technique, the agent can avoid any disputes that might arise based on differ-
ences between the invention described and the invention as defined in the claims. This description of the invention
in general terms is usually followed by a series of paragraphs which set out different preferred features of the inven-
tion. These paragraph usually form the basis for dependent claims which follow the broad main claim.
In the fourth section of the description, two elements are generally found namely a brief description of the drawing, if
drawings are appropriate and, a detailed description of one or more embodiments of the invention. Extensive use of
drawings can assist in describing details of the invention. If the invention relates to some form of mechanical object,
for example, drawings illustrating plan, elevation and sectional views of that object, could be used. Elements of the
drawings which are described are numbered in the drawings and these numbers utilized in the description of the
embodiment.
Where the invention is an electrical circuit, drawings can be used effectively to show the connections between the
various elements or components of the circuit. Again these elements or components should be numbered for ease of
reference. Normally the drawings should contain no textual matter. Exceptions, however, may be made when single
descriptive words can be used where they do not interfere with the lines of the drawings. Thus in any drawing
illustrating an electrical circuit, for example, standard components may be indicated in the drawings by boxes which
may be labeled. Similarly, where the invention relates to a process, drawings may show block, schematic or flow
sheet diagram, and blocks or boxes contained therein may be labeled as appropriate.
Where the invention is in the chemical field, the drawing may be graph, and, more specifically, where the invention is
of a metallurgical nature, the drawing may be a diagram such as a phase diagram.
It is usual for the description of the embodiment to include a passage which briefly describes the actual operation of
the invention. If the device, for example, is a machine or an electrical circuit, the manner in which the machine or
electrical circuit operates is extremely helpful in understanding the invention.
The claims are the center or the heart of any granted patent because hey define the protection which is the purpose
of the patent, the scope of the exclusive right provided by the patent. Therefore, it is the most important task within
the work of the patent agent when preparing the application, to produce a wording of the claims which defines the
24
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
invention in terms of the technical features disclosed in the description and which do not contain any reference to
commercial advantages.
The series of claims drafted by the patent agent generally commences with a broad main claim followed by a number
of claims of narrower scope. The broad claim is drafted so as to avoid the “prior art” known at the time of preparing
the application. The patent agent drafts the succeeding claims more narrowly and hopefully this results in a stronger
claim which could withstand any anticipation by more relevant prior art which might be produced by a patent office
during examination, or by third parties during any opposition or invalidation proceeding. It should be emphasized that
there must be some element of additional invention in each succeeding claim for it to be stronger.
The narrower claims following the broad main claim usually refer back to one or more of the preceding claims.
Because of this they are usually called dependent claims. The features introduced in each of the dependent claims
must find some basis in the description. There it is usually explained that these are preferred features which produce
a better technical form of the invention.
The last element of a patent is the abstract. The abstract presents a short summary of the description and the claims.
It serves the purpose of enabling third parties to obtain quick information about the essential contents of the inven-
tion. It must be emphasized that it is not used to interpret the scope of protection.
The guiding principle is that the abstract should be so drafted that it can efficiently serve as a scanning tool for
purposes of searching in the particular art. Thus the abstract has to be as concise as the disclosure permits contain-
ing between 50 to 150 words.
5. Processing of New Application
As soon as the application form is submitted in the patent office, the application is checked to ensure that all the
requirements necessary to accord the application a filing date have been satisfied. This is a fundamental check since
if a filing date is not established, the application will not be treated as filed and it proceeds no further. The filing date
is important in the general scheme of things since it constitutes the date from which certain actions are calculated
such as the term of the patent and where appropriate, determines the priority date of any subsequent application in
another country under the terms of the Paris convention for the protection of Industrial Property (Paris convention).
The filing date or priority date is also relevant to the evaluation of novelty and inventive step.
The priority date is also important in the general scheme of things. The right of priority may be based on a national,
regional and international application filed less than twelve months earlier. Its effect is to substitute the date of the
earlier filing for the date of the national filing and this is particularly important with respect to the relevant “prior art” for
evaluating novelty and inventive step.
It must be emphasized that the right or priority is only available in those countries which are party to the Paris
Convention. It should be noted however, that under some national laws, priority rights are granted on a bilateral basis
of reciprocity for countries not parties to the Paris Convention.
The right of priority offers great practical advantages to an applicant who seeks protection in several countries. The
applicant is not required to present all applications in his own country and in foreign countries at the same time, since
he has up to twelve months to decide in which foreign countries he desire protection. The applicant can use that
period to organize with due care, the steps to be taken to secure protection in the various countries of interest to him.
After having decided on the filing date and priority date, the patent office starts processing of the application and
concentrates mainly on the following points:
(a) Examination as to form
(b) Search
(c) Examination as to substance
In each of these areas of activity, the normal procedure is for a dialogue to be carried out in writing, between an
examiner in the patent office and, the applicant. The patent agent acts as a go-between in the sense that he receives
communications from the Patent Office, advises the applicant as to the appropriate course of action, takes the
applicant’s instruction and responds accordingly to the patent office’s communications.
(a) Examination as to Form
Examination as to form is normally carried out as soon as an application has been accorded a filing date. Basically
this covers the following points; representation, content of the request, statement concerning the inventor, physical
requirements governing the description, claims and drawings and the inclusion of an abstract. The applicant is given
an opportunity to correct any defects identified during examination as to form, and if such defect are not corrected
within a specified time, the patent office rejects the application.
(b) Search
Depending on the examination procedure provided in the relevant law, the search will be conducted either separate
25
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
from and prior to, or at the same time as, the examination as to substance. In either case, the objective of the search
is to determine the “prior art” in the specific field to which the invention relates. In conducting the search the patent
office checks its documentation holdings to ascertain whether any documents exist which describe a solution which
is same or similar to that, described in the application.
If the search is conducted separately to the examination as to substance, a search report will be forwarded to the
applicant setting out.
- a list of the documents located during the search, which disclose subject matter the same as or closely
resembling the invention; and
- the claims in the application that should be compared with each of those documents
The report may also give an indication of the scope of the search, that is the type of documents which may have been
searched, the time span covered, and the specific areas of technology searched.
The search itself is a documentary search in a collection of patent documents that are primarily arranged for search
purposes according to the specific areas of technology. These patent documents may be supplemented by articles
from technical journals and other so-called non-patent documents. This total collection of documents is usually
referred to as “the search file”.
The patent office conducts the search only in respect of documents in the search file. The search does not extend to
disclosure other than publication and in particular, does not seek to determine whether disclosure had taken place by
public use. This type of disclosure if any, will only be taken into account during the examination as to substance
phase, and then only if that use has been brought to the attention of the patent office by some third party’s action.
The search itself will first cover all directly relevant technical fields and may then have to be extended to analogous
fields; but the need for such extension must be judged by the examiner in each individual case, taking into account
the outcome of the search in the directly relevant areas of technology. It must be realized that whilst completeness
is the ideal of the search, this ideal may not necessarily be obtained because of such factors as the inevitable
imperfections of any classification and information retrieval system, and may not be economically justified if the cost
is to be kept within reasonable bounds.
(c) Examination as to substance:
The aim of the examination as to substance procedure is to ensure that the application satisfies certain conditions of
patentability. In essence, this is to prevent the grant of a patent where:
- the invention is excluded from patent protection by specific provisions in the legislation;
- the invention is not new, does not involve an inventive step and / or is not industrially applicable;
- the invention is not sufficiently disclosed in a clear and complete manner in the documents filed; or
- some other physical requirements of the application have not been met.
As with examination as to form, the applicant is given the opportunity to remove any objections raised during the
examination as to substance phase, and if he fails to do so within a specified time, the patent office will refuse the
grant of a patent.
It is in the interest of both the applicant and the public that there exists the possibility to amend the application. Not
only can deficiencies be eliminated and thus a better patent grant secured but also, amendments to clarify the
disclosure will result in a better description of the invention and a precise definition of the scope of protection.
Not all amendments are permissible. As a general rule, an amendment is not allowable if it goes beyond the original
disclosure in the application.
It should be noted that since the purpose of any patent law is to protect inventions, the paten office will only refuse to
grant a patent if the result of the examination clearly preclude the grant. Any doubt is resolved in the applicant’s
favour, since final adjudication on the validity or otherwise of a patent is usually possible via the courts.
6. Grant and Publication
If and when the examination process has reached a conclusion favourable to the applicant, that is to say all the
necessary requirement as to form and substance have been fulfilled, and assuming no opposition has been filed or
that any opposition has been unsuccessful, the patent office will grant a patent on the application. This involves
certain action on the part of the patent office.
Firstly, when the patent is granted, the details of the patent are entered into the Patent Register. The Register usually
contains bibliographic data such as the patent number, the name and address of the applicant / patentee, the name
of the inventor, the original application number, the filing date, certain priority application details and the title of the
invention. It does not contain any technical information.
Additionally, in countries where annual fee payments are required in order to maintain the patent in force, the Register
26
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
will contain details of when such fees have been paid, and may also list any details of licenses or assignments which
may have been recorded.
The Register can thus be very useful to third parties especially competitors of the patentee, because it reveals the
actual status of the patent. In some countries the courts accept a certified copy of the extract from the Register as
being proof of the correctness of the position recorded in respect of the patent.
Secondly, the patent office publishes in an official gazette, a reference to the grant of the patent with the prescribed
bibliographic data. The entry in the official gazette may also contain the abstract or the main claim, and if there are
drawings, the most illustrative drawing.
Thirdly, a Certificate of Grant is issued to the applicant, which is the legal document establishing his ownership of the
patent. A copy of the granted patent is also issued at the same time.
Lastly, the patent office publishes the patent document itself in printed form. Copies of the patent document are made
available by the patent office for use by patent libraries, as a source of technical information and to third parties,
subject to the payment of a fee.
As stated above, in order to keep the patent in force each year, for the term of the patent, a prescribed renewal or
maintenance fee, has to be usually paid to the patent office. In some countries, where a deferred examination system
exists, the maintenance fee is payable even before the patent is granted. In some countries the maintenance fee is
not required annually but may be paid, for example, say every three to five years. A small number of countries do not
require the payment of maintenance fees.
Having discussed various aspects of patenting an invention it would be of interest to discuss a few examples by
applying patentability criteria. Two such examples are given in the Annexure I and II.
7. First page of a Patent Document
Patent Office in each country do publish information about the patent after granting the same. Each country has its
own prescribed format for presenting it. International orgaizations like WIPO or the European Patent Office do
publish information on inventions after their research is completed. Some of the data bases also have adopted
typical formats to give specific details for the patents. Often the title page in such data bases give very valuable
information. Typical first page of patent from USPTO (US), EPO, PCT is provided here for information.
7.1 US Patent:
The front page (page No 1) contains the following information:
(a) US Patent no, Inventors name and the date of issue.
(b) The title of the patent
(c) Abstract – brief description of the invention
(d) Name of the inventor, assignee, Application no., date of filing
(e) Related US Application Data
(f) References cited
(g) US National Classification as well as International Patent Classification.
7.2 PCT
The title page contains the following details:
(a) International patent classification, publication number and date
(b) International application number
(c) International filing date
(d) Priority date
(e) Name of the applicants and inventors
(f) Designated states
(g) International search report – only reference
(h) Title of the patent
(i) Abstract along with drawing giving brief description with reference to the drawing.
27
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
7.3 EP – Title Page
(a) Title of the patent
(b) Patent number
(c) Publication date
(d) Name of the inventor
(e) Name of the applicant
(f) Application number
(g) Priority number and date
(h) International publication classification
(i) Name of the representative
(j) Designated contracting states
(k) Designated extension states
(l) Brief description of the patent and drawing of the same
7.4 Japan
An abstract page (page – 22) for Japanese patent is also given. It will be noticed that the presentation brings out the
“The Problem” and its “Solution” in a patent invention.
7.5 Gazette of India
Part III Section 2 of the Gazette of India deals with Notifications and Notices issued by the Patent Office relating to
patents and designs. A copy of the front page of a copy of the Gazette is given on page 23. It generally contains the
following information:
(a) Addresses and jurisdiction of the patent office – It provides details about the main office, head – quarters at
Calcutta and branch offices at Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai.
(b) Application for patents filed at the patent office – It provides details about filing the application in the head
office and the branch offices. It also provides details of national phase application filed under PCT.
(c) Complete specification accepted – It provides details about the classification in respect of each specification
according to Indian classification and international classification system. It also issues a notice to the gen-
eral public stating that if any person is interested in opposing the grant of application which he should do it
within four months from the date of issue of the gazette.
(d) Opposition Proceedings – It provides details of opposition filed by any person on application for patent
before the same is granted.
(e) Cessation of Patents – It provides the details of cessation of patens due to non-payment of fees.
(f) Restoration proceedings – It provides the details of restoration of any patent which was ceased due to non-
payment of renewal fees within the prescribed time. It also issues a notice for opposition if any person
desires to do so for this restoration.
(g) Amendment proceedings – This provides details of amendments on the patent application submitted by the
patentee. It also indicates that any person can inspect the amendment and submit his opposition, if any.
(h) Patent sealed / granted – This provides the numbers of the patents which have been approved and sealed.
(i) Registration of Designs – It provides the details of the design registered. It also mentions that these design
can not be inspected for a specific period, generally two years from the date of issue except under special
permission as per the provision of Design Act.
Refusal proceedings – It provides details of the rejection of the applications submitted for examination to the
patent office.
28
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
WHAT ARE “INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS”?
CHAPTER - 7
Intellectual property rights can be defined as the rights given to people over the creations of their minds. They usually
give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creations for a certain period of time.
Intellectual property rights are traditionally divided into two main categories:
Copyright and rights related to copyright: i.e. rights granted to authors of literary and artistic works, and the rights of
performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations. The main purpose of protection of copyright
and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work.
·
Industrial property: This includes (1) the protection of distinctive signs such as trademarks and geographical indications,
and (2) industrial property protected primarily to stimulate innovation, design and the creation of technology. In this
category fall inventions (protected by patents), industrial designs and trade secrets.
For the purposes of the TRIPS Agreement, “intellectual property” refers to:
... all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II of the agreement (Article
1:2). This includes copyright and related rights, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, patents,
integrated circuit layout-designs and protection of undisclosed information.
Does the TRIPS Agreement apply to all WTO members?
All the WTO agreements (except for a couple of “plurilateral” agreements) apply to all WTO members. The members
each accepted all the agreements as a single package with a single signature — making it, in the jargon, a “single
undertaking”.
The TRIPS Agreement is part of that package. Therefore it applies to all WTO members. (More on the single
undertaking.)
But the agreement allows countries different periods of time to delay applying its provisions. These delays define the
transition from before the agreement came into force (before 1 January 1995) until it is applied in member countries.
The main transition periods are:
·
Developed countries were granted a transition period of one year following the entry into force of the WTO Agreement,
i.e. until 1January 1996.
Developing countries were allowed a further period of four years (i.e. to 1January 2000) to apply the provisions of the
agreement other than Articles 3, 4 and 5 which deal with general principles such as non-discrimination.
·
Transition economies, i.e. members in the process of transformation from centrally-planned into market economies,
could also benefit from the same delay (also until 1January 2000) if they met certain additional conditions.
Least-developed countries are granted a longer transition period of a total of eleven years (until 1January 2006), with
the possibility of an extension.
Which countries are using the general transition periods?
1. Developing Countries
WTO members can make use of the general transition periods without having to notify the WTO and fellow-members.
The TRIPS Council reviews the legislation of members after their transition periods have expired. In 2000 and 2001,
it is reviewing the legislation of the following members whose transition periods expired on 31 December:
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahrain, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon,
Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador,
Estonia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, China, India, Indonesia, Israel,
Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Macau, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria,
Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland (areas which were not reviewed in ’96–’98),
Qatar, Saint Lucia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Swaziland,
Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zimbabwe
29
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Please note, nonetheless, that many of these members put into effect national legislation to implement much of the
TRIPS Agreement before 1January2000.
2. Least Developed Countries
In the WTO, least developed country members are those recognized as least developed countries by the United
Nations. A list of WTO members in question can be found here. At present, this webpage says:
The WTO recognizes as least-developed countries those countries which have been designated as such by the
United Nations. There are currently 48 least-developed countries on the UN list, 29 of which to date have become
WTO Members. These are:
Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Djibouti, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania,
Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia
Several additional least-developed countries are in the process of accession to the WTO. Details here.
3. New Members
The general transitional periods apply to the original members of the WTO, i.e. governments that were members on
1January1995. Since the WTO came into being, a number of countries have joined it. These countries have generally
agreed in their membership agreements (their “accession protocols”) to apply the TRIPS Agrement from the date
when they officially became WTO members, without the benefit of any transition period.
The latest list of countries (and “customs territories”) applying to join the WTO can be found here, as can the list of all
WTO members, and their dates of joining the WTO.
Do members have any obligations under the agreement during the transition period?
All members, even those availing themselves of the longer transitional periods, have had to comply with obligations
on national treatment (equal treatment for foreign and domestic individuals and companies, Article 3) and most-
favoured-nation treatment (non-discrimination between foreign individuals and companies, Article 4) from 1 January
1996.
Special transition rules apply in the situation where a developing country does not provide product patent protection
in a given area of technology.
More specifically, if a developing country did not provide product patent protection in a particular area of technology
when the TRIPS Agreement came into force (1 January 1995), it has up to 10 years (to 1 January 2005) to introduce
the protection (Art 65.4).
But for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products, the country must accept the filing of patent applications
from the beginning of the transitional period, even though the decision on whether or not to grant any patent itself
need not be taken until the end of this period (Art 70.8). This is sometimes called the “mailbox” provision.
If the government allows the relevant pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical product to be marketed during the
transition period, it must — subject to certain conditions — provide the patent applicant an exclusive marketing right
for the product for five years, or until a decision on granting a product patent is taken, whichever is shorter (Art 70.9).
In addition, Article 65.5 of the TRIPS Agreement says countries using the transition period should not backslide —
members availing themselves of a transitional period (under paragraphs 1, 2, 3 or 4 of Article 65) must ensure that
any changes in their laws, regulations and practice made during the transition period do not result in a lesser degree
of consistency with the provisions of the agreement.
Were intellectual property rights covered under the old GATT (GATT 1947) before the TRIPS
Agreement came into being?
Before the 1986–94 Uruguay Round negotiations, there was no specific agreement on intellectual property rights in
the framework of the GATT multilateral trading system.
However, some principles contained in the GATT had a bearing on intellectual property measures taken on imports or
exports.
30
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Article XX(d) of GATT 1947 (now Article XX(d) of GATT 1994) specifically referred to intellectual property rights.
Under this provision, measures which would otherwise be inconsistent with the General Agreement could be taken
(subject to certain conditions) to secure compliance with laws or regulations relating, among other things, to
intellectual propertyrights.

What is the place of the TRIPS Agreement in th e multilateral trading system?
One of the fundamental characteristics of the TRIPS Agreement is that it makes protection of intellectual property
rights an integral part of the multilateral trading system, as embodied in the WTO.
The TRIPS Agreement is often described as one of the three “pillars” of the WTO, the other two being trade in goods
(the traditional domain of the GATT) and trade in services.
The TRIPS Agreement is part of the “single undertaking” resulting from the Uruguay Round negotiations. That implies
that the TRIPS Agreement applies to all WTO members. It also means that the provisions of the agreement are
subject to the integrated WTO dispute settlement mechanism which is contained in the Dispute Settlement
Understanding (the “Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes”).

The TRIPS Agreement says WTO member countries must comply with the substantive obligations of the main
conventions of WIPO — the Paris Convention on industrial property, and the Berne Convention on copyright (in their
most recent versions).
With the exception of the provisions of the Berne Convention on moral rights, all the substantive provisions of these
conventions are incorporated by reference. They therefore become obligations for WTO member countries under the
TRIPS Agreement — they have to apply these main provisions, and apply them to the individuals and companies of
all other WTO members.
The TRIPS Agreement also introduces additional obligations in areas which were not addressed in these conventions,
or were thought not to be sufficiently addressed in them.
The TRIPS Agreement is therefore sometimes described as a “Berne and Paris-plus” Agreement.
The text of the TRIPS Agreement also makes use of the provisions of some other international agreements on
intellectual property rights:
·
WTO members are required to protect integrated circuit layout designs in accordance with the provisions of the
Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty) together with certain additional obligations.
· The
TRIPS Agreement refers to a number of provisions of the International Convention for the Protection of Performers,
Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention), without entailing a general requirement
to comply with the substantive provisions of that Convention.
Article 2 of the TRIPS Agreement specifies that nothing in Parts I to IV of the agreement shall derogate from existing
obligations that members may have to each other under the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, the Rome
Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of integrated circuits.
What is WIPO?
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) was established by a convention of 14July 1967, which entered
into force in 1970. It has been a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1974, and administers a number of
international unions or treaties in the area of intellectual property, such as the Paris and Berne Conventions.
WIPO’s objectives are to promote intellectual property protection throughout the world through cooperation among
states and, where appropriate, in collaboration with any other international organization. WIPO also aims to ensure
administrative cooperation among the intellectual property unions created by the Paris and Berne Conventions and
sub-treaties concluded by the members of the Paris Union.
The administration of the unions created under the various conventions is centralized through WIPO’s secretariat, the
“International Bureau”. The International Bureau also maintains international registration services in the field of patents,
31
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
trademarks, industrial designs and appellations of origin. WIPO also undertakes development cooperation for developing
countries through advice, training and furnishing of documents. An agreement on cooperation between WIPO and
the WTO came into force on 1 January 1996. The agreement provides cooperation in three main areas:
· notification of, access to and translation of national laws and regulations
· implementation of procedures for the protection of national emblems
· and technical cooperation.
WIPO is located at 34 chemin des Colombettes, Geneva
mailing address: P.O. Box 18, CH-1211 Geneva 20
telephone: (41 22) 338 9111
fax: (41 22) 733 5428
website: www.wipo.int.

Does the TRIPS Agreement require all member’s rules on protection of intellectual property to be
identical?
No, the TRIPS Agreement requires members to comply with certain minimum standards for the protection of intellectual
property rights covered in it.
But Members may choose to implement laws which give more extensive protection than is required in the agreement,
so long as the additional protection does not contravene the provisions of the agreement.
This is why the TRIPS Agreement is sometimes described as a “minimum standards” agreement.
In addition, the agreement gives members the freedom to determine the appropriate method of implementing the
provisions of the agreement within their own legal system and practice. The agreement thus takes into account the
diversity of members’ legal frameworks (for instance between common law and civil law traditions).
Does the agreement allow compulsory licensing of patents?
Article 31 allows compulsory licensing and government use of a patent without the authorization of its owner.
But this can only be done under a number of conditions aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the right holder.
For example: (unless there is an emergency) the person or company applying for a licence must have first attempted,
unsuccessfully, to obtain a voluntary licence from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms, and adequate
remuneration must be paid to the right holder.
The authorization granted under compulsory licensing must also meet certain requirements. In particular, it cannot be
exclusive, and it must as a general rule be granted predominantly to supply the domestic market.
(Compulsory licensing = authorization, given by a government, to use a patented invention without the consent of
the patent-holder)
Does the agreement require members to provide patent protection to plant varieties?
Article 27.3(b) allows members to exclude some types of plant and animal inventions from patenting in their countries.
More specifically, it allows them to exclude from patentability “plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and
essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological
processes”.
However, the agreement says members must provide for the protection of plant varieties, either by patents or by an
effective sui generis system (i.e. a system created specially for this purpose) or by any combination of the two.
These agreement calls for a review of the provisions of Article27.3(b) four years after the agreement entered into
force (i.e. in 1999). This review is underway in the TRIPS Council.
What is the role of the TRIPS Council?
The TRIPS Council comprises all WTO members. It is responsible for monitoring the operation of the agreement,
and, in particular, how members comply with their obligations under it.
32
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
1. MONITORING: Members review each others’ laws.
The reviews are central to the TRIPS Council’s task of monitoring what is happening under the agreement.
Each country has to make sure its laws comply with the obligations of the agreement, according to the timetable spelt
out in the agreement. Most have to enact laws implementing the obligations.
These laws are notified to the TRIPS Council, allowing members to review each others’ legislation, and promoting the
transparency of members’ policies on intellectual property protection.
The requirement to notify comes under Article 63.2 of the TRIPS Agreement. Members have to supply the TRIPS
Council with copies of their laws and regulations that deal with the TRIPS Agreements’ provisions.
These notifications are then used as the basis the Council’s reviews of members’ legislation.
In these reviews, countries supply written questions about each others’ laws before the review meetings. The answers
are also in writing. Follow-up questions and replies are made orally during the course of the meeting, and further
follow-up is possible at subsequent meetings.
2. CONSULTATIONS: On any TRIPS issue
The TRIPS Council is also a forum that countries can use to consult each other on problems they may have with each
other to do with the TRIPS Agreement.
It can also clarify or interpret provisions of the agreement.
3. TECHNICAL COOPERATION: A work programme
The Council follows a work programme on technical cooperation with a view to monitoring how developed countries
fulfil their obligations under Article 67 of the TRIPS Agreement.
This article sets out the developed countries’ commitments on technical cooperation. The work programme ensures
that developing countries can have adequate information on the assistance on offer. It also ensures any of their
unfulfilled needs are identified and responded to.
4. REVIEWS AND NEGOTIATIONS ON SPECIFIC SUBJECTS
The WTO is a forum for further negotiations aimed at enhanced commitments in the area of intellectual property, as
in other areas covered by the WTO agreements.
The TRIPS Agreement calls for further work in specified areas, including:
· the negotiation of a multilateral system of notification and registration for geographical indications for wines
(Article 23.4);
· the review of the application of provisions on protecting geographical indications (Article24.2);
· the review, after four years, of the option to exclude from patentability certain plant and animal inventions
(Article 27.3(b));
and the examination of the applicability to TRIPS of non-violation complaints under the dispute settlement
process (Article 64).
5. REVIEW OF TRIPS AGREEMENT
The TRIPS Council will hold a general review of the agreement after five years; but it is also empowered to review it
at any time in the light of any relevant new developments which might warrant modification and amendment (Article71).
What are members’ main notification obligations under the TRIPS Agreement?
The TRIPS Agreement obliges WTO members to make certain notifications to the TRIPS Council. These notifications
allow members to review each others’ legislation, an important part of the council’s work. They also promote the
transparency of members’ policies on intellectual property protection.
In addition, members wishing to avail themselves of certain options allowed under the Agreement have to notify the
Council.
In order to implement these notification obligations, the Council has adopted procedures and guidelines relating to
33
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
them.
Article 63.2 of the TRIPS Agreement says members must notify the laws and regulations on the subject-matter of the
agreement (the availability, scope, acquisition, enforcement and prevention of abuse of intellectual property rights).
The procedures for the notification of national laws and regulations under Article 63.2 are contained in document IP/
C/2.
Articles 1.3 and 3.1 of the TRIPS Agreement allow members to avail themselves of certain options in regard to the
definition of beneficiary persons and national treatment, provided that notifications are made to the Council for
TRIPS.
Notifications made under Articles 1.3 and 3.1 are circulated in the IP/N/2/- series of documents. Further background
information on these notification possibilities can be found in document IP/C/W/5.
In accordance with Article 4(d), a Member may exempt from the most-favoured-nation obligation any advantage,
favour, privilege or immunity according by that member deriving from international agreements related to the protection
of intellectual property which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, provided that
such agreements are notified to the Council for TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination
against nationals of other members.
Article 69 of the agreement requires members to establish and notify contact points in their administrations for the
purposes of cooperation with each other aimed at the elimination of trade in infringing goods.
The information on such contact points is circulated in document IP/N/3, and addenda, corrigenda and periodic
revisions.
In addition to notification obligations specifically provided for in the agreement, a number of notification provisions of
the Berne and the Rome Conventions are incorporated by reference into the TRIPS Agreement but without being
explicitly referred to it.
At its meeting in February 1996, the council invited each member wishing to make such notifications to make them
to the TRIPS Council, even if the member in question had already made a notification under the Berne or the Rome
Convention in regard to the same issue.
Further background information on these notification possibilities can be found in document IP/C/W/15. Notifications
of this kind are circulated in the IP/N/5/- series of documents.
Detailed information on the notification procedures can be found in the Technical Cooperation Handbook on Notification
Requirements: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
How can I get information on technical cooperation available from developed country members?
Article 67 of the TRIPS Agreement says developed country members must provide, on request and on mutually
agreed terms and conditions, technical and financial cooperation in favour of developing and least-developed country
members.
To ensure access to relevant information in this regard, developed country members have agreed to present annually
to the TRIPS Council a description of their technical cooperation activities in the area of intellectual property. This
information is circulated in the IP/C/W/- series of documents. Click here for more information.
In addition, developed country members have notified contact points in their administrations to which requests for
technical assistance may be addressed and from which information on technical cooperation can be obtained.
A list of these contact points is contained in document IP/N/7, and addenda, corrigenda and periodic revisions.
34
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
Part I — General Provisions and Basic Principles
CHAPTER - 8
Article 1 Nature and Scope of Obligations
1.Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement. Members may, but shall not be obliged to, implement
in their law more extensive protection than is required by this Agreement, provided that such protection does not
contravene the provisions of this Agreement. Members shall be free to determine the appropriate method of
implementing the provisions of this Agreement within their own legal system and practice.
2.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “intellectual property” refers to all categories of intellectual property
that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II.
3.Members shall accord the treatment provided for in this Agreement to the nationals of other Members.(1) In
respect of the relevant intellectual property right, the nationals of other Members shall be understood as those natural
or legal persons that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the Paris Convention (1967),
the Berne Convention (1971), the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated
Circuits, were all Members of the WTO members of those conventions.(2) Any Member availing itself of the possibilities
provided in paragraph3 of Article 5 or paragraph2 of Article6 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as
foreseen in those provisions to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the “Council for
TRIPS”).
Article 2 Intellectual Property Conventions
1.In respect of PartsII, III and IV of this Agreement, Members shall comply with Articles1 through 12, and Article 19,
of the Paris Convention (1967).
2.Nothing in PartsI to IV of this Agreement shall derogate from existing obligations that Members may have to each
other under the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property
in Respect of Integrated Circuits.
Article 3 National Treatment
1.Each Member shall accord to the nationals of other Members treatment no less favourable than that it accords to
its own nationals with regard to the protection(3) of intellectual property, subject to the exceptions already provided
in, respectively, the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention(1971), the Rome Convention or the Treaty on
Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. In respect of performers, producers of phonograms and
broadcasting organizations, this obligation only applies in respect of the rights provided under this Agreement. Any
Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in Article6 of the Berne Convention (1971) or paragraph 1(b) of
Article16 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for TRIPS.
2.Members may avail themselves of the exceptions permitted under paragraph1 in relation to judicial and
administrative procedures, including the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent within
the jurisdiction of a Member, only where such exceptions are necessary to secure compliance with laws and regulations
which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement and where such practices are not applied in a manner
which would constitute a disguised restriction on trade.
Article 4 Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment
With regard to the protection of intellectual property, any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by a
Member to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the nationals of all
other Members. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity accorded by a
Member:
(a)deriving from international agreements on judicial assistance or law enforcement of a general nature and not
particularly confined to the protection of intellectual property;
(b)granted in accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) or the Rome Convention authorizing

35
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
that the treatment accorded be a function not of national treatment but of the treatment accorded in another country;
(c)in respect of the rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations not provided
under this Agreement;
(d)deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property which entered into force
prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, provided that such agreements are notified to the Council for
TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members.
Article 5 Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition or Maintenance of Protection
The obligations under Articles3 and 4 do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded
under the auspices of WIPO relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights.
Article 6 Exhaustion
For the purposes of dispute settlement under this Agreement, subject to the provisions of Articles3 and 4 nothing in
this Agreement shall be used to address the issue of the exhaustion of intellectual property rights.
Article 7 Objectives
The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological
innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of producers and users of
technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and
obligations.
Article 8 Principles
1.Members may, in formulating or amending their laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to protect public
health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio-economic and
technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.
2.Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement, may be needed to
prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain
trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.
36
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PARTII — Standards concerning the availability, scope and use of
Intellectual Property Rights
CHAPTER - 9
SECTION 1: COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS
Article 9 Relation to the Berne Convention
1.Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix thereto.
However, Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under
Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.
2.Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical
concepts as such.
Article 10 Computer Programs and Compilations of Data
1.Computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention
(1971).
2.Compilations of data or other material, whether in machine readable or other form, which by reason of the selection
or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations shall be protected as such. Such protection, which
shall not extend to the data or material itself, shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in the data or
material itself.
Article 11 Rental Rights
In respect of at least computer programs and cinematographic works, a Member shall provide authors and their
successors in title the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public of originals or copies of their
copyright works. A Member shall be excepted from this obligation in respect of cinematographic works unless such
rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction
conferred in that Member on authors and their successors in title. In respect of computer programs, this obligation
does not apply to rentals where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental.
Article 12 Term of Protection
Whenever the term of protection of a work, other than a photographic work or a work of applied art, is calculated on
a basis other than the life of a natural person, such term shall be no less than 50years from the end of the calendar
year of authorized publication, or, failing such authorized publication within 50 years from the making of the work, 50
years from the end of the calendar year of making.
Article 13 Limitations and Exceptions
Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with
a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.
Article 14 Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms (Sound Recordings) and Broadcasting Organizations
1.In respect of a fixation of their performance on a phonogram, performers shall have the possibility of preventing
the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation of their unfixed performance and the
reproduction of such fixation. Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken
without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live
performance.
2.Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their
phonograms.
3.Broadcasting organizations shall have the right to prohibit the following acts when undertaken without their
37
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
authorization: the fixation, the reproduction of fixations, and the rebroadcasting by wireless means of broadcasts, as
well as the communication to the public of television broadcasts of the same. Where Members do not grant such
rights to broadcasting organizations, they shall provide owners of copyright in the subject matter of broadcasts with
the possibility of preventing the above acts, subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971).
4.The provisions of Article 11 in respect of computer programs shall apply mutatismutandis to producers of phonograms
and any other right holders in phonograms as determined in a Member’s law. If on 15 April 1994 a Member has in
force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms, it may maintain such
system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the
exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.
5.The term of the protection available under this Agreement to performers and producers of phonograms shall last at
least until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made
or the performance took place. The term of protection granted pursuant to paragraph3 shall last for at least 20 years
from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place.
6.Any Member may, in relation to the rights conferred under paragraphs1, 2 and 3, provide for conditions, limitations,
exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention. However, the provisions of Article 18
of the Berne Convention (1971) shall also apply, mutatismutandis, to the rights of performers and producers of
phonograms in phonograms.
SECTION 2: TRADEMARKS
Article 15 Protectable Subject Matter
1.Any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from
those of other undertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark. Such signs, in particular words including
personal names, letters, numerals, figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of
such signs, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks. Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing
the relevant goods or services, Members may make registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use.
Members may require, as a condition of registration, that signs be visually perceptible.
2.Paragraph 1 shall not be understood to prevent a Member from denying registration of a trademark on other
grounds, provided that they do not derogate from the provisions of the Paris Convention (1967).
3.Members may make registrability depend on use. However, actual use of a trademark shall not be a condition for
filing an application for registration. An application shall not be refused solely on the ground that intended use has not
taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of application.
4.The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to
registration of the trademark.
5.Members shall publish each trademark either before it is registered or promptly after it is registered and shall afford
a reasonable opportunity for petitions to cancel the registration. In addition, Members may afford an opportunity for
the registration of a trademark to be opposed.
Article 16 Rights Conferred
1.The owner of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not having the
owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services which are identical
or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would result in a likelihood of
confusion. In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a likelihood of confusion shall be
presumed. The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior rights, nor shall they affect the possibility
of Members making rights available on the basis of use.
2.Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to services. In determining whether a
trademark is well-known, Members shall take account of the knowledge of the trademark in the relevant sector of the
public, including knowledge in the Member concerned which has been obtained as a result of the promotion of the
trademark.
3.Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to goods or services which are not similar
to those in respect of which a trademark is registered, provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods
or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark
and provided that the interests of the owner of the registered trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.
38
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Article 17 Exceptions
Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of descriptive terms,
provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third
parties.
Article 18 Term of Protection
Initial registration, and each renewal of registration, of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years.
The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely.
Article 19 Requirement of Use
1.If use is required to maintain a registration, the registration may be cancelled only after an uninterrupted period of
at least three years of non-use, unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the
trademark owner. Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark which constitute an
obstacle to the use of the trademark, such as import restrictions on or other government requirements for goods or
services protected by the trademark, shall be recognized as valid reasons for non-use.
2.When subject to the control of its owner, use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized as use of the
trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration.
Article 20 Other Requirements
The use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements, such as
use with another trademark, use in a special form or use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the
goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. This will not preclude a requirement prescribing
the use of the trademark identifying the undertaking producing the goods or services along with, but without linking it
to, the trademark distinguishing the specific goods or services in question of that undertaking.
Article 21 Licensing and Assignment
Members may determine conditions on the licensing and assignment of trademarks, it being understood that the
compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a registered trademark shall have the
right to assign the trademark with or without the transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs.
SECTION 3: GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS
Article 22 Protection of Geographical Indications
1.Geographical indications are, for the purposes of this Agreement, indications which identify a good as originating
in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic
of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
2.In respect of geographical indications, Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent:
(a)the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in
question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner which misleads the public as
to the geographical origin of the good;
(b)any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article10bis of the Paris Convention
(1967).
3.A Member shall, exofficio if its legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party, refuse or invalidate the
registration of a trademark which contains or consists of a geographical indication with respect to goods not originating
in the territory indicated, if use of the indication in the trademark for such goods in that Member is of such a nature as
to mislead the public as to the true place of origin.
4.The protection under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be applicable against a geographical indication which, although
literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, falsely represents to the public that the
goods originate in another territory.
39
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Article 23 Additional Protection for Geographical Indications for Wines and Spirits
1.Each Member shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent use of a geographical indication
identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question or identifying
spirits for spirits not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question, even where the true
origin of the goods is indicated or the geographical indication is used in translation or accompanied by expressions
such as “kind”, “type”, “style”, “imitation” or the like.(4)
2.The registration of a trademark for wines which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying wines
or for spirits which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying spirits shall be refused or invalidated,
exofficio if a Member’s legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party, with respect to such wines or
spirits not having this origin.
3.In the case of homonymous geographical indications for wines, protection shall be accorded to each indication,
subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22. Each Member shall determine the practical conditions under
which the homonymous indications in question will be differentiated from each other, taking into account the need to
ensure equitable treatment of the producers concerned and that consumers are not misled.
4.In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines, negotiations shall be undertaken in the
Council for TRIPS concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical
indications for wines eligible for protection in those Members participating in the system.
Article 24 International Negotiations; Exceptions
1.Members agree to enter into negotiations aimed at increasing the protection of individual geographical indications
under Article 23. The provisions of paragraphs4 through 8 below shall not be used by a Member to refuse to conduct
negotiations or to conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements. In the context of such negotiations, Members shall be
willing to consider the continued applicability of these provisions to individual geographical indications whose use
was the subject of such negotiations.
2.The Council for TRIPS shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section; the first such
review shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Any matter affecting the
compliance with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention of the Council, which, at the
request of a Member, shall consult with any Member or Members in respect of such matter in respect of which it has
not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral or plurilateral consultations between the Members
concerned. The Council shall take such action as may be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives
of this Section.
3.In implementing this Section, a Member shall not diminish the protection of geographical indications that existed in
that Member immediately prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
4.Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to prevent continued and similar use of a particular geographical
indication of another Member identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services by any of its nationals
or domiciliaries who have used that geographical indication in a continuous manner with regard to the same or related
goods or services in the territory of that Member either (a)for at least 10 years preceding 15 April 1994 or (b)in good
faith preceding that date.
5.Where a trademark has been applied for or registered in good faith, or where rights to a trademark have been
acquired through use in good faith either:
(a)before the date of application of these provisions in that Member as defined in PartVI; or
(b)before the geographical indication is protected in its country of origin;
measures adopted to implement this Section shall not prejudice eligibility for or the validity of the registration of a
trademark, or the right to use a trademark, on the basis that such a trademark is identical with, or similar to, a
geographical indication.
6.Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any
other Member with respect to goods or services for which the relevant indication is identical with the term customary
in common language as the common name for such goods or services in the territory of that Member. Nothing in this
Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member
with respect to products of the vine for which the relevant indication is identical with the customary name of a grape
variety existing in the territory of that Member as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
40
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
7.A Member may provide that any request made under this Section in connection with the use or registration of a
trademark must be presented within five years after the adverse use of the protected indication has become generally
known in that Member or after the date of registration of the trademark in that Member provided that the trademark
has been published by that date, if such date is earlier than the date on which the adverse use became generally
known in that Member, provided that the geographical indication is not used or registered in bad faith.
8.The provisions of this Section shall in no way prejudice the right of any person to use, in the course of trade, that
person’s name or the name of that person’s predecessor in business, except where such name is used in such a
manner as to mislead the public.
9.There shall be no obligation under this Agreement to protect geographical indications which are not or cease to be
protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen into disuse in that country.
SECTION4: INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS
Article 25 Requirements for Protection
1.Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original.
Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or
combinations of known design features. Members may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs
dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
2.Each Member shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in particular in regard to
any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection.
Members shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law.
Article 26 Protection
1.The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the owner’s
consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy, or substantially a
copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
2.Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such exceptions do
not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice
the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
3.The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years.
SECTION 5 : PATENTS
Article 27 Patentable Subject Matter
1.Subject to the provisions of paragraphs2 and 3, patents shall be available for any inventions, whether products or
processes, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve an inventive step and are capable of
industrial application.(5) Subject to paragraph4 of Article65, paragraph8 of Article70 and paragraph3 of this
Article, patents shall be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination as to the place of invention, the
field of technology and whether products are imported or locally produced.
2.Members may exclude from patentability inventions, the prevention within their territory of the commercial exploitation
of which is necessary to protect ordrepublic or morality, including to protect human, animal or plant life or health or
to avoid serious prejudice to the environment, provided that such exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation
is prohibited by their law.
3.Members may also exclude from patentability:
(a)diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;
(b)plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of
plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However, Members shall provide for the
protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective suigeneris system or by any combination thereof. The
provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
Article 28 Rights Conferred
1.A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
41
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
(a)where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from
the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing(6) for these purposes that product;
(b)where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from
the act of using the process,and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes at
least the product obtained directly by that process.
2.Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to conclude licensing
contracts.
Article 29 Conditions on Patent Applicants
1.Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and
complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the
best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the
priority date of the application.
2.Members may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning the applicant’s corresponding
foreign applications and grants.
Article 30 Exceptions to Rights Conferred
Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided that such exceptions
do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate
interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.
Article 31 Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder
Where the law of a Member allows for other use(7) of the subject matter of a patent without the authorization of the
right holder, including use by the government or third parties authorized by the government, the following provisions
shall be respected:
(a) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
(b) such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization
from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts have not been
successful within a reasonable period of time. This requirement may be waived by a Member in the case of a
national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use. In
situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless,
be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. In the case of public non-commercial use, where the government
or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent
is or will be used by or for the government, the right holder shall be informed promptly;
(c) the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized, and in the case
of semi-conductor technology shall only be for public non-commercial use or to remedy a practice determined
after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive;
(d) such use shall be non-exclusive;
(e) such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys such use;
(f) any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the Member authorizing
such use;
(g) authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the
persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist and are
unlikely to recur. The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated request, the
continued existence of these circumstances;
(h) the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into account the
economic value of the authorization;
(i) the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial review or
other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
(j) any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial review or
other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
42
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
(k)Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs(b) and(f) where such use is permitted
to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive. The need to correct
anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases.
Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which
led to such authorization are likely to recur;
(l)where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent (“the second patent”) which cannot be exploited
without infringing another patent (“the first patent”), the following additional conditions shall apply:
(i)the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic
significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
(ii)the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-licence on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed
in the second patent; and
(iii)the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment of the
second patent.
Article 32 Revocation/Forfeiture
An opportunity for judicial review of any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent shall be available.
Article 33 Term of Protection
The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing
date(8)
Article 34 Process Patents: Burden of Proof
1.For the purposes of civil proceedings in respect of the infringement of the rights of the owner referred to in
paragraph1(b) of Article28, if the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product, the judicial authorities
shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from
the patented process. Therefore, Members shall provide, in at least one of the following circumstances, that any
identical product when produced without the consent of the patent owner shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary,
be deemed to have been obtained by the patented process:
(a)if the product obtained by the patented process is new;
(b)if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner of the
patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used.
2.Any Member shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph1 shall be on the alleged
infringer only if the condition referred to in subparagraph(a) is fulfilled or only if the condition referred to in
subparagraph(b) is fulfilled.
3.In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of defendants in protecting their manufacturing
and business secrets shall be taken into account.
SECTION 6: LAYOUT-DESIGNS (TOPOGRAPHIES) OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Article 35 Relation to the IPIC Treaty
Members agree to provide protection to the layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits (referred to in this
Agreement as “layout-designs”) in accordance with Articles2 through 7 (other than paragraph3 of Article6), Article12
and paragraph3 of Article16 of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits and, in addition,
to comply with the following provisions.
Article 36 Scope of the Protection
Subject to the provisions of paragraph1 of Article37, Members shall consider unlawful the following acts if performed
without the authorization of the right holder:(9) importing, selling, or otherwise distributing for commercial purposes
a protected layout-design, an integrated circuit in which a protected layout-design is incorporated, or an article
incorporating such an integrated circuit only in so far as it continues to contain an unlawfully reproduced layout-
design.
43
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Article 37 Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder
1.Notwithstanding Article 36, no Member shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts referred to in that
Article in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-design or any article incorporating
such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such acts did not know and had no reasonable
ground to know, when acquiring the integrated circuit or article incorporating such an integrated circuit, that it incorporated
an unlawfully reproduced layout-design. Members shall provide that, after the time that such person has received
sufficient notice that the layout-design was unlawfully reproduced, that person may perform any of the acts with
respect to the stock on hand or ordered before such time, but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent
to a reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated licence in respect of such a layout-design.
2.The conditions set out in subparagraphs (a) through (k) of Article31 shall apply mutatis mutandis in the event of
any non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or of its use by or for the government without the authorization of the
right holder.
Article 38 Term of Protection
1.In Members requiring registration as a condition of protection, the term of protection of layout-designs shall not end
before the expiration of a period of 10 years counted from the date of filing an application for registration or from the
first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
2.In Members not requiring registration as a condition for protection, layout-designs shall be protected for a term of
no less than 10 years from the date of the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
3.Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, a Member may provide that protection shall lapse 15 years after the creation
of the layout-design.
SECTION 7: PROTECTION OF UNDISCLOSED INFORMATION
Article 39
1.In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article10bis of the Paris
Convention (1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph2 and data submitted
to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph3.
2.Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from
being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial
practices(10) so long as such information:
(a)is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components,
generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information
in question;
(b)has commercial value because it is secret; and
(c)has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information,
to keep it secret.
3.Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural
chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the
origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In
addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or
unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.
44
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PART III — Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights
CHAPTER - 10
SECTION 1: GENERAL OBLIGATIONS
Article 41
1.Members shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this Part are available under their law so as
to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Agreement,
including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to further
infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate
trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
2.Procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable. They shall not
be unnecessarily complicated or costly, or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays.
3.Decisions on the merits of a case shall preferably be in writing and reasoned. They shall be made available at
least to the parties to the proceeding without undue delay. Decisions on the merits of a case shall be based only on
evidence in respect of which parties were offered the opportunity to be heard.
4.Parties to a proceeding shall have an opportunity for review by a judicial authority of final administrative decisions
and, subject to jurisdictional provisions in a Member’s law concerning the importance of a case, of at least the legal
aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case. However, there shall be no obligation to provide an
opportunity for review of acquittals in criminal cases.
5.It is understood that this Part does not create any obligation to put in place a judicial system for the enforcement
of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of law in general, nor does it affect the capacity of
Members to enforce their law in general. Nothing in this Part creates any obligation with respect to the distribution of
resources as between enforcement of intellectual property rights and the enforcement of law in general.
SECTION 2: CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND REMEDIES
Article 42 Fair and Equitable Procedures
Members shall make available to right holders(11) civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any
intellectual property right covered by this Agreement. Defendants shall have the right to written notice which is timely
and contains sufficient detail, including the basis of the claims. Parties shall be allowed to be represented by independent
legal counsel, and procedures shall not impose overly burdensome requirements concerning mandatory personal
appearances. All parties to such procedures shall be duly entitled to substantiate their claims and to present all
relevant evidence. The procedure shall provide a means to identify and protect confidential information, unless this
would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements.
Article 43 Evidence
1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority, where a party has presented reasonably available evidence
sufficient to support its claims and has specified evidence relevant to substantiation of its claims which lies in the
control of the opposing party, to order that this evidence be produced by the opposing party, subject in appropriate
cases to conditions which ensure the protection of confidential information.
2.In cases in which a party to a proceeding voluntarily and without good reason refuses access to, or otherwise
does not provide necessary information within a reasonable period, or significantly impedes a procedure relating to
an enforcement action, a Member may accord judicial authorities the authority to make preliminary and final
determinations, affirmative or negative, on the basis of the information presented to them, including the complaint or
the allegation presented by the party adversely affected by the denial of access to information, subject to providing
the parties an opportunity to be heard on the allegations or evidence.
Article 44 Injunctions
1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party to desist from an infringement, inter alia to
prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of imported goods that involve the infringement
45
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
of an intellectual property right, immediately after customs clearance of such goods. Members are not obliged to
accord such authority in respect of protected subject matter acquired or ordered by a person prior to knowing or
having reasonable grounds to know that dealing in such subject matter would entail the infringement of an intellectual
property right.
2.Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Part and provided that the provisions of PartII specifically addressing
use by governments, or by third parties authorized by a government, without the authorization of the right holder are
complied with, Members may limit the remedies available against such use to payment of remuneration in accordance
with subparagraph(h) of Article 31. In other cases, the remedies under this Part shall apply or, where these remedies
are inconsistent with a Member’s law, declaratory judgments and adequate compensation shall be available.
Article 45 Damages
1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to
compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of that person’s intellectual
property right by an infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engaged in infringing activity.
2.The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder expenses, which
may include appropriate attorney’s fees. In appropriate cases, Members may authorize the judicial authorities to
order recovery of profits and/or payment of pre-established damages even where the infringer did not knowingly, or
with reasonable grounds to know, engage in infringing activity.
Article 46 Other Remedies
In order to create an effective deterrent to infringement, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order that
goods that they have found to be infringing be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of
commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm caused to the right holder, or, unless this would be contrary to
existing constitutional requirements, destroyed. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order that
materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be, without
compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks
of further infringements. In considering such requests, the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the
infringement and the remedies ordered as well as the interests of third parties shall be taken into account. In regard
to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other
than in exceptional cases, to permit release of the goods into the channels of commerce.
Article 47 Right of Information
Members may provide that the judicial authorities shall have the authority, unless this would be out of proportion to
the seriousness of the infringement, to order the infringer to inform the right holder of the identity of third persons
involved in the production and distribution of the infringing goods or services and of their channels of distribution.
Article 48 Indemnification of the Defendant
1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were taken and who
has abused enforcement procedures to provide to a party wrongfully enjoined or restrained adequate compensation
for the injury suffered because of such abuse. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the
applicant to pay the defendant expenses, which may include appropriate attorney’s fees.
2.In respect of the administration of any law pertaining to the protection or enforcement of intellectual property
rights, Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures
where actions are taken or intended in good faith in the course of the administration of that law.
Article 49 Administrative Procedures
To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case,
such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.
SECTION 3: PROVISIONAL MEASURES
Article 50 1.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order prompt and effective provisional
measures:
(a)to prevent an infringement of any intellectual property right from occurring, and in particular to prevent the
46
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of goods, including imported goods immediately after customs
clearance;
(b)to preserve relevant evidence in regard to the alleged infringement.
2.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to adopt provisional measures inaudita altera parte where
appropriate, in particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder, or where there is a
demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
3.The judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably available
evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is the right holder and
that the applicant’s right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent, and to order the applicant to provide
a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and to prevent abuse.
4.Where provisional measures have been adopted inaudita altera parte, the parties affected shall be given notice,
without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest. A review, including a right to be heard, shall take place
upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period after the notification of the measures,
whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
5.The applicant may be required to supply other information necessary for the identification of the goods concerned
by the authority that will execute the provisional measures.
6.Without prejudice to paragraph 4, provisional measures taken on the basis of paragraphs1 and 2 shall, upon
request by the defendant, be revoked or otherwise cease to have effect, if proceedings leading to a decision on the
merits of the case are not initiated within a reasonable period, to be determined by the judicial authority ordering the
measures where a Member’s law so permits or, in the absence of such a determination, not to exceed 20 working
days or 31 calendar days, whichever is the longer.
7.Where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission by the applicant, or
where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or threat of infringement of an intellectual property
right, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant, upon request of the defendant, to provide
the defendant appropriate compensation for any injury caused by these measures.
8.To the extent that any provisional measure can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures, such procedures
shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.
SECTION 4: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO BORDER MEASURES(12)
Article 51 Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities
Members shall, in conformity with the provisions set out below, adopt procedures(13) to enable a right holder, who
has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods(14) may
take place, to lodge an application in writing with competent authorities, administrative or judicial, for the suspension
by the customs authorities of the release into free circulation of such goods. Members may enable such an application
to be made in respect of goods which involve other infringements of intellectual property rights, provided that the
requirements of this Section are met. Members may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the
suspension by the customs authorities of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from their territories.
Article 52 Application
Any right holder initiating the procedures under Article 51 shall be required to provide adequate evidence to satisfy
the competent authorities that, under the laws of the country of importation, there is prima facie an infringement of the
right holder’s intellectual property right and to supply a sufficiently detailed description of the goods to make them
readily recognizable by the customs authorities. The competent authorities shall inform the applicant within a reasonable
period whether they have accepted the application and, where determined by the competent authorities, the period
for which the customs authorities will take action.
Article 53 Security or Equivalent Assurance
1.The competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant to provide a security or equivalent
assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. Such security or
equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.
2.Where pursuant to an application under this Section the release of goods involving industrial designs, patents,
47
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
layout-designs or undisclosed information into free circulation has been suspended by customs authorities on the
basis of a decision other than by a judicial or other independent authority, and the period provided for in Article55 has
expired without the granting of provisional relief by the duly empowered authority, and provided that all other conditions
for importation have been complied with, the owner, importer, or consignee of such goods shall be entitled to their
release on the posting of a security in an amount sufficient to protect the right holder for any infringement. Payment
of such security shall not prejudice any other remedy available to the right holder, it being understood that the security
shall be released if the right holder fails to pursue the right of action within a reasonable period of time.
Article 54 Notice of Suspension
The importer and the applicant shall be promptly notified of the suspension of the release of goods according to
Article 51.
Article 55 Duration of Suspension
If, within a period not exceeding 10 working days after the applicant has been served notice of the suspension, the
customs authorities have not been informed that proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have
been initiated by a party other than the defendant, or that the duly empowered authority has taken provisional measures
prolonging the suspension of the release of the goods, the goods shall be released, provided that all other conditions
for importation or exportation have been complied with; in appropriate cases, this time-limit may be extended by
another 10 working days. If proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated, a review,
including a right to be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable
period, whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed. Notwithstanding the above, where the
suspension of the release of goods is carried out or continued in accordance with a provisional judicial measure, the
provisions of paragraph 6 of Article50 shall apply.
Article 56 Indemnification of the Importer and of the Owner of the Goods
Relevant authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant to pay the importer, the consignee and the
owner of the goods appropriate compensation for any injury caused to them through the wrongful detention of goods
or through the detention of goods released pursuant to Article 55.
Article 57 Right of Inspection and Information
Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, Members shall provide the competent authorities
the authority to give the right holder sufficient opportunity to have any goods detained by the customs authorities
inspected in order to substantiate the right holder’s claims. The competent authorities shall also have authority to give
the importer an equivalent opportunity to have any such goods inspected. Where a positive determination has been
made on the merits of a case, Members may provide the competent authorities the authority to inform the right holder
of the names and addresses of the consignor, the importer and the consignee and of the quantity of the goods in
question.
Article 58 Ex Officio Action
Where Members require competent authorities to act upon their own initiative and to suspend the release of goods in
respect of which they have acquired prima facie evidence that an intellectual property right is being infringed:
(a)the competent authorities may at any time seek from the right holder any information that may assist them to
exercise these powers;
(b)the importer and the right holder shall be promptly notified of the suspension. Where the importer has lodged
an appeal against the suspension with the competent authorities, the suspension shall be subject to the conditions,
mutatis mutandis, set out at Article55;
(c)Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures
where actions are taken or intended in good faith.
Article 59 Remedies
Without prejudice to other rights of action open to the right holder and subject to the right of the defendant to seek
review by a judicial authority, competent authorities shall have the authority to order the destruction or disposal of
infringing goods in accordance with the principles set out in Article 46. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the
authorities shall not allow the re-exportation of the infringing goods in an unaltered state or subject them to a different
customs procedure, other than in exceptional circumstances.
48
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Article 60 De Minimis Imports
Members may exclude from the application of the above provisions small quantities of goods of a non-commercial
nature contained in travellers’ personal luggage or sent in small consignments.
SECTION 5 : CRIMINAL PROCEDURES
Article 61
Members shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of wilful trademark
counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. Remedies available shall include imprisonment and/or
monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistently with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a
corresponding gravity. In appropriate cases, remedies available shall also include the seizure, forfeiture and destruction
of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission
of the offence. Members may provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement
of intellectual property rights, in particular where they are committed wilfully and on a commercial scale.
49
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PART IV — Acquisition and maintenance of intellectual property rights
and related inter-partes procedures
CHAPTER - 11
Article 62
1.Members may require, as a condition of the acquisition or maintenance of the intellectual property rights provided
for under Sections 2 through 6 of PartII, compliance with reasonable procedures and formalities. Such procedures
and formalities shall be consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.
2.Where the acquisition of an intellectual property right is subject to the right being granted or registered, Members
shall ensure that the procedures for grant or registration, subject to compliance with the substantive conditions for
acquisition of the right, permit the granting or registration of the right within a reasonable period of time so as to avoid
unwarranted curtailment of the period of protection.
3.Article4 of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply mutatis mutandis to service marks.
4.Procedures concerning the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights and, where a Member’s law
provides for such procedures, administrative revocation and interpartes procedures such as opposition, revocation
and cancellation, shall be governed by the general principles set out in paragraphs2 and 3 of Article41.
5.Final administrative decisions in any of the procedures referred to under paragraph 4 shall be subject to review
by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority. However, there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for such review
of decisions in cases of unsuccessful opposition or administrative revocation, provided that the grounds for such
procedures can be the subject of invalidation procedures.
50
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PART V — Dispute Prevention and Settlement
CHAPTER - 12
Article 63 Transparency
1.Laws and regulations, and final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application, made effective
by a Member pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement (the availability, scope, acquisition, enforcement and
prevention of the abuse of intellectual property rights) shall be published, or where such publication is not practicable
made publicly available, in a national language, in such a manner as to enable governments and right holders to
become acquainted with them. Agreements concerning the subject matter of this Agreement which are in force
between the government or a governmental agency of a Member and the government or a governmental agency of
another Member shall also be published.
2.Members shall notify the laws and regulations referred to in paragraph1 to the Council for TRIPS in order to
assist that Council in its review of the operation of this Agreement. The Council shall attempt to minimize the burden
on Members in carrying out this obligation and may decide to waive the obligation to notify such laws and regulations
directly to the Council if consultations with WIPO on the establishment of a common register containing these laws
and regulations are successful. The Council shall also consider in this connection any action required regarding
notifications pursuant to the obligations under this Agreement stemming from the provisions of Article6ter of the
Paris Convention (1967).
3.Each Member shall be prepared to supply, in response to a written request from another Member, information of
the sort referred to in paragraph 1. A Member, having reason to believe that a specific judicial decision or administrative
ruling or bilateral agreement in the area of intellectual property rights affects its rights under this Agreement, may also
request in writing to be given access to or be informed in sufficient detail of such specific judicial decisions or
administrative rulings or bilateral agreements.
4.Nothing in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall require Members to disclose confidential information which would impede
law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests
of particular enterprises, public or private.
Article 64 Dispute Settlement
1.The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement
Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement except as otherwise
specifically provided herein.
2.Subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of disputes under this
Agreement for a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
3.During the time period referred to in paragraph 2, the Council for TRIPS shall examine the scope and modalities
for complaints of the type provided for under subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT1994 made
pursuant to this Agreement, and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial Conference for approval. Any decision
of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or to extend the period in paragraph2 shall be made
only by consensus, and approved recommendations shall be effective for all Members without further formal acceptance
process.
51
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PART VI — Transitional Arrangements
CHAPTER - 13
Article 65 Transitional Arrangements
1.Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, no Member shall be obliged to apply the provisions of this
Agreement before the expiry of a general period of one year following the date of entry into force of the WTO
Agreement.
2.A developing country Member is entitled to delay for a further period of four years the date of application, as
defined in paragraph1, of the provisions of this Agreement other than Articles3, 4 and 5.
3.Any other Member which is in the process of transformation from a centrally-planned into a market, free-enterprise
economy and which is undertaking structural reform of its intellectual property system and facing special problems in
the preparation and implementation of intellectual property laws and regulations, may also benefit from a period of
delay as foreseen in paragraph 2.
4.To the extent that a developing country Member is obliged by this Agreement to extend product patent protection
to areas of technology not so protectable in its territory on the general date of application of this Agreement for that
Member, as defined in paragraph2, it may delay the application of the provisions on product patents of Section5 of
PartII to such areas of technology for an additional period of five years.
5.A Member availing itself of a transitional period under paragraphs 1, 2, 3 or 4 shall ensure that any changes in its
laws, regulations and practice made during that period do not result in a lesser degree of consistency with the
provisions of this Agreement.
Article 66 Least-Developed Country Members
1.In view of the special needs and requirements of least-developed country Members, their economic, financial
and administrative constraints, and their need for flexibility to create a viable technological base, such Members shall
not be required to apply the provisions of this Agreement, other than Articles3, 4 and5, for a period of 10 years from
the date of application as defined under paragraph 1 of Article65. The Council for TRIPS shall, upon duly motivated
request by a least-developed country Member, accord extensions of this period.
2.Developed country Members shall provide incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the
purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to least-developed country Members in order to enable
them to create a sound and viable technological base.

Article 67 Technical Cooperation
In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement, developed country Members shall provide, on request and
on mutually agreed terms and conditions, technical and financial cooperation in favour of developing and least-
developed country Members. Such cooperation shall include assistance in the preparation of laws and regulations on
the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as on the prevention of their abuse, and shall
include support regarding the establishment or reinforcement of domestic offices and agencies relevant to these
matters, including the training of personnel.
52
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PART VII — Institutional arrangements; final provisions
CHAPTER - 14
Article 68 Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
The Council for TRIPS shall monitor the operation of this Agreement and, in particular, Members’ compliance with
their obligations hereunder, and shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on matters relating to the trade-
related aspects of intellectual property rights. It shall carry out such other responsibilities as assigned to it by the
Members, and it shall, in particular, provide any assistance requested by them in the context of dispute settlement
procedures. In carrying out its functions, the Council for TRIPS may consult with and seek information from any
source it deems appropriate. In consultation with WIPO, the Council shall seek to establish, within one year of its first
meeting, appropriate arrangements for cooperation with bodies of that Organization.
Article 69 International Cooperation
Members agree to cooperate with each other with a view to eliminating international trade in goods infringing
intellectual property rights. For this purpose, they shall establish and notify contact points in their administrations and
be ready to exchange information on trade in infringing goods. They shall, in particular, promote the exchange of
information and cooperation between customs authorities with regard to trade in counterfeit trademark goods and
pirated copyright goods.
Article 70 Protection of Existing Subject Matter
1.This Agreement does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts which occurred before the date of application
of the Agreement for the Member in question.
2.Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, this Agreement gives rise to obligations in respect of all
subject matter existing at the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question, and which is protected
in that Member on the said date, or which meets or comes subsequently to meet the criteria for protection under the
terms of this Agreement. In respect of this paragraph and paragraphs3 and 4, copyright obligations with respect to
existing works shall be solely determined under Article18 of the Berne Convention (1971), and obligations with
respect to the rights of producers of phonograms and performers in existing phonograms shall be determined solely
under Article18 of the Berne Convention (1971) as made applicable under paragraph6 of Article14 of this Agreement.
3.There shall be no obligation to restore protection to subject matter which on the date of application of this
Agreement for the Member in question has fallen into the public domain.
4.In respect of any acts in respect of specific objects embodying protected subject matter which become infringing
under the terms of legislation in conformity with this Agreement, and which were commenced, or in respect of which
a significant investment was made, before the date of acceptance of the WTO Agreement by that Member, any
Member may provide for a limitation of the remedies available to the right holder as to the continued performance of
such acts after the date of application of this Agreement for that Member. In such cases the Member shall, however,
at least provide for the payment of equitable remuneration.
5.A Member is not obliged to apply the provisions of Article11 and of paragraph4 of Article14 with respect to
originals or copies purchased prior to the date of application of this Agreement for that Member.
6.Members shall not be required to apply Article31, or the requirement in paragraph1 of Article27 that patent
rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the field of technology, to use without the authorization of the
right holder where authorization for such use was granted by the government before the date this Agreement became
known.
7.In the case of intellectual property rights for which protection is conditional upon registration, applications for
protection which are pending on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question shall be
permitted to be amended to claim any enhanced protection provided under the provisions of this Agreement. Such
amendments shall not include new matter.
8.Where a Member does not make available as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement patent
53
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products commensurate with its obligations under Article27,
that Member shall:
(a)notwithstanding the provisions of PartVI, provide as from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement
a means by which applications for patents for such inventions can be filed;
(b)apply to these applications, as of the date of application of this Agreement, the criteria for patentability as laid
down in this Agreement as if those criteria were being applied on the date of filing in that Member or, where priority is
available and claimed, the priority date of the application; and
(c)provide patent protection in accordance with this Agreement as from the grant of the patent and for the
remainder of the patent term, counted from the filing date in accordance with Article33 of this Agreement, for those
of these applications that meet the criteria for protection referred to in subparagraph(b).
9.Where a product is the subject of a patent application in a Member in accordance with paragraph8(a), exclusive
marketing rights shall be granted, notwithstanding the provisions of PartVI, for a period of five years after obtaining
marketing approval in that Member or until a product patent is granted or rejected in that Member, whichever period
is shorter, provided that, subsequent to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, a patent application has been
filed and a patent granted for that product in another Member and marketing approval obtained in such other Member.
Article 71 Review and Amendment
1.The Council for TRIPS shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of the transitional
period referred to in paragraph2 of Article65. The Council shall, having regard to the experience gained in its
implementation, review it two years after that date, and at identical intervals thereafter. The Council may also undertake
reviews in the light of any relevant new developments which might warrant modification or amendment of this
Agreement.
2.Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual property rights
achieved, and in force, in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those agreements by all Members of the
WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in accordance with paragraph 6 of ArticleX of the WTO
Agreement on the basis of a consensus proposal from the Council for TRIPS.
Article 72 Reservations
Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the
other Members.
Article 73 Security Exceptions
Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed:
(a)to require a Member to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its essential
security interests; or
(b)to prevent a Member from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential
security interests;
(i)relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived;
(ii)relating to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials
as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment;
(iii)taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations; or
(c)to prevent a Member from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the UnitedNations Charter for
the maintenance of international peace and security.
54
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
BUILT IN AGENDA FOR REVIEW OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT
CHAPTER - 15
Article 71:
Article 71 of the TRIPS Agreement reads as under:
Review and Amendment
“1. The Council for TRIPS shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of the transitional
period referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 65. The Council shall, having regard to the experience gained in its
implementation, review it two years after that date, and at identical intervals thereafter. The Council may also undertake
reviews in the light of any relevant new developments, which might warrant modification or amendment of this
Agreement.
2. Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual property rights
achieved, and in force, in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those agreements by all Members of the
WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article X of the WTO
Agreement on the basis of a consensus proposal from the Council for TRIPS”.
This Article calls for a review of the implementation of the Agreement after the expiration of the transitional period,
i.e. after 1-1-2000. This review shall be conducted biannually thereafter. The first review, in the year 2000, will focus
on implementation of the Agreement after the expiration of the transition period available to developing countries up
to 1.1.2000. Therefore, it may be very difficult to review or seek to amend the provisions of the Agreement in this
review. In the year 2002 and every two years thereafter, the TRIPS Council shall review the Agreement, having
regard to the experience gained in the implementation of the Agreement. This review can suggest any amendment to
the Agreement also. However, such an amendment would have to be agreed to by consensus, as this is the practice
in WTO. The article makes it easier for Members to propose amendments requiring a higher standard of protection,
in line with the developments in other multilateral agreements (like WIPO). By implication amendments requiring
lowering or dilution of the standard of protection would be more difficult.
In the built-in agenda for the review of the TRIPS Agreement from 2002 onwards, therefore, it may be possible to
generate consensus for a higher form of IPR protection (e.g. higher protection for geographical indications other than
wines and spirits). At the same time it may be very difficult to get a consensus on lowering of the standard of
protection existing in the Agreement (e.g. seeking exemption for the pharmaceutical sector from patent protection).
As part of the process established for developing recommendations for the Seattle Ministerial Conference, some
developed countries (Japan, EC) had made some proposals for further strengthening of the TRIPS Agreement, for
example by harmonizing the two existing systems for filing patent applications (first-to-file and first-to-invent), applying
under TRIPS international agreements on IPRs like the WIPO agreement on Copyrights. No decisions were taken in
the Conference. Similarly, some developing countries had, as a part of their implementation concerns, raised some
issues like extension of transition period available to developing countries to meet their TRIPS obligations, and to
extend the higher level of protection available for wines and spirits to other products. These issues may be raised
during the review again.
Article 27.3 (b)
Article 27.3 (a) and (b) are as under:
Patentable Subject Matter
“3. Members may also exclude from patentability:
a. diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;
b. plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the production of
plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However, Members shall provide
for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by a combination
thereof. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of
the WTO Agreement.”
A review of clause (b) of para 3 of Article 27 was due in the year 1999 and was a part of the built-in agenda that the
Third Ministerial Conference was to address. Various proposals had been received for this review in preparation for
the Seattle Ministerial Conference. USA had made proposals to the effect that a higher level of protection of plant
55
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
varieties and microorganisms should be interpreted into this Article. India had also made a proposal basically to
retain the flexibility available in this Article to exclude patents on life forms and to provide for benefit sharing mechanisms
for utilization of biological material in patents. However, as was the case with all the other issues raised by Members
for decision in the Conference, this proposal also did not meet any success. However, many Members have argued
in the first TRIPS Council meeting in the year 2000 that the review of the Article should continue. The amendments
to the Patent Act and the Bill on plant variety protection introduced by the Ministry of Agriculture in the Parliament are
in line with the existing provisions.
USA already provides patents for plants and animals in its domestic law. Recently the EC had cleared a Directive on
Biotechnology, which includes issues relating to patenting of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The Directive
has not yet been approved by the EU Parliament. The recently negotiated Biosafety Protocol in the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD) may be considered trade restrictive as it allows parties to install advanced information
agreements for the imports of GMOs. Thus, there could be pressure from some developed countries to strengthen
the standard of protection for life forms beyond that available in Article 27.3 (b). On the other hand there could be
pressure from developing countries to ensure that the provisions of this Article do not adversely affect biological
diversity, traditional knowledge etc.
Articles 23.4 and 24.2
Article 23.4 reads as under:
Additional Protection for Geographical Indications for Wines and Spirits
“4. In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications of wines, negotiations shall be undertaken in the
Council of TRIPS concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification of geographical indications for
wines eligible for protection in those Members participating in that system.”
Article 24.2 read as under:
International Negotiations: Exceptions
“The Council for TRIPS shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section: the first such review
shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Any matter affecting the compliance
with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention to the Council, which, at the request of a
Member, shall consult with any Member or Members in respect of such matter in respect of which it has not been
possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral or plurilateral consultations between the Members concerned.
The Council shall take such action as may be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives of this
Section.”
Under Article 23.4 negotiations are proposed to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines and
spirits by establishing a multilateral system of registration of such products. India was able to single handedly block
progress of these negotiations by positing the need for grant of higher level of protection for products other than wines
and spirits. The latter proposal for increasing the scope for higher protection was made as a part of the review of the
section on geographical indications under Article 24.2. In the report of the TRIPS Council to the Ministers at Singapore,
it was clarified that the review would include matters relating to the scope of protection. The TRIPS Council is
currently discussing the issue. India has the support of EU, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Turkey etc.
However, there may not be any agreement on increasing the scope in the near future. Nevertheless, the law on
geographical indications passed by the Indian Parliament has provided for grant of higher protection for products by
notification. India would continue to raise this issue in the TRIPS Council in the future.
Article 64
Article 64 reads as under:
Dispute Settlement
1. The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement
Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement except as otherwise
specifically provided herein.
2. Subparagraphs 1 (b) and 1 (c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of disputes
under this Agreement for a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
3. During the time period referred to in paragraph 2, the Council for TRIPS shall examine the scope and
56
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
modalities for complaints of the type provided for under subparagraphs 1(b) and 1 (c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994
made pursuant to this Agreement, and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial Conference for approval. Any
decisions of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or to extent the period in paragraph 2 shall
be made only by consensus, and approved recommendations shall be effective for all Members without further
formal acceptance process.” Article 64 of the TRIPS Agreement relating to dispute settlement extends the Dispute
Settlement Mechanism of the WTO to this agreement. However, the Dispute Settlement Mechanism of the WTO also
covers non-violation complaints, meaning situations where there is nullification or impairment of benefits without
there being any conflict with the WTO provisions. This was not applicable up to 1.1.2000 as only disputes relating to
violation of obligations under the Agreement were covered. This provision was to be reviewed before 1.1.2000 by a
consensus proposal to the Ministers. While proposals to this effect were made by many Members including India as
a part of the preparations for the Seattle Ministerial Conference, as was the case with other issues, no agreement
could be reached. As a consequence non-violation complaints can now be made by WTO Members on TRIPS issues
also. Since there is an attempt to interpret the failure at Seattle as leading to ‘freezing’ of the issues, some Members
could revive the issue of extension of the non-application of non-violation complaints to TRIPS beyond 1.1.2000. It
will be important for India to resist expansion of the scope of dispute settlement to cover non-violation cases. It is
however to early to assess whether there would be any consensus to revive the issue.
IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
As a part of the preparation at the Seattle Ministerial Conference, Members were allowed to make proposals on
implementation of the WTO Agreements, including proposals to remove imbalances in the existing agreements as
well as proposals to operationalise special and differential provisions in favour of developing countries.
India had, along with like minded developing countries made proposals under this category. In respect of the TRIPS
Agreement, these proposals included the following: -
1. To extend the period for application of non-violation complaints to the TRIPS Agreement.
2. To operationalise Articles 7 and 8 of the TRIPS Agreement by providing for transfer of technology on fair and
mutually advantageous terms.
3. To establish a mechanism for disclosure of the source of origin of biological material used in an invention and
obtaining the consent of the country of origin so that institutional mechanisms could be established at the national
level for sharing of benefits arising out of the commercial exploitation of such inventions.
As a part of the confidence building measures, the General Council of WTO has taken a decision to resolve the
“Implementation Issues” of the developing countries before the 4
th
Ministerial Conference. India will continue to press
for the redressal of the Indian concerns on “Implementation of TRIPS Agreement”.
57
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u YojRLm NôokR ¨ûXLs
ÁRô] JlTkRm
Aj§VôVm þ 1
A±ØLm
Ck§VôÜm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULÞm
.++a+ +++o+c ±+_± ++ca+++oc Co+± cc_o+c ++± C.c±.+o± +.c++o C++=( .c++co+C++±.
.++a+ c=.+c+c. Co+±o a.. cooca+c +=(c±..+oa+c ±+_± ±c++ca+c ±+_± to+o .oCc_
++(+oo +a...(co+ C.+cC+ +.a =.o+.oa± C++=±c++co+++. .oCc_ co+a +=(c±..+oc
c+.c.±++ .++a+ .c++co+++. _aaCco± coo o+± c=+c c.a. Cco+=.± coo C+C+áa .c..
c.a cc .++a+ c+±o.+o= Co.ca+c .oCc_ +.++c +±±+o.... +=(c±..+oc cc.a++±++
.c++co+. i¯. _.c+ +++.+o +cc+.oo C++=( ¯.. CccCc_ c.+a+c Co+o±++_ _.c+ +++.++c
C+ao+ .++a =+..+c. ¯·._c+ _=±o c.o.... _aaCco ao+c +cco +±¬+co+co
=+.c....(co+. +.c.i¯...o +. to+ c.(C±++o t+.++ao .++a+cc .+= ¯¯.· +o±++ .c++co+.
C±o± +±+ +-+±+c+ to+o ±+.C.áa +++*+±..+o +-+±++ .c++co+. _c+o .++a c.+a+c+
+c _c+ c+..co+oo cc+ +±co.+.a ±....a++o C++=±c+o+. .+oo++a=+o+o +±+ +c+
C++++o+c to+c c+o cc .=+o=± c+o cc +.(..+(± .oo+±o _aao+=o++c _=(+o++ C+c_
C++=±c+o.o +±±+o o(o+ c±ac+o.o. _c+o to+ ca+o+ .±..+ Co+c+a ccc+o o+C.++
+o.±+c ±++c..c. +c+++cc coo+ +=(c±..+«± +c+ C++++ tá.± C.++oo+o++ tcoc.
cc+c tá.±.a cca co o .+c C+a+co+Ca+ cco= oo+ +..=± C+o+o+±o o.c ±+C++cca
.ac.(++c.o o(..o+++c tá.±+c t... .o=c .o+±. .c..c++CoCa .++a+c+= ±+c± .+o+±+c
c..+o± ±á.¬ cc_ _++o ..C±+±ao +co+±++ .±o+..(± +c+ C++++á.±+oc ca+o+±
++o +.o+c ±o+c c..+o± .c .+o .+o+± c.c+± .cc+o+a± ±á.¬ccC+ =+.c...(± o+c
cc_ .oa +c++c+ca. +.(..+.++ ++.oac _oac+oa C.a++áaa e++¬ .+c+ +. o+C.+.oa +c+
C++++á.±ac ±.+..(+o.... oc.±.a .++ =+.c.±co+++a.
¥¬lvûNl Tt± Sôm ®¯lúTôÓ CÚdLúYi¥VRu AY£Vm Hu?
. .+ +± coCo+.aa± .++o+.C.++++. to+a=+++= ±c++ c.o+c taa++ tcoc. C.++ ±c++c±
+. ++ C+oc c±..+ _+c..+. HIV C++ao++c ±c+++oc c.o ±+ ++±++ taa++ c..o+o
+C++a+o .++o+...(co ·. o.++++=± C±+... Cocc+.cáo+ ±o+c c+..(+c+ca. += ±c++c±
C++á C.áa oc+= C.+a+..± +.++ cc+++.
_. .+a±.áa +++.+ c.++.o .oo+aao+=o++c _=(+o++ cc.++cc± +±.±.C.+c+ ++.±o .+a
+c+ C++++á.± c.++oc+o +±+ C+++o +-+++CoCa +±.± +++o++ +ao++a+o=± .+a± tco+.
+±±.cco +±+ .+a±.áa +++.+ c.++.o .cc+.( c+C.++ +_cc++c c++cCc t+=++ +c++c..c.
.. +-+ co++«o= _.++ c+..(co+. .o ..++oo taáao co++c +o+o +-+++oc =±+.a
C.++±o± oo+ o+++c +c±+c± c±++...+±Co +c.(+oc±++c± +ca..(c.o a+ ++a+ Co+=(
+_cc++c c++cCc +.±o ++.±acoc.
=. +c+ C++++á.± c.+ cc++a+.o +(.±a++ .++o=±. .c.+o=± cc++a± +±+ ±o+c Co+.+ao
¯. +o++cao= c.±..+ Co+±o++ .c++ cc± +.oao ca+c cc++a+oo Co+.a++ C+ao.. .ao+o
+.o.a .+o .+a +.o c+.(++±.
t. t=c. .++++..o= ++_+oo c+..(co+. ++o+a= =±±+c .c ++o+a= c.oao t=c.
C.+cc+.o C._c+ .ao+o +.o c+.(C±c =+..(+++.
±. ±á.¬ c..+o± C+a.±a+cCo+( c..+o±o.o. ±á.¬ c..+o+.o co+o+co+++c c+.+(+.o
C+aco+= ccCc+c t_.. ++.±+=± =.++o+ =.+a ¯ i/¯. C++±a c++ =. i. C++± c.a C+oc c±o=±.
t_.. ++(+c .oc+++= .cc+_ C+oc C+ac+ ++++a±++ .o.o. +c± C±áo++ C.+c+ ++(+«.c
.+ cca++o C.+.±a. c±a++. C±áo++co tco ca+o+ c++.a ±+_± ++..á.± oco+++c
_=( ..Ce. =. i.. C++±a+=±. C±o± +o oco+++o cc+aa+++=± C±+... ±+c± Coa++ C.++
c=.+c+c. C.++a+oa+c ±+_± +.. cooca+c .=.á+c+ca.
58
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C.+++++++ +a.c c..+o++c ._+ +..± .+Ca.++ _c c+= ccc++co.c +acCo+ ca+o+ *+ao
±+c± oc+oc.± c+a+occ++ tcoc. to+ ca+o+ .±.. o..a++ ca+o+ +..c.+.a t_+..(++co++
tco+. C+.o+c. eco. cc++a±. ca+o+± ++a+o coc.( c.++c (TRIPS). ca+o+± ++a+o +c+
C++++á.±+c (TRIPS) c.G..oco +±o=co c+a..+c ±+ ±+ _±±+c o+o++.o c+.(+o.C.++c+c.
C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o .±.cc ô± +..C.++ c.( ++_. C.++c+a+.o+oo __ ++_+oo C.c±.+o±
++++ +a.c+c =.+..+ =+++ ±.(C± oco+cc± C+o++. C.+....+. c±+c+ ++_ C.+oCa+co
+..C.+++. +o +a.c+ooo+ c+ c+a++c ±+ +cc± C+o+o....+. tc=Cc ++_ cc +a..(±
c..+c+ +++o c.. Cc=±a =+oC++c+c =+++ ±+c± các++ cc++o+...+. .++++o .+a±.áa±++
.++++o+...( cc++ c+a++o=cCo C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o .±.cc +cc± C++=( C+oo....+
.+o C+.c+«± .++ac+oc. ±á.¬ ±+_± ca+o+± ++a+o coc.( c.++c ±+_± cc++a++c ±+
.+a.c C+o+o....+. C±áo+ ¿o+a ++.±c ccca++a+o .+o .+a .=++c C.++ +++++a.c c..+o
.±.cc C.++c+a+.o+o=c a.±o+....c. C.+cc+c ca+o+± +±±+o±+c .cc.c c..+o±. ++c=
ca+o+ c..+o++c. ±á.¬±+_± C+.c+c ±+ oo+ cc c..+o±. o+c++ac ±o+c coo+++c. ca+o+
C++c.+ .áôo.c c.+ +±±+o±+c c..+o±. ±+_± c==o.+++ c±c+c ±+_± +c..+c _+ac+++=
±....a+c i¯ .+a c+a++c ._+ c..+o++o C+ao+....c.
+c+ C++++ +±±+o.... tá.±+«o= +±co.+aoo=± c.aa.++.oa± .c+«o++c +..
+..c.++.oa± c=o=±+_ t_.. ++(+c C+.(o C++co...(coc. to+ ca+o+ .±.. ±+_± C.+++
+++++a.c c..+o++o tco+ C.+c_ ±á.¬c..+o++c tco+a+o C++o+c± o..a++ ca+o+C±a+=±.
.+..á.±. ca+o+ c++.a. ca+o+ a++a++c. .caao =.+a..a+o++c. Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++c.
cc++.=+o ±c++_. .aa+c a=taao+_+c ±+_± .aac.++c _+a cc.+ c.+ +c+ C++++o+c
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ô± cc+c+c.
+c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±+c to+ ca+o+ .±.cc +a+++oo .o .+o+++c tcoc. Co+±o a..++«o+++
Cco++.( +_cc++.o ++a++ .co+ Cc=±aco+.
A§L¬dÏm Au²Vf ùNXôYô¦ ùY°úVt\m.
ca+o+± coc.( c.++c. C+.c+c. ±á.¬_+ac++c ±o+c C.+c..+o+o ++áo=± cca+ C+o+c+=
CcoCa++±. tc++.( ..+a+c.±ac C±o ++áo=± ±(_co cc .o .+o+++c tcoc. oa+á..
++..á.±. oa+á.. c.+ ++..á.±. ++.. ++.o tá.±+c. +c+ C++++á.±.a oca+a C++++á.±a++
+ô+á..+ _+ac+++++c +a++o+c ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++oo tcoc. ..c+.oCaoo+±
.c++..+ao=± C.++ i¯¯: C.+++++++ +a.c c..+o+c Cco..+.++ Co+±o a..± ++a+o ca+o+++Co
cc c.C.++± .oo+o c.+ao Cco....+ cc+ +±co.+ t_+..(+++. +±. _=(+oo to+ ca+o+±
oc oc.± *+aCoCa ±.... ±+++++.o ..++co+ cc..o oc ô±cc± +.c±o.++c
t=a+++c+c.
ùRô¯p Õû\dÏ Esú[Vô] YojRLm:
eco oa+á..+«o++c eco+c. a++a=o +o.c+«o++c a++a=++c C.+c+ cCa ±++áa+c C.+cc+.o
oa+á..+o =(..(co ++(+c o++«o=cCoCa .c+.+ .+o=±+a± c+_±+a± C+a+ C++c+c+c. ca+o+
.á±+++++o .a¬.a± c+.(± .+++o=.+.a =(+.(co+++c oc c+o+.o .a+±á..o+= cao+c+c.
.oc C.aáo coa++a..+o C±+= ¿Ca+.ca ++(+o..Ca ±.(± .co=± a++a=++c. eco+c ±+_±
±c++a± ++a+o c++a++c c+a++o .cc.+ Co+±o+.++«o= tcCoa+c c+_±+ .+o=±++c
+..C._+c+c. ccCc+c .+++.oa±. C.+c.oa± oc+oca++ tcc+o=± t+.++ cáco C.+coc
c.c±c+++++c t+á.++++c ±+_± ....... .++++c oa+á.. cc oa+á.. c.+.a _±±++ cá++
C+ao.(c+. c±c++c. C..±ao ....+. c++.a+c _+ac++o +_+_ ±+++++c C+a+ oa+á..+.o
Cc_.(++o ++.(c+ C.+c+.c ++.oao a.±a± oa+á..+o+ ±.... .=++o+ c++Co++++.oCa
±+++c..c.
t+.++ C+ac+. c±c.±..+c. C..±ao ....+ C.+c+c++.c oc+o+co+++c c+.+(+c .++
+±±+o.... +_cc++o..Caa±. Co+±o +.++o..Caa± C+c++a Co+.a.+c .c..o+++c ++.+ tco+.
.o.co C++=( .cc+.( c+C.++ +_cc++c (MNCS) c.ac++ to+ c.c+± .ac c±++co+. t+.++ac
ccCc+c +.oao± Coa++ C.++ +_cc++.o c+C++C+ .±o+o+± cc_ +_cc c±c+c c(o+..(±
ccca _.o+c .±aocco ++(+oc o+. c+o ±+_± cáo C++c.++c. +.c c.± c+o±. Cco++.(
-ooc++c ±o+c C++c.++c. .=±++_ c+o±. .= ±++_+oc.±. Co+±o+oa +..++c C.+c+.c+c
+=o+Co(++o C++co..(+c+c. ...±.... ++a=+oo ±+ca++.o o..o+++c ++a= ccoc
cc_± co+a±+c+ oo.
1 59
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
קRôL ØuàdÏ YkÕs[ E«¬Vp ùRô¯p ÖhTm:
a= ±cc=cao a..± C.+c+ Co+±oa..++c to+ t+.++ c.++oo± ca+o+ c.++oo cc .a.+.aCa
c+.(++aco+. .+o coa+++c cc.+ ++++a...+ C+aco+++c co.oa++ ++oa..++.o c±++aco++
Co C+a++o ++_+oo++c± cc c++coc.
coa++a..+o ++(+o+c+o± +á coc± ++(+o+c+o± +á c++c cc.+ao+c Co+a c.( C±++o
t+.++ao C+.c++.++oc .+= Cc=c++ ++á++oC++=C. tcoc. +ao=+c +.+ao c.c..oco
oco= .c+o ++o+++.o C±áo+ ±+Cc+±++ .±++co+. ++.o c+a..+oo +++.±c C+.c++.++oc
coa++.a ++..(+++++.
++_+=±o. ±co tá.±+c. =±+.o Co+±o+oa+c C.+c+ .o ca++.c+c ca+o+ +..c.++c ±+ o+o+±
C+o+oo+±acc++ ccc++coc. ca+o+± +±±+o±+c .+a±.áa C++c.++«o= c+a+++c+o c(ccc++
..c tcoc. =+_+=±.o ±++.(++± Co+±o+.o coa++a..a± ++(+«o= ±++_± coa++a..+o ++(+oc
+.c±o.++«o= +=+.+c tcoc.
coc± ++(+oo ccc++co C.áa +.c +.±+c ++a=±++ c+a.+a+o +o++.o tcc+o+c....(coc.
.c+c to+ ++(+c .c++c t+.++ ±+_± ca+o+ +..c.++c ±+ _+o+± C+o+o+ +c++acoc.
CoC.+o C.+co+o+a± _+o+.±a++c +. ..±C.aa+c+c. C±o± ±+++ .±o+..(+c+c.
60
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Aj§VôVm þ 2
+c+ C++++á.±+oc ô±+=. các+«o= +c+ C++++á.±+oc ca+o+± ++a+o các+oc ±o+c c..+o±
±á.¬ _c+ =.++o ..+ c.aa.a+c. oc(+c c±++aco+.
.+..á.±+c ±+_± + ++a+o tá.±+c
_ ca+o+ c++.a+c
. .caao =+a..a+o++c
= Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++c
t ++..á.±+c
± c_++.=+o ±c++_+oc c.ac±c++c
c Ccoa....+o o+co+«o++c .++++.. ca+o+ a++a++c
+±±+o....ca+«o= C.+_+oo+±ac.+ao =.++o ..+ oc(+.o +a=a..o+= c..+o± c±c=++co+.
±á.¬ c..+o++c +a+++.o co+o=co+= coac+ ++(+«o= ¿++ _=(+c ++o c+++±
c±++...(c+. .o++oo+..± ii¯....o c±c..+++. Co+a +o¬+ ±+_± ±+c± Cc=..... ++.(
+o¬+ oo+...(co.c c+a++o ±++¹.±+++c ++o c+++± +..a++. C±o± iii¯¯·_± Co+ao
=+.c.. Co+±o a..± ++a+o oa+á..+«o= ++..á.± c±++...+±o .co=± ++(+c +o c.+ oa+á..
++..á.±+c c±+=co+= ii¯..· c.a C±o± ¿++ _=(+c ++o c+++± c(++o C++coo+±.
±c+++c ±+_± Cco+= a++a= oa+á..+«o++c ++..á.±o= iii¯¯· Co+ac_ c+.+(+c C+a+a+o ++(+c
..±.... oa+á..+«o= ++.. C++c± c==..++.o c+_o C++cco+++c o.+o C..± c+.+(+.o
C+aa Cc=(±. C.+_+o±+c cc=á.± ±....ao ..±.... oa+á..+«o= ++.. ++.o tá.±+c
c±++ Cc=(±. .++a+.c. C.+_+oc.a +o +.+o.c+oc ±....ao ±.(C± .+++..á.±
c±++..(+++. +±±+o.... oa+á.c+= ++..á.±o++c c==..± to+ ca+o+ .±.cc co+c+ cc
t_.. ++.±o iii¯¯·o=. c+= C+ao+...±co+ Cc=(±. +o ++.±o +o oa+á.c+= ++..á.± ±+_±
++.o c..oo C.++co+ Cc=(±. ..c+oc ±....ao ±.(C± ++.. ++..á.± c±++..(+++. ++..
++..á.±a+c+ ¿++ _=(+«oC++ oo+ +±±+o.... oa+á..o= ++..á.± c±++..(± oo+
+a=ao=± ++c c.aCa+ c±++..(±. .+o c+o ++o +..± =_+ao++ tcoCo+ +o ++o +..+++= ++..
++..á.± C+oo.±a+=±. i¯¯¯ ±+a+ ±+o± +.+Cc++.... ++..á.± +c+o± +..± i¯¯¯.c ô± o.+o C..±
±+_± ++.. ++..á.± c+++c c+.(+o...(coc.
.++a+c+c+ ii¯... coo ±á.¬c..+o+ +a++o+oc ±....ao ô±cc± c.c.+ +c+ C++++
tá.±+«o= ++.. oo+ C.+_..++++.
A) Lôl׬ûULs Utßm AÕ NôokR E¬ûUûLs:
.oo+a±. ..+. c.ca +.o......+c. +.a...++c ±+_± .+c+c _+ac++= .+..á.± cc.+ +..±
tcc+o+o o++co ++.. tá.±a+=±. .oo+a. .....+c ±+_± +.o......+c C.+c+c++c
.....+o+o+c c.+o+oa+c. +c.a+c. ..+a.±..+oa+c ±+_± +.o.a+c o++c .....+«o=
t..±a+oa tá.± C.++oo+ca+c. ..±.... .....+c +..+++= .+±.++ ±_++.. tá.±
c±++...+± c.o+++c +..o ++... .+o ++.. tá.±+c c±+=+c+c. cc +c.ac±+c +.o.......
c+_c±..o+=±. oc co++.o ca+.+a *+ao .ac.(++o C++cco+=±+c ++.. tá.±.a .+..á.±
c±+=+++. ++. .±c ++. cca..+c. .++++... ca+Ca(+oo. t_o+ +C+(+oo. c+a++ tcoC++(+oo.
..+. ..C±(+oo. +.a... +cc. c o.(. .+c. oo+ c++ao +cc+«o++c +cc+c ..++ C+.c+c.
C+++C.+±c+c oo+ c..c+oo c.++.ca++c. C±+± C.aa..+c. ±+++a.±+oo. ++±++C+.c+c.
c .a..+c oo+ .ac+ C+aoo C.+c+c++ c++ .+..+oc..a tá.±o= ++.. ++.. c±++..(+++.
cc ......a± C±o± +o =+.c.. .....+.oa± ±_ oa+á.. C+aco+++c c+C.++ tá.± ±+_± C.++
++±+++«o= c±+=co+++c c+C.++ tá.± _+ac .+..+oc..ao+=±. ++c+c C.+c+c++c
.....+o+«o=± ++.. ++.. tá.±+c tcoc. .oo+a±. ..+ a=+.o+c c±co+c ..+...++c.
+.a...++c +.o.a+«..a +±±+o.... oa+á..+oo .c+oc _+áaa+c =(.(++a ++c. t.±..
±+_± coc... +=o+o C++=( +..± co+o+..(+++.
+..+++= .+±.++ .....+.o ±_ oa+á.. C+aoo. tá.±ac+ oco+o+o C++coo. +c.( ±+_± C.+
oa+á..+oo =(.(oo _+ac++ c++ c.+o+oa+o+± +.o.a+o+± tá.±+.o. .++++..+
.+..á.±++..++c C++o+±+=±. +o++a±+c .....+acc -o± =+.c.+oo+ C.+cc oa+áo+..(co+=
o.. .o.o. .c+oc c+a++o +.. ±+o+c +.++ c..o++ C.+_.C.++ Cc=±a+o.o.
61
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
.oo+a± ±+_± +.o......+.o .c.C.+cc c±c++o ca+ c(..o+++c tá.±.a ++o=± c+a++o
+..++c ++a±+c+ .c+oc ca+ -o..±c+ ++=c+=¬+.o ++a+oo++ tco+. .....+o+c o++c
.....+«o= .....á.± C++a ++..á.± c±c=o+++. cc ....c.c +.o..oc -oc±. ±+++ .±..oc
-oc± oo+ Cc_ c±+c -oc± .....+oac ±áa+.oo=± +c±+.c+=± C+( c.oco++ C+ao+.o
o(o+c± oo+ .±.G( C++ac± .+..á.± =±+aoo+++. Co C+a++o ++..á.±+c. c.ac±c++c
±+_± ca+o+ c++.a+c c+a++o .c+.o .+c C+acoc -o± ±.(C± ++..á.± +..o+++. ..±....
+.oao .+..á.± .+c c+a± .oo+±CoCa o+c++ coo= c++ c(+++.
+c+ C++++á.±+c .c+.oa± C.+oCc .+..á.±+c ++..± cc ++.±c tc++.(+ +..++c±....ao
.±o+..(+++. oc±....ao .++a+co c o tco oc .+..á.±+ +..± i¯·¯ .+..á.±
+..± i¯¯¯ _+ac ±á.¬ c..+o++c +a+++o+o C++a...(co =.++o ..+o ++... .a++ C+accc++
tcocc+ cc_ _ac C+aa Cc=±aco+.
±á.¬ c..+o++c .++± ¯.c các i .+..á.± ±+_± + +±±+o.... c+a++.oo C++=(co+.
±á.¬c..+o++c ¯ i: c.aa+c .=++oo .+..á.± ±++± + +±±+o.....c+c tcoc.
.+..á.± ±+_± + +±±+o.... +±+a+c. .+.+a+c. ..+ o.( oa+á..+oa+c. c .a.. .±..+c
c+a++o ±á.¬c..+o++c ±....ao C±+C++co..(± c++a.=+c C.ac
++.. ±+++.±c C.c±.+c.±a+c +a+++Co+( C.+_++.C.+ccc++ tcoc. +=c C+ao+..++c .oo+a
.....+.o. C.+oCc .++++o+..(+c+c. .+..á.±+c. +±... .+.+a+c tá.±+c. ..++o.( oa+á..
tá.±+c _+ac =.++o ..+± ·. _=(+c ++..C.++oo+.c. c .a.. .±..+c c+a++o =.++o
..+± ¯. _=(+c ++.. c±++...+oo++. .++a+ c++cCc C.ac ++.. ±+++.( c±c+oo .+Ca.++.(
tco+. +±+ +..++c ±±+++.( c±c+oc +a+++Co+( C.+_+oo+±a.c. .++a+cc .+..á.±+
+..± +o c±+oo ±á.¬c..+o++c Co.c+.o ±+ .c+oo+o +c+o± C+aa...(co+. .++a+ +..++o
.+..á.±o++c ++.. cc. ·. cc.++o++ .c+o+. .++..± i¯¯¯ ±+±.áo +c+o....+. .oc+o ++..
++a+o tá.±+«o= ¯· _=(+c ++.. c±++ =±+o+....+.
B) YojRL Øj§ûWLs:
ca+o+ c++.a cc.+ ..a+o++=co++++ toc± cc =+a(. cCa ±++áa+c .a=( CccCc_ oa+á..+.o
.a=( CccCc_ +_cc++c c+=± C.++ .c+.o cá+o+a ca+o+ c++.a .ac.(+++. c++.a
=+a..a+o± cc+ c+a+.oa+c+ .+o ..++o ++±. Co+±++cc±. o.o.. =++ô.(. =+..+ ô.(. C.aa.
.+Ca.++. c+a+.o. c.++ oo+ co+c+ cc +.(c±c± C.+c+c+.+ =+.c(co++ tco+. t+.++
C+aa....Co+c C.+cc oo+ C+.co++c cá+o+a+oo+ ca+o+ c++.aa+c+ C.aa++Cc+.
C±+C++cc+++±++Cc+. ..a+o±++Cc+. oo+ +cc±++Cc+ .co=±. .c o++.o =+.c.. cc
ca+o+Ca+( cc =+.c.. ca+.+a++c t..±a+oa++ .c++ o±.± cc.++ cc.cCa+( Co+.a. .(++o
++.(+c+c.
ca+o+ c++.a+c -c_co±++ C+ao.(+c+c. C.+c.oa± oc -o+.oa± ..a+o+++.(+c+c.
oc ±+++o oa+++= t+oac+o± oc+c+c. +o C.+c.o co±.a..(++co+= toc+c+c.
.oCc_ .=++oo .c++ cc± C.+cc+oo +±±+o.... C.+c.o c+oco±+c =±..c± .c+
C++ccoo+oa+c a+ac+oa +±±+o.... oc -o+Co+( C+a++ +++ C++co t+oac+o± oo+++.
c++.aac tá.±a+oa .o .+c C+a+c+o+o± .oo+c..+o± =+.c.. C.+cc+«o= oc.... c.+ao
+ ..C.++ .+c C+aa...(co+ oo+ t.Ca++o+..(+++ cc+ ±....ao + cc.Ca+++++++c
+=. ++o tá.± C._+++.
ca+o+a+o+o ca+.+a *+ao t.Ca++o+..(co+o ca+o+ c++.a ca+.+a+ C+++o++ ++±+c++. cc
c.+a+c C+++o++ .+ +co..(+++. oc -o± oc+ C.+cc+c ±+_± C+.c+c c+a++o oc....
c.+ao t.Ca++..o+++c Co+.a++a+c tá.±.a +o c++.aac tá.±a+oa C._+++a.
YojRL Øj§ûWfNhPm:
cc ca+o+a +..++c ô± oc+ ca+o+ c++.a .+c C+a+co=± ..+++o +o .+cc ++a=±++ ±+..±o+
tá.±+.o. C._+++a. ca+o+ c++.a C+aa..(coc -o± c+o ..++o .o .+c C+a+co+Ca+ o+=
t.c..( +o c++.ao= +±±+o.... C.+c«o= t.Ca++..(++± ++.. tá.±.a C._+++a. oc+
c++.aCa+ .o. C.+c+.oCa+ (+o ccca .ac.(++± C.++ .o +..±+o+o++ c(++o C++=(
oc ±+ o.. +..o+=o= oo+ (+o +.a =.±aco o+.o+=o+++ c(++o C++cco+++c ++.. tá.±.a
C._+++a.
62
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
EXL YojRL AûUl©u '¥¬lv' JlTkRm:
±á.¬c..+o++c .++± ¯.c các ¯ ca+o+ c++.a+c .++ao+=±. .+c C+aa.... ca+o+ c++.a+c
c+a++o to+ ca+o+ .±.. t_.. ++(+c ±c++.a+«o= c. .++++.. c±++ +..±...(coc.
C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+oc -o+.o t=a++cCo ca+o+ c++.aac C++o+±+=±. .+co= c==.co+
tco c++.aac c+a++o± .+ C.+c++±. o+C.+.oa .+a ca+o+ c++.a+ +..± i¯¯¯.c ô± C+.c
c++.a .+co=± .+ C.+c++±.
cc C.+co+= t.Ca++..(+o..(± c++.aa+c+ ++o.C.+o+o oc oa+.o a+ac+oa+«o= t=a++co++
±+_+++. C.+cc+oc c+..cao o+C.++ ca+o+ c++.a+c .o±+c ++a=a++ tco+. oc ±....ao
+..+o C+oc+o.+ C++=( =+.c.. ++o+++= C±o± Co+.a++ c+±o.+a+oa+c +o c+±+.. C.++
C.+cc+«o= cc=á.± oo=± +.o tcc++++. +o c.+ao C.+cc+.o c±+=.ca+«o= ca+o+
c++.a toc+++. .cc.+ ++a=++c .c++c ++a=±++ +c= +.o+_+o.... C.acco ca+o+
c++.aa+c+ oc tá.±a+oc..a ±+.. ±o+ C+++o++ _+++. ca+.+a++o =(..(co ccca t_..
++.( =±±+c++Cc+ oo+ (+o cc t_.. ++.( =±±+c++Cc .c+o+o± ca+o+ c++.a+c +±±+o±+c
++.. ±+++.( c±c+c ±+_± ±á.¬c..+o++c các+c i· coo ¯i c±a tcoc++c ±....ao oc+
ca+o+ c++.ao= ++ ..+++.. C.++oo+ca+c+a. ±á.¬c..+o++c C++o+c± .+Cca+=±.
ca+o+± ±+_± ca+.+a+ +..± i¯·-.c co+a±+c +a+++c ±á.¬c..+o+++= ±+c± C.+c++a_o+c+c.
_c+o +o+ +..++o C+.c+.+ c++.ao= ++.. c±++...co.o. c+++= táa c+a..+c .C.++
+=o+o c(++o C++co...co.o. _c+o ca+o+ c++.a+ +..± i¯¯¯.c -o± .+o ±+++±
C+aa...(coc. .oc -o± ..C.++ ±á.¬.c C.+_..+.o +.+Cc++ c..±a++ ++± oa+a.(++o
C++=.ca+o++ tcCo+±.
C) ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs:
ca+.+a+ ++.oao =+.c.. .caao ...C.aa+«o= ±=+o co+a++c± tcoc. =+..++ ..±....
...C.aa+«.c oc.... c.+ao ..=++co C.+cc+oc c+a++o .+ C.+c+++++.
Cco+= c.oC.+cc+c. .a+.+. C.+cc+c. oa+á... C.+c.+c. .+c.c. C.+c.+c. ..o+....
t=c. C.+cc+c C.+c+ Co+±+++.o C.+cc+c c+a++o C.++c++ .caao =+a..a+o++c
a+ac+oa+oc +cc+.o +ca+c+c. =+..++ +±±+o.... C.+cc+oc -o ..+.o =+.c(± C.++ +o
..++c c+a..+.o C.++±o+c +ô+áo=± c.+ao +=o+Co(++o C++co+oo+ oc ±+... ca+.+á+c
+o C.+coo C+ao+ Cc=(±. =+..++ +o C.+coc oc+oa±+c+ +o C.+cc t+.++a+=± ..++c
-o+++.. ++a=±++ c+.(± C.++ +..+a± +=. C+±a t.Ca+++++= c+= +o ..++c C.aa+c+
t=.±aCoCa a+o± C._+++. to+a=+++= .+ae + Coa.o. ++=+.a. ..( C.+c+c+.+ =+.c.o+±.
..±.... ...C.aa+Co+( +±±+o...+o +ao=+c oo+ t+.++. C.+cc+«o= oc+++ C.+c++co+=±
.caao ...C.aa+.o c.+C+.++ .ac.(++co+++c .c++ c+a..+«± tcoc.
o++o+ oa+á..+oc ccao=+..+oc ±....ao ..±.... C.+cc+.o oa+áo=± ccca +a+ac.±.
..±.... .caao ... C.aa ..a+o++.o. .ac.(++co+++c oc tá.± C++ao+±. .Co C.+c+
ccao=+..+.oo C++=( C.+ oa+á..+oa+c CcC++c ..++ c++ .Co C.+c+ C.+cc+.o C++=(
c++ ca+o+a+o.± C++(++ C.++±o+.o oc+++ c±+.++c.o o(o+ C±+=+.c.. oc tá.±
Co.c..(+++. .caao =+a..a+o++.o +ô++a± C.++o ccca c.+ oc+ .ac.(++c.o o(o+
++.. c±++... Cc=(±. a+ac+oa+c c=+o+..(c+ c++ .++++o+ .+ toc+++. ..±....
C.+cc+.o t+.++ C+aCc+ác C.+co+o+a co.±o=± .+ toc+++. ccCc +acCo+ +-+±+c+ c+a..+oc
..a+o++.oa± -o++c C.a.aa± o+c+ .cao =+a..a+o+++= ++.. c±++Cc=±aoc
c+a+.o +c++o C++co Cc=(±.
=+.c.. .=+ao Co+± o =(..(co .cca+ oa+á..+oo± ..+++....=.+c .a+.+ao
.±++c..o+o oc+.a ccCa+ccc± .ccá.±.a C++a c±a++. .cc+a+.o ±+++c.o+.++. .+
c+a++o o+C.++ .++a+co tco +..± C.+coc .cao =+a..a+o+ +..± .+c ±+_± ++.. i¯¯¯
_=±.
±á.¬ c..+o++o .cao =+a..a+o++«o= ++.. c±++...(co+. ±á.¬ c..+o++c .++± ¯ các
¯ .cao =+a..a+o++.o .+a+c+++.
cc C.+coc C.aa oo+ +c+++c c+o cc c±c++o+c t.Ca+++.o (+oca .ac.(++c.o
o(..o+++c c+.+... cc....(.ca+«o= t_.. ++(+c +...ac±++ c±++ Cc=±ao+c C.++c+cCo+c
C.+_... c..+o± c a_+++++.
63
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C.a.aa± +c++.oa± .ac.(++±C.++ .aa+c+ C+cco=+a C.+coc .cao -o ..+.o =+.c(+++
+c+±+c+ C.+coc t=.±a+c -o..+.oa± =+.c(+++. ++± o+C.++ ++±c+ _.=+c oo+
++c_o =+..+c co± .cao =+a..a+o++«o= ++.. c±++aco+C++±. .++.oao o+C.++
C.+cc+«o++c .cao =+a..a+o± .+c ±+_± ++.. +..±. i¯¯¯ t_c+o+...(co +.oao ...+a
+..++c -o± C±o± +++o c.+ao .caao =+a..a+o ++.. c±++ c±a±.
D) ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Ym:
cc C.+c.o Coac C+ac+o .C.+coc c±c± a+ac+oa ±+ _+o+± C+a+++. +==o= +ca++a++
Co+++±oo=± c±c++++++ ±.(± +=-±+oc±++ C.+cc+.o Coac C+aa± =c..+±C.+o= .oá.± tco+.
cc C.+coc +o+±+..o+++ oc c±c++o +ca...( C.+cc+.o ±o+c c++=+c+ca. +o C.+c.+c
c+a++o .c+oc C±++o .c.. c+_++c± c.aao+c =_+a ++o+..+++= ±.(C± .C.+coc
c±c+o+o ±o+c +ca..(+c+ca. .cc.+ao C.+coc c±c± a+ac+oa+.o +ca+ C+acoc -o± o+.+.oo
+.(+++. +ca+++a±+c c±c± c+..c.a +.(co+o ..±.... c±c++.o t+.++a+oa+c Co±
.o+c+ca. c+..c.a ++áo=± c.+ao+c c.±o= c±+=± .=ao ±=+o ++o+.oa± ±=+o
++o.c.aa± +o +c+o+c =(.(+++c+ca. +oo o+.± oc± c.ac±c+.o .o tcc+o+aca .+c
C+a+ C++ccoc C++o+±. cco= +..o+ Cc=±a Cc=±+.a o+++c +ca++ C++c«± c.+ao c+a
+o c±c+.o o++c C.+cc+«o= cc±c++c tá.±a+oa+c các =±+ C.++±o .ac.(++c.o
o(..o+=±.
ca+o+ C++o+++++++ cc c.ac±c+.o tcc+o=±C.++ +o _ac++++ =+.c.+oo+ .=c±. C+ac±.
.....+ ++=± c±o+++. +c+ C++++á.± cc+ c.+ao+c cc c.ac±c++c ±+..+c+ oc +aoc.±.
.+.±. ±+_± oc +=+cc± +ca++a+o Cco..(+++. c.ac±c+ +..± i¯ii.c ô± cc c.ac±c+.o
.+c C+aco+= + +aoc.± t..ao++c± .+ao++c± .co+ Cc=(±. C±o± .+co= ccca +
Ccoa....±co+o +.++.
c.ac±c± cc.+ oc Co+++±. .±.. c±c±. cc±++á oo+ oc o+++a+ ++.. _+ac+.+
=+..o++ ±.(C± a+o..(+++. .cc.++ ++..+c c+o cc Co+±o +.+ oa+á.. +.oo=± +cc+«o=±
C.+_+o Cc=(±. .+oa+á.. +.o+c .+Cc.o..+.+Cc+. c++a Cc.o..+.++Cc+. a++a=o +á.aa++Cc+
.co+o+±. .a++ C+aa.... C.+coo +..++Cc+ oca++Cc+ C+a++ +ca++.o+o +±ao++c± +=+o+o
C±+c++ .+a++ ±++c++.±c++ cá+o+++ .+ao+ooo+o++Cc+ +o c.ac±c± ++± Cc=(±.
c.ac±c± cc.+ cc C.+coo C.+_+o+oo++. +o C.+co=cCoCa + .c..+o.o. +o c.ac±c+.o
C.+_+oo+±a C.+coc .a++ C+aa.... c±c+.o c+++o +±acco= + co+c+ cc.+ +..+a±
Cco..(+oCc=(±. +...++.oa± +.( .±..+.oa± c.ac±c± cc+ c.aa.+o=c C++=(ca
c±a++. _c+o .a++ C+aa.... c±c++o c++..(++ +o++ C+oo+oo+ C.+cc+.o c.ac±c
.+co++c.ca++ c(++o C++coo+±.
c.ac±c tá.±a+c+ .+a +c+ C++++á.±a+=±. .ccá.± -oc±c++«o=±. C.++ ..++.o c++a+o
Co+++± oo+ .±.. c±c++«o= C.+_++±. .ccá.± c+C.++ tá.±aoo. _c+o ca+c(...oa±
o(o++oo++. ..o C±o± ¿++ _=(+«o= +.±o+o+±. o++(+o ¿++ _=(+c +±o+ c==..o+aa
+..=± C+o+o Cc=(±. c±c tá.± cc C++++ _=±. CcC++o ca+.+a C.+c.o.C.+oCc ..o
c+++o+±. c++o+±. tá±± C++(o+o+±. c.ac±c -o+.o +.(..++ .c++c..c.a oc tá.±a+oa+o+
C++cco+C+ c.ac±c tá.± .+co++c coo+ c==..++«± cc+c+c.
Co+±o+.+ oo+ oa+á.. c±c+++= ++c= C.+_+o±+c ==++c tcoc. .c Co+++±. c±c .±..
cc±++á ±+_± o+++a+ ++.. _+acc+=±. Co+++± ±+_± c±c .±.. cc.c cc C.+coc tcc+.o
=+o+c+c. c±o+±++ .+ c..á±+= c±c++o .co+++. cc±++áa+c Co+++± ±+_± o+++a+ ++..
_+ac o+++a ==+.o =+o+c+c. ++o+a=±++ +o. C.+coc C±o±..+.o =+..o+ tco .o==++c
....o+..a+c Co++++.oao...c.
c.ac±c++c Co+++==± +=+o+o oc c±c+.o C±oo ±+.c.. +=+.oo C+.(o C++cco+=±.
+±±+o.... C.+coc C+aooc.±+.o .c++ c±Cc(o++ C+ac+o.o. .+co= c++co c.ac±c±
.+ao++ .c+o+o± oo+ -o+oc.± c+a+oo++ .c+o+o± cc+.±Ca Ccoa.....o++ .co+o +.++.
.+a oo+ -o+oc.± cc+ c+a+.o+c cc±++á+oc.±ao±. Co+++++o±. o+++a+ ++.co± aoc±+c
c==++.o tco.o+ao++ tcoc. aoc+oc.± oo+ -o+oc.± =++o _o+a++.o ca+o+ +.=a+.oo
C++=( c±c C+aa =±+o+...(co+. .+co++c c.ac±c± cc+.±Ca Ccoc++co+oo+.++. .+o
Ccoa( .cc.+..(±.
i ..±a.++a. Ccoa(+c. ±+_±
¯ Ccoa....( cccCa t.Ca++o+....+.
64
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Ccoa.±c ca+ C.++ ao+++o +..o+o+±ao++ .c+o+o c++cCc Ccoa....(c...o +=co+ +Cc
C.++±+c ++.+a++ tco+. ±á.¬ c..+o++c .++± ¯ các: Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++.o tco.o+
.co+++.
Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++«o= ++.+..(+o Cc=±a C.+_.. .c..oc ++a=±++ .c+c +o++a±++
tcc+o+...±co+ Cc=(±. ..±.... .+a oo+ -oc±c++c .++++.. C.++oo+.c. Co+±o+.+
c.ac±c++c c+a++o .c+oc .....o= Co+±oa.. oo+ .a+= c.+ ++a=+c +=(C++c+o++
.c++c+o+o cc.ac±c++o tco +ô+áo++oo+ ±=+ ++... +=o+Co(o++±o o+= ++.. ±o+
.ao++ cc +a++á++c.o+±. Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++..+++++c +c+o++c ¯..i _± _=( +co+++o
+ô+áo+....+.
E) Lôl׬ûULs:
.ac..+oo+ cc .+o+=(c±.cc tá.±a+oco= =+.c.. ++o+++= c±++..(± +...ac c+C.++
tá.±o+c ++..á.±. +=(c±..+oa ±+_± +=(c±..+o+á.±c++ o++o+ tá.±+o+o C.+_coca+«o=
a++++± oc± +...ac +o.+ .+. ++..á.± +..c.+ac ô± +cc .acoa+oo+ t..±+c C.+cc
*+ao Co+.a++ ++(+oc co.o+.o+o+=± C+oo+oo++. ++.. tá.± cc+ ±....ao +=(c±..+oa+c
o=+ ±o+ oc+ +=(c±.cc ++a±++ tco C.+c.o t+.++ C+ac+ c++± t.Ca++..+ c++.
c+.+ c++± ±++ca+.o coo+ .co+o+±. ++.. tá.± ++o +a=a... C.+_+oc.a +.oa+co++Cc+.
+á+......o++Cc+. .+.co++oo++Cc+ oo+ C+( c+o+....o++Cc+ .co+o+±. +oc+.+. C.+_+oc.a
++..á.± ++o±+c+ i¯ coo ¯. _=(+o++ .co+++.
++..á.±a+c+ Co+±o+.+ ++a+o oo+ +c+ C++++ c±c++o .co=±. .+o c±coco cc++++c
++..á.± cc.+ a++++++oc co.o+c c.a +±±+o....+. cc ++.±o ++..á.± C.+_co cc
+=(c±.. (+o cc ++.±o .+c C+aa...±a+c±o +o ++.±o +o++o o+=(c±.c+= ++..oo+
+a.++o+ c±a++.
=+..++ ++..á.± cc+ +c++ ±+_± oc c+a±+c .=++o+c aoc±. +=(c±.. ca++.
Cco....+oc.±ac o+±+o ±..±. Co.ca+c C+aocoo+± _+.c ±+++±o .c++ cc+c+c. +.+o
++=_ _=(++o±++ .++.o +±..o++ cc +c++ tco+.
C++c.++c Ca++.c+c C.+c+c+++= ++..á.± c±++..(c+o.o. _c+o +o +.(.a+c oo+
Ca++.c+.o =(.(++ +.(.a.a oa+á..o+++c +..c.+o= tá.± c±++..(+++.
.+a Co+±oa..+.oa± Co+±o+.+.aa± ±o+..(++ coa..+o ++..á.±o= co+a .+= t=(.
+=(c±..+oa oc+ +=(c±.. a..++.o a++a±++ ++..o+++c ++.. tá.± C.+_co+a. cc ++..á.±o=
c±++.... +....±a+c c+C.+o tá.±o ++o+..± c±+o ccca ±++ca+c .o t.Ca++o+c± ccc++
C+aac± c±a±.
++..á.±+«o= +acCo+ ==+±+± .c..o++ +co..(+++. Co+±o+.+ C++++o+c .++++.c+++c +acCo+
++.. ±+++( .+ᬠ++.. ±+++( ±+_± to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬ c..+o± _+ac Co+±o+.+
++..á.± c±+=+c+c. .++a+co ++..á.±+ +..± i¯¯..o Cooc++ t_+..(+++ oa...(co.c+oc+±
cc.C.++ +c+o..(..c+oc+± ±....ao ++..o C++cCc+co= tá.± c±++..(+++. .++a+co
i-··_± _=( coCo ++..á.± .c++ cc+++. ++..á.± ±+_± i¯ii _± _=( c.ac±c+ +..±
_+ac o+C.+.oa i¯¯._± _=( ++..á.± +..++c -o± ±+++a.±o+....+. i¯ii_± +..++o ±c+++c
+c+a=+c ±+_± =+.c.. c.+ a++a=++c _+acc+++= ++.. C._co+++c c+a..+c .c+o.o
i¯¯._=(+ +..± C.áa oc+= ±+++c..+. i¯¯._± _=(+ +..++c các · -o± ..c+«o=
++..á.± C._co+++c c+a.. +++....+. .++..+++= i¯¯¯_± _=( +c+o± C++=(ca..(±c.a
-o.C.+cc+«o++c ++.. C._co+++c c+c.++c ô±o+=.c+_ .c+oc.
t=c oo+ ±c+++c +c+a=+c c±co .ac.(+ooo+ oo+ .ac.(++. t+Co+++co
-o.C.+cc +=(c±..o= C++ao+±.
_ a++a= +á.a -o± cc =+.c.. c.+ -o.C.+c.o oa+á..+ oo+ t+.++ C+acoc ±+ ++..
tCo++±. coo +==+±+c. =.+ ±c +.+++c. tCo++o +o.c+o+cc .++++c tá.± C++ao+±.
±á.¬ c..+o++c .++± ¯ các · _c+ ++..á.± +±±+o....+.
Co+±o a..++c c+o cc +.+.a+ C+a+o +=(c±.c+= tá.± C++c± C.++ + C.cc c±c++.c
+±±+o..(++co++ .c+o+o± +á oo+ C+aoc.++.o. .++ao++ .c+o+o± +á o+=(c±.cc aoc±.
.+a +=(c±.. ca++ao C+o+o.... =(.+( ±+_± Co+±o+.+ t.Ca+++++= C.+_++.C.+=± oc.±
_+ac+.+ C++o.co= t..(++o C++co Cc=±a C.+_.. tco+.
65
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
±á.¬ c..+o++c .c++ các+«o=± C.+_+o+oo+ .++++.. ±....ao+c C.++c+c coo=+c
C.++ ++.. C._co+++c c+a... coo=co+++c =+.c.+oo+ ++a=++c =±+o++oo++. ++_+=±.o
C±++±++ .++o+o+±ac. ±coa+c. coo=+c ±+_± .a++c a= t.o_..+c oca++ _+ac++c C++a
+=.+oo. +ca+= +..c.++c ±+_± _.c +++.+ c.++c .++a +=(c±..+«o= ++.. o..+ c++
coo+oo+o+±. taáao ++a+o ±+_± a= taáao +..c.++c oo+o .a++c ±+_± coo=+c t+.++o=
c+a±+c taáao +..c.+o=± ++..á.±a c++ coo+oo+o+±.
±á.¬ c..+o. C.+_..+.o ii¯... _± Co+ coo co.(++co++++ ++..á.±+c .a=.+c+ +c+o±
+..ccc.ac i¯¯¯ _c+ i¯¯¯_± _=( ±+±.áo .+a+«±c+++c cc .co+....+. + .+a+«±c+
+..+oc +.(o=.cc cc tco+.
.aaa+++.o. C.+_+oc.a ++..á.± c±c++Co+ oo+ ++++a±+c +a Cecᬠc.+ac ôC±+ oo+
+ C.+c+ c+o cc c±c++oco ++..á.± c±++Cc=±a c+a±o.o. .o+++c c.ac.++.o ±á.¬
c..+o± c=o+co.o. oo+ .++++.. c±+=co+= c+++ cc_ +c+a c.aa.++.o +o+o ++(+oc
a++++++Co c=++o C++coo+± cc_ c....(co+. +±+ ++.... C.+_+oc.a +a Cecᬠc.+.a.
.++ +±+ ++.±o +++cooc ±....ao ++.. c±+=co+= c±c c(o+...(co+. .o+++c +..cc.ac
.+a+«±c+ +..+oc +.(o =.cc cc. tco+.
F) Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u YûWTPeLs
+cca+± ±cc=a+± +cc +cc+c .c++o± ±cc=±++++c ±+_± ±c++_ .±c++c tcoc. .c
=.+±c +.++ tCo++++oc C±o C.+_+o...(coc. .+o =.+ ±c +.+++o+cc ±cc=o+c C+ao+++o
+±ao++c± .±o+...(coc. .+o c.a..++.o +c.(+oc±++ .ac.(++c+ o=..co=áa+.
c_++.=+o ±c ++_+oc c.a..++«o++c ++.. +acCo+ *+ao +ô+áo+.... cc++=±. .o+++c
c_++.=+o ±c ++_+c +c+ C++++á.± c..+o± i¯-¯ C± ¯·_± Co+ c+c+.c ++áo c+.(+o....+.
.+o c..+o+++= ±+..oo=± c.+ao t_..++(+c .oc++o Co.ca+c +..++c t_c+o+...(
c_++.=+o ±c++_+c ±+_± oc .±.. c.a..++«o= ++.. c±++..(+++. Co+a ==c.+ac
±....ao .o+++c .++++.. t_+..(+o..(+++. i¯·¯ _± _=( .+..á.±ao tcoc+++=
C.+_++cao+±ac.+ao .++++.. C++c± c+a++c .ao. ==± .co+ Cc=(± c..+o các ¯. .o
=+.c.(co.± cc c.a..± C.++c+c oc.±.a =+o=± ..±. ..a+o c.a..±. .caao c.a..±.
C+ao+..± _+ac+.+ tco.o+ao++ .c+oo oo+ .+c.c.ác +.o+a±±o+ ..... _+acc++c
±....ao cc .....+ C+ao .c+o+o o+= ++.. C++ao+±.
....cc .ao. c..±ac+o+o± oc t.Ca++± ±+_± + Co+.a.+c c+a++o+o ...... =.(±
±+..+.o. C.+_+oc.a oc ==c.+a± oc.... +..c± Co.c. c_++.=+o ±c++_ .±..
c.a..++c +±±+o±++ ±á.¬ c..+o++c .oCc_ .=++oo =+.c.(co.c+«o= c+. c..±a++
t_+..(++co++c ++.. +a+++oc ±....ao tá.±ac coo+±. tá.±ac co.o+c. .+co++c
+..c.++c ±+_± ++±±+o±+c +.+o.c+c. tá.±o++c ++ooC+( +.. ±+o+c c.c cc.o+++c
coo+++c _+ac .a++..(± +..++o C+ao+...Cc=(±.
to+ c+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬ c..+oc± .±.. c.a..++«o= ++.. o++co+. ±á.¬ c..+o++c
.++± ¯ .=+ · các ¯· coo ¯- c_++.=+o ±c++_+oc .±.. c.a..+.o tco.o+ tco+.
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc c+c+.c c..+o± cc+.±o+..(± +aCo+ c..+o++o .++a+c±
.+Ca.++ ..(co+. c+c+.c c..+o++c co+a C.+_..+c ±á.¬ c..+o++o C+ao+...(coc.
+o +oc+.+ +(oo++ C+a++coca. C±o± cc +=(c±..+oa ca+ C++o +co +a.±.a C++=(
t_c+o+a .±.. c.a..± ca+ ca++ac t=.±a+c .oc++ .co=±..+++o +o .±..
c.a..+++= ++..oo+ Cc=±a.o ±á.¬ c a_+++++. Co+a ==±.+ac ±....ao .cc.+
tá.± .c++co Cco++..ca+ tá.±o= i. _=( ++o ++.. oo+Cc=(±. .+ +±±+o±+c +..
ccc.ac i¯¯¯ ±+±.áo .+a+«±c+++o o+o+o C+aa...( +.+Cc++++++++ ++++co+.
G) ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLs ( SmTLUô] RLYpLs):
ca+.+a±. ca+o+± ±+_± t+.++++.+ao =(..(coca+c o++o+ t+.++ac ++c ±+_± ±+..+..oo=
±....a++ .±+o aoc±+c +ac++ +..c.++c ca+«..a ++ C±o+=.± .++a o+co+c
Ccoa....+o.ca++ .a+±áo+ cc±.+c+ca. +co +a.±±o+ +o o+co+c Ccoa....+oo+o++
.c+o+o +±±+o....ca+ C.+.±a+oa+«o=± +o o+co+.o .+a+.o C+a+ .ac.(++.ca+«o=±
++o+±++ C.+ac(±. +±±+o.... o+co+c ±+_± t.Ca++++c ±+ c+_oC++co.... C++c.++c ±+_±
a++a± +++oo _+ac +o o+co+c Ccoa....+±o .++++o+c+c. Ccoa....o+.+o o+co+c c++cCc
Coáac++c+o+Co+. C.++ t.Ca+++++= c++c+o+Co+ oo+ Cc_ co+c+ t.Ca++++c ô± c++c+o+Co+
+o o+co oc+ +±.++oc.±.aa± Ccoa....+o oc.±.aa± .±++ c(+++.
66
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Ccoa....+o o+co+oo tco tá.± cc +-+ tá.±a+=±. ccca oc=..a ca+.+a± ca+o+± ±+_±
t+.++ +±±+o.... Ccoa....+o o+co+.o .++++++ .c++c..+ oc tá.±a+oco= tco .ao.+c
tá.±a+=±.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬ c..+o± Ccoa....+o o+co+.o to+± o.ca oco .++++o+++.
±á.¬ c..+o++c .++± ¯ các ¯ Ccoa....+o o+co+o tco.o+aco+++.
Ccoa....+o o+co+oc .ao.+c ±+_± +...ac tá.±a+oa+c +o o+co Ccoa...+±o± c+a+o
.+..++...+±o± .ca+o+ c..oo .oo+±o +±.+±+c ca+o+ +..c.++«o= cCao±++ .+o+co+.o
c+a .ac.(++oo _+ac++ c++ +...ac±++ .++++++ o++c +.(..+.±o .c++oC++cco+++c tá.±+c
=+++ c..+o++c ...=+ao ccáo+...(coc. ±c+++c oo+ Cco+= +.++«o++c
a++a=.C.+cc+c ++.oo++c c..oo C._co+= .c+c +±±+.... Ccoa....+o o+co+c ±+_± c+
cca++c ca+o+ C++ ca±+o c.+ao.ac.(+o...+±o .++++o+ Cc=(± cc.+ +.+o.ca+=±
.++a+co +±±.± ca+o+ a++a++c +±±+o±++ oc.... +..± .o.o. .+ +±±+o.... C.+++..±
.±..±a++ .o...( cc+++. ±.+oc+ Ccoa.....+ c+a±++ .++a c.++ cc+a± +=co+..(±C.++
oo+ +c+a=++.o ++±c+± +a=ao+++. .oc ++a=±++ .+o c+a+++= oc +..± Co.c cc_ +co
Cc=±a c+a± c+..co.o.
T«o EtTj§Vô[o Utßm EZYoL[Õ E¬ûU:
.aa t+.++a+oa ±+_± t±ca+o+ tá.±+«o++c .++++.. .o ++(+oo C.++c++ c++...(co+. o++o+
a+eea co.oao .+a .aa c.++«o= .++++.. c±+=co++++ cc_ ±.(±oo+±o .aa t+.++a+oa+o+
+oc+«o=± .++++.. oaCc=±a+ c+a± cc.+ ++(+«o= c(++.ao+...(co+. ++..á.±ac -o±
.aa t+.++a+oa+oc tá.±+.o +ô+áo=± C.++ c.+c+ oc ca++.c+c ±+ ca+c oc +cc±
C+o+++c+ca. .oc ±o+c c.++.o .++ =+..++ +cc± C+o+++c+ca. o+c+ C.++ +oc +c+
.oc+ .ac.+.( +.o ±o+c tá.±+c =+++ oo+ +cc± C+o+o..(±. .+o cca++oc ±+ t_..
++(+c _±++ +cc± C+o++ cCa ±++áa+c Cooc+c C++c.++.o tcc+o+ oc -o± o++«o=co+c
ca++.c+«o= oo+ +ac+«± tcc+o+o C++co Cc=(±.
.aa c.+ .+c+oc ±o+c .++++.. ±+_± t±ca+o+ tá.±+c .++a ±C++o+ i¯¯¯.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬c..+o++c+ .=+ ¯¯.¯ _ +.o c+a C++cco++++ c.±.cc cc t_.cca
cc+ c.+ao .++a+cc ±++a a+ ...± cc +..+.o t_c+o+. cc ±a++ c(++co+. ±á.¬
c..+o++c ...=+a+c+ t_.. ++(+c ++..á.± c±+=coc -o± oo+ +a Cecᬠc.+ oo+
.cca=(± cc+.=++ cc c.+ao .a+c.++«o= ++..á.± o++.++++.. c±++ Cc=(± cc_
±á.¬ c..+o++c .++a++ t_.. ++(+.o C+.(o C++=(co+. .+o cca+.o .+a+cco+= .++a+ oc
+..+.o oa+a C+a+ +c+..(++aco+.
.+o ±C++o+cc ô± .++++..oo+...(co .a+c.+.a t+.++ C+a++ca+o+c tá.± t±ca+o+ tá.±
.++++o+..(c.o t_+..(++c.o C++o+±++ C++=( .±±C++o+ .±o+...(co+. ++.o..(++co++++
ca+.+a C++o+o ±_ t+.++ C+aco+= ±.(± cc+oo+±o C±o± +o +a+++.oa± + oc=c C++=(co+.
C±+.± .aa+oc ±a. co++.o .ac.(++c+o ±.(± .oo+±o ..a++.oa± c.o+c cc+ c±c++o
.aá(co+++c -o.C.+cc cc+ +.oao tco +o .++++o+.... .a+c.++oc c+_ coo ccc+.aa±
+á+±±++ .+a++ C++cco+++c +a+++c .±±C++o+co tcoc. .+a .a+c.++c ccc++ C+aco++++
.ac.(+o..(± .+a±.áa oo+ tc=a .aa a+++.o .ac.(++± C.++ c++c tá.±a+oa+o+c
+a+±+oca+«o=± t±ca +-++++=± oo+ .±.G.(+ Co+.+ c±++Cc=(±. cCa++o+...(co .++..
c±c++.c coo+c.+a+c .aac.++«o=± các .(++. Cc=(±. _c+o a= -oo+++aoo= ccc++
C+aa Cc=±a+o.o.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬c..+oc± .a+c.++c t+.++a+oa+c ±+_± t±ca+o+ tá.±+«±.
±á.¬ c..+o++c .++± các · .=+ ¯¯ c .+a+ ¯ c +.= .+a+ _ ô±+=. ++a=++«o+++ .aa
c.++«o= .++++.. c±++ Cc=±a.o c(++.ao+++.
¯ t_.cca+c ++..o..+cc_ coo= C.+o+±
......................
_ a= -oo++ao ±+_± c+a±+c taáao C+aoc.++c oca+o .aa+c ±+_± co+=+«o=
++..o..+ c++ coo= C.+o+±. Co C+a++o .a+ c.++«o= ++..á.±+c oo+ =aCecᬠc±co
++..oo+o+±. .+o .+a+c+++c +a+++.o to+ ca+o+ .±.. tcc+c ++c= _=(+c +±++ C.+_o
C++coo+±. ccCc .+a .aa c.++.o ccc++ C+aco++++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc t_.. ++(+o+c.c
.a+ t+.++a+oa+c ±+_± t±ca+oc tá.±+.o .++++..o+++c +.c±o.++.o C±+C++co Cc=(±.
67
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
¥¬lv
Aj§VôVm 3
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs GuT] GûY?
ccca oc+ -.oac +.co C++=( tcc+o+a +c++ oo+ c±c± C.+c+c+.+ oc+ C+++o t..±a++
+c+co+++c tá.±a cco= c±+=cCo +c+ C++++á.± cc..(+++.
.+o tá.±a+c+ cccco= _=/C.= ++.. tá.±a++ cc =+.c.. ++o+.. oc+= c±++..(c+
C.++c+c +..c.+a++ .c++ cc+++.
I). T§l׬ûUÙm AÕ ùRôPoTô] E¬ûULÞm
cc _+áaác .oo+a± oo+ +.o. .....+c .+o+++c ±+_± c+ c.++. .....+c. ..+o C++a.c+c.
cca++c. +.o+c. +=c C+ao +..++c ±+_± +.a...++c ca+ .+..o= ccc+o ·. _=(+c
c.a +. ++..á.±ac ô± .++++o+..(+++.
CoC.+o +o+.+++a++.o +±++o ++.(.ca+c. ..+ +cc+.o .+a+«.ca+c. .+.+a+c C.+c_
C+ao.(++o ++.(.ca+c co .+c oa+á..+oa+c ±+_± c .a.. +_cc++o+ tá.±+«± ++..á.±ac
ô± .++++o+..(+c+c. +±±+o....ca+o+ tcc+o++++=o= Cc=±+ oo=± +-+ +..±ac
±....aoo+c ++..á.± ±+_± + ++a+o tá.±+c c±++..(+c+c.
ii) ùRô¯pÕû\ ùNôjÕdLs
C.++c++ Co+±o+.+ C++++o+c .a=( các+o++ cá++o ++=..(+++. =+.c.. ..a+oo =++c.
ca+o+ =++c =+.c.. cccác C.+cc+c. C+.c+.o ±+C++cca+ ++ t.c±a++ +=(C++co
.ac.(+o..(± ..a+o++c ±+_± .cao =+a..a+o++c =+.c.. ..++ ++ cao+±a C.+c«o=
cc_ tco ++.. .=. ++a+o ..a+c± +o ..++c oc.± ++a=±++ ++.c++o ++..(+++.
...±.... ++.. ..a+o++«o= ++.. o..oc -o± C+a.±a+c C.+.±o= c±c=o+..(+++. C±o±
.oCc_ C.+cc+c ±+_± C+.c c.++«o= ±C. o±o= Co.ca+cc+.+ Coa+Co(++o C++cco+++c
.++++..+c c+.+.++c± .+ co+=+++. .+o ++.. cc Cc.o t_+...+±o C.++o+±. ..±....
+.oao ca++.co=áa ..a+o++c ++.. +.o Co+.a++ .co+o +±ao+=±.
Co+±o +.+ao c±++..(± c+ c.+ C++++á.± ++..+c .+a +=(c±..+c. .+a c±c++c Co+±o a..
.....+c _+acc+++= c±++..(+c+c. .+a +=(c±..+c. c±co ++..+c -o± Co+±o+.+
c±c.±..+c. ±+_± ca+o+ a++a++c _+ac +o c.+ac ô± cc+c+c.
.+a Co+±o+++.o ccc++ C+aco+= C+oc...(± coc.±c .oc+.o coc..+oa+«o=
C.+a+C+ccoc -o± ca+«o++c ±o++Co+.+ C.+a+ C+cc.o t+oac+o..(+o..(+++. _a+a++
±+_± ccc++ +.c±o.++oo Co+.a++ ca+.o =(.(+o+C+a+++. ...±.... +-+ C++o+C± .cc.+
++.. c±++ ++a=±++ tco+.
Co+±o+.+ ++a+o +c+ C++++ tá.± ±o+c ++.. C.++c++ =+.c.. ++ooC+(cc ±....ao
c±++..(+++ c±c++.o. C.+_+oc.a ¯. _=(+c ++.. C.+ tá.± C.+_cc+c+c.
68
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU: Lôl×m Lôl× Øû\LÞm
Aj§VôVm 4
Co+±o +.+ac +.c±o.++oo +..±.o ±+_± o+++c +co+a.±ac .++o.cc co+a++c± ++«o=
++c ++á++ cc+c+c. .+a ±c+++c ±+_± c+ c.+a+c Co+±o a=o+± c+a+o ±c++c oa+á..+oc
±+..+c+ .c+c +±±+o.... +=( c±.. ccca++. _ac c±c.±.. ±+_± c+.+ .áC+++++
C±±.(++± +±c±o.++oc ±....ao .±++co+. +.a...++c. ..+.+..+c. .+o+++c +=c
C±c C.+cc+c ±+_± C+.c+c .c+c t=a++++ cca++c .c+oo .++aco .....+
oc.±+c. ±....ao o+c ++.oo= c++ c+..ca++c+c. ...±.... .....+ oc.±.a coo+.c++
c.( .+a+Co+± cco .c+c .+o+...(co.c Cc_±Cc co+¬±o o.(+«±. tCo+++ o+(+«±
+++o++«± cc+ ±+... ±.(C± C._+c+c.
o+C.++ ++.oao tco .o C.+cc+c a+aC.+cc+c =.++o Co+±oa..+o+o tcc+o+.....c _+
.co+o+±. _c+o .c+oc +o ±+.co .+a +=(c±.. ±+_± c±c.±.. _+ac++c ±+.C.
++..+±++ .co=±. to+a=+++= c+±+.. C.++ _.. c.++c ±+_± .+c.+ .aa a+++.oo =+.c.o+±.
o++o+ +=(c±..+c c±c++c. tcc+o+o+.o ±++ca+c .+á++o C++cc+ c++ o+++++o C++c«±
tá.± .....+o+«o= tco+.
.cc.+ tá.±+c +c+ C++++á.± cc_ .±o+..(+++. .....+c
.oCc++c c±c++oo tcoc. to+a=+++= .c+c .+o+++o++Cc+. cca++o++Cc+. co...++o++Cc+
tcoc. +o+o c±c++o ++..á.± C._+c+c. +=(c±..+c .c++± c±c .+.cá.± C.++oo+c.
c+ ±+..+«±. oa+á..+oác Co+±o +cc++«± +a=a ca+o+ c++.a ++..á.±ac ô± .+c
C.++o=+a..+o.c. .+ C.+c_ .c=± .o c.++oo tá.± .+o+..(+++.
úRôt\m: YûWØû\dÏhThP YojRL Øû\ûV úSôd¡:
+c+ C++++á.± ++.. +.c±o.++c to+c ccCc+c .=+ao± ccCc+c c.+ao .+a+o..(+++.
...±.... =± o ca+o+ +.c±o.++oo +c+ C++++á.± cc.+ co+a ..+++= c++co+. .oc+o
to+ ++(+oo .oc.+a++ co+o+...(cc± .cc.+ tá.± ++.. +.c±o.++c +acCo+ ca+o+ t+c+oo
.o..±+c +.o.±+.o c+.(+++c+c. .++.oao +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±++ .+o++ tcc+o+...(co
+acCo+ +..++c +.o.± c.+=.(+oc± cc+.±Ca =±+c+++ C+ao..c± +±±+o....ca+o..Ca
c.+c+ ca++.c+.o +c= c.+..(+o.... cc c±++.(o c ô± c.a++ +a++o C++coc± .+.a
c=++o C++(++coc.
C.++ ca+o+ ++++ +a.c c..+o ++(+o..Ca i¯-· coo i¯¯: _± _=( c±a tc=Cc ++áo +..C.+++
.o ++_. C.++c+a+.o+oo .o+++c .+a c±c± c......+. .oc c±c++ to+ ca+o+ .±..
c+.(++aco ca+o+± ++a+o C++o+o+c +c+ C++++á.± c..+o± .cc.+ tá.±+.o to+ ++(+c
co+o=c+o ++=.... Cc_.+(+.o Cc=c++ =.+++co+. ++(+.o C.++c+c +acCo+ c.ac.++oc
ô± C++=(c++co+. +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±++ c+++c+ ca++.c+c c.±+c+o c+.++ +a++.co+
o+C.++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc o+c +ac c.++c toco= oa+a++ tcoc.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ca+o+± ++a+o +c+ C++++á.± c..+o± .·++ các+c ca++.c+.o .+a+«+++.
.ca+cc.
ca+o+++c ±....o C++c.++c ±+_± tco +acCo+ oco+c Cc_.o +c+ C++++á.±
c..+o++.o c..± co+o=c+.
+c+ C++++á.±o= oo+ .++++.. c±+=c+ c..±¯
ccCc+c ++(± o++c a++.+ co.oo=c .ccá.±+«o= c..± oo+ .++++.. c.++.o
co+o+ +..±...(coc.
to+ ca+o+ .±.. t_.. ++(+o..Ca c+.(± +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±+c ca++.c+.o
c..± +a++ .c..+.
.+a c.+o= ±+_co+= ....... ++o+..+++++c ++..
JlTkReLs
A¥lTûPd ùLôsûLLs: Co+a ==c.+. ±+c± Cc=..... ++( ±+_± Co+±o a.. ccCc++±.
C.+++++++ +a.c c..+o± ±+_± C.++ ca+o+ C+.c c..+o++.o. C.+oCc to+ ca+o+ .±.cc
69
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
+c+ C++++á.± c..+o++c _a±.±++ oc ±.... C++c.++c ++±+c+c.
cc. =+.c.. .a=( c..+o++c .+a..+±++ ==c.++.o Cco....a++ C++=±c+oc. Co C.+o
o+C.++± c+..(co+. .ca+cc. Co+a ==c.+. .±c.+ac ô± cc ++.±c C+++o =±aá.±
C.++ca C.+oCc Cco++..cc± +±±++ ±+o+....+a.
CoC.+o ±+c± Cc=..... ++( cc+ ±....ao ==c.+. .±c.+ac ô± to+ ca+o+ .±..
++.( Co+a =±±o+c .cc.aa± +±±++ .+co+..(+c+ca. to+ ca+o+ .±.c.c. C.+o Cc_.o
+c+ C++++á.± ++a+o c..+o+oo± Co+a ==c.+ cc.+ ±....a+c C++c.+a++ tco+.
cc .....+oo= c±c tá.± c±++...(c..+o oo+ .±c tá.± c±++...(c..+o ca+
.....+.o c+a +++a .ac±++ c.+ao .±c± c(o+ ca++.a o(o=± tá.± cco= c++ c(+++.
+-++.o. C.+_+oc.a ...±.... .+a Co+±o a..++c oo+ .+a .....+.o tcc+o+aca+.o
±o+..(++± co++o .+o= o+++ + +c+ C++++á.± ++.. .co+++ cc_ +c+++ Co C+a++o. .+o=
.....+c coCo+co=± c+++o+±cc+ +..o+ Cc=(± cc_± c+a.+ao+++. ±á.¬c..+o± ...±....
+±c+.o c+.(++. Cc=±a.o +++áo+++. Co+±o a.. +=(c±..+«o= +c+ C++++á.± .++++..
oo+++. Co+±o a..+.o ca+o+ ±....ao .á±+áo C++co ++.. c±+=+++. C±o± t+.++a+oa+«±
t.Ca++..+oa+«± .ac..+c+ca. C.+co+o+a ±+_± +-+ +o± t_+..(+++ cc_ .cCc+..+o± +_+++.
+c+ C++++á.± ccc+_ .++++o+..(+++¯ C.++c+c ±.... +..++c.
±á.¬c..+o++c .a=.+± .=+ao .oCc_ c.+a+c +c+ C++++á.±+c .++a± c+.+ coo+_
.++++..+ cc_± ccáo+...( tco+. t_.. ++(+c .c+++=± c.ac.++oc ±....ao C.++±+c
.++++... t_+..(++c+ .oc C++o+±+=±.
to+ ca+o+ .±.c+= ccC. to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.. +acCo+ c..+o+.o tcc+o+ac+o+.
.oc ++a=±++ +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o.... .o .=++c C+ao+...co.o. .+o =.+.+(+.o +o=±
c.+ao ca+o+± ++a+o
+c+ C++++á.± c..+o++o +(oo+c c==o.+ao+c .+a ccc++ C+aa.... +a++o+c
C+ao+...(coc.
T§l׬ûU;
±á.¬ c..+o± +=c +..++.o .oo+a .....+.o. C.+o .++++o++oo++ cc..o t_+..(+++++.
C.ac ++áo +..C.++ ++.. ±+++.±o cca+ Co+=..+.o .++++..o+++c c±c.+ c=o+....+. oc
±....ao .oo+a .....+c .++++o+..(+c+c.
+acCo+ .+..á.±a c+..+o= c(± c.+ao +a+++c các.(+o...(coc. +=c +..+Co+=..+c
c.+.ca+c ±+_± ..+ .+c oa+á..+oa+c C.++±o+«o= o++o+ .....+.o c+..+o= c(± tá.±
c±++...Cc=±a+ c+a±. +.a.... .+c+.o c+..+o= c(±C.++ ±+.C.áa oc+= ca++c
c(++c.o+±a .+a± tco+. ..±+ C+aa± C.++ +o ..++oc tá.±a+oa+«o= C.+a+ C+a
Cc=±a cc±+c++c o...(+c+c. ...±.... +.o.a ocao+Cc .+..á.± ++.. c±++..(+++.
+..+++= .a±.++ .+c C+aoo. ±_ t+.++ C+aoo ±+_± ca+o+ ++±+++.o C+a±a++ c .a..oo
C.+c+c+.+ o(o=± tá.± .c+.o tcc+o=.ca+«o= .cCc+..+o± c±++aco+. ·. cc.++«o=
=.+a+±o .ccá.± c±++..(+++. ..+..+c oa+á..+oa+oc .....+«o= ·. cc. ++o .++++..
tá.± c±++..(+++.
YojRL ϱLs:
c+o c.+a+c ..a+oo =++c ca+o+ =+ ..a+o ++..á.± C.++oo+.c cc..o c..+o±
c.aa.+++co+. oc+o tá.±a+oa+«o= =.++o ..+ tá.±+c t_+..(+o..(+c+c. C.+cc+«o=
ocao=± ca+o+ =+ ++..á.± C.+oCc C+.c +_cc =++«o=± ++..á.± c±++... Cc=±a.o
t_+..(+++++. =+.c.. ++.±o ±+c± ca.o±++aco ca+o+o =+o= +(oo .++++.. tá.±
c±++...(co+.
×®«p ϱ AûPVô[eLs:
cc C.+c.o ..a+o± ++= +o C+a++oo ..++oc C.aa+c t.Ca++...(+o..(c+ t=(. ++±C.+c.
¬++.+. ±=oa. a+oC.+a. .+o+.. C.+c+ ca.o to+a=++.o +.±o++..o+±. =+..++cac ±+_± C.+.o
.+c t+.++a+oa+c o++c oa+á..+.o ...C.aa+.oo C++=( ..a+o+++.(+c+ca. ..±....
+.oao ...C.aa+.o ..a+o±++ C++=( Ccocc± oa+á..+c +o ..++c ++..+ oc.±oC+++
70
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
oa++.c Ccoca+c..+o + a+ac+oa+.o oc++c .+.oo= ..(+ C+oc+ _+c(±. C±o± .+ +a±++
C.+.±o= c±c=++c(±. ccCc ...C.aa+.o oc+++ .ac.(+o..(c.o o(o+Cc=(± cc_ t_..
++(+«o= ±á.¬c..+o± =+.c(+++
=+..++ cac ±+_± C.+.o .+c++«o=. c..+o± taa oco+c ++.. c±+=+++. .+ c+a++o C.++±o+c
oc+++ +.+ ++.....(c.o+.++.
.+ c+a++o +o coo=+c oo+...(coc. to+a=+++= cc ...C.aa c++cCc ca+o+ c++.aa++
.+o+...±co+o+± oo+ ...C.aa .a±..aa++ .ac.(+o...( ccco++ .co+o+±. o+c+ =+.c..
c.+ .+o..o+.± oa+á... =+.c. C+..+a cc+ ...C.aa .ac.(+o..(+++. .+ c+a++o C+..+a
cc+ ..+oo o+C.++ C±+.± .+o+..+.± oa+áo+... Cc=(± cc.+o.o. .oc ++a=±++ cc ++(
..o=+a.( ..a+o++ c++ coo= C++c±C.++ +±±+o.... ..o=+a.±+= ++..á.± =+++ C+cc
c...± ++.(.c C.++c+a+.o +.++ +ac++= Cc=(±. caco= .caao o=+ ..a+o++c +±±+o±++
.cc.c =+.. .+c c.+.a c+.(++co+= to+ ca+o+ .±.co C.++c+a+.o+c C±+C++co c..+o++o
c± C+aa...(co+.
ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs:
±á.¬c..+o++c ô± Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++«o= =.++o ..+± i. _=( ++.. oo+ Cc=(±. cc
c.a..++c tá.±a+oác =±+ C.++±o ca+ c.a..+.o c+..oCa+ oc cc .=+.a c(++o
C++cc.oCa+ oo+ +o c.a..+.o ..±Ca c±++o C++cc.oCa+ ccá.±a+oa o(o+ c±a±.
Y¥Y Lôl׬ûU:
c±c ++..á.± =.++o ..+± ¯. _=(+«o= c±++... Cc=(± cc_ c..+o++o =+.c....( tco+.
c±c+.o tcc+o+acco=± .o .c++ C.+c.o oa+á..cco=± c±++... Cc=(±. Cc+±++ Co+±o
a..++.+ac .c++. các+«o=± .+ C.+c++±. C.++ c.o+C++. oo+ c.o+c.+ac ±....ao
=+.c.. +=(c±.c+= c±ctá.± c±+=co+= ±_.. Coáco+ a+++++++= tá.± t=(. .aa+c
co+=+oc C++a +=.+oo. C++ao++c +++.+ c.++c. _.c +++.+ c.++c ++.. oo+ ±_o+
a+++++++= tá.± t=(. _c+o .aa+c ±+_± co+=+oc a= taa-oo+_+c c+a++o ++..oo+
+..±...(co+. _ac+oa+oc +_cc++oc co+=+c ±+_± .aa+oc taáao +.c±o.++«o=
++..oo+ ±_o+o+±. _c+o a= taáao +=( c±..+«o= ++..oo+ Cc=(±.
.+a c.+ .aa+c t+.++ ++..o++c +acCo+ cc+a++c ++.. ±+++(+oo. .+a .aác. C.co+± C+a.ca+
tá.±+c .++++o+ tá.±a+oo+...(co+. .o.C.+c+ cc ++.. c+.+.±c -o± .aa.c++c .+c
tá.± C.++oo.c. c±c ++.. tá.±a+oa
=.co++oo+ =.++o ..+ tá.±+.o c..+o± ccáo+++. _c+o .+ +o coo=+.oa± oo+++.
to+a=+++= cc c±c ++.. tá.±a+oa oco=co tá.±.a. .ac.(++ ++.oao cc±c tá.±
+±±+o.... C.+c«o= C+a+.+a++ +a+o+ c+.(++± co++o t+.++ao c.(o+... C.+. c±a++.
..±.... +.o.±+oo a++++o+c.c C±++=. c±c tá.±.a C.+.± t+.++a+oao= c±++Cc+
oo+ tá± c.+ac ô± t+.++ C+aaCc+ c..+o± +±±o± Coáco+++. Co C+a++o c±c ++..
tá.±a+oco=± +...ac±+c .++++.. oo=± ±....ao+c +o +.+o.c+«o= t...C. ..o+
C+aa Cc=(±.
t+.++ +.c±o.++«o= c±c ++..á.± c±++..(C±a+c+o. +o t+.++ +.c±o.+ac+o C+a±a++
oa+a+=± C.+c«o=± C+a++ ++..á.±.a c±++ Cc=(±. tá.± ±+c+o
+±±+o....ca+c ++..á.± C.+_coocc ++..á.±.a o+++c ±+co.o cc_ +=co+ Cc=(± cc_
=+.c.. =±+.oao ++ ±c+± _.=a.o+(±.
úYßTôÓ GuTÕ Gu]?
Cooc+c .+..á.±+c. c±c++..á.±+c. ca+o+ =++c C.+c+.c+c .oCc_ c.+a+c .....+c oo+
+=(c±..+«o= C++a...o+±. .c+c ccCc+c_± ccCc+c c.+a+c.ca++ +co...o+±. Co+±o+.+
c.ac±c++c. c_++.=+o ±c++_ c.ac±c++c. .caao =+ ..a+o++c ±+_± ca+o+ =+a(+c
C.+c+ .o c+a++oo c±c++..á.± .+cc -o± ++.. C.++oo+.c. +o .+co ccc cc oc.±
o+c+ +=(c±... c.a..±. c+±+... Co+±o +cc ..a+o± C.+c+ c+o +.o+c .+c C+aa...(coc
cc..o ccá++co+ Cc=(±. .+o cca++c C.++ o+co++ +a+oo+.c. .±c tá.± ±+_± ca+o+
a++a++c c++c ++.. +.o+oc ±....ao .ao.++Cc .++++..o= táa.c _+c+c. .c+c
.+c C+aa...Cc=(± cc_ c+a±o.o. _c+o .++±±+o±+c Cc_.o +.(..+(+c ±+_..o +±a.c.
to+a=+++= +..coco ++..á.±+oc ++o ±occo ++o +a=a± cc_o= cc_ ±+_..o+±a.c.
71
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Jße¡ûQkÕ ªuÑtß YûWY¥YeLs:
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc c+c+.c c..+o++o tco+c ±....ao C.+C.++a+co¬ cc..(±
cc++.=+o ±c++_ c.a..++«o++c ++..á.±.a ±á.¬c..+o± c±+=+++. i¯-¯_± _=±CoCa
.o+++c c..+o± c.....(± .c_c.a coo= caco.o. ±á.¬c..+o++o +(oo+c +a++o+c
C+ao+...(coc. to+a=+++= .+ +±±+o±+c ++..á.± =.++o ..+± i. cc.++«o= c±++... Cc=(±
cc..oo =+.c.o+±.
ùY°lTÓjRdáPôR RLYpLs Utßm YojRL WL£VeLs:
ca+o+ a++a++c ±+_± Cco..(+oo+.+o o+co+«o= ca+.+a *+a+c ±+.. t=(. +±co.+a+c
ca+.+a +..c.++c ±+_± t_+ C±+± c+.o= ±++++ ±±+... ôa=.o..+o .c++ .++++.. C.+
.c+c o=+a..++coc. Co C+a++o ..±.... o+co+.o a++a±++ .++++o+ o=+o c+.+(+c
C+aa... Cc=(±. ±coa+«o++c .+a ±c++oC++ oo+ cc++a+++++c a++a=o +o.c+«oC++
++.oo++c c..oo C._± C++oC++( a+++++++= oa..(± .áC++o.co++c cca++c ++..á.± C.++oo+.c.
..± ++.. C._coc -o± C++c.+o= .+±.+c c±+oo ccca++.o ca+.+a *+ao .ac.(+o..(c+
o(o+..(+++.
úTôh¥dÏ CPU°dLôR HLúTôL ÏjRûL E¬ûU«u ÁRô] LhÓlTôÓLs:
.+..á.±. c±c++..á.± oo+ Cc_c±co+c +c+ C++++á.± C.+_co ccca tá± c..+o++c
±....ao CcC++ccco= .c+c t+.++o= c±++o+± oo+ .++++o+.... ca+o+ c++.a.a
ca+Ca(++ .ac.(+o =±+o+o+±. ca+ +=(c±..+c c.a..++c C.+c+c+.+a± .+C++o+o
=±+o+o+±. ...± C+a+ C++co..(± tá± ±....ao _c c..+o++c +a++o+c C.+.±.a
±.(..(+oo +±ao++c± Co+±o a.. .á±+++++oo tco Co.ca++ o..+.o +.(..(+oo+±ao++c±
.co+o+± cc_ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± +ô+áo+++. =+.c.. +o =±+.o+oo +c+
C++++á.±.a oc+++ .ac.(++± c.+ao+c C.+.±o= ..±oo++o c+C.++ tá.±.a o.. C+aa
a++++++c tá.± C.+_coc. .+o o.. +.c±o.+.a C±+C++c«± ccca +±±+o....ca+«.c
a++++± các+c _Co++.c+.o +..+a± C±+C++co Cc=(±.
LÓûUVô] AúR úSWj§p úSoûUVô] AØXôdLm:
o+C.++co +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o...(co +..++c C.++±+c.ca++ .o.o. co+o+ +..+a..(+oo
+±acc++ .c .co+ Cc=(±. ±á.¬c..+o++c .=+ ¯ o .o+++c c+.+(+c C+ao+...(coc.
a++++++c o++c +..++«o= t...( ..c+.o +..+a± co.(+o. Cc=±a.o
t_+..(+o...(coo++ c..+o± +_+++. C±o± c+c.++.o
±_.ca+c ±+ ca+c ±=(± ..±.... oc_+.o C+aa+±o .co=±oc+= +(.±a+c o=..c+Co+.+
c+o+ c..+o± c±c=++co+. c++a.= +.c±o.++c +(+.oCa+(± C+a.±a++c± Co.ca++ c.+ao
+o+.o ++..(+o+oo++c± .co+ Cc=(±. c++a.=o= +a+±++ ++ooC+(c± c+o+o +.++. c+a.+ao+
c±a+o ++o+++= ..+o±o+c± +.++. c++a.=ao +±±+o....ca+c ô± ++±c+++c +a.cc ±+
C±oc.+a( C++aCc+ +ac++ c±c+.o ±_.áôo.c C+aa±+_ C++aCc+
++±c+++.± C+.(o C++coo+±. ±+o+c ±+ +..+.o co+o=c+ c..± cc_ c..+o± +o cca++.o
oc+++. ++.++.o C++á..+. o+++ + +.c±o.++c. .±.G(+c ¿a+ca,+=aa. o=..c+c _+ac
=++o cca++c tcoc. =±+C.++o oo+ C.+ oa+á..+.o ±++c.Cc+ +.o++c.Cc+ =+.c..
+.+o.c+oc ±....ao ++±c+++c +++a± ...+o.ca++ .co+ Cc=(± cc_ c..+o± +_+++.
ca+o+ =+a(+.o occ+.+a++ .ac.(++oo. C.+ a+c ca+o+ =+a(+c oo+ ca+o+ C++o+o
=±+ac+ .+..á.±.a .+aCo(++o C++c«oo _+a.c =++cao ++±+o+o++ +co... Cc=(±.
=±+C.++o C.+ ++ao=+c .+o=±+ C+aa..(c.o +++ .o+++ +++á+oc toca.c o(o=± tá.±.a
+c+ C++++á.±a+oco= c±++ a++++++c +..±...(coc.
Uôt\eLû[ úUtùLôsÞm LôXLhPj§tLô] HtTôÓLs:
cc_. ¿++ oo+ .+Cc+c _=(+«o=c c.+..(++oo
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± i¯¯· e·.o i coo coo= c++co+. ±á.¬c..+o +a++o+.o +o
Co+a c++ ca+=(o=c co.(++± c.+ao o++c +..++.o coa++a..+o ++(+c ±+++a.±++o
C++co Cc=(±. ±+_± +o =+.c.. +o.±+oc ±....ao C.+co+o+a +.o ±+++++o .c++ cc++
++(+c · _=(+«o=c«±. ±+c± cco++a ++(+c ii _=(+«o=c«± o++c ++.(+ +..++.o
.o+C++. oa+a C+a+ C++co Cc=(±.
72
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
±á.¬c..+o± coo= c++co i¯¯· e·.o i _± Co+ao c+oCc+c coc± ++.±o+c+ Co+±oa..++c
c+oCc+c +.+ac c±co++..á.± C._co+++c c+.+(+c C+a+co++c±o +Co+a c++ i. _=(+«o=
o+++c ++.. c.++.o co+o+. Cc=(±. Co C+a++o c..+o± coo= c++co ++ccoo ±c++c±
Cco+=+.++«o++c a++a=o +o.c+c +±±+o±++ .a++ C+aa...(cc± c==..++.o c+_ ++..
c±++ Cc=(± ±+++++.o C±+C++cco+++c ._+ ++c c.a ..+o±o+ Cc=±a+o.o. cc Cc.o
...±.... oa+á..+«o= .cc...... ++o++o +o ++(+c =±+ c±+=C±co +o =+.c..
+.(..+(+oc ±....ao ++.o tá.±o++c ++.. =±+a+c+ · _=(+«oC++ oo+ oa+á..
++..á.± c±++..(± c.aCa+ .+o c+ =.+c+c ++o c+++c..aCo+ o+= c±++...o+±.
C±o± +o c+coo++c +o.±+oc ô± ca+o+± ++a+o +c+ C++++á.± c..+o++o c..o C++=(co
C.+_..+oc ±....ao. coc± ++(+c ±+++++.o C±+C++cco+++c ++o+..++Co+ CoC.+o .+a
+..++c c+.(++± c.aaCo+ +c+ C++++á.±+.o c±++. Cc=(±.
±á.¬+=++=..o=.c+c+ c..+o++c +..c.++.oa± .oc ±o+c a++++++oc c.+a(+.oa±
+=++=o+++.
73
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u YojRLm NôokR AmNeLs
(¥¬lv) JlTkRm NmUkRUôL JÚ ®¬Yô] ®[dLm
Aj§VôVm 5
±á.¬c..+o± i¯¯· eccá i coo coo= c++co+. c+ c++ + +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±+c
±+c± các+c .cc.c c..+o±++ .c++ cc+++.
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u ¸rYÚm TϧL[ôY]:
.+..á.± ±+_± + Co+.a.+c tá.±+c o+c+ +.o.a+c. oa+á..+oa+c. ..+..+c+oa+c. ±+_±
c .a.. .±..+c _+Ca+a Co+.a.+c C+.c +_cc =+a..a+o.++c tco.. ca+o+ =+
..a+o++c -o±++ .c+ooc+o +..+o C.aa+c tco.. .caao =+ ..a+o++c. Co+±o+.+
c.ac±c++c. .+c.+ .aa+.o .++++..+ tco.. ++..á.±+c. c_++.=+o ±c ++_. .o.++oc
c±c c.a..++c. ca+.+a a++a++c ±+_± .áC++o.c cca++c tco.. .+a++..(+o...o+.+o cca++c
_+a ++..á.±ac ô± cc+c+c.
.cCc+..+o+++= -c_ co+a .=.+c tcoc
YûWVû\Ls:
.cCc+..+o++c ô± cc++ coo+ co+a±+c +c+ C++++á.± ++a+o .=+.oa± +c++o C++c«±
c.+ao t_.. ++(+c .c++± .c+«o= =.++o ..+ c.aa.++oc ô± .++++o+ c±c.++c
C+aa...(co+. .++++.. +..c.++oc .c++ co+a .=++«± ccáo+...(coc. .+..á.±
C++c± c+a± =+++ +o++ _Co++o+c±. +o tá.±+«o= =±+o++oo+ +o coo=+c oo+c±.
=.++o ++o oc+= ++.. oo+c± c.aa.++c C+aa...(coc. .cc.aa.++c ô±+=.c++c
±....ao C±+C++co..(+c+c. coo+co++ to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.. +a=a++co
oc.C.+_..+c. Co+±++.+ C++++ ++..o++c .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.( c±c+c. .oo+a± ±+_± +.o......
tá.±+c .++++.c+++c C.ac ++.. ±+++.( c±c+c _+ac++c ±++++a =+..+c _+ac++.c
+..+a± ..=++. .+a++ c±c+c c(o+..(+c+c. C.ac ++.. ±+++.±o c(o+.... C++++a+o tá.±+c
oca+o .±±+++(+oc .c++ oc+++.. c+a+o .=++«± to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ca+o+± ++a+o +c+
C++++á.± c..+o++c =+..+o++ ..=o+...(coc. .oc-o± .±±+++.( c±c+c .cCc+..+o
++(+oc C.+_..+o++ _+acoc. .+ᬠ±+_± C.ac ++.. ±+++(+oc c..+o +a++o+oc o=+o các
ca+o+± ++a+o +c+ C++++á.± c..+o++o các+c ¯.i ±+_± ¯.i.o ++=..(+c+c. ++(+oo C.++±+c
oco= ccc++ C+aa...+±o± +=( C++co...+±o± .c+o .o .=++c o+C.+.oa c..+o++o
C.áa oc+= ..=o+...(coc. .o++a=++o+o .cCc+..+o± +o C+a++oo C.ac. .+ᬠ+.(
c..+o± cc_ .±o+..(+++.
II. AØXôdLm:
+c+ C++++á.± +±±+o.... tc++.( +..c.++c ca++.c+«o++c +ac+c =+++ .a=.+c+ .=+
ccáo+++. coo+ c.+a+c +c+ C++++á.± +..++c co+o=co+++c +..c.++«o=± C.+c+o±+c
=+.c.. +o C.++c+c C++c.++.o .cCc+..+o± c.a++co+. C±o± C.++ ±+_± +ac++ +..c.++c
±+_± +ac c.++c. C++o.c các+c +.c±o.++«o= Co.ca+c ++.. các+c ±+_± =++cao C±o
+.c±o.++c _+ac các++ =+.c....(coc. t=.±a+c tá.±a+oa+c o++c tá.±+.o .++++..o+=
Co.ca+c +.c±o.++c ±+_± +ac c.++c =+++ =+.c.+oo+ oc các+o+ ++...(co+.
III. ©WfNû]LÞdÏ ¾oÜ:
±á.¬C.+_..+c +±±+o±++ to+ ca+o+ .±.. t_.cca+o..Ca c.± ca++.c+c ±o+c =+++++.(+c
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ca++.c+«o++c +ac +..c.+ c++«o= t...( .co+ Cc=(±. C±o±
+c+ C++++á.±.a .+aCo(..o+o± .++++..o+o± c..+o++c+o +..o+o+±a +++o .oc+c .++.c.
C.+ac.+± c..o++++ Co+a ==c.+ ±+_± ±+c± Cc=..... ++( cc+ c.+ao+c ==c.+
C.+c+ ±.... C++c.++.o c..+o± tcc+o+aco+++. c..+o++o +a=ao+...(co C.+_..+c
coo+ t_.. ++(+o+o± +±±++ ±+o++oo++. oc+o coc± ++(+.o. C.+_+oc.a c+.+ co+o+
+=. ++o c+++± oa...(co+. ±++¹(o++c ++o+..+++++c c+.+(+c cc ++.±o c o .co=±C.++
++..c.++c ±c++c+.o ++..á.±+«o= C.+_+oo++.
±á.¬c..+o± =.++o..+ c.aa_..+.o C++=. cc++=±. ccCc t_.. ++(+c cc......+o +c+
C++++ tá.±o= +(oo .++++.. c±c.++.o c+.(++o C++coo+±.
74
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C±o± o++c C+++o +..++c +..c.++«o= t...( C.+_+o±+c c.+ao co+o+o C++co t_..
++(+«o= +o++a± c±++...(co+.
ϱl©PjRdL ùTôÕYô] NWjÕLs:
+c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±+c ±+++(+oo tcc+o+....+ C.+cC+ t_.. ++(+c c+c++o +++(+o+
=±±o+«o= oa..(± +c+ C++++á.± C.+c+ ++... coo+ t_.. ++(+«± c..oC++=( co+o+
Cc=±a+ ±....a+c C.+_..+=±. ...±.... tá.± C++cco+++c +.a+c cca cc..o .=+ i.¯
Cooc.(+++++. (+o ++(+.o+ C+a+o .ca+«± oc+ Co++oca+c cc_ =+.c.+oo+ca+c. _c+o
.ca+c .a+.+a++Cc+ +....±Ca+ ..=++oC++co.... +.a+c (+o +.a+«.c C+_++a t+cC++co
.ca+c ++.a+o+ Co++oca++ .co+ Cc=(± cc.+o.o. c..+o++o ++...(co +a++o+c
.acC.++oo+ca+c .ca+c cc +..c..±+c c±Cc(o+ c..+o++o c±c.++c ++...(coc. .o+=
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc ++.. ±+++.( c±c+c C.+_+o+oo+c. o+C.++ to+ ca+o+ .±..
t_.cca++ tco ++(+c C±+++a ++.. ±+++(+oo .+C+(o++±o .c++co+o+±. .c+«o=± ±±+++.(
c±c+c C.+_++±. .±±+++(+c c.c cc_ c++cCc =+.c.(co+..
c..+o++c ¯. : ±+_± · _c+ các+c Cco++.( =±±o+«o= c±++..(± Co+a ±+_± ±+c± ±+c±
Cc=..... ++.( ==c.++c =++o ±....a+c +..c++.oa± tco.o+aco+++. c..+o++o
..=o+...(co coo+ c.+a+c +c+ C++++á.± .++a c+a++«o=± C±++=. ==c.+ C.+_++±.
oc+++.. c+a+o c.aa_..+«o= ±.(± .+o C.+_..+c cc_ .o.o. +c+ C++++á.± ++..
+.c±o.++c co+o+± .a+±á... +±.++oc.± =.(oo. +....+oc.± _+a +.c±o.++c .++o++o
c==± .+o C.+c..+c .+a++o C++c+c+c. c..+o++o =+..++ c(++.+o+...(co +c+ C++++á.±
+±±+o.... +..c.++.o .++o=± c+a++.oa± +cco+ C.+_..+o=+++. Co+a ==c.+o++c
c..+o± C+++o ++..c.aa±. t_.. ++...+ C+a+o ccc.aa± .+a..+±++ +.++c.o o(o+++. to+
+c+ C++++á.± .±.cc ±+++.( c±c+oo +co+.... ++.. +o.++.o ca+o+± ++a+o +c+
C++++á.± c..+o ++(+c co+o+ Cc=±a.o Co+a ==c.+ c..+o± c a_+++++. .+o
c+coo=+c +ao=+.o .á±++oC++co =±+o+++. ±+c± Cc=..... ++.( c..+o++c Co+.a++a++
.+ .±++co+. to+a=+++= .+..á.±o++c =.++o..+ ++..á.± C++cco+++c ca+o+± ++a+o +c+
C++++á.±ac c+c.++c C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c c±c+oc các ¯-.c ±....ao oa+áo+...(
C+ao+.....ca+=±. CoC.+o .o co+a +a++o+«± oa...(coc.
c..+o++c co+a =+oC++c+c c+c.aao Co+=o+...(coc. tc=Cc ++_ C.++c+a.o+oc C++o+++c
.cCc+..+o++o +.o+_+o...(coc. .o+= ±....a++ .c+o+ i¯-·_± _=( Ccoa.....
..c.+C.o c¬C.. +o.+ ±+_± i¯--/-:.o C±+C++co.... .áôo.c c±c+c _+acc+=±. +acCo+
ca+o+ +.c±o.++«o= c+.(++ o..+c .++..+.o ±.(..(+oc± +c+ C++++á.±o= C.++±+c oc
C+aco+cco ++.. c+.(+oc± C±o± .o+++c +..++.o co+o=± C.++ .cCa ca+o++++= =+o+±
c.oco=± ++a=a++ _+c.+±o .+a++o C++cc+± .o=..a
C++o+±+=±. c..+o++c các ¯.c C+ao.+ao C++o+++c cc+ o.o.cc ô± .+o cca++c tcoc.
.c+oc ±....ao .+ao=±C.++ +c+ C++++á.± ++.. ±+_± ++.. c+.+(+c co+o+± _+ac
Co+±o a.. +=(c±..+.oa± Co+±o a.. .á±+++± ±+_± c+.+ .aco+o+ Cc=(± cc+ C++o+±
o=c C.++++co.o +a c±+++. Co+±o a.. +.c tcc+o+acco=± .ac.(++.ca+«o=±
+oc .ao+ Cc=(±. +-+ C.+co+o+a +o=o= toco+±ao++ ++± Cc=(±. tá.±+.oa± C.+_..+.oa±
+á+±±++ .+co+ Cc=(±. C++c.++c cc+ o.o.co .=+ -o C.++ +++o+a± ±+_± .o C.++ +oc
++a+o ++a=++«o+++ +c+ C++++á.± oc+++ .ac.(++c+ c++ ccCc++áo.+a++ +.c±o.++c
c(o+c± _c +a+++c i¯-· ..=C.o c¬C.. cCaa.=ao .c+oc. .c+.o. C.+c+Coa+c +a+++c
±á.¬c..+o++o tcoc.
R²f £\lתdL Lôl× SPY¥dûLLs:
.+..á.±+.o .++++..+ +±±+o±++ C.ac ++.. ±+++.±o c=o+.... oo+ các+c tc=Cc ++_
C.++c+a+.o+ocC.++ +ô+á....c. +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±+c +±.++a .+ᬠ+..± i¯¯i.c
c±++.(o c ô± C.ac ±+++.±o c±c+c c.....±c+o+± .o+= cc ++a=±+=±. .+ =+++ ¯.i .o
=+.c.(co+. oc±....ao C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c .+ᬠ+..± i¯¯i.c oc+++.. c+a+o .=++.o
t_.. ++(+c c+_o C++co +..±...(coc. C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c i¯¯i c±c+oc+ .=+ i coo ¯i c±a
tc .=++oo± ..=.. .=+ao± .o+++c cca++c tcoc. Cc_ cc ....cc ..... tá.±.a
C++ccoc-o± oo+ _.C+..c Coác..oc -o± +o .......=a.c .±c.(++c+±. oc
-o± oc _+áaác taaco=± +c±+.c+=± C+( c.oco++ C+ao+c C++c.+ .ac±+c tá.±+c
.ac.(++c+ =+++± oc±....ao .+ =+++ C.ac ++.. ±+++.±o +o+o+Co++++
75
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c(o+.... c±c+c các ·.i.o tcoc. +o C++c.+ .ac±+c (Morel) tá.±+c t_.cca+«o=
c±++...c±o.o C.+_..+o+...c± .o.o. ccCc +o ±+++.( c..+o+.o ±Ca++ ±á.¬c..+o++o
.CoC.+c+ +a++o+c c+.(+o...( tcoc. ccCc o+c ±á.¬c..+o± .ccá.± c±++co.o. C.+_..±
+a=ao+...co.o. cc ....cc -o.C.+cc o+++c ++.. ++o oc +a=a± C.+ c±Cc(o+....
tá.±+c o+++c =±+o++oo+ oc tá.±+c .+a+cco+++c c.++c C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c
+a++o+oo tcoc. =+.c.. +.(.+(+oc ±....ao coc± ++(+c C±+±C.aa.. C+aac± ±_Ccoa(
C+aa±+c +o +.(..+(+c =++o +a+++c ±±+++.( c±c+oc ..=.. .=+ao tcoc.
C.ac ++.. ±+++.±o c+.(+o.... ±.... +a=a++oo C±o± ccc++ C+aa Cc=±ac+o.c+c
±á.¬c..+o++o =+.c.+oo+
+o c+a++c C+ao+...( Cooc.(+o....c. c..+o++c .=+ ¯.¯ .+..á.± ++... Cco..(++±
c.++«o= ±.(± +.±++o C++(+o+. Ca++.c+c. C+aoc.++c co+o+ c.++c oo+ +=o+ao
+c+C++c+c C.+c+c+++= +o ++.. c±++...co.o.
.=+ i..i.o +=c +.. c.ac+c. oc oa+á.. +.oao oo+ .oo= ++C+oC±+± _+acc+++=
.oo+a .....o= tco+ C.+o ++.. oo+o+±. C.ac ++.. ±+++( i¯¯i.c .+ ±....ao
tcc+o+...(co+. C.ac ++.. ±+++.±o .oo+a .....+«o= tá.±o ++.. c±++..(co+= c(o+....
c±c+oc ±....ao .+ tcc+o+...(coc. ±á.¬c..+o +a++o+c +=c +.. c.ac+«o= ++..
c±++...Cc=±a.o t_+..(+++++. cc Cc.o + .oo++++c ++C+o C±+±a++ .c+o+o± ++..
C.++oo++ cc t_+ C+aa...(co+. .oo+a. .....+«o= ++.. c±+=co+++c oc(+c +=c
+.. c.ac+«o=± C.+c+o+oo+o++ tco+ cc+ ±....ao .cc+_ ++...(co+. ·. _=(+«o++c
++.. cc+ C.++ C++ +=c +..c.ac+«o= C.+_++±. ..+... ±+_± +.o......+«o=± C.+_++±
++++a±+c =.++o ..+ c+c.++c .o+= C.+_+o++.
Tϧ 10.2:
.+.. tá.± C.++o+++o o+co+.o tco.o+a o+co Co+=..+«o=± .+..á.± c±++Cc=(± cc_
.+o .=+ Coáco+++. o+co Co+=..+oo o+c c ±....ao .c Co+=.... co++o± o+co+c
Coac C+aa± co++occo +co+a.± ±o+ .....+ ++=o+++ ++.. C.++oo+.c _+c+c. o+co
Co+=..+c c+o c±c++ c+o+o± ++.. C.++oo+.c. o+c+ +o+co+c c++a++.oo C++=(
.±+oáa+oo+o++Cc+ oo+ c+ c.+a+co++Cc+ .c+o+o± +á. _c+o +o= o+co+c o++«o=c
t..+++co=± cca++«o= ++.. c±++ Cc=±a+o.o. Co C+a++o t.C.++++ tco c+a++c
o+co+oc a++a+.o cc=±+co+ toc+o.ca++ .co+ Cc=(±.
Tϧþ11 Cp L¦² §hP YûWÜLs:
oa+á..+c c++c -o± oo+ ca+ c±co C.++ t.Ca+++++= ca+o+ *+ao c+..+o= c(co+=±
o..C+aco+=± .....+oo= tco Co+.a. t_+..(+o..(+++. +c±+ oa+á..+.o. C.+_+oc.a c+..+
tá.± ±+o cc.+ oc+o c+.(± C+o oc+oc .áC++o.cac ±....ao .±++co+. ccCc.o
c+..+o= c(+oca _+áaco= .c+o ±_.+..o= .++± c.oco=± c.+ao c..+o+++= .+±.++ C.c±
c==o.+ao ca++c c(o+...+±+o .+a++oC++co Cc=±a C.+_.. t_.. ++(o= tco+. +=c +..
c.ac+.o. C.+_+oc.a c+..+ +.c±o.++«o= c+++= co+a++c± .o.o cc.o+o .+ c+a++o
c+++= t_.. ++(+c C.+_.C.ao+ Cc=±a+o.o.
C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c c±c+oc .=+ ¯i.o tco C.++ +.. +a++o+oc ±....ao ++..o++c ++o
+a=a+++++c c+a++c ±á.¬c..+o++o C+ao+...(coc.
.oc±....ao .....+oac _a.++o± ±+_± ca+ .+..o= c+.oa ·. _=(+c c±a ++.. oo+
c± C+aa...(co+. ·o =+.c.. c.++«o= =_+a ++o +a=a.. C+ac.o ...=+ac ¯i. ¯. ¯. : _+a
.+++oo c(++.ao+c+c. ±á.¬.=+ i¯.c +a+++c ..o t_+..(+++c+c. ..+...++c.
....C.+ca++c oca c+c+++++c ++o +a=a.. C+aco+= cc. cc +.ác .a+.+a+c c+±++c C.++
Ccoa..... ++o c++ ++.++.± cc.++c ·.o= =.+a+±o +a=ao+... Cc=(± oo+ .+o+±
oa+áo+....+ c++ ++.++.± cc.++c ·.o= =.+a+±o ++.. c±++ Cc=(±.
76
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
.=+ i¯ .
=+.c.. +o oc+oc.±a+c.c+oc c+a++o +a=a..+c oo+ coo=+c oo+ C++c+++. _c+o
...±.... oc+oc.± c+a+o.c+c .c+.o ++o+a=±++ .ac.(++± c.+a.c ca=..o+.++. C±o±
tá.±a+oa+oc +....ac+oc+.o c.+a++ c.+ao .++.. c+.(++c+o .c++ ++.. oo+ t_..
++(+«o= tco tá.±.a c a_+++++. C.ac ++.. ±+++.±o +a+++c =±+o+...( tcoc+++=
..=a+c.c ±á.¬t.c.+.±o ..=o+...±c+o+o± tá.±a+oa+ +...ac +oc+c cc =±+c...o
o..C+ac+ =+++ .oc. Cooc++ co+=+++.
Nôol× E¬ûULs:
.+.+a+c. +±+a+c. c ..+c. oa+á..+oa+c ±+_± c .a.. .±..+oc tá.±+«o= .=+ i: ++..
oo+++. .+.+a+oc. ..+a.±..+oa+oc ++c+c ca+o+ c..oo C.+C+ ++.. C+aa...Cc=±a.o
.=+ i: i c a_+++++. to+a=+++= ..+a.±..+oác =±+ac+ ca+ C+a± ++±++.a .+c
C+aao+.++. .cc.+ +a=a± ++o+o C+.+..(± ..+o= ±.(C± C.+_++±. c . co .....o= C.+_+o++.
..+. .....+c C.+c+.c .o ..++Co+ .+±Ca+ Cco..(++.ca+c .±+ac+ ca+o+ tá.±.a
.ac.(++c.o +.(..(++ ca+«o= tá.± oo+++. o++o+ C+a± ..+ ++±+++.o o++c
=±+ac+ c+c c .a.. c+++c C.+c+c++c ±.++ C.++ c .a.. C+ac.o +.(++co+++c tá.±a±
oo+...(co+.
..+..+c oa+á..+oa+c ±_ .+..+c Ccoa(co+++c oc+oc.± c+a+o tá.±+.o .=+ i:.¯ c±+=+++.
..+..+c oa+á..+oa+«o= o++c oa+á..+.o c+..+o++c+ c(co+++c oc+oc.± c+a+o tá.±.a
.=+ i:.: c±+=+++. ..+..+c c+a++o oc oa+á..+oa
C.++ +o ..+..+c +±±+o.... ±+C++ccco=± tá.±aoo=± +a++o+c .o Co+++oc +..++oo
tcoc. Co C.+c_ .+o c..+o++o c+++c C+aa...(coc. +=c +.. c.ac+c +±±+o....
c+..+ tá.±+.o.C.+cC+ .+o± +±co.+aoo=± ±+++c tcoc. _c+o +c±+ .....+c c+a++o
.++..+.o oc. tco.o. C.+c+ C++o.c c.+ac ô± .+ ccc+o.o. Co C+a++o o+=
c+.oa .a±..a .ác+oc .± +.(..(+o..(+c+c. oc.± t_.. ++(+c ccCc+c_± o+++c c+..+o=
.ac.(++± (+o ccca+ .....o= +±±+c +c±+c++c c±++ Cc=(±. i¯¯: c.ao i· .o ±a+o+¬
++áo c+.(+o.... c..+o± .o+= c± c=o+++. ..±.... c.+.a cc.+_coc -o± ±_ Ccoa.±++
++.. tá.± C.+_coca+oc tá.±+c +.oc+o +.++.
+++a.ac±++ c.+ao .+c C+aa..(c.o o(o=± tá.±.a c..+o++c .=+ i:.¯ c .a.. .±..+«o=
c±+=+++. ..+c+oc -o± ±_ .+c+c C+ac+. ±_ c .a.. C+ac+ _+ac+.+ o(o+o+±. o++o+
Co+.oo++.+ c .a..+.o ±_ c .a.. C+ac.oa± o(o+++. C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c c±c+«o= c+.
±á.¬c..+o++o± .cc.+ tá.±+c .+..á.±a+oa+«o= c±++...(co+. ccCc .ccá.±+.o ±=(±
c .a.. .±..+«o= c±++... Cc=(± cc.+o.o. ..+ +.o.a+.o. C.+_+oc.a =.++o ..+±
·. _=(+«o=±. ..+..+c tá.±a+oa+«o= ·. _=(+«± c .a.. .±..+«o= ¯. _=(+«o=±
tá.± c±++..(+++. .=+ i:.·
Co C+a++o .ca+«o= .ccá.±+.o c±+=±C.++ Ca+± ++.. ±+++.±o +.+o.c+c. +.(..+(+c.
coo=+c ±+_± c+oô(+.o C.+_++co+= .=+ i:.· c.+ C+a+++.
YojRL Øj§ûWLs:
cc C.+c.o oo+ C+.c.a ±+C++cca+ ++ Cc_.(++o ++.(++ ..a+o± oo+ ..a+o++oc
Co+=.. ca+o+ c++.aa++ .+c C.+ o=+ ...+o+. .=+ i· .o .o+++c ±.... +.. c+++c tcoc.
.+a.co= cá+oáao+±ao++ .+ .co+ Cc=(±. oc. C.aa+c. c.++o+c. c=+c. tcc ..a+o++c.
c== ..a+o++c ±+_± + C.+c+ .o oc ..a+o++.o ...±.... ..a+o++c
tco.o+ac+o+o± .o ca+o+ c++.a ++..á.±o= .+c C.++oo+.cCa. +±±+o.... C.+cc oo+
Cc.c.a ±++c++ c++ cá++o++..o +±a c.+ao ..a+o++c ++.....+oC.++ oc oc.±.a
t.Ca++++o +=c++o ++.. Cc=(± cc_ .+cc C.++ t_.. ++(+c C.+ao+±. .+a.co= .oc+++o
..a+o++.o to+a=±++ c oo+ a+a±=± .+c C+aa =±+..o+ Cc=.+C±c..o t_..
++(+c c±c C+a+ C++coo+±.
t.Ca++++c±....ao ++(+c .+c C+a+c+c. Co C+a++o ca+o+ c++.aac t=.±a+c t.Ca++±
cc +.+o.ca++ .+co++c c==..++cC.++ .co+ Cc=±a++o.o. c==.c++ -c_ _=(+c
+±+o ccca oc+ t.Ca++++c C++o+± +.+Cc++o C.++ c==..+.o +a++á..o+++c +o±++ ±.(C±
.+ t.Ca++..(+++. .=+ i:.¯.
77
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C+.c c++.a+«± .Co C.+o .++++o+... Cc=(±. ¯± . i·.i/ i·.¯ ±+_± ·¯.¯
ca+o+ c++.a tá.±C.+_coca o±+ c++.a.a =±+ C.++±o CcC++cca o±+ C.+c.o.C.+cC+
oa+áo++ oo+ o±+ C+.c.a. C.+cC+ C+.cao =(..(coC.++ .ac.(++ =±..± c.oc...o
o(o=± tá.± C.+_co+a. =±..+++= ..±oo=± co++o cc.+ c+o cá+oáa+oo+ =+a... cá+o+a+oo+
C.+cc+c oo+ C+.co= .ac.(+o...±c...o t+Co+±++ ccc+ +a...±co+ Cc=(± .=+i·.i
ccca +c++a.... c++.a+c c+a++o ±á.¬c..+o± =+.c.+oo+ +a++o+.o C++=(co+. .+á¬
++.. ±+++.±c c±c+oc .=+ · +=c .o .o+++c +(oo +a+++c tcoc. + ±á.¬c..+o++c
=+..+o++ C+ao+...(coc. .++a+++c t_.. ++(+c +±±+o.... .+c+.o a++ C+aac± oc«.±
C+aac± =±+aoo+c+c. C+.c+ +.+o=± ...+ac +a+++c C.+_++±. C±o± +±±+o.... +.+ao
C.++±o+«o= +..++co =.c± cc.+ =±+.... ca+o+ c++.a ..a+o+o+o ±.(±c+ oc
coa++.aa± +=o+Co(++o C++co Cc=(±. C±o± .+± C.++ ca+o+ c++.a+c .c+c c+o C.+cc
oo+ C+.c.a +=o+Co(++o C++=( .+c C+aa....Co+ .c+c oo+o c+ C.+cc+c C+.c+«o=±
.+c C+aa+oo+o+=±. _c+o c++cCc .+c C+a+coc+++= c+o c.++«o= +.±o+o +.++. ...±
+.±o+..(±C.++ +±±+o.... C.+c«o=± C+.co=± c++.aac tá.±a+oco=± tco Co+.a..
Cco..(+++++. cc.+ t.Ca++++c C.++ tá.±a+oa+oc +oc+c .++o+..(+c+c. .=+ i·.¯
±+_± ¯ .
ca+o+ c++.a .+c+o t_+ C+aa.... tá.±+c c+a++o c.aa_o+.... coo=+.o t_.. ++(+c
oo+o+±. ca+o+ c++.aac tá.±a+oa ±+_± -c++± +.a+oc +....ac cc..++.o +=o+Co(++o
C++=( ...±.... c+coo=+.o oo+o+±. ca=.c c+a+.o+oc t.Ca+++.oa± .oc±....ao
+=o+Co(++o C++coo+±.
ca+o+ c++.ao++c +co+..+c± ccCc+c ±_.+c± ¯ _=(+«o= =.+a+±o c++.a tá.± oo+++.
+a=ao+...+o ++o oc+=± ca+o+ c++.a ++..á.± ±_.+c C+aao+±. .=+ i- .
t.Ca++o+...+±o .co++ ++a=++++++ cc c++.a ++..á.±.a a++ C+aco+= ...a..Ca
t.Ca++o+...+o -c_ _=(+c +±++ .co+ Cc=(± oo+ ..±.... t.Ca+++o+o c+.(++ +a±++c
=+++ c++.a tá.±a+oa oc± o+co+oc C+oo.±a+o++oo+ ++a=++oc ±....ao a++ C+aao+±.
.+o=±+ +.(..+(+c oo+ c+ a+o ++.(..+(+c ++a=±++ occ+.+a++ tcc+=± =±+o.±+oc
++a=±++ c++.a tá.±a+oác cc..++c.± Coáco+..(± ++a=++.o C+oo.±a+o++ oo+ ++a=++o++
c+_o C++coo+±. cc ca+o+ c++.a tá.±a+oác +.(..+.±o .co=±C.++ .o ±+C++cca t.Ca++o=±
C.++ .o ca+o+ c++.a .+c .a+±á.c++++ t.Ca++o+..(co++ +ô+áo+... Cc=(±. .=+ i¯ .
ca+o+ c++.a.a ±+C++ccco= ca+o++++= oc± C.++ Cc_ cc ca+o+ c++.a.a C+a++ t.Ca+++oo.
oc+oc.± c±co t.Ca+++oo. C.+cc oo+ Cc.o.a cá+oáo+oo+
co++o .oo+±o o+= C+( c.oco=± co++o t.Ca++..(++oo _+a ++a=++«o+++ _a+a+±o
o.. C+aa Cc=±a+o.o. .=+ ¯.
×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[eLs:
c..+o C++o++++++c .caao =+..a+o++c ccá++ +a+oo+c _=±. =+.c.+oo+ .ao.+o+c
oa±. ±+... c+ ++==++c _+ac .caao -o..++c .ao. ==++Co+( C+a++áa c+a±+c.c.
.=+ ¯¯.i. ccCc cc C.+coc oa±. +c±+... ±+_cco ++==++c .caao =+a..a+o+++= o=+
c+a+o.c. cCcco +o ==++c .cao -o ..++c C.+coc .ao.+c ==++.o tco.o+aco+c+c.
.cao =+a+..a+o++c c+a++o cc..a+o++.o .ac.(+o cc..ccoca+c +...ac ++.. C._c+
c+a±. cCcco .caao -o ..++c C.+c.o. C.+c++ cc+ C.aáo C.++±o+.o oc+++ c±++.(c.o
o(o+ .caao ..a+o++.o =±+aoo+±o .ac.(++c.o o..C+aa Cc=(±. .cc.+ t.Ca++++c
++a=±++ .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±o c.+a++ C.+.± =++o +..± .=+ i. _=c tcc+o+....+. ±á.¬¯¯.¯.
.cao =+a..a+o+.o ca+o+ c++.aa++ .+c C+a+ t.Ca++o=± C.++ C.++ ±o+.o oc+++
c±++.(C±co cc..cco ccca C+.(o C++=.oc ±....aCo+. +..± =±+o=± ..+++Co+.
.+.c +a++áo+ Cc=(±. .=+ ¯¯.¯
.cao ...C.aa+o ..a+o+++....(± cac cc.++o oa+áo+...+o ..+++o o+= .cao
=+a+..a+o .+c oa..(c.o cc......ca+c o(..o+++c tá.±.a .=+ ¯¯ c±+=+++. ...±
...C.a.a .ac.(++co+o C.++±o+c oc+++ c± +.+++ C+oo++co.+ao. C+a.±a++ C.+.±
.oo+c+o+o±. +o +.ác t=.±a+c t+.++ ..± =+.c....±c+o+o±. oo+ .caao =+
..a+o±+c+ C.+c++ . ..±....+. ±Ca++a+. c.+a+c+
78
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
cc_ .o c.++oo =+.c....±c+o+o± C±+++a tá.±ac....ao .cc.+ t.Ca++++c ±+ +.c±o.+
c(o+ c±a±.
.=+ ¯:.o .caao =+a+..a+o++c ++.. +±±+o±++ .oCc_ c+coo=+.o C++=±co+++. cac
±+_± ++a+a± C.+c+.c c+a++o .caao =+a..a+o++c .ac.(+o..(c.o o(..o+++c +(oo ++..
+.c±o.++.o ...=+ao =+.c....(co c+coo=+c t_+..(+++c+c.
to+a=+++= cc t_.. ++( cc+o .cao =+ ..a+o++«o= ++.. oo+ Cc=±a C.+_.C.ao+
Cc=±aoo+±o .co+o+±. oc+o +C+ ca++.co=áa oa+á.. ±a.*+a++Cc ...C.a.ao
C++=±co+o+±. .+a+ · .+o +a+++.o co+o=± +.c±o.++c +cc±co.+.a C.+_co +ao+c
ca+o+ c++.a tá.±o++c ++ooC+(.c .++o++oc+_ .+a++o C++co Cc=(±. .+a+ · =+.c..
=± o cac ±+_± ++a+a+++= .cao =+a..a+o++c Co+.a++ .ac.(+o =±+o=± C.++ o+=
ccca .c+o c±co±. oco± .c...o c+_o C++coo+±. .+a+ :. .+o= c+coo=+.o o+++o++Cc
C++=±co=± t_.. ++(+c o++o+ oc.... .cao =+a..a+o++.o Co+.a++ .ac.(++c+ =+++
C.++ c+a+.o+c +.+o ccccc+ c+a± .+a+i. Co C+a++o .cc+coo=+o+c.c ±á.¬c..+o±
co+o+ ++o++o +.++. .+a+ ¯. .cao =+a..a+o ++.c+++c +a+++oc co+o+± =+++ .áôo.c
C+aaCc=±a C.+_.co ±á.¬=. tco+. .+a+ ¯.
ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs:
oc +.a+c tcc+o+aco .+a oo+ -o Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++«o= t_.. ++(+c ++..
c±++Cc=±a.o ±á.¬c..+o± .=+ ¯·.i +a=ao+++. .+a oo+ -oc.a..+++= ++.. c±+=++
Co C+a++o c++cCc tco c.ac±c+++C++ oo+ oc .oc++ tcc+++ .=+aoC++ C.áa oc++
±+_..+c..+o± ++.. c±+=+c+c. _c+o Co+±o a.. *+ao± C+aoc.+ ±....ao± +o
c.ac±c± +..+a±++ _+o+± C+o+oo +±acc++ .c+o+o c..á.± +.±o+... ±+..++.
.=+ ¯·.¯ _c+ =.++o _ac t..a+± c..±a+c c==o.+ao tco+±+c eco++.+ c.a c±c++.o
+=o+Co(o+ oc+ +a+++.o C++=(co+. cc.+ c.ac±c++«o= ++.. c±+=co+= =+..++ oc
±+... C++o.co++ oo+ Ccoa.±+++ cc_ .+ao+ Cc=±a+o.o. ..±. .+a..oc -o± c+++=
+..o+ Cc=±a ++.c+++c c+a...
C+o..(++c.o+.++. Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c +..± oo+ .+..á.±+ +.. c++.oo C++=( t_..
++(+c .o+++c ++.. tá.±+.o c±++o+±.
.=+ ¯·.i.o ca+o+ C++o+o+c +..++.o .+ao c(++o C++=( -c++± +.a ccca Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c
tá.±a+oác =±+ac+ ca+ c.ac±c+.o. .ac.(++ C.+cc+.o oa+áo+c± c++c± oo+
+±±+o.... c.ac±c+++= +±±+o.... .=++.o tco.o+a oo+ .oo C++=( c±o+....
C.+cc+.o o(o+c± c.a.. tá.±a+oco= t_.. ++(+c =±+a+o+ Cc=(±.
.=+. ¯·.¯ _c+ t_.. ++(+«o= C++(o+...(co c.aa_o+.... c+coo++c tá.±+c. ++.. C.+_co
Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c tá.±a+oác +.. .ac +oc+.o Co.ca++ co++o cc+.±Ca .++o+o +±ao++
_o+Cc+ +o c.ac±c+.o ++o+a=±++ .ac.(++o C++cco+= =±+o+...(co tá.±o= ±++++
+(oo++ .ac.(++ C++=±c...oCa+ =±+o+o +±ao++ .co+o +.++. cc.ac±c+.o .ac.(++±
-c++± +.ác +...ac cc..++.o ±.(C± +=o+o C++=( t_.. ++(+c C+ao..o +.++.
++.. C._co+++c ++o oc i. cc.++«o++c+ .co+ Cc=(± .=+ ¯·.¯ cc+ c+a.oa+c+ =++o
++o+.o cá++ t=a++co++. to+a=+++= .a=( ¿++ _=(+c cc_ a+o..(+oc± =±+o+ Cc=(±.
Lôl׬ûULs:
c+o cc +=(c±..o=± + C.+cc+o++ .c+o+o± +á oa+á.. c.+a++ .c+o+o± +á o+= t_..
++.( a++++++c ++..á.± c±++ Cc=(± cc_ ±á.¬c..+o± C+.(o C++c+++. Co+±o a..
+.+ac c+o cc cá.c+ C+a+oo++c± .co+o+±. c+++= ++..á.± c±+=±C.++ .+a..+± ++..o
+.++. +o +=(c±..+c c++=..a .+.±. c++o C.++++co +=(c±..+oc.± ±+_± c++c
Co+±++.+o=. C.+_++. C.+=± oc.± _+acc+.+ +co+++c ++o+a= .áC++o.c+«o= t..(..ca++
.c+o+o C.++± c+++= ++..á.± c±++ Cc=(±.
++..á.± C.c.± C._co+++c ±....+ +..++o =±+o++oo+ c+coo=+c -c_ tcoc. C.++
_.=oC++ c.o+c.+oC++ ±++++ .c..c+++= C.+_+oo +±a+ coo+c+ _=±. ±coa+c oo+
co+=+oc taáoC++ t.o +o+++C++ ++_+ =±oo= C+( c.oco+o +±ao++ .c+o+Co+ c+++=
++..á.± c±++...+± o+ t_.. ++(+«o= tco tá.± c+coo++c+ +.+o.co=....+. +±±+o....
79
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
+=(c±.. ca+o+ *+a++ .ac.(++.c.aa± o(o++oo++. C.++ _.= ±+_± c.o+ C++.a .a+±áo+
.+ ±+c± c+a±. ±c++c +.+ao tco ±coa+c ±+_± co+=+«o= C++a+a± c.+. +++.+ c.+
±+_± _.c +++.+ c.++c _+ac+++= ++..á.± c±++ Cc=(± cc.+ c++ t_.. ++(+«oo=
coo+oo+o+± cc.+ .a=.+co+=±.
-c++co++ a=t. ao. taáao ++a+o ±+_± a= taáao +..c.++c
oo+o co+=+c oo+ .aa+c tcc+o=co+= c+a±+c taáao +..c.++«o= t...+o .aa+c
±+_± co+=+«o= ++..á.± c±++ Cc=±a+ c++ t_.. ++(+«o= coo+oo+o+±. .aa c.++c
++..á.±a c++ cooo+oo+...(co c+o cc ++(± C+ao+o+±o+.
+c= c+a+±=cc c.+ac ô± +..+a± ++.. c±++a++ Cc=(±. Co C+a++o .o+++c +a+o+c+
c..+o± co+o+...( ++c= _=(+c +±++ c..±a++ .áôo.co= t..(+oo oo+o+=± .=+ ¯¯.¯+
oa+á..o+=. t.Ca++..o+=. c+..co= occo+=. c+..co= ±+_± .+o C++o+++«o+++ .+o=±+
C+aco+= cc ..c+oo cc++= C.+cc ++..á.± ++.. tá.±a++ t_+..(+o Cc=(±.
oa+á.. ++..á.± .++++..c+ C.+cc oa+á.. +.oao +(oo t.Ca++.. .oo+±o ++.. C+aco+=
±.(±c+ .+o oa+á.. +.oao C+a±a++ C.+.... +(oo C.+cc+«o=± C.+_++±. ++..á.±ac
tá.±a+oa .+=± ccc==a C.++oo+ca oo+ .+= ±+++± C+acoc
-o± tá.±o= cac±oo+ca. ++..á.± ±+_± c±c C+aa.... tá.±aoo+.... c..+o++«o=± .+
C.+_++±. .=+ ¯-
++..á.± -o± oo+..(± ++..á.± c+a++o t_.. ++(+«o= c.aa_o+.... c+coo=+c
oo+...(coc. Co C+a++o +o tá.±a+c+ +o ++..á.±.a ++o+a=±++ .ac.(++c+.c
Co.caoo+±o ca=..o+.++. C±o± ++..á.± C.+_cocác +.. .ac tá.±+.oa± Co.caoo+±o
+=o+Co(++o C++co Cc=(± .=+ ¯.
c==..± .a++ C+aa.... ++c coo ++o+c+_++oo+ ++o±+c ¯. _=(+«o= ccc+o ++.. +....+
c±co= c++ c.o +.++. .=+¯¯
++..á.± C++c± c==..o+aa +=(c±.. +±±+o±++ C.++±+c cca++.o oa Cc=(C±c t_.. ++(+c
C++ao+±. +±±+o.... +=(c±.. cca++.o + +±±+o.... +.+ +.=a ccca .o +=(c±..cco=
±+c± Coá++co c±c++o CcooC++=( cc±+_ c==..o+aá.± c==.co=± ++oCoCa C++ao+±
oo+ +o.+ C++a..(±C.++ c==.c++o C++a...(co +o.+ Co+ao C±+=+.c.. c.+ao
CcooC++=ao C++ao+±.
++..á.± C.+_co cc+c tco.o+± cc C.+c.o t+.++ C+aco+++c C+aoc.+.ao C++=(co+.
Co C.+c+ C.+c.o oa+áo= ca+c++ oc=..a C.+coc t+.++ c.+o=± c++cCc .+c C.+_co
t+.++ c.+o=± tco Cc_.+... +±±+o.... +++á+c ccCc +cc++o++.. ++++.+ +++áo+
C++ao+±. ++.. C.+_co oa+á.. c.+.a c+o c.+.a +±±+o.... +++á+c t=c± C.++ C±++=.
+.c±o.+.a C++ao+±.
++..á.±a+oác =±+ C.++±CoCa +±±+o.... c+a+.o a++++± +..+a tá.±acC.áo .ac.(+o
=±+o+...(co+. Co C+a++o tá.±a+oác +...ac cc..++c ++..++..(c+± +.+o.cac
±....ao ±.(C± .ac.(+o Cc=(±. .o+++c +.+o.c+c .=+ ¯i.o tcoc. +a+a±+c ++o
oc+=. +a+a±+c +.+o.c+c. c+c.++«o= t...( ..±.... tá.±.a o+c++ C.+c±a+o =±+.o
c+.(±C.++ C.++ c+ cc.oc ±....ao ..±.... tá.±.a c±++Cc=±a+± t_..++(+oc
C.+_..+=±.
..± tá.±.a .+aCo(o=± C.++ +o+o tá±+++++c C.+co+o+a ±+... +=o+Co(++o C++=(
.c+«o= C.++±+c ±+a± C++(o+ Cc=(±. .±c±c+c+ ++++.+ oo+ oo+ oc taa +++á+.oo
C++=( .áôo.c C+aa+oo+o+=±. .+o +.+o.c+oc t_++oc.± ooa+o+oo++. +...ac±++ c+aC.+.±
+.c±o.++.o tcc+o=c+ cc+c.+ao cc ca++.co= +ac ++= ca++o+ .ccá.±.a .ac.(++±C.++
.cc.+ ooac oa..(+++. .+o +.+o.c+c ..c+c +±±+o .=+ ¯¯.i.o ++...( tcoc+_.c C+a++
+a+oo++. Co+±o a..++.+ +±±+o.... ++..á.±+c .+a..+±++ c.+ao =.co++oo+.c cc.o++++
C±++=. +..c.++c cc.+++oo+.c.
Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßdL°u §hP YûWTPeLs:
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc toca.c i¯-¯_± _=( C.++c+a+.o +.+o...( t_c+o+....
c_++.=+o ±c++_ c.a..++«o++c +c+ C++++á.±+c c..+o +a+++«o= c+. c_++.=+o ±c
++_o+oc +.. c.a..++«o= t_.. ++(+c ++.. c±++ Cc=±a+ =+++ ±á.¬c..+o++c .=+
80
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
¯·.o =+.c....( tco+. .+o +a++o+o+c.c c_++.=+o ±c ++_+c ±+_± +.. c.a..++c
.aoa=±co.c c+++= ++..o= Cc=±a.c+c. oc tá.±+c. c.aa.++c CoC.+o c+.+
.ac.(++co+++c oc+c .+c ±+_± C+ac.+ _+ac+.+ tco.o+a.ca+=±. c_++.=+o ±c
++_ cc C.+co+=±. oc c. c±c++o C+ao.(+oo +±ao++ .co+o+±. c.ca.c +oCc+ .c++C±+
c_++.=+o ±c+++c Co+.a.+o++Cc+. tc.±±+c++o++Cc+. C±o .±±+c++o++Cc+ .c++ ±c =o+c
cc+ c++ ±++c+++= .a=± C+aco+++c c±a++ ±.(C± .co+o+±. +..c.a..± cc.+ c..á±+c
.=. C++=.o++ c.aa_o+...(co+.
..± C++oo± C.++ oc cc .=+ C+ao..o+±ao++c± c.ca +oCa+ .c++C±+ c_++.=+o
±c+++c ..=..+o++Cc+ .co+o+± oo+ c_++.=+o ±c+++++++ ..±
cc c..á±+= c±c± tcc+o+..(c+ cc.+ +o c_++.=+o ±c++_. .o.++.o oa+á..o++++c±
.co+o+±. ..±.... c_++.=+o ±c++_ c.ac±cC±c.+ oc .....+oa=..a C+++o
+c+++.c Cco....o++c±. -o+oc.±a..ao++c± ...... Ccocc++ C+a++o tco c+
.....+o+o=..a +.. c.ac+c ±+_± t+.++a+oa+«..a cc++.=+o ±c++_ .o.++c
_+ac++ c++± Cc_.(++..+ao++oo+o++ .co+ Cc=(±. ±_ t+.++o++c tá.±. .+o=±+o++c
tá.±. c+..c oo+ c+..co= c±+=co+++c tá.± _+ac ++.. tá.±+oc ô± cc+c+c.
.ccá.±+«o= =+.c.. c.aa_..+«± oo+...( tcoc.
c_++.=+o ±c++_o++c +c+ C++++á.± c..+o +a+++oc.± ±á.¬c..+o± Cco.(++aco ++c=
c+a++oc ±....ao c_++.=+o ±c++_ +.. c.a..++«o= t_.. ++(+o.± ++.. C++ao+±.
o+c+ ++..o++o ++o oc c.( _=(+«o= .+o++ .++ _=( .=+ ¯- c_++.=+o ±c++_.
.o.+ao .++aco c+ .++++c tá.± ±+..ac.(+o...±c+o+o± ..o.+o= ++.. .++± ¯·.c
+..+ ..=.. các ±+_± +a+±o tá.± ±+ao++ +c+co+++c c+.+(+c .++± ¯¯.i _+ac C±+++a
++c= c+a++oo .++acoc. c_++.=+o ±c++_+«o++c +c+ C++++á.± c..+o± +..+a tá.±
+a++ .=+ ¯¯.¯.c .± +..+a oo+ o+c++ ccc+o+ tá.±aoo++c±=± +..c.a..± oo+ oc
t.Ca++++c tá±+.o t=.±a+c tá.±a+oc =±+ac+ a++++± c(++o C++cco+=
±á.¬c..+o++c .=+ ¯i.c +.+o.c+c C.+c++±.
ùY°«PlTPôR ®YWeLÞdLô] TôÕLôl×:
ca+o+ a++a± oo+ C+ac.+ +c C.+c+ Ccoa....+o cca++«o= ++.. o..oc -o± .oc
+..o++ C+aa Cc=(± cc_ ±á.¬c..+o± C++c+++. cc cca± a++a±+c+ cc_ +co..(± C.++
o+= ++.. +..+a± oo+ Cc=(± cc_ c..+o++o .=+ ¯¯.¯ C++c+++. ccca++«o= ca+o+
±+.. tco+. ccCc + a++a±+c+ C±o± + a++a±++Cc .co+ Co.ca+c c+.+(+.o C+a+ oc±+_
C++a tá.± ...++co+. Cco...+o cca++.o C++++ cc+ c±c++o .+a+o Cc=(± cc_ c..+o±
C++aco.o. _c+o ..±.... cca++.o +...ac±++ .+a+«co+++c tá.±acoca ccca++c
Ccoa+++±o .+a++o C++co+oo+ca. C+a.±a+c ca+.+a C++c.++«o= t...( ca+ _=/C.=
c..oo C.++ cccCa (+oca .o. C.+Cc+ .ac.(+oCc+ c±a±. C+a.±a+c ca+.+a C++c.++«o=
±+++c +.c±o.++c cc.c +±+=.c+_ tcoc. c..+o ±+o. +±co.+.a o+a+oo. ±+_± c..+o ±+oo=
+=(c+ Co C.+o Ccoa....+o a++a++c .++ +++co++ -c++ca ccca++.o .+..+_c+.
oo+ C±++o++o +cco=.+cc+o ..± +++ C++cc+ C.+c+ .+..+_± +±c±o.++c _+ac
C++c.++.o ±+a C+ao+o+=±.
.+a a++a= +=(c±..+.oo C++=( oa+áo+..(++ ±c+++c oo+ cc++a++.+o++c a++a=
oa+á..+«o= c+..co= =±+ c±+=co+= .c+c +±±+o.... Ccoa....+o .áC++o.c cca++c
±+_± c+ cca++.o a++++++.± +±aco+ Cc=±aoc c+a± =++o +a+++c c..+o++o tcoc.
..±.... C+a++o +±±+o.... t_.. ++.( a++++++c +±±+o.... a++a++c ca+.+a C++c.++«o=
.+±.++ Ccoa+++±o .+a++o C++co Cc=(±. C.++ ±o+c +oc ++o+.. Cc=±a c+a±+c C+a++c
oca+o ±++ C+a++oo ..±.... cca++c Ccoa+++±o t_.. ++(+c .+a++o C++co Cc=±a+
c+a±+c+ oo+ ..±aoo+c..+o ccca++c ca+.+a C++c.++«o= .+±±.++
t.Ca++o..(c+ c++ oo+ .++++.. c±+=co+++c c+.+(+c C+aa Cc=(±.
tá.±o =+o.++oo c+aC.+.± +..c.++.o +.(..(++oo.
tá± c.++c ±+_± +c+ C++++á.± ++a+o +o +.+o.c+c C.+.±.a +.(..(+++c+c cc..o
±á.¬c..+o++c .=+ +ô+áo+++. ...± o..+c ca+.+a++c ±+ +(± o+o++.o c+.(+++c+c.
Co+±o a..+.o .á±++o C++cc.o cc o.o++a.+co++ _o=+c+c cc..o ..=+ .+a+ i =+.c(+++.
c+a C.+.±.a c+.(++++ c.+ao±. tá.±.a oc+++ .ac.(+o+oo+ c.+ao± tco +c+
C++++á.±+«o++c tá±± c±+=± C.++ cc.+ +.c±o.++.o o(..o+=± +.(..(++co+=±+c
81
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C.+c+o±+c c±c.++.o co+o+ Cc=(± .+a+ ¯ (+o cc t_.. ++...+ ++a+o +_cc++c
.ccá.±.a ±_co++ Coá+o+o + =+++ +±±+o.... ++( +.c±o.+ c(..o+++c c±c.++c
c..+o++a++o+oo tcoc. _c+o +=± o +o ++.(.c +o+o+Co++o+ Cc=(±. .++..o= tco+c
cca++.oa± c+.+ c+oo++ +co..(± +o ++(+oo Cco....a++ +..o++ cca++.oa± .c++
c.c.( .+ao+ Cc=(±. Co C.+o +o t_.. ++.±.± +..o=± c+ cca++«.c c.c.( _a+a
Cc=(±. tc++.( +..++«o= t...(± c±c++ .++++o+... Cc=±a o±+ c+a++«o= .++++..
oo= co++o+c .a¬.a± +c.caoo=± c..+o+.o .++++.. C++c± ++( c.. Cc=(± .+a+ ¯.
CoC.+o ..±.... +.c±o.+o= tc++.( +_cc++.oo C++=. t_.. ++(±. +.c±o.+ C±+C++c«±
t_.. ++.(.c +o+o+Co++o+ Cc=(±.
82
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
JÚ LiÓ©¥lûT Lôl× T§Ü ùNnRp
Aj§VôVm þ 6
1) A±ØLm
±+C+oo+ C++++o+.o. C.+oCc +c+ C++++± cc oc +.co= C+++o±+c+. C.+_..+c a+ +++á+o+o
+c+ C++++ .+c C+aa.... ccca cco= +o C++++c C±o ++.. tá.± cc+++. +c+
C++++á.±ac C±o a++++ oco+± oc± .++aC± ++..á.±a++ _+++. c==..++o +=(c±..
cc_ ccáo+...(cooc ±....ao a++++± o+= ++.. .+c c±+=+++. ...± +...ac =±+
C.+_co +=(c±... C.++c++ oc tá.±a+oác =±+ C.+C+ .ac.(+o Cc=(±.
cc +=(c±..+oa oo+ cc.+ CcooC++=a++co cccác .+a ±+_± .a=co C+aoc.+ oo+
oa+á.c+= a+++++o+o t+oac+o± C++(o+..(± C.++ ca oc -o±+c t+.++. t.Ca++±. c+..c
_+ac+++= =+.c.. ++o+++= ++.. tá.± C._+++a.
++..á.± C++c± ccca oc+ +=(c±.. .++a cca++.o c==..++.c ..=o+.... ±....ao
cccco= ++..á.± c±++..(+++. +o +=(c±.co .++aco c=.+c ccCc++± ±+_± oc
a.. ..... .ac.+( _+ac+++= oo+ ±o+±oo=± co++o a++++±+c+ ca .o oc.... c.+ao
t.Ca++o+c± o+.±..c± .+o tá.±+.o c±+=+++.
++..á.± cc.+ c+C.++ tá.±a+oa+«..a+ cc_ Co+.a++ =+.c...(+++. _c+o c+C+a±
..±ao.o. C._±.+o+c +..++oo ++..á.± C.++ +=(c±.c.c tcc+o+aca oo+ tá.±a+oa
C+a±a++ t+.++ C+aac± t.Ca++o+c± oo+ c+..c C+aac± tá.± c±++...( tco+.
++..á.±a+oác =±+C.++±o ca+ ++..á.± C.++
c+a+.o ++.±oco CcC++ccc± .ac.(+o+±o .c..o+++c ++... o+=(c±.c+++c ++.. c±+=+++.
cc +=(c±.c.c oc tá.±a+oa .ac.(++co+++c +...ac tá.± c±++...+o +.oao ±++ca+c
cc..a +=(c±... .ac.(++c.o o(..o+++c +...ac tá.± C.++ca++c± ca tco+a.
+=(c±... c+a oa+áo+Cc+. t.Ca++o+Cc+ c+..c C+aaCc+ .oo+±o o(..o+++c tá.± cc_ ..o
c±o+±++ +_c+=(. ++..á.± C.++ +=(c±... oc tá.±a+oác =±+ C.++±o ++.±oco
±+C++cca .ac.(++co+= c+a++ +.c±o.+ C±+C++cco+++c tá.± ++..á.± C.++cco= tco
co+a±+c tá.±a+=±. +=(c±..+oa+ ca++o++c =.++c± _ac ±+_± C++o.c+«o=± ca C+ao
C+oc _+ac+.+ =(C+aco++++ C.+cc *+a+c .oc+c C._c.oa± .ccá.± c±+=+++.
++..á.±a+oa oc+ +=(c±.co =(.(++acoc++c .o.c ..co++++ ca .o C++=( C.+c.o
oa+áo+c±. t.Ca++o+c± c++c± _c c+C.++ tá.±.a C._+++a. oc-o± ±++ca+c .o
.ac.(++c.o o(o=± tá.± C._+++a. ±+C++cca+ ++..á.±.a ccc++ C+aa± c+a++o +o
++..á.±.a (+ocác c..oo .oo+±o .ac.(+oCc+ c++Cc+ c±a++. .+ =++o cca++c cc±+_.
A). N¬Vô] úSWjûR ùR¬kÕùLôsYRtLô] LÚ®ûV LiÓ©¥lTRtLô] ØVt£Ls SPkÕ
ùLôi¥ÚkR LôXm:
i¯¯¯_± _=( c+c+C.+a( ++.a+ ++a+o á++a( cc.ca c++ao +±++a± +=(c±+oc.c ca++.c c±co=
c+o+. _c+o +a+cc.c+±++ o+++c coo+ =+..+c c+_. C.++±o C.+ac..+. .+ .cCo+ac¬
++.a+ ++a+o .C.+c+ .o+.oo+±+ C.a++áaa C++cc C·+++ cc.cao= i¯·¯_± _=( c++ao +±++a±
+=(c±o+c± t+.++ C+aac± c+a..o+o+. .+o +±++a+.o C±o± ccc++ C+aa Cc=(± cc+
tc«=acc ++a=±++ ±co +o+o= .+o++ +±++a++c .ao++++= ±c +o+.a t.Ca++o=± c.+
+=(c±o+....+. c++acao +±++a++c ±.... o++c++.c -o±++o C++=C. + oa+áo+....+.
±c +o+a+o .a+=± .o+±++a++++++ ++..á.± c±++....+. .o++±++a+++++c Coo++=. C.aco=
c±++.... ++..á.± o+c +=(c±.c++++ cocc.+a++ c±++.... ++..á.±a+=±.
±....o +±++a+.o +=(c±+oca ++..á.± C.++c++c..+a cco c+.oa +=(c±..+oc.c ..=++
±++ca+c o++o+ +=(c±...o C++=( +±++a± oa+á...oCa+ oa+á... .=+«o=
t.Ca++..(++c.oCa+ oo+ c+..oCa+ o(o+ c±a±. tá±± C._coc c+a+.oa± Co.c.aa±
.+ tcc+o=+++. .+o +.oao c++acao ++±++a+.oo +=(c±+oca o+c ±cc= +±++a± C+aco+++c
tá±+.o Coo++c.a C.aca.c± ±_.+± ±cc= +±++a ++..á.± C.++ca c++acao +±++a++c
t=.±a+c ++..á.±a+oá.± tá.± C.++ ccca o+c .o t.Ca++..(+oCc+ c++Cc+ c±a±.
83
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
_ Co+.oC.+o++c ++..á.±.a Coo++=.a +a++±C.o C.++co=±C.++ ±++ca+c ca+
++..á.±.a C++=( oc+o t+.++ C+aaCc+. t.Ca++..(+oCc+. c++Cc+ C+aa+±o o(o=± tá.±.a
+a++±C.o C._+++a. o+=.c+= c=+.o +±++.C.+co+++c Co+.oC.+.a +=(c±++ o+= ccca
C.o c Co+.oC.+ao ccc++ C+aa.... c±c± cc+ .c.+ao ++..á.± C._+++a cc_ .c++o
C++coo+±. ..±.... +.oao .+o .a=.+± +.a+cca C.o tc.. CcC++ccc± c=+.o+ +±+_±
Co+.oC.+.a t+.++ C+aaCc+. .ac.(+oCc+ oo+ c+..c C+aa+±Co+ o(o=± tá.± C.+_ .co+++a.
tá±± C.+ Cc=±aoc c+a± ±+_± co+a++c+.o .+ t=a+++++. .+=±+.oao +±+_ c=+c
Co+.oC.+ ++..á.±a+oá.± C.oo±. C.o c ±.... Co+.oC.+ ++..á.±a.c .ac.(++ +±+_
c=+c Co+.oC.+ C+aac±. t.Ca++..(+oc±. c++c±+c tá±+.o C.o .± +±+_ c=+c Co+.oC.+
++..á.±a+oc± C.+Cc=±a+ c+a±.
.++.oao cc.+ .á++C++co Cc=(±. a++++± ++..á.± c±++. ±.(C± C+aa± + o+c++
ccá.±.a co+o+++. ++..á.± .c++coca o±+ ++..á.±.a CcC++cca oc+++ .ac.(++c.o
o(o=± C++o+o C.+++ +..++oc ±....ao oc ±+ +.c±o.+ C++c± C.++ ±.(C± a+ o.oa(+++.
ccCc ++..á.± tá.±a+oa o±o= o+C± ++coa++ C+ao.. Cc=±a+ c+a±+co+=±.
2) Lôl׬ûUdLô] ¨TkRû]Ls:
cc +=(c±.c+= ++..á.± .++++.. C._co+= ô±+=. +.+o.c+c c+aC++co Cc=(± cc.+ Cc+±++
to+c coo+ ++(+oo± tco +..c.+a+=±.
++..á.± C._co+= +±±+o.... o=++.o .+a +=(c±.. C.++co+ Cc=(±.
_ +=(c±..+c+ +++a± aoc±+c .+a cc+++ .co+ Cc=(±.
. +=(c±.cc +..++.o C.++±+c oc C+a+ ++..o+±ao++ .co+ Cc=(±.
= .o+=(c±..+c+ Co+±o+.+o= C.+_+oo+±ao++c± t.Ca++...+oo+o++c± .co+ Cc=(±.
¯ ++..á.± C++cco+++c c==..++.c +=(c±.. cca++.o C.++±+c oc ..=o+ Cc=(±.
.c+c C.++±+c oc +a=a++«o= t...o+±ao++ .co+ Cc=(±.
C±++=..c+oc +_o+±+c các+o+±.
cc +=(c±.c+= ++..á.± c±+=co+++c o=+ caCc=(±+c+o + ++..á.±o++c ±....
+.o.+(+oc c+a.+a..+.o +++a± .a++C+aco++ .co+ Cc=(±. ++..á.±o++c ±....
+.o.+(+oc+o tcc+o+....+. ++..á.± C._co+++c c+coo=+c cc+ ±....ao .+ c±o+±++
t=a..(+++. Co+±o +.+ac .c++ +.++.o+ ++a+o +=(c±..+«o=± ++.. c±++ Cc=(±.
Co+±o a.. +.+ao ++..á.± C._co+=co c+a..o++c ±.... +.o.+(+«o= ..++... Co+±o
a..++.++«o++c to+a=++c ô±cc±+_.
.a+.+ao tco tCo++++c oo+ -o.C.+cc+c +±±+o.... +=(c±..+c.
+cao C++c.++c oo+ +=oô.( c.++c.
.a++c. co+= c.++c. ..±.... .a++c. co+=+.o t+.++ C+aco+= c+a±+c taáao
C+aoc.++c
+..++c. c+c.++c oo+ c.++c. o+c+ ca+.+a±. oo+ ±=+C+ao.+(+«o= ±.(C±a+c
oa+á..+c oo+ c.oa+.( C.+.±+c.
±coa+c oo+ coo=+«o++c +++.+ c.++c oo+ ±coa+c oo+ co+=+oc
C++a+=.+a± c.++«o=± _c+o .+o +.c±o.++«o= Co.c..(± C.+cc+«o= .+ C.+_+o++
++..á.± c±++..(c+o.o
.+ C.++ C.++ +oc+.oo +cc++o C++=( +oc.+. C.+cc+«o=± C+aoc.++«o=± o++++ +±++
++..á.± .++++.c c++ coo= oo+..(+++. to+a=+++= ±c+++c. Cco+=o.+o++c a++=++c
oo+ =cao +.+ +=(c±..+«o= .cc.+ coo+oo+..(+++. o+C.+.oa +o.±+c .cc.+
o+++ + coo=+o c++ ..++..(coc.
B) ×Õl×û]Ü
c+o cc .áC++o.cao± .+...c.c +=co+ Cc=±a+ ±....a+co+=±. ++..á.± C._co+++c
cca+++= ..++... +.+o.ca±+=±. .oc a+o± cccCcc++o .+...cc cc.+ cc.+ +=c..+
oo+ +a±+c..+ cc.o+o .+ c+a++o CcC++c+c .=++c .oo++c+o+o +=co+..(±C.++ ±.(C±
.oc .+...cc t_+..(+o..(+++.
84
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
cc +=(c±.. .+ao++ .co=± C.++ + ++±+o.... +.o (Prior art) a+o c+a.+ao+...+oo++ .co+
Cc=(±. ++±+o.... +.o cc ++o+a=±++ =+.c(c+ cc.+ ++..á.± C++cco+++c c==..++o
+a.....(co oo+ ++ooC+(co= t.... ++o++c c.( C±++o +c _=±. + c.++ c±c++Co+
C+.+o+±a c±c++Co+ .co+o+±. C++(o+.... ++o+..++o o+= C++(o+.... a+o++o ++±+o....
+.o .oo+c..+o .o +=co++ ±....ao cccc++ C+ccCa ca++.cac ±....a++
+co..(+++. ++..oo=± ++.±o ccc +a...(coCo+ +o ccc=o= c+a++ ±.(C± ++±+o....
+.oa+c+ +=co+... Cc=(±. .+ c+ ++(+o c+o+c +c+ ++=o= ..++...+. ..±....
+.oao + +=(c±..o+= ccc+o +++.±+=c .+o=±+ C+aa...( .co+o +.++. C++oo....
++«o= cccCa +o +c+ ++c Cco++.±o +..o+o+±ao++ .c+o+o± .+ C.+_++±. ±+C++c
.+a.ca+c+ ++±o+.... ccao=+..+c Ccoa(+«o=± C.++ ±+_± t.Ca++ cca++«o=± ...Ca
tco Cc_.+(+oc ±....ao+co+=±.
+=(c±.. .++a cca++c ...± .co.+ao + ++±+o.... +.oac .=+a++ cc±C.++ .o ô±+=.
-c_ C.aa+oo+c c±+oo +a±+=o+... Cc=(±.
c.++ c±c++o+c Ccoa.++Cc+. .++a++Co+. .Co+( Co+.a...a c+ c±c++Co+ +=(c±.cc
ccao=+..+c .c..+.
C.++ ±o+o..Ca C.++ c±o+o +=(c±.cc ccao=+..+c .c+o+o ..±.... ccao=+..+c
c+aC±+± ccao =+..+o++ +co..(+++
C.++ ±o+c ccCa+ccc± .+a+oo +±a c.+ao +=(c±..+c+ C.++ t.Ca++++ c+o+Co+
oo+ ..±.... +.oao C.++±o+.o C++=( C.+a +_++c+. ..±.... C+aoccao=+..+c
C.++ t.Ca++++o tco ccao =+..+c cc+++ c..+
.++a± cc.oc a+o+++= c++++C.+o +o cca++oc Ccoa.+c+ co+c+ cc C.c++ c±co .co+
Cc=(±. +o .++a± Ccoa....+oo+o++ .co+ Cc=(±. o+c+ ccca++.o C.++ ±o+c c.o
C++(++ c+++Cc+ oo+ C.++ ao+++o c(++. .+ao++oo+o++Cc+ c+.+( C+a+ oa Cc=(±. +o
Ccoa(+oo ++..á.±+c. ++..á.±o++c ++..... c==..++c. c.++.a+c .c+c .+a+o
c.o....o++Cc+. o..++ c±c++Co+ oo+ ++ c±c++Co+ .co+ Cc=(± ..+...++c. cca++c
oo+ c.(++c oo+ ++.o+oo .+c C+aa.... C.++ C±+±ao+c oo+ ++C+o C±+±ao+c
c ..+c+c ±+_± +.a...++c _+acc+.+ tco.o+a_o+ Cc=(±.
C.++ c±o+o+c ccao=+..+c cc.+ oc a+o++o .c++..+ao=± C.++ +o ccao =+..+oc
c+a+.o+c oo+ c±c± cc.+ .+c C+aa...+oo+cc++ .co+ Cc=±a+o.o. Co C.+o các.a+c
±+_± c+Cc+ c .a..++c± .co+ Cc=±a+o.o.
ccao=+..+.o C.++c++ t.Ca++..(++aco+ Cc=±a+ c+a±. C+aocoo+±. c+..c. C+a+ ++.(oo.
.+c C+aa...+o Co+.oo++.+ co.a..+c c±co+c ++.+o= táa ccao=+..+c .ao.+c C.++ c±co+c
++.+o= táa ccao=+..+c cc_ .ao.+c C.++ t.Ca++++o .co+ Cc=(±.
.++a++oc -occa++c cc +=(c±.cc .+...c.c +++..(+oo+±ac.+ao .c..+
Cooc.(+oo+±ao++ .c+o+o ±.(C± ocC±o +.c±o.+ C++a c±a±. _+Cc. ..±.... +.c±o.+ac
.+o+c c==++.c ccCc+c Ccoa.±c a+o++.=± .c++ ccCc+c .=+a++ c.c.( .+ao+ Cc=(±.
+.c±o.+ C++c± +=(c±.cc coo+ oc.±+.oa± Ccoa( oc=c C++=±co=± ..+++o o+c+
+o Ccoa.+c+ +.c±o.+ C++c± +=(c±.cc -o+oc.±.a .++o++oo+o++ .c+o+o± oc
Ccoa..... +=(c±..+c+ .+...cc+ oc.± =.+.+(..a+ cc_ +=(c±o+..(+++.
C) LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£:
+=(c±.. ca++.a. ..o Cooc+++ cc_± =+.c...(+++ C.+_+oc.a +=(c±..+c+ ++.+ao
++o+a= ++c C++=.cc± .o Cooc++ .á++ C++co c±++o+ .o.o ccCc.o oc ++a+.o
C++o.ca.( c±cC+aco+= +±c±++ .co++o+ .o.oa+ cc.Co C+cc.
++..á.±+ +..++o ...±.... Co.c .++ ..=o+...(co.c ô±cc± _o+a++o ±....ao+c.c.
++±+o.... +.o cc+ c.+ao c++cCc ccc +a...( tcoCo+ o+= ++.. c±++...(c.o+.++.
+=(c±.c.c =+++ ++o+a= ++c C++=.ca +. c±c C+aa± c.+ao Cco....a++ .co+ Cc=±a+
c+a±.
=+.c.. .+o +.oao ++o+a= ++c ...+oca cc.ca .++.+o++c C.++±+c Co+±oac.. .a++a±
C+ac.+ =.cc± C.++ca. .+C+ ++o+a= ++c cc+ C++o ..=o+...(cooc C++o+± ±=+o ++c
C++=. +.=a+.o +++.c..o+=± _=±. +±±+o.... ++.±o tco +±±+o.... +.+ao +a++á oc
85
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
++c C++=. ccca ±.(C± o=+a+cca cc_ .+C++o oc +a=a± C+a+++.
aocc± +=(c±.. ca++a± CccCc++c.c cc.+ =+.c.+oo++. Cooc+c +.oo=± +=(c±.c+=±
Cc_.+( .co=±.++o aoc± Cco..(+++. ..±.... +.oao cccc± C+cc +C+ +=(c±..
ca++ .co++o+ cc.o+=±. +C+ aoc± .co=± C.++ ±.(C± .oC+cc c.+++. +=(c±.. .+a+
cc_ ccca C++c± C.++ +=(c±.. ca++ cc+ C+++C++.a+c+ .+a +=(c±.. cc..(c+o
=(.(+o...(co c==± C.++±+c+ oo cc.o+=±. o+c+ c++cCc tco c±c++ c++ C.++±+c
oc ±+_..±co+co.o cc.o+=±. oc+o .+o c++a++++c .a=( ==++.oo C++=±co+ Cc=(±.
coc.±a++ .+ ..... c==++c+o Ccoc++co +=(c±..++ .co+ Cc=(±. Ccoa.+oo+o+c
+.oa++ .co+ Cc=(±. c++cCc tco c±c+++= tá.± C++c± +=(c±.c+=±..Ca Cooc++
t=a+oo+ Cc_.+( .co+ Cc=(±. c++cCc ++±+o.... +=(c±.c c++ cc=o=. C.+oo oo+
ccCc++± ++= Cc=(± cc.o++++ .+ C++a..(+++.
.a=.+co++. .+o ccCc++±+c+ o+=áa co+a++c± t..ao++ .co+ Cc=(±. +o +=.c±.c+=
c+a±+co++c± .co+ Cc=(±. .ao.+c +=(c±.. ca++ac ±+ ++a++co.o +=.c± C+aco+=
.c+«o= ...Caa+c .a+.+a+c Cc_.+(+.o +co+= ++±+o.... +.o.a c.(C±++o±++ +=o+o
c(++o C++co... Cc=(±. ccCc .+.±...c.c +=o+.( Cc_.(++ .+a..o+= .áC++o.cac
ô±co tá.±C++c± cc+c -o c+a+.o ccCc+c Ccoa.(.Cc+ oo+ oc+oc ccao=+..+«.Cc+
c.c.(..+ao+ Cc=±a+o.o.
_c+o c++o ..=++coc+_.c c.c. Cc=(±. .a=(o=±..ao+c Cc_.+(+c +o +.+ao
++o+a= ++c C++=. ccca+o Cooc++ +a+oo+o+=±. .+o +o.c +.oa+c+ to= o.cao++ +.
.co+o+±. ..±.... +.oao oc.... c.+ao +a...(co -oc+a++oc Co+=.. ±+ tá.±
C++ao+±. to+a=+++= .+a c±c++oco +o.c c++a++c =+.c..c.+ao+c C±+..a =+.c.. c.+a+c
..=o+...±co+o+±. +=(c±.. ca++.c +.o cc..o o++.o+= +o.c ±.(± co+a±oo. +o.c
-o++«o= tco c+a..± co+a±+co+=±. ++±+o.... +.oa=.c c.c.(o ++=+oo+ oc+=
c++++..Ca Cc_.+... +=( t=a++co+ Cc=(±. .+a .=++c ccCc+c++= ...Ca Co+±o
a.. Co+.a. c+± .oo++.oao .c+c ccCc+c.+a± oc+oca++ c.c.( .+ao+ Cc=±a+o.o.
+=(c±..+oc cc±++á+oc ô±cc± -c_ oc.±+.o +a++á++c.( Cc_.+(+.o ±+.c.c±a++.
ca++.c +ac++=...o oo+o++ .co+ Cc=(±.
_ +o ca++.co= cc +ac .co+ Cc=(±. C±o±
. +o +acc -o± c±c t_+..(+o... Cc=(±.
ca++.c +++co+o +±ao++Cc+ Cco....a+co++Cc+ .co=±C.++ +ac C++ccoc o+.=cc C±o
.±+oo++c± .áC++o.c .±++co+ Cc=(±. ._+ +aco +=(c±.. .±+.o ca++ .o.o cc_
_=± ..+++o c±c Cco....a+co+ oo+oo+ oo+ oc .ao.+oc.±ac+o .+
_++áa+.oaoo++o+ oo+ oc các+o+± o+c ++a=±+ cc_ C+cc c.+++. +±±+o.... +.oao
++o+a= +ccoca+Co ca++.c.a CcooC++=a+oo+ca++ .c+oCo+ C++a..(± .+++o .o +a++
.co+ c±+o+Co+ c±.c cc =±+co+ooo+o++Cc+ .=+o+o +=(c±.. .±+.o ca++
=.+.+(..ao++++.
c.ac±c ++..á.±a± +..+a± oc+ o+.=.. ++.. Cc=(± +=(c±..+ ++.c .áC+++++o ++..
Cc=(±. ++..oo+ooo+ cc_ cco oc c.ac±c±+c+ +o...±++ .+ao+co++ .co+ Cc=(±.
++o+a=±+c.o c.. ++C+ C±o+c+ cc.+ C.++±+cooo ±+_± a+ac+oa+.o ±+±c++ ca+o++.o +caco++
.co+ Cc=(±. C.++c++ +=(c±... +..c.+ao =(.(++c+ +±c±+co++ .c..o+o =+..++ .+C+
oa±+c+ +coa±++o++ .c..+ ocao+ c±a+oo++c(+++. to+a=+++= C.=+oc _..+«o++c
c.ac±c ++..á.±.a c(++o C++cCc+±. o+= ++..á.± ±+_± ca+o+ c++.a oco+± ++..o++c(±
..+++o +oo .oao++aa cccác ++.±o= C±o +o t..+oo cc_± =(.(+o...co.o cc+ _o+a++c
±....ao ++±c+++c -o± +o ++..á.± ±+..++o++ _o+..(+++.
D) ùRô¯p TVuTôhÓ ¨ûX/TVuTôÓ:
++..á.± C._co+++c +=(c±..+c+ +..c.+ao .ac..o+±ac.+ao C.+_+o+oo+o++ +++a± .co+
Cc=(±. Cc_ c+a+.o+oo +_cCoc++o +o +=(c±.. Cc_± o++c±++ .c++c.o+.++. .+
+..c.+o= C++=(ca+oo+o++c± ±co =o+++= .acoa+oo+o++ ++±o+±ao++c± .co+ Cc=±a+
c+a±+c+. .+o +=(c±..+c+ cc C.+c.o t+.++ C+ac+Co+ oo+ +o.C.+coc .=+a++
++±c.o.oCa+ C++o+±++ C++=±c+o+o± ..± +co..(++ C.+cc t+.++ C+aa+oo+o++ .co+
Cc=±a+ c+a±+c+.
86
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
ccCc.o .+o +=(c±..+c+ oa+á.. c.+.a. .++ao++Cc+ oo+ oc cc .=+ +.c±o.+.a
.++ao++Cc+ .co=± ..+++o + C++oo...(co c.+ao t.Ca++o++oo+o++ .co+ Cc=(±.
oa+a C+aco+++c ++++a± oo+ t+.++ao +..c.+ CcooC++=aco+++c .+o c+a..+c oo+
+..c.+ao t.Ca++++o .c..+ cc..c .ac.+( cc+ C++o o ca+.oo+++. oc ±....ao
o+c Co+±o .ac.+( cc_ .±o+..(+++. .+o a+o++o Co+±o cc+ c+a+.oo=± ++..á.±+ +..++oc
=+.c.. +.+++a+o C++oo+a++ao ±+.ca+Ca+±+c a+o± t=( C.++ C±+±ao Co+±o +.c±o.+
cc.o+= =+.c.. oco+c Co+±o a.. +.c±o.+ cc_ cc a+o± t=(. Co C+a++o cc
+=(c±.cc Co+±o .ac.+( cc..o. C.+_+oc.a oc =+.c.. Co+±oa.. oco+c a+o+.o
=+o=± c.+ao .ac.(++oo cc..o =+.c(+++.
2) LiÓ©¥l©u ®[dLdϱl×Ls:
++..á.± C++c± C.++ c==..++.c +(oo++ cc cca± C+ao+...Cc=±aco+. +=(c±.cc
cca++c C.++±+c oc C+ao+...(cocc+ .o.oa+ cc.Co +c+=±.
cc c==..++.c ..=o+...(co coo+o=+..+c c..±a+co++ .co+ Cc=(±. +o .co=±
..±.... =+..+c ±+_± cca++.oo C++=( +o +=(c±.. ++a+o +.+ao ++.± ...+o ccca
+o c==..± .a++ C+aa.... ++oo C.+c.o oa+áo+Cc+ C+a o =(..Cc+ .ao.c.ca++Cc+
.co+ Cc=(±.
++±+o.... +.oac cca++c C.++c+c c++oc ±....ao coo+o=+..+oo ++...±co=± ..+++o
tá.±C++c± +=(c±.cc .+...cc. +=(c±.cc ++a± _+ac các++ coo+...±co+ Cc=(±.
+=(c±.c.c+ +±±+o.... +.+ao ++.± ...+o ccca o+=(c±...o C++=( C.+c.o+ oa+áo+Cc+.
+=(c±... oa+áo++ .=+oo =(.(+oCc+ +±a oc+= ccoo+o =+..+oc +o a±+c
oc c+o++«± Co+±o a..++«± ..=o+...( .co+ Cc=(±. o+=(c±...o C++=( C.+c.o+
oa+áo+Cc+. +=(c±... oa+á.. .=+oo =(.(+oCc+ +±a oc+= ccoo+= =+..+oc +o a±+c
oc c+o++«± Co+±oa..++«± ..=o+...( .co+ Cc=(±.
+=(c±..+oc .+a++.+o+ .=.cc c±co+c C+aocoo+++c oo+ c(++o++.(+c coo+o=+..+oo
C+ao+...±co+ Cc=(±. c(++o++.(+«± ccao=+..+oc .+a+o+«± C++o+++.o C.++±+c oc
c(++.+o++oo+o++c± tá.± C++a..(coc C++o+++Co+( c.c....+oo+o++c± .co+ Cc=(±.
3). G§ol×:
-oo+c++o= c+. .áC++o.c .c+oo+ .o.oa+ cc+ +.oao c+a.. +..c.+o= =+.c.. ++±c+
+.c±o.+ co.o+c c±++...(coc. oc-o± tá.± c±++..(co+= cccCa+ oo+ cccCa+
c+a... c...o+±. ++..á.± c±++..(co+= -c++± +.a+c c+a... cc.c..o+= Cooc++
=±+o+...(co+. c==..++c c+_oC++co..(±C.++. c==..++c t.C.+cc C.++ ±o+«o=
+co+...Cc=±a+ c+a±. ++..á.± oco+±+c+ ..o oc+ oco+ .o±Co+ oo+ a+
+o.+ Ccoa.±Co+ Ccoa.Cc=(±. + ô±o+=.c+_ +..c.+..(++co++ .co+ Cc=(±.
+±±+o.... c==..± C.++±o+c _ac C+aco+o= ++++ .co+ Cc=(±.
c.aa_o+.... ++o++o c+a.. .+c C+aa...++co=±C.++ ++..á.± oco+±+c+ ++..á.±.a
c±++c.o+±.
+o c==..++c ±+ ++..á.± c±++ac++co+o+±.
c+a..+.o .+c C+aa.(co+++c _o+a++«o= oo+ +..++c -o± co.o+c c.aa_o+...(coc.
oc+oc.±.a +_cco+++c ±....+c c.c cc+c t.c..+oc.±.a ±....a++o C++=( c+a..
Coáco+o+± cc_ C.++c++. C.+..(+++.
Co C+a++o +o ++.(+ +..++c oc+oc.±.a =+.c. +o Co.c+oc ±+ ±.(C± t.c..o+ oc.±ao
tco+ cc+ ±....ao c+a.. =±+o+..(+++. =+..++. C.++±+c .+...ccc.±. +=(c±.. .±
+.o. Co+±o.ac.+.( +.o. +=(c±... .++a C.++±+c oc+= coo+o =+..+c .oo+.±. c++cCc
.+c C+aa.... c==..++o tco -o coo+o=+..o= .+o++ C++(o+.... +c+o++c -o+++=
±++++ tco+ cc.+ t=.± cc_ t=a..(±C.++ ±.(C± +++(+oo c+a.. .+c C+aa c±a±.
c==..o+aao= ++..á.± C++a tá.± .o.o cc.oc ±....ao cc c+a... .+c C+aa +o ++(+c
c.+ C+a+ C++(++coc. =+.c.. cc ++..á.±ac C+oo+oo+ oc.±ac ±+ cc ca=.+( c.+oo+++c
to+a=± cc±+_. ++ác c.(ca ._o.+o= cc tco .+¬C.+a±o tco ++a.o.(o= c±++...±c+o
++..á.±ac ±+ cc ca++.c +o±ca+. C±o± c±o+ +o ++..á.±a+oa C±áo++cc t++ ++±c+++o
87
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C++=(c++ +_+o....+a. Cc..+o+o+o+o ±c++_+ Co+.ác t.ao= co o c==.c+oca cc++o
++co= CcoCa +c.( ++Ca. ±+_± c+c+.+ .++.c..o+++c Co+±o a..+.o ++a c.(± C.++
++co=cCoCa .++.c+o+++c c.+ao ca ccc++ C+a+c+o+a. _c+o + +=(c±.. cc_
o=+a..ao++++ cc_ Coáco+....+.
4) Lôl׬ûUdLô] ®iQlT SLp RVô¬jRÛm éoj§ ùNnRÛm:
++..á.± c==..+++++c -o ++o oa+á..o+= ccca. +=(c±.cc ..a+o± .co+ Cc=±a+
c+a±+c+. ccCc ++..á.±o++c ++o oa+á....= .a=( c.+a++ cáo+..(+++.
+=(c±.cc ..a+o±
_ ++..á.±. c==..++c ++o oa+á..o+++c +..c.++c
+=(c±.cc ..a+o±.
++..á.± c==..+c ++o oa+á..o+++c coo +.c±o.+a++ +o +=(c±... ..a+o+++.(c+
_=±. .+o ô±+=..c tco.++ .co+c+c.
=+.c.. Co+±o a.. ca++.c.a +ao+o+±a c.+ao .+a +=(c±.co tco.±++co
oc+++..+.o Co+=+++oa Cc=(±.
++..á.±a± =+..++ +=(c±.. .±+.o.aa± =++o cca++.oa± c==..++o .a++ C+aco+=
ccca oc+ C+++o +c++c ±....ao ..c+c +±±+o±+c tco+a+o C+cc+«o= c..++=+oo+
.áC++o.c cca++c tco.o+aco+ Cc=(±.
.+o +..c.+ac -o±. +=(c±.cc ++a± c..±a++ .á++C++co..(+++. CoC.+o +=(c±...o
=+++ coo+++c oa+áo+c± tá.±+.o c.+..(+oc± c±+++.
cc +=(c±..+oa oc+ +=(c±.. .=ao C+a±a++ =(..(coo+o ca oc+ C+++o c±c+oo ±+c±
=(.+.C.+( .c..+a. oc+o ±c±c+c c..±a..a+occ++ .co=± cc_ C.++c++o ++..(+++.
.oc+o ô±o+=. c.oc+c c+.(+c+c. cao= ca+ +=(c±.. .++ =+.c.+oo+ oc ±.(C±
Coá++co+++. =+..++ ca +ac +=±. Cc=±a =+.c.+oo+ ca++.c .++ cco= C.++±+c oc
Coá++co+co.o. C±o± +=(c±.cc ++..±+++c =+++± ±+c± ++áa++++a±+c +ac+c ++= Cc=±a
+.oo= c.a ocoa+.
.o C+a++oo +=(c±..+oo .o oc+++..+c ±+++c .++ac..+ t=(. ..c+oo c+o cc
±+± oo+ c+o ±+++c a=o+±+c+. cc..o ..a+o+ ++=Cc=±a+± ca++.c+«o= .c
++áa++++a±+c +ac+.o c..± c±++.C.++c+c cc_ ++= Cc=±a+± c+a±. .o+= .a=( co+a
++a=++c tcoc. coo+co++ tá.± C++ao+c ++++a±+c oc+= các++ .co+ Cc=(±. =.+c+c
oc ++.. ±+++c ±.(C± .c..+ cá+o oco+c tá.± C++cc.o +.(..(+++++. .a=.+co++.
a=o+±+c ++..±+++.oa± o=..a o+o+++.oa± +++ C++co .ao± C.++ ..±.... ++..oc.±
c..± c......+ cc+ C+cco= c.. +++ C++cc+ c+a±+c+. tá.±+.o c=..o+= ±.(±
oo+ ...±.... ±++_ c+.+(+.oa± +.= c+.+(+.oa± C+aco+=± c+a±+co++ tco+. _c+o
+=(c±.cc coo+o =+..+oo ±++_ c+.+(+c ±+_± +.= c+.+(+.o. .++a cca++c .c+o+o
±.(C± oc toc.ao C++=( các+c tá.±.a C.+ .ao±.
B) Lôl׬ûU ®iQlT SLp RVô¬l©u SûPØû\ AmNeLs:
++o oa+á.. c.++c ±+_± o+= Co.c..(± ±+++c _+ac ++.(o= ++( Cc_.(+c+c. .++.oao
++..á.±o++c c==.. ++o oa+á.co cc±++áac+ -c_ ±.... Co.c+c C+ao+...±co+ Cc=(±.
+±±+o.... c==..±+c+ cCa cc +=(c±.....++ao++ ±.(C± .co+ Cc=±a+. coo+c+
Co.ca+=± oo+ C.++c+c cc +=(c±.. +±±+o.... +=(c±..+oc Co+=..++c± + .co+o+±.
.+ c_++.=+o +=(c±.. cc_ .±o+..(+++. .+ =+..++ tá.±+.o c=..o+++c ++o oa+á..o+=
±+c± c+a±+c+.
.a=.+co++. coo+o=+..+oo +=(c±.... .++a cca++c C.++±+c oc Cooc++ =+..±...(
.co+ Cc=(±. +=(c±.. ++±+o....o+++c C++o+± c..±a++ Coáco+... Cc=(±. +±±+o....
+.+ao ++o+a= ++c C++=. ccca ccca++.o .+a+oo +±ac.+ao + .±++co+ Cc=(±.
.+ ±.... co+a++c±+c+ +=(c±..cc coo+o =+..+oo tco cc c+a± .+a Co+±o a..+.o
-c++c+ +.a cccco= Coáco+o+±ao++ .co=± ..+++o .+ C±+=+.c..c+_ .co+ Cc=±a+
±....ao c+a±+co++ tco+. .+o +.oao ++o+a= ++c ...+o ccca cc+ C+++C++.a .+
c+a++o .ac.(+o..(co+= cc co+a++c± tco+. coo+o=+..+.o .±..ca ++±±+o±+c o+co+c.
88
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
ccc= _+acc+.+ +o.±++ .á++C++c«± c.+ao ++o oa+áo+... Cc=(± cc.o++++ .+o C+++C++.a
=+.c...(+++. ..±aoo+c..+o +=(c±.cc ±.... cca++c ccCc+c.+a± Co.caoo+±o
các++ ++ Cc=±aco=±.
-c++co++. .++++.c+++c c+a..+.o c±c C+aa+oo+ c.+ao+c tá.±+.o c==..± tco.o+aco+
Cc=(±.
tá.±+c Cooc++c± +_o+±++c± coo+=+..+oc -o± c..±a++ +++ C++co+oo+cc++c± .co+
Cc=(±. ++..á.± .++++.c+=± tá.± C++aoo=±..Ca _c coo+±++ .+ ++±++ ccco+o .+o
-c++c+ ±.... Co.c co+a++c± C._+++. -c++± +.a+c tá.±+c c+a++o o+++c ccc C+aa
.ao± oo+ ccc C+aa .ao++ cc..o +++ C++cco+= .+o c+.+( tocco+o C±++=. c.+ao
co+a++c± t..ao++++. C++a..(± tá.±+c =+.c.+oo+ oc+= các++Cc+ oo+ c++cCc +
ccáo+...±c...±c..o+= ±++++Cc+ .co+o +.++.
coo+o=+.cc coo .=+ cc±++áa+c .a=( c+a++.oo C++=(co+. cc_. +=(c±.cc o.o...
±+C++c_ +=(c±.. ++a++co+ Co+±o a.. +.+.a .++a các+c +o.+a+=±. c±o+±++ .+o
+o.+ao +co+±+c +c+ .++ .co=± .+o .++a+c+ .+o +=(c±.. +±±+o.... +.+a+c ......
cc_ +c+=±.
.a=.+c+ .=+ao +=(c±.cc ccc= ccáo+...±co=±. c++cCc tco ca++.c+c oo+
..a.+(+c .c+.+ .+a +=(c±..+c+ c..± Ccc_ c++co+ cc.+ .++ .+o .=+ao =+.c(c+
++..á.± c+ca+oc .±o+±+=±. +o ca++.c+c oo+ ..a.+(+«o= c++cCc .c+o +ac+c
ccáo+...±co=±. oc toca.c .+a +=(c±.c+=± ..±a +ac+«o=±..Ca .c+o Cc_.+(+.o
Cooc++ t=a c±+++. .+o. .=+ao +=(c±.cc C++o+± =+.c...(+++. o+c+ c.o c.(co+=
+=(c±.. ++±+o....+ cc_ =+.c....±co=±. +=(c±.... .++ +c= +++ C++cco+= .a=.+c+
.=+ao ccáo+...(co c+a++c toc+c+c. ++±+o.... +.oo= ±++++c cc+=c«± .ccca++c
.co+..(+++.
+=(c±.c.c..++a cca++oc t.c±a++ .á++C++coo+±a c.+ao -c++c+ .=+ .c+.o
Co+=++o +_+++. +=(c±.... .++a cca++.o ++..á.± c+ca co o C.++c+c c±c++o o+c
occ+a. ...=+ao ++.... cca++.o ±....a++o C++=(o+c cao+c±+c tá.± C++ao+c c.+c+c
cc_ c+a.+a..o+oo+c ca .cc+_ oc+++a. +=(c±.... .++ coo+..(c+++=± tá.±C++a o
ccáo+...(cocc+++=± ...Ca ca++.c c±+± c..o+= ca .+o ao+.a .+a+c+++a. C.++
c±c++o+c .+o cca++c cá.+a+c .+a+o+c c±c++o c±+=c+o+c c±o+±. +=(c±.cc
++..±+++oc c.++.o cá+oáa .+ toc+++. .+o .+a+o++c ++a++c..các tá.±+oc
±....a c..+ c±o+±. các+c tá.±ac ±....ao .+ cc+++.
coo+o=+..+oc ++c++c+ .=+ao .a=( c+a++c tcoc. +coa±+c c.a..++oc các+c coo+±.
±+_± cc_± o+=± C±+... c==o.+aoco +=(.a+oo+ c±c++o.c. .++a coo+± _+ac
_=±.
+=(c±.c.c. .++ ccáo=± coo+++.o +a c.a..± C.áa oc+= toc+++. ccCc.o
+=(c±..+c+ c++a c±co ++=+oo+o++ .co=C±co to+a=+++= c.a..++o+c.c +..+.o
c(++.a..o++c±. c+..+ Co+++± .o++Co+++± _+ac+.+ ++..o+±ao++c± .co=±. c.a..++c
ccáo+.... .=++c c=+o+o c.a..++o =+a....±co=± .+o c=+c +=(ca+oo+ c±c++oo±
=+.c....±co=±.
+=(c±..+c+ ±c++a ..=..+ ++_ .++ao++ .co=±C.++ +o +++c .oCc_ .++++c oo+ .=++.o
+.±o++.. c.a..++c .a=co c.+ao t.Ca++±++c+c. +o.±++ =+..o++++ .+o .++++c ±+_±
.=++«o= ±=(± c= ..a+o± ....(+c+c. ++a=±++ c.a..++oo C+++C++.a c+a++c
.c..+o.o. c.a..++c C++(+.o ±.+o++o c.+ao+c oc+C++o ccá.. c+a+.o+c t.Ca++..o+=
coo= tco+. ccCc ±c..=..+ ++.+. .++ao+c c+o cc c.a..++o± to+a=+++= +.oa+c
.++++c C..±+o++ c.aa...( ..a+o±++ ++....(+c+c. CoC.+o oa+á.. c.+ ++a+o
+=(c±..+.o oo+ Co+.a +.c±o.++.o =+.c(co+++c c.a..+.oCa+ c(++o ++.(co++ tco+.
C±o± o=c .±+o .=++c oo+ C..±+c C.+_+o±+c +=(c±..+c+ a++a=++.+ ++a+oo++
.co=±C.++ +++a±+c =++oC++.( c.a..±++ .co+++. +o± =+..++ tCo++cao .ao.=..a
+=(c±.. cco ..±+c+ coa++ +.o+.oo =+o++ các±±++ .co+o+±.
+=(=a+oo+ .=._c±c++c coo+o=+..+.o +=(c±.cc t=.±a+c .a+=c.++.o các++
ccáo++ cá+«o=c ..=..+ c±o+±+co+=±. to+a=+++= +=(c±o+.... C.+co+c+ c++a±++Cc+
oo+ cc ±c ..=..+ +++++Cc+ .co+o+±. + c+o co++o .a+=+++ cc_ ++.(c+ +=(c±...
89
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
.á++ C++co ±+c± toc+a±++ tco+. ++..á.± C.+_co cc_o= tá.± C++ao+c cc.c .±a±+c
cc_ oo+ .oa+.o.C.+c++. ++..á.±a+o c±++...(co ++..á.±o=co c+a... ++..á.±ac
.ac.+.+c .++++... c.aa_o+++.
tá.± C++ao +±±+o.... c+a+.o+.o .±o=±C.++ + +o +=(c±.... .++a Co+±oa..
++..±+++c .++a +.+o.c+c coo+o=+.co Coáco+..(cCo+( +o ca+o+ *+a++ c+oco±+c
++o++.oa± o++c.+o oc+= c==..+.o oa+a C+aa Cc=±a+ ++..á.± c+cco= cc=co
Cc.oa+=±.
++..á.± c+ca+o oa+áo+..(± tá.±+oc Co+.a+c C.++c++ co+a±+c C.áa tá.±Ca+( Co+.++
+_o+±+c c±co+c ca+o±+c tá.±+c .++aco=±. c==..± oa+áo+..(± C.++ +a...±c+o
++±+o.... +.o.a oca..o++++ C.áa tá.±a+c+ ...± oa+áo+..(+++. ++..á.± c+ca C.áa
tá.±.a Co+.a++ tá.±+.o +_o+±++c± +±co.+ oo=± c.+ao± oa+á..o+o coc+c tá.±a+c+
++..á.± oco+++o c==..+Co+( C+a++ +±a.co+..(± c+o cc ±+c± C.+c+o±+c ++±+o....
+.oac+ c+a.c+= ...Caa± o+++ ++o+++ oo+ -c++c+ +.a+o.±c++ cc± c+a.. oo+
±+.c±o++ C+aa± +.c±o.++.o Cc++ C++co+oo+o++c± co+=+++.
+(oo+c +=(c±.. .++a +o cca++c Co+.a tá.±+c .c++o± .+o±++ =+.c. Cc=±a+
+o Co+.a +=(c±... .o..(++±.
cao+c±+c C.áa tá.±+o= ccca cc± +co+±+c tá.±+o+c.c ccca ++.... cc_ oo+ .o
tá.±+.o ±=(± +c.c. .+ao+oo+.ca++ .c..+ c±o+±.
_c+o ..c ++a. tá.±+c cc_ .±o+..(+++. ++a. tá.±+oo +c+..(+o..(±
++..±+++.o..++a cca++c co+c+ cc c±c++o +++ C++co+oo+o++ coo+o=+..+oo ++=...
Cc=(±. ..±.... +.oao ..c cc±.+oo+ ++..±+++o++ +co..(+++. +=(c±.cc C±±...
Co+±o a.. c±c+.o ..c c±+=+c+c.
+co+±+c coo+±+c+ C±++=.c.+ao .co+ Cc=(± cc.+ c±++.(o C++c.+a+=±. ..±
oa+áo+.... +co+±+c coo+±+c+ =+.c.. +.oa=C. C+c_ _a+a++ C+aco+++c +cca++
++±Cc=(±. ccCc Ccoa.+oo+ +co+±+c coo+±+c+ =±+o+.... ·. coo i·. c+a+.o+c cc+
oc+=c .+++oo+o++ .co+ Cc=(±.
5) קV ®iQlTm RVô¬jRp:
++..á.± oco+++o c==..± +±aco+.... t.CcCa c==..± .a++ C+aa.... ++o+= Co.ca+c
coo+ cca++.oa± + tco.o+ .co++o+ cc_ +á.+ao+..(+++. ±.... C++o.cac C.++
c==.. .a++ ++c =+.c....co.o cc_ +_c....+o c==..± +±a.co+...co.o cc_ +c+
oc C.áo Cc_ +.c±o.++.o .+c.( c.o+±. C.++ +..++c ô± cc± C.+cc+«o= c==..
.a++ Co+ c+a±+co+=±. ++..á.±ac ++o±. c+C+ + C.+_+++++ cc.c C.+c+ =+.c..
+.c±o.++c c+o Co+a c++ +=o+Co(++o C++co...+++ cc..o +_c+++. +c+ C++++á.±
.++++.. +±±+o±+c .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.( +a+++oc ±....ao CcC++c ++.±o +±a.co+...(co .Co
C.+c+ c==..++oc Co++Co+( c.c.( cc=á.±.a +a=ao+ .+ toc+++.
C.+++ +..++c ô±cc± C.+cc+oc c+a++o cc=á.± Co+ cc.+± co+a±+c+. Co+± oo+
±=.o± oo+ +acCo+ ±....ao i¯ ±+o++«o= =.+a+o oco cc+.±Ca +±aco+....
c==..+++= cc=á.± c±++..(++o.
cc C+a++o c==..± .a++ C+aa.... Co+a+c+ cc+.±Ca cc_ cc.o+= .+ t_+.=a++ .co+++.
+=(c±.cc .+...cc ±+_± +=(c±.. .±+.o.a ++±+o.... +.oCa+( c.c.( ±+.c. toc+++
cc+ c.+ao =+.c.+oo+ co+a++c± C._+++.
.+ᬠ++.. ±+++.( ca+++ ++(+.o. C.+c+oc.a +±±+o.... tá.± oo+ cc=á.±a+c+
.+++(+«o= ±.(C± +..o=± cc..o =+.c. Cc=±a+ c+a±+c+. Co C+a++o .+ᬠ++..
±+++.( ca++++ooo+o _c+o .a¬.a± +oo+c C++=(co .c ++(+c o++c Co+a +..++c +oc++c
±....ao cc=á.±o++c tá.±+.o c±++oC++coo+±.
cCa C+a++o .o ++(+oo .++++... c+aC++o=± c==..o+aco= cc=á.± C++cco+= tco tá.±
+..c.+ao ±+.C.áa ++o+±++ tco+. oc+ c==..++c .c+.oa± c==..o+aa oc+ ++.±o
±.(± +±a.co+ Cc=(C±c.+o.o. Co C+a++o Cco++(+oo± +±a.co+o+±. c+o cc ++.±o oc+
+=(c±.c+= .++++.. Co.cCa+ +C+ cco= i¯ ±+o c+++±co=±C.++ c==.co+o+±. .+o
++o+..+.o +cc±++
90
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
.ac.(++coc -o± oco= cc..±+c .oCc_ ++(+oo± .++++... C._co+++c +±c±o.++oo =(..
c±a±.
c==..± +±a.co+.... Co+ao cc=á.± Co+a± c±c+cc.c ++..á.± oco+±+c+ .o .áô o++
+c+=+++. cccc± c+a++c =+++ ccoco+± +(oo +cc± C+o+++++.
c==..++c .±... _a+aoo
_ Co(oo
. c==..++c ++a+.o _a+aoo
.++.c±o.++ocC.++.++..á.±oco++++=±c==..o+aco=±..Ca ++o+a=±++ c.++ c±co +c+o.
.á±+++± +..C._+++. .++.oao ++..á.± c+ca+cca ++..á.± oco+++o Coáco+..(± +c+++.o
C.+_o C++=( c==..o+a.a =+ Co.ca+c +.c±o.++.o C±+C++c«±+_ +c_+++++a.
c==..o+aác c±++.(oo+.o C.+_o C++=( .o ++..á.± oco++++= c++ c±c++o
ccoco++++= +±a.co+++a.
A) ®iQlTj§u AûUlûT BWônRp:
c==..± c+_o C++co.... ++oo .c++ cccoc c.ac++ .aoC±+ ccoc c.ac++ oc .±..
_a+a..(+++. .cc+aco ô±o+=. c+a++c _a+a..(+c+c.
ca+++++c..(++± +.+. Cc=(C++oc +co+±+c coo+±. +=(c±..+o.a+ ++a+o +o.+.
coo+o=+..+.o +.(..(++± .c.C.+cc *+a+c Co.c+c. tá.± C++ao+c. c.a..++c ±+_±
c==..++.c ..=o+...(co ++a± _+acc+=±. c==..++c .±.. c.+o= c+. .±a+o
=.+.+(+c _accC.++ Coáa c+o+o .o +áC+aco+= c==..o+aco= c+a.. c±++..(±.. =+.c..
++o++o o=.+.+( +ao+...+c..+o cc==..± oc«.± C+aa...(c(±.
B) úRÓRp:
oo+ +..++o oa...(co +..c.++oc ô± Co(oo +..C.+Cc=(±. + oca++c± +..C.+o+± oo+
cc=á.±ac ±....ao± +...C.+o+± oo+ Co C+a++o c+a++c co+a++c++c ±....ao±
+..C.+o+±. ±+C++c c+a++o +=(c±.. +±±+o.... cc =+.c.. +.+ao ++±+o.... +.o
.co++o+cc..o +_c Co(oo +.+o..(+++. Co(oo +.c±o.+acC.++ +±a.co+... c==..++o
ccáo+...(co +a.c.C.+c+ +ac+c ++..á.± oco+++o c++cCc tco Cc_.o .++a++oo tcocc+
cc_ Co±..+a++ t_+..(+++ C++coo+±.
co+a++c+.oo +c++o C++=( oc.... Co(oo +.c±o.+ C±+C++c«±C.++. Co(oo +±±+o....
+o.+.aa± c==..+Co+( C+a++ +c.c =.. Cc=(±.
Co(oo +.c±o.+ac C.++ c==..co+.... +=(c±... ±+c± c+oo++Cc+ oo+ -o
c+a+.o Cco..(+oo+o++Cc+ tco .++a++c Coc..o+(±. C±o±
c==..++o C++a.... tá.±+.o c++cCc ++..á.± oco+++o tco .++a++oo
=+.c.(co.c+Co+( c.c. Cc=(±.
ccCccc c+a..+oc ±....ao Co(oo+c +.+o....+ cc..oa± +±±+o.... Co+±o a..++c
c+o =+.c.. .=++c. co++o+..+++= t.... .=++c. ccc.+a+c .++a++c Co(o o =(.(+o....c
cc..oa± oco+± =.c.co=±. +o.+ao Coáco+ Cc=(±.
++..á.± .++a++oc Co+=.co Co(oo +.+o..(co+o .+ .++a++oc±....ao+c Co(oo++ tco+.
ccCc .c+c co o Co+±o a..++c =+.c.. .=++oc ±....ao c.+=.(+o..(+c+c
.+o ++..á.± .++a++«o= t_+.=a++ Co+±oa.. .++áo.++oc +.(.a+c ±+_±
+C.+c+ cca++.oo C++=(co ++..á.± C.++o .++a++.oa± .ac.(+o..(+++. .+o .++a++oc
Co+=.. Co(ooo++c C++a.c cc_ .±o+..(+++.
Co.oo++c C++a.cao tco .++a++oo ±.(C± ++..á.± oco+± Co(oo +.+o Cc=(±.
Ccoa......c+oo Ccoa(+.o .c+.=,c+=aac+ oca CcC+o+=± Co(oo +.c±o.++.o
+±o+..(c+o.o. .+ c+a++o Ccoa..... o+co+c C.++ t.Ca+++++= c....(coo+ cc_ .+ao+
Cc=±a+o.o Ccoa..... ...±.... o+co+c c+c+c+o± c++c oc+ oc.±.a +c++o C++=(
±.(C± _ac C+aa... Cc=(±. +c± +.c±o.+ C++c± -c++± +.a+c .o ++..á.± oco+++c
+cc+++= C++=(cc±C.++ ±.(± cc+_ _ac C+aa..(+++
Co(oo +.c±o.+a+c+ +=(c±...c C+a±a++ +±±+o.... Co+±o a..++.+ao ±.(C± co o
91
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c..±a++ +..C._±. o+=. c+= .o c+o +.++«o= +.±o+..(±. _c+o ..±.... ccCc+c
c+a++o± Co(oo +.+o Cc=(±+ cc..o _ac+oao+c c±c C+ac+a.
..±.... Co(o o +..+o cca++.o C+a±a++ +±±+o.... Co+±oa.. +.+ao C±+C++co..(±
Co(oo c±c+«.c ..=o+ Cc=(±. ccCc.o Co(oo c±co C+a± c=+c+ o+c ±++± cc+ +.o
c+.(±. .+=±+.o c+.. Cc_ ++a=++«± tcoc. cca++.o c.+cáo=± C.++±. o+co+.o ôaC+aa±
c.+ao± ocao+ .ao++ c+.(± =.+.+(+Co .o+= ++a=±. Co(oo +±c±o.++«o++c C+oc+.o
=+.c.. oc+= .c++o C++co Cc=(± cc_ C.+co+o+a *+ao± +=o+Co(++o C++co
Cc=±a+o.o.
++a++c ±....ao _a+aoo
++a++c ±....ao _a+a± +..c.+a+c+ ++..á.±o++c =+.c.. +.o+.o +c.+.(+oo+±a c.+ao
c==..± .co++o+ cc..o t_+..(++co+++=±. +co+±++ +_cCoco ô±+=.c++c ±....ao
++..á.± c±++..(c.o o(o+..(+++.
+..++c =+.c.. +a++o+oc -o± +±±+o.... +=(c±.c+= ++..á.± c±++..(c.o o(..+.
+=(c±.. .+ao++ .oo++c+oo. +=(c±.. .±+.oo= t..++c+oo cc+ +.o+oo ++..á.±
c±++...o +.++.
c==..+++= Co.ca+c .a+cao *+a+c c+.+(+c C+aa...++c+o+o c==..±
+a++áo+...o+±.
c==..++c .±.cc ±....ao C±+C++co..(± _accC.++ c.± _.C+..c+.o +++
c==..o+aco= c+a..oo+..(±. +o c+a... .ac.(++ +=(c±.cc ++a+++= c+. +á.(++o
C++co Cc=(±. _c+o o+= cco= C++(o+.... ++o+++=c +á C+aa+c..+o ++..á.± oco+±
cco= ++..á.± ±_o+o+±.
c==..o+aa ±+_± C.++±o+«o= +c.±aoo=± C++o+o +o c==..+.o +c++co+= c+a.. tco+.
=.+.+(+.o +++c+.c ccc+o± C±o+c ++..á.± c±++..(+++. coo+o=+..+.o
Cooc+o=co+++c +c+o++c C+acoc -o± +=(c±... .++a +oo coo+++.o oac±a±. ++..á.±
.++++.c+++c +coa±++ coo+±++c± + ++.±.
coo+ +c+o++«± =±+o++ oo+.caoo. ++..á.± C++cco+++c -oc==..++c coo+o =+..+«o=
..++... C.+coo tco +c+o++«± =±+o++oo+.caoo cc.+ C.++ c+a+=±.
++..á.±+ +..++c C++o+± +=(c±..+.o .++++..o+++c+ cc..o ±c+o C++=( C+ao.(±C.++
+±±+o.... c==..++c ±o+c _acc c±c+c Cooc+c cccCa ..±.... =.+.+(..a
c==..++.o ++..á.± oco+± oc«.± C+aaCc=(±. oco= ++o+±++ +ao+...Cc=±a+ =+++.
c==..o+aco= cc±+c+o oc ±+.. oo+ ++..á.± _+ac+.+ ++±c+ +a..+c c+ao++ C._c+
c±o+±.
6) AàU§Ùm ùY°ÂÓm:
c==..o+aco= ++o+±++ _ac +..c.++c c±c_±C.++ o+c+ c==..++c .±.. C.++±+c
cca++.o tco.o+ao++c±. ++a± c..±a..+o+o± .co=± C.++. c+a..+c c_± .+c C+aa...+o
+.oao. oo+ c....... c+a..+c Co+oca..+o +.oao. ++..á.± oco+±+c+ c==..++c
C±o ++..á.± c±++o+±. ++..á.± oco+++c =+.c.+oo+ oc +.c±o.+a± .+o
=(.(+o...(co+.
coo+co++. ++..á.± c±++....c.c +o ++..á.±a.c. .++a cca++c ++..á.± .+Cc.±o
±+o+..(+++. ++..á.± c=. c==..o+aa/++..á.±a+oác C.aa c+cá. +=(c±..+oác C.aa. -o
c==..++c c=. c==..± +±a.co+.... Co+. c==..++c =+.c.+oo+ cc=á.± .++a cca++c.
+=(c±.cc o.o.. _+a c+a++.o tco.o+a c+.....±ao .+Cc.±o .c..+ c±o+±.
++..á.±.a +..c.+..(+o t_.. ++(+oo _=(o= +..=++c C+o+o Cc=(±. +o +..=++.o
c.C.++ +..Cc=(± cc+ cca++o± tá±++.o. .++a cca++«±. c......+c .++a cca++«±
.+c C+aa..(±.
++..á.±a+oác C.+.±a+oa+c tco.. -c++± +.a+«o= .+Cc( ±+c± .ac.(±. cCcco .+
++..á.±ac t=.±a+c +.oa+... ca+.oo+++. +o ++(+oo ++ ±c+++oo +±±+o.... ++..á.±ac
±+ c±o=+c +..C._±C.++ ++c+±o+.... .+Cc.(. ca+ c++a.=o++c _o+a±++ c(++o C++co..(±.
.a=.+c+o++. oco+ +o.+ao ++..á.± oco+± Ccoa(coc -o± +±±+o.... ++..á.±ac
92
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
C.+co.o++Co+( +±a =+..+c +....o+= c+c++++. .+o oco+ +o.+a+c+ ++..á.±ac
+co+±+c coo+± oo+ co+a±++ C++a..(± tá.± ±+_± c.a..++c .c+o+o c+.+a±. ±+c±
Coocoo+o+±a c.a..++.oa± C++=±co+o+±. -c++co++. c==..o+aco= ++..á.± =±++
++c+o± c±++..(± +. cc..a +....ac±+c ++..á.±.a +_cco++ ++.+++. =±+o+.
++..á.±ac ++o± cco= c±++..(+++. c±c++. occ.cco ++..á.± .++a+.o ++.. c±c++o
++..á.± oco+± Ccoa(+++. .oc ca++c ++..á.± ao+++oo +..o++ C+aa Cc=(±. ca+c
+.a+.o. C.+_+oc.a +..= ±....ao -c++± +.a+«o= o+co+.o C.+o +±ao++c± .co+ Cc=(±.
C±+C++cc c.+ao ++..á.±.a Co+.a++ co.(+o =±+o+.... ++o± c.c+± ccCc+c _=(±
.+.c+oo oo+ .a+±á+ooo++c +..=+.o .á++.+o+.... oco C+o+o Cc=(±.
cc +=(c±.c+= ++..á.± C._co+++c .oCc_ c+a++c C±++=.c+_ cc++o+...(coc. ++..á.±
C._co+++c +..c..±+c ±+.G(+Co+( +±a to+a=++.o .+a..+ C±o± _ac-..o+±a cc++=±.
..±.... .c to+a=++c ..=.. ¿ ±+_± ¿¿ .o oa...(coc.
7) Lôl׬ûUl Tj§Wj§u ØRp TdLm
ccCc+c ++.±o tco ++..á.± oco+++«± o+++c c±++aco ++..á.±ac cca++.o Co c±c++o
o+co+o++ Ccoa(+c+c. ccCc+c ++(± o++«o= .á++.ao+.... c±c++oo .o Ccoa(+c+c.
Co C.+o to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±..± o++o+ _acc c±co .CoC.+o Ccoa(+c+c. ¿Ca+.ca
++..á.± oco+c± ..o. cc.+_+++.
++..á.±o++c =+.c.. cca ±....+c o+C+c+ cc±++áa+c c±c++oo .±+++ oa..(+c+c.
..±.... cca ±....+oc c+... .o+± ±+c± ±+..±o+ o+co+.o oc+c++. C±áo+ ++..á.±
oco+± ¿Ca+.ca ++..á.± oco+± c.+.±. ... _+acc++c cc±++a+c .o+++c o+co+«o+++
ôC± oa..(+c+c.
7.1: AùU¬dL Lôl׬ûU:
c+... .o+± .o+± i ô±+=. o+co+.oo C++=(co+.
C±áo ++..á.± c=. +=(c±..+oa C.aa c±++.... Co+
_ ++..á.±ac C.aa
. +=(c±.... .++a +co+±+c ±+_± các+c coo+++c
= +=(c±..+oa C.aa. t.c .=a+++aca. c==.. c=. c==..co+.... Co+
t +±±+o.... C±áo+ c==.. ca++c
± C±+C++c =+..+c
c C±áo+ Co+a c.+..(++oo Co C.+o +acCo+ ++..á.± c.+..(+oo
7.2: ©.£.¥. (PCT)
c+.. .o+± ô±o+=. cca++.o C++=(co+.
+acCo+ ++..á.± c.+..(++oo. Ccoa.( c=. Co+
_ +acCo+ c==.. c=
. +acCo+ *+ao c==.co+.... Co+.
= cc=á.±+ Co+
t c==..o+aa+c ±+_± +=(c±..+oa+oc C.aa+c
± +++a.ac ++(
c +acCo+ Co.o +o.+ =+.. ¯ oco+++ ±.(±
c ++..á.±ac C.aa
¿ c.a..++.c +co+±+c coo+++«±. c.a..++«o++c các+c cca++«± C++(o+...±c+oo
7.3: IúWôl©V Lôl׬ûU ØLl×l TdLm:
++..á.±ac C.aa
_ ++..á.± c=
. Ccoa.( Co+
= +=(c±..+oa C.aa
t c==..o+aa C.aa
± c==..++c c=
c cc=á.± c=. Co+.
c +acCo+ Ccoa.( c.+..(+oo
¿ ca+++++..(++.ca C.aa
93
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c c..+o++o +a±o+.... ++(+c
c các++o++o +a±o+.... ++(+c
cc ++..á.± ±+_± c.a..+.o. .++a các+c coo+++co
7.4: _lTôu:
e..+c ++..á.±o++c +co+. .o+c± .o+± ¯¯ oa...(co+. +=(c±.. ++..á.±+oc ca++.c+«±
c+++++c +ac+«± cc+ c.+ao .+ oa...(co+ cc_ +o =+.c....(co+.
7.5: Ck§Vô®p AWÑ A±dûL ùY°ÂÓ:
.++a a+ +o.+ Ccoa.±c .=+ ¿¿¿ các ¯.o ++..á.± oco+++c ++..á.±+c ±+_±
c.ac±c++c =++o o+co+«± +o.++«± Ccoa++c+c. a+ +o.+ Ccoa.±c coo .o+++c
ca+ .o+± ¯¯.o oa...(co+. C.++c++ +o ô±cc± o+co+c tcoc.
A) Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLeL°u A§LôW GpûXLÞm ØLY¬LÞm:
.+o co+a±++ +o++o+co o.o.± oco+± C+ao.(+++. C+c.c. c±.. ±+_± C.o ao+.o
oco+++c C+ao.(+c+c.
B) Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p RôdLp ùNnYRtLô] Lôl׬ûU ®iQlTm
o.o.± ±+_± +.o oco+++oo c==..± o+o+o C+aco+++c cca++c .+o tcoc. c.+.±.ac ô±
Co+a +.oac±....ao c==.c..o+++c cca++«± tcoc.
C) ØÝûUVôdLlThP ®[dLdϱl×Ls HtLlTÓ¡\Õ
ccCc+c coo+o =+.cc+± c.+..(++o c cca++.o ..các oc+++. .++a c.+..(+oo ±+_±
+acCo+ c.+..(++o c c.++oc ô± C±++=..c .co+ Cc=(±. ++..á.± c±++....oc ±+
c+a.. .c+o+o +±±+o...ca+c a+ +o.+ao ++..á.± c±++.... cca± Ccoa+c ++c=
±+o++«o=c o++c c+a... Coác++c. Cc=(± cc_± .+ =+.c(+++.
D) G§ol× SûPØû\Ls:
c++cCc ++..á.± c±++...(coo+= ++..á.± C++á ccca c==.c+o+o o+= c+a.. o+o+o
C+aco+++c cca++c .+o tcoc.
E) Lôl׬ûULs ¨ßjRm:
+..=± C+o+o+oo+o ++..á.±+.o +_++ .c..+ =++o cca++c .+o tcoc.
F) ¨ûX¨ßjÕYRtLô] SûPØû\Ls:
=+.c.. ++o++o .+.co+ +..=± C+o+oo+o+o +_++ .co+...(co ++..á.±.a ±=(± +.o
+_++co+++c cca++c .+o ++...(coc. +.o +_+o +.c±o.+ao =(.(co+= c+a.. Coác..o+++c
=+..+«± tcoc.
c) §ÚjRj§tLô] SûPØû\Ls:
++..á.± C++c.ca+o +±aco+..(± ++..á.± c==..++c ±+ +c+o++c C±+C++cco+++c cca++c
.+o tcoc. Co C.+o +c+o++.o _ac C+a+ oc+ c+a...Ca .cc c+ cca++.oCa+ Coáco+
ccCa+ccco=± tá.± t=( cc.+ ...=+ao coo+...(co+.
Lôl׬ûUûV Øj§ûW«ÓRp/AàU§jRp:
c+_o C++co...( c++.a .....(co ++..á.±+oc c==o.+.a .+ oc+++.
H) YûWY¥YeLs T§Ü:
.+c C+aa.... c.ac±c++.o..++a cca++.o .+ oc+++. =+.c.. ++o+..+++= .+o
c.ac±c++.o _ac C+aao +.++ cc_ ...=+ =+.c(+++. =±+ c±++.... .a=( _=(+«o=
.+ C.+c++± cc.+ C.++c+c+. c.ac±c+ +..± +a+++oc ô± ++.. =±+ C.+_coc+++= .+
C.+c+o++.
I) ¨WôL¬lTRtLô] SûPØû\Ls:
++..á.± oco+++o _ac+.o +±a.co+...(co c==..++.o +a++á..o+++c cca++c .+o
++...(coc.
94
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
7.6: ØLl×l TdLj§u ØuUô§¬Vô] GÓjÕd LôhÓLs:
U-17:
C±áo+ ++..á.± c= ·. ¯·¯.¯i·. Co+ e·.o i. ¯..i c+... .o+++o ++..á.±ac o.o... tco+ c+a..o+++c
coc(± t+.++ c.+a± cc_ oa...(co+.
U-18:
¯... _=( c.ao ¯· ¿Ca+.ca ++..á.± c= (EP) .¯¯···¯¯ coo .o+++o ++..á.±±ac o.o.. c+a..
-o.C.+c.o .co=co+++c c.+a± .ac.+(± ¯±. c+a... ±=.
U-19:
¯... _=( c.acá i. PCT Ccoa.( C.+co.o+. .o+++o =+.c....(co c= W0006313.c o.o..
.+a oa+á.. c.+a± c+a... ++ac t.Ca++c± cc.o+=±.
U-20:
¯..._=( c..acá i. ... Ccoa.( c=. WO 00/06313.c o.o...
.+a oa+á..+«± c+a... oa+á..+c t.Ca++..(++± c.++«±
U-21:
PCT c==.. c= PCT/AU99/00617.c ±+ C±+C++co.... +ac Co.o +o.+.a oc+++. +o.+ac
cc Co+.a++a++ .+ tco+.
U-22
¯..i _=( ±+a+ · e..+caa+o+ ++..á.±+c c=. ¯..i.·-¯·¯.c coo .o+++o ++..á.±ac o.o..
C± +o ±+_± o±+o .++++.oo C++=.c+.+ oa+á..o+++c tco= c.++c cc.o+=±
95
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
'¥¬lv' Tt±V úLs®Ùm þ T§Ûm
Aj§VôVm þ 7
þ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs GuT] GûY?
o++o+ -.oao tcc+=± .....+oc ±+ ±o+«o= tco tá.±+Co +c+ C++++á.±+c cc_
+co..(+++. cc .....+o oc+ _=/C.= .....+oc ±+ =+.c.. ++o+++= .ccá.±.a C+o+o
c±a±.
+c+ C++++á.±a+c+ .a=( co+a các+o++ cá..+ c±o+±+=±.
T§l׬ûULÞm AúRôÓ ùRôPo×ûPV E¬ûULÞm:
+.o .oo+a. .....+oc _+áaa+«o= c±++..(± tá.±+c +.o.a+o+ tá.±+c. ..++o.(+c
±+_± c .a.. .±..+oc tá.±+c ..... ++=o= ±o+±oo=± co+a C++o+++CoCa .+..á.±
±+_± +C.+c+ tá.±+c c±++..(+c+c.
ùRô¯p Õû\ ùNôjÕdLs:
.+o i ca+o+ c++.a+c. .caao =+a..a+o++c C.+c+ oc+oc.± c+a+o =+a(+«o= .++++..
c±++..(+++. C±o± ¯ .+...c.c +=(± co++o Co+±o +.+ C++++o+o+c c.ac±c++c ±+_±
Co+±oa.. tcc+o+++«o= .++++.. c±++..(+++. .+o c.+ac ô± +=(c±..+c ++..á.±+o+o
.++++o+..(c+ Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++c ±+_± ca+o+ a++a++c cc+c+c.
"¥¬lv' JlTkRjûRl ùTôÚjRYûW " A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU" GuTÕ:
..... c..+o++c .=+ i.¯ .++± ¯ các i coo ¯ c±a tcoc++o =+.c....(co + ++a+o tá.±+c.
ca+o+ c++.a+c. .caao =+a..a+o++c. Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++c. ++..á.±+c. c_++=+o ±c++_
c.a..++c ±+_± Ccoa....+o o+co+«o++c .++++.. cc.c .+=±.
to+ ca+o+ .±.. t_.. ++(+c .c+++=± ±á.¬ c..+o± C.+_++±+¯ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc
coo+ c..+o++«± cc +o .cc.c c..+o++c oca cc.±.cc t_.. ++(+«o= C.+_++±
C.c±.+o+c.c cc+c ô± cc+c+c. _c+o .oc +a+++.o ++(+c CccCc_ ++o+..++o co.(+o
c..+o± =±+o+++. c..+o± coo= c+o ++o+c i¯¯· e·.o · i coo t_.. ++(+c co+o+Cc=±a
++o± c.a .+o ++o o+±o± +=o+...(+++. co+a±+c ±++¹(o ++o+..± ô± cc±+_.
to+ ca+o+ .±.. coo=cc± Co+a c++ cc _=(o=c o+c+ i¯¯· e·.o i c.a
coa++a..+o ++(+«o= ±++¹.( ++o±
Ød¡VUô] UôtÈÓd LôXLhPm ¸r YÚUôß:
to+ ca+o+ .±.. coo=cc± Co+a c++ cc _=(o=c o+c+ i¯¯· e·.o i c.a
coa++a..+o ++(+«o= ±++¹.( ++o± =±+o+..(+++.
coc± ++(+.o. C.+_+oc.a c..+o +a+++.o co+o+ C±o± ++c= _=(+c ¯... eccá i
c.a c+++± oa...(co+. o+=c .+a..+±++ +..c.+ C.+c+ C++c.++.o tco.o+a c..+o++c
.=+ ¯. : ±+_± ·¿ co+o+ Cc=(±.
C.+co+o+a ±++_o +..++o tco ++(+c o+c+ ±++a..(+o.... C.+co+o+a C++c.++oc ô±
C+ao.+( ++.o. C.+co+o+a+++= ±++cc± ++(+«o=± .Co C.+c+ ++o c+++± oa...(co+. ¯...
eccá i c.a. .o++o+..++o .+++(+c =+.c.+oo+ +o.±+.o ccCc.o +(oo++ +++++co+o+±.
±+c± cco++a C.+co+o+a ++(+«o= +=. ±++¹.( ++o +..± .+Cc+_ _=(+c ¯..· eccá
i oa...(coc. C±o± ++o +.±.. C+aac± c+a..co+.
C.++ ±++¹.( ++o +..++.o c+o ++(+c t.Ca++..(+c+c¯
1) Y[Úm SôÓLs
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc =+..+c.. .oo+±CoCa C.++ ±++¹.( ++o +..+.o t_.. ++(+c cc.++o
C++coo+±. .o++o +..± c±+oc.c t_.. ++(+oc +..++.o ±á.¬ =. .áô o+++. ¯... ±+_±
¯..i.o ô±cc± t_.. ++(+oc +..++c .áô o+..(± ¯..._± _=( ¯i_± Co+ ++oo C+( c±c..+++.
_=(o= .+a..+. ae=±c+. .o.ac. .+a.C.+¬. cCa+o. C.+ a+. C.+¬.c+c+. cCa+o. .Cc. Cec+o+±.
C+±=c. +c. C++o±ca+. +++C++. C++¬.+á++. C++.±± ecá. +..+. .+.a¬. C.+±c++. C±+co+ =±aa+.
96
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c+.+. co+oc.+a. c¬Co+ca+. ce. +C.+c. ++c+. +a+c.+. =c+±+o+. +a+c+. Cc+=(a+a. c+++++. ôc+.
.++a+. .+Co+Cc+a+. .¬Cao.. e±+¬++. C+ca+. C++áa+. =.c+. ±o=c+. ±Co+a+. C±+áôa¬. C±o+C++.
C±+a+o++. +±ca+. ++a+=c+. .+´áa+. .++¬o+c. .+.c+ +.=ca+. ca+=Cc. C.c. c ...c¬. C.+o++
¯·¯-.o .áô o+...+o .=++c. +..+a. C+ac c+a+. +++..a. .o+.+. C+ac +.¬ (c¬. C+ac.
c=C+c. ±+_± +ác+..c¬. =ác+±. +c.+ao+++. o+ao+++. ±ác.+.(.+C++. (c+a+. ¿o+a a.
C.aa+. tc=Cc. Ccc+co+. e±.+.C..
C±++=. t_.. ++(+oo cc +oc+.++ oca C.c±.+o+c ++(+c ±á.¬c..+o+++= c++ Co+a +..++.o
¯... eccá io=c t_c+o+acoc.
2) ªLÜm ©uRe¡V SôÓLs:
¿o+a ++(+c +..a+o ±+c± cco++a ++(+c cc_ c.+..(+o...(co ++(+c to+ ca+o+ .±.cc
±+c± cco++a t_.. ++(+o++ +co..(+c+c. ..±.... ++(+oc ..±ao .+C+ oa..(+++. ..ca
.o+++o .+ =+++ o+C.++ tco .o+± cc±+_.
¿o+a ++(+c +.. :- ++(+.o ±+c± cco++a.c cc_ ..±a ....(co+. c++o ¯¯ ++(+c ±.(C±
o+C.++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc t_.cca+o++ tcoc.
+C++o+. .++o+Co¬. ccc. .ac+. .+C++. .==±. ±++a _.áo+ =±aa+. +++C++ ec++a+ =±aa+. ±eC.+++.
++±ca+. =ca+. =ca+ c++c. Cca+. c+++Co+. ±.++++a. ±+oc. ±+o++c+c. ±+ . ±cáo+ca+. C±+±co.
±a+c±a. .+ea. ac+=.+. C+c+o. +aa+ cCa+c. ++o±c +c+c. o+c++ca+. .+C++. t++=.+. e+±ca+.
±+c± cco++a ++(+c .oc++c C.aa+c to+ ca+o+ .±.co C+a..o+++c +.c±o.++c
C±+C++co...( cc+c+c. cca++c cc±+_.
3) ×Õ Eßl©]oLs:
i¯¯· eccá i_± Co+ to+ ca+o+ .±.co t_.. ++(+o++ .c+oc++c a++«o=
C.++c+c ±++¹.( ++o+..++c C.+c++±. +o Co+ao to+ ca+o+ .±.. tcc+c ccc+o C±o± .o
++(+c t_.cca+o++ ..=++coc. +++(+c to+ ca+o+ .±.cc +++a.ac t_.cca+o++
+ô+áo+.... ++ccoo ±á.¬ c..+o+.o co+o+ C.++c++ c..o C++=( o++c t_.cca o=+
C._co+++c c..+o++o c..o C++=(coca. .ca+«o= ±++¹.( ++o .oc+c c+± .co+++.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ++(+c t_.cca+o++ C+a+o Co+ac ±....ao Ccoa....(co ..±a.oo
C++=( .+o++ C+a++co ++(+oc ..±ao ++=o+(+++.
±++¹.(o ++o +..++o t_.. ++(+«o= C.+_..+c co+c+ +a=ao+. ..(cocc+¯
+=. c+++++.c +±a ±++¹.(o ++o +..+.o C++=(co ++(+c t... coo+ t_.. ++(+«± Co+a
==c.+ tc++.( Cco++.( +_cc++c oc+.a+.o +±±++ +.++c+± .=+¯ ±+_± ±+c± Cc=.....
++.( ==c.+ Cco++.( +_cc++c oc+.a+.o .+a..+±c+ +.++oo. .=+: _+acc+.+ i¯¯·
eccá i coo co+o+o +..±...(coc.
Co+±o a..++c =+.c.. .=+o= oa+á.. ++..á.± .++++.. c+.(++a+o coc± ++(+oo Co.c..(±C.++
±++¹.( ++.. +.. c++.o co+o+o+±.
±+c± =+..++. coc± ++( cc+o oa+á.. ++..á.± .++++.. c+.+(+.o Co+±oa..++c =+.c..
.=+o= c+.(+++oa+±o .co=± C.++ ±á.¬c..+o± coo= cc++ i¯¯· eccá. i +++( .++++...
+c+..(++a i. _=(+c ¯..· eccá i c.a c+++± oa...(co+.
_c+o ±c+++c ±+_± Cco+= a++a= oa+á..+.o. C.+_+oc.a +o ++.+c+ ±++¹.(o ++o +..++c
+co+ ++o c++ C±+=+.c..c+++++c ++..á.± C++c± c==..++.o c+_oC++co Cc=(±.
.o++o+..± c±c+=c c+o cc ++..á.±o=± .++++.. c±++o+±+ Cc=±a+o.oa+ cc_
c±Cc(o+...+± c+o+o± c==..± c+_o C++co... Cc=(± ¯..-. ..o o.+o C..± +a++ cc_±
++..(c+=( ±++¹(++o +..++o +±co.+a+c ±c+++c oo+ Cco+= a++a=. C.+cc+.o c+..c
C+aa =±+o=±C.++ =+.c.. +.+o.c+oc ±....ao +o oa+á.co c==..o+aco= · _=(+c
c+..c ++.. tá.± c±++ Cc=(± oo+ +oa+á.c+= ++..á.± c±+=± ++c c.a ++..á.± c±++
Cc=(±. .+o c+ =.+c+c ++o +..C±+ o+= .+ C.+_++± .=+ ¯..-
±++¹.(o ++o +..++o +±co.+a+c ±c+++c oo+ Cco+= a++a=. C.+cc+.o c+..c C+aa
=±+o=± C.++ =+.... +.+o.c+oc ±....ao +o oa+á.c+= c==.o+aco= · _=(+c
c+..c ++.. tá.± c±++ Cc=(± oo+ +oa+á.c+= ++..á.± c±+=± ++cc.a ++..á.± c±++
97
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Cc=(±. .+o c+ =.+c+c ++o +..C±+ o+= .+ C.+_++± .=+ ¯..¯. ±++¹.(o ++o +..+.o
o.oô±++ .ac.(++c.o+.++ cc..o ±á.¬c..+o++c .=+ ··.· +_+++.
±+++.(o ++o +..+.o C++=(co ++(+c .=+ ··.c i.¯.¯. oo+ :c+ .+a+o+oo++...(coc++c.±
o++o+ +..++oo± +..c.++oo± .c.+= c.++oo± co+c+ ±+++++.o C+aa± C.++ + c..+o++c
+a+++.o c. =.+c+c oco .c++c.+±o .+a++o C++co Cc=±a+ c+a±+c+.
±á.¬c..+o± coo= ccccca C.++ +++++a.c c..+o± c.. i¯¯¯ +a.c c..+o++c
.cc.c ca+o+ c..+o++o +c+ C++++á.±+.o. .++ =+..++ c+± C++oo...±co+co.o
Co C+a++o C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o++o .c+o +o C++c.++oc ±....ao .+o=±++c c+_±++c
±+ +c+ C++++á.± oc(+c caCa++o+....c.
C.+++ +++++a.c c.+o± i¯:¯.c .=+ cco ±+_± i¯¯:.c cc+ _+ac +c+ C++++á.±+.o. .++
=+.c.. c.+ao c(++.ao+++. C.++ c..+o++= c++.C.++o.c
=+.c.. +o.±+«o= t....+ +c+ C++++á.±+oc +..++c c.+=c.++c c.ca c+c.++«o=
c.ca c+.++«o= t..(++± +.c±o.++.o C±+C++co .+o +a++ =±+o+++.
.cc.c ca+o+ c.+ao ±á.¬c..+o++c .+= ccc¯
to+ ca+o+ .±.co Cco..(+o...(co.o.C.+c_ .cc.c ca+o+ c.+ac c_++.=+o .=+a++
+c+ C++++á.±+.o +.o+_++c+ ±á.¬c..+o++c ±.... ==++oo cc++=±.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc -c_ _o+ao +=+oc cc+++ ±á.¬c..+o±
ca=o+..(+++. ±++ .a=( C.+cc+oc ca+o+± C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o++c .+a±.áa +++a
co.oao .c+o+ C.+c_ ±+_± C+.c+oc ca+o+± _+acc+=±.¯.
±á.¬ cc.+ tc=Cc ++_. C.++ c+a+.o+oc c±co t_c+c c+.+ c..+o±. oc ++a=±++ to+
ca+o+ .±.cc t_.. ++(+c .c+++=± ±á.¬ c..+o± C.+_+++++. c..+o++c +a+++c .c++±
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc o+c+ +ac c.++«o= ..a+o+ cc..oa± .+ =+.c(+++. .+o o+c+ +ac
c.++c o+c+ +ac t.c.±o.+ao tcoc. oc+o+.c +a..o+++c c++«± +..c.++«± .++a
t.c.±o.+
±á.¬ c..+o+++=± cc+.±Ca +.++co++ +acCo+ ±+++.( c±c+«o=±..Ca tco t+c ccc¯
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc Co+±o+.+ C++++o+c ±o+c .+á¬i ++.. ±+++( .+..á.± .c++c
±++ +±.++a c±c++o .++a C.ac ++.. ±+++.( c±c+oc t_+..(+o.... C.+_..+«o= to+
ca+o+ .±.cc t_.. ++(+c .=++ +.o+ Cc=(± cc_ ±á.¬ c..+o± c a_+++++. c.ca t_+
±o+ +c++o+c .c+.oa± =+..+o++ C+ao+...(coc. ccCc .o++a=+o+o ±á.¬ c..+o++c ô±
to+ ca+o+ .±.. t_.. ++(+oc C.+_..+o++acoc. +++(+c .+o cao+c±+c +a+++.o ++ t_..
++(+oc oc+.a+c ±+_± +_cc++«o= C.+_+o Cc=(±.
.+o ++.. ±+++(+oo ccC±+áa...+o .=++c ±á.¬ c..+o++o +(oo C.+_..+o++ ..=o+...(coc.
++.. ±+++.±o C.++±+c oc+= c(++.ao+...+o c+a++«± ±á.¬ c..+o++o c.+=
.(+o...(coc.
ccCc o+c ±á.¬ c..+o± +o C+a++oo C.ac·.+ᬠc..+o± cc_ .±o+..(+++.
+c+ C++++á.±+c +±±+o... Cc_ +o +acCo+ c..+o++oc +a+++«± ±á.¬ c..+o coo+++o
C+ao+...(coc.
c_++.=+o ±c++_+«o++c +c+ C++++á.± c..+o++c +a+++Co+( +±a =+.c.+oo+ +(oo
C.+_..+.o c_++.=+o ±c++_+c .±.. c.a..++c .++++.. c+a++o co+o+ Cc=(± cc_
oc+ t_.. ++(+.o to+ ca+o+ .±.. C+.(o C++=(co+.
+.o.a+c. ..++o.( oa+á..+oa+c ±+_± c .a.. .±..+oc tá.±+c .++++.. +±±+o±+c
+acCo+ ++.. ±+++.( Ca+± ++.. ±+++( +a++o+c .oc+.+ ±á.¬ c..+o± +.±o++.(+++. ++..
±+++.±c t_+a+c +a+++«o= .=++c± c+++++c C.++ Co.c+.o coo+.+oc.+ao±
c(++.ao+...(co+.
.+á¬. C.ac. Ca+± ++.. ±+++(+c. ±+_± c_++.=+o ±c ++_+c ±o+c +c+ C++++á.± c..+o±
_+acc++c Co+.a++ .co=± C.+_..+c t_.. ++(+c o++o..Ca .ac.(++o C++co+oo+cc++
.co.+ao +o C.+_..+oc ±+...o =.+o++ c.+ao ±á.¬c..+o++c .++± ¿ coo ¿a tco
.=++oo C+aco+= cc_± .o.o cc_ cCc+..+o++c .=+ ¯.o c(++.ao+...(co+.
98
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.. cc++o ccc¯
i¯·¯ e·.o i: _± Co+ +..C.++ ++.. ±+++( cc+o to+ +c+ to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±..
tcc+o+....+. oc c±c+c i¯¯. coo coo= c+o+. i¯¯: coo ¿o+a ++(+c +..ac ++.. các++
C+ao..++c++a+. =+.c.+oo+ c==o.+ao+c +acCo+ +c+ C++++á.± .±..+c oo+
c..+o++.o +=++=o+++. .+ᬠ±+_± C.ac ++.. ±+++(+c .+o .+=±. to+ +c+ C++++á.±
.±.cc C++o+++c to+± c.c+± +c+ C++++á.±+«o= .++++.. c±+=co+=±. c.ca +acCo+
.±..+«.c ..=++ +±±+o.... ++(+oc c++.±.C.+( C.+c+o±+c c.+ao ..c co+o+..(±.
.+ᬠ±+_± C.ac ++.. ±+++(+o+o t_c+o+...(co +c+ C++++á.± .±..+c .+ᬠ.±.cc
t_.cca+o+o t_c+o+...(coc +.= c..+o++o..Ca cc_... C+ao.+... t_+..(++c+± to+
+c+ C++++á.± .±.cc C++o+±+=±.
.oCc_ ++.. ±+++(+oc ô± t_c+o+.... +ac++++c .±a..(+o..( to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc
+acCo+ C+ao+++c ô± .±a..(+o...(co+. ++..á.±+c. ca+o+ c++.a+c. Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++c
±+_± -o+++++c C±o c.+a( C.+c+ +acCo+ *+ao+c =+++ .+c+.o .ccoco+± C±+C++c+++.
coc± ++(+«o= c==..++c _Co++.c+c c±+=c+. .aa++ao..+. Co.ca+c ..=... .++a++c
.++ c(++.a..+ C.+c+ coa++o++c c++.±... to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.. C+a+ cc+++.
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.. ±+_± to+ ca+o+ .±.. _+acc+++= ...Ca c++.±..o++c
c..+o± c+..( i¯¯· eccá i coo c o .c++ cc+++. -c_ co+a .=++«o++c c++.±....
c..+o± c a_+++++.
Co+a +..++c ±+_± c++c +..c.++c =++o +c... C±+± C.aa.+c
Co+a +cc++c .++++.c+++c +.c±o.+ C++c.++c
Co+±o a.. c++.±..
to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc c+cá
WIPO/ 34 Chemin des Colombetters, Geneva
Co+.oC.+ c=. :i ¯¯ ¯¯-¯iiiCo+.o ++o (Fax) c=. :i ¯¯ ¯¯¯·:¯-
CûQV R[m Gi: (Web site): www. wipo.int.
+ac+±±+c +c+ C++++á.± +..++c ô± C+ao.(±+_ t_.. ++(+.o
±á.¬c..+o± C+.(o C++c++o+¯
.o.o. +c+ C++++á.±+c .++++.c+++c oc+ +a+++oo tcoc++c ô± =+.c.+oo+ c.ac.++«o=
t.c..( C+ao.(±++ o+c ±á.¬ c..+o± C+.(o C++c+++.
_c+o ±á.¬ c..+o++o C+.(o C++=(co.oc. ±+c± các+c oc+= .++++.. oo++oo+
+..++.o t_.. ++(+c Coa+Co(++o C++coo+±. Co C+a++o ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++.o ±_co++
+(oo .++++.. C.+ac.o +.++.
.oc+o o+c ±á.¬c..+o±+c+ =.++o ..+ oc+.o C++=.+ cc_ +o C+a++oo ca=o+..(+++.
±á.¬ c..+o++c +a+++.o o++c o++c C+++o +.. +..++«o= t...( C.+_+o±+c c.+ao
co+o=co+++c c±c+.o c(o=± +o++a+.oa± t_.. ++(+«o= ±á.¬c..+o± +(oo++ c±++aco+.
ccCc o+c t_.. ++(+oc Cc_... +.. c±c++.o ±á.¬c..+o± +=o+o c(++o C++=(co+.
C.+++ +..+++=± +-+ +.. .+a±.áa+++=± ....... +.o.a c(++o++..++ ++o+±
++..á.±+«o= +..+a tá±± c±+=c.o ±á.¬c..+o± =±+o++o+¯ tá.±a+oác c..oo
.c+ ca+ ++..á.±.a a+ t.Ca++o+c± +..+a tá±± co++c± các ¯i =±+o+++.
_c+o tá.±a+oác +.. .ac cc..++.o .++++o=± C++o+o+c .o +.(..+(+oc ô± o+c C±+++c+.+
C+aac±a±. to+a=+++=. c+a +.o .oo+o C.++ tá.± C++c± +±±+o.... +.a oo+ +_cc±
+..a+± coo c.+a++ C++c.ca++ .co+ Cc=(±. tá.±a+oác
+a+a±+c ca+o+ +.+o.c+.o .a++ C+a+ o+c++ tá.± C.+ c±a+o +.oao tá.±a+oco= C.++±+c
+c+a=+ Co+.+.a c±++a++ Cc=(±.
+..+a tá± c.+ac ô± ++c+±++ =±+o+..(± tá±++«± =+.c.. Co.c+.o c+aC++co Cc=(±.
=+..++ .+ oc tá.± C.++o++ .co+o+.++. tc++.( ++.oo= C.+c.+.o c±+=c+++c o.oa+a
C++o+++c ±....ao C.+++ +..++c -o± =±+o+....o++ .co+ Cc=±a+ c+a±+c+.
99
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
.aa c.++«o= ++..á.± c±++... Cc=(± cc_ t_.. ++(+.o ±á.¬c..+o± C+.(o
C++c+++
+o c.+ .aa+c ±+_± co+=+c +=(c±..o+++c ++..á.± c±+=c+ c++ o++c ++(+«o=
coo+oo=± tá.± t_.. ++(+«o= c±++...(co+. ±+c± =+..++ .a++c ±+_± co+=+c
oa+á..o++c +=(c±..o+= ++..á.± c±++ Cc=±a+o.o. a=t_.. _ac+«o= ++..á.± c±++
Cc=(±. co+=+c ±+_± o+ca++c t_c+o=co+++c taáao +..c.++«o= ++..á.± c±++
Cc=±a+o.o. taáao ++a+o ±+_± a==aáao +..c.++«o= ++..á.± c±++ Cc=(±.
Co C+a++o. ++..á.±+c oo+ C+aco+± ±o+ +aCec*¬ c.+ .+o ++..á.± C++o+++++++Cc
.±c.+ tcc+o+...(co+ oo+ .cca=(± C+a+o +.oo= t_.. ++(+c .++++.. c±++ Cc=(±
cc_ ±á.¬c..+o± +_+++.
.=+ ¯¯.¯ _ac +a+++.o c..+o± coo= c+o ++c= _=(+c +±++ o+c+ i¯¯-± _=±o
±_.áôo.c C+aa Cc=(± cc_ ±á.¬c..+o± C+.(o C++=(co+. ±á.¬ =. .+o .áôo.c.a
C±+C++co Cc=(±.
±á.¬=.cc .++o.. ccc¯
±á.¬=.co to+ ca+o+ .±.cc t_.. ++(+c .c++± ca+++++c± C.+_coc. ±á.¬c..+o±
co+o++.o +=++=o=± C.+_.. .o=.c+= tco+. C±o±. =+..++. .cCc+..+o++c ô±+c
C.+_..+.o t_.cca+c ccc+_ +...c±o+c+ca cc..oa± +=++=o+++.
1) LiLô¦jRp:
t_.cca+c ccca ±+C++ccc..a +..++.o .áôo.c C+aoo. c..+o++c ô± ccc +..C.+_o
C++=±co+++ cc.+ .++a .áô.o.a ±á.¬=.cc +=++=.. c.+.a .±a..(++ +.+o Cc=(±.
ccCc+c ++(± ±á.¬c..+o++c C.+_..+«o= ..+c+c tc++.±o +..+.o c=o+ Cc=(±. c..+o++o
=+.c.(co ++o +..+++=c C+a+ c±o+ Cc=(±. C.c±.+o+c ++(+c .o+= c++++ C.+c+ +..++.o
C++=(coc.
t_.. ++(+oc +..++c ±á.¬=.c+= Coáa..(+o... Cc=(±. ccca ±+C++cca+ +..++.o
.áôo.c C+aa =±+o+++. .oc -o± +c+ C++++o+c .++++..o C++c.++c Cco....a+co++
taa+o..(+++.
t_.. ++(+oc +.. c+.+(+.o +o.+ C+aa Cc=±aoc c+a+.o ±á.¬c..+o++c .=+ ·¯.¯
c a_+++++. ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++.o co+o++oo+ c.+ao+c o++c ++.( +..++c c++ c++c
+..c.++c .++a .++a++oc ++o+.o ±á.¬=.c.± +±aco+ Cc=(±.
...± +±aco+..(± +o.++oc ±....ao t_.. ++(+oc +..++.o ±á.¬=. .áô o+++.
.áôo.c +..++«o= cc. t_.. ++(+c ccca ±+C++cca +..++c ±+ c...± C+cc+.o c.++
c±c++o ±á.¬ =.c.± +±aco+ Cc=(±. .o+++c .+o+«± c.++ c±c++o c±++ Cc=(±. ..c+oc
±o+c Co+.a C+cc+.o +..++o c+ac±a++ c..c Co C.+c_ .+o± C.+o+±. o+= C±o± Co+.a
+.c±o.++c Co.c cc++o (+o +..++oo C.+o+±.
2) BúXôNû]Ls:
±á.¬ ca++.c+.o. .++ ±á.¬ c..+o± co.(++±C.++ c.+c+ ca++.c+c +±±+o±++ t_..
++(+«o+..Ca _Co++.c +(++co+++c .±..++c± ±á.¬=. ++±+++.
c..+o++c +a+++.o Cooc.(+o .o=. toc+++. Co C.+o ca++.co=áaaca+o..Ca +c+++.o
.á±++ toc± .±..++c± tco+.
3) ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl×: JÚ ùNnX §hPm:
Co+±o a.. c++.±.. +±±+o±++ ±á.¬=. cc C+ao+..+.o co+o+ cc+++. ±á.¬c..+o++c
.=+ ·¯.c ô±+c o++c C.+_..+.o coa++a..+o ++(+c c..± +.+Cc++ cc+c+c cc_ .++..++c
ô± +=++=o+..(+++.
Co+±o a.. c++.±.cc ±o+c coa++a..+o ++(+oc C.+_..+.o ...=+ c(++.ao+++. coc±
++(+c C+.(o C++c«± ..+++o ca+«o= Co.c..(± o+co+c +..o++ C+aa Cc=(± cc_
C+ao+..± c a_+++++. coc± ++(+o+ Co.c+c .a++ C+aa...++c+o+o c+.+ +=(c±++
+.c±o.++c C±+C++co Cc=±a C.+_...a± c a_+++++.
100
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
: =+.c.. c+a++oc C±o .áôo.ca± C.++ c+a+.o+«±.
+c+ C++++á.± .++a .=+a.c ..=++co C.+_..+.o. .+++ C±+C++=( C.++c+a+.o+c
+.++co+++c .±..++c± to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬=. tco+.
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c.ca .=++«o=± .cc++ tco+.
=+.c.. .=++oo C±+C++=(± ccc++. .=+c C+aa Cc=±aco+ cc_ ±á.¬ c..+o± C+.(o
C++=(co+. ..±.... .=++c +o cc±+_.
cac o= .cao =+a..a+o tá.± .+c ±+_± +o.+ o+oo +±±+o±+c .cc.c
C+aoc.+.ao =+++ C.++ c+a+.o +.+o Cc=(± .=+ ¯¯.:.
.caao =+a..a+o .++++.. =++o +a+++.o co+o=c+ ±o+c .áôo.c .=+ ¯:.¯.
=+.c.. .aa oo+ co+=+c .++a +=(c±.c+= ++..o..o c++ coo= oo+..(cooc
±+ ++c= _=(+c +±++ .áôo.c .=+ ¯¯.¯_.
o+c +ac +.c±o.+ac ô± cc++ tá.± ±+o .o.o cc+ .++a+.o ±á.¬ c..+o +a+++«o= c+.
_ac C+aco+++c c+.+(+«± C+aa Cc=±aco+.
5) "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u ÁRô] T¬ºXû]:
c..+o± coo= c+o ¿++ _=(+c +±++ ±á.¬=. cCc+..+o++c ±+ C.++c+c .áôo.c +.+o
Cc=(± ocao+ .ao+o .+a =±+.o+c c+.(±C.++ oc±....ao c..+o+.o ±+++a.±..+ =+++±
+c+o++c C+ac+ =+++± t.c±aa+ .áô o+c± .o=.c+= +++a± tco+ .=+¯i
±á.¬c..+o++c ô± t_.cca+c +o.+ oo+ Cc=±a co+a C.+_..+c c.c¯
±á.¬=.c+= =+.c.. +o.++.o oo+ Cc=(± cc_ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc t_.. ++(+«o=
±á.¬c..+o± C.+_..+c
+a=a++co+. t_.cca+c ccca ±++ca+ +..+.o .áôo.c C+aco+= .cc+o.+ =±+aoo+++.
+o c.+ao .+ =.cc co+a .=a++ ++±+++. C±o± t_.cca+o+ +c+ C++++á.± .++++..
C++c.++.o Cco....+oc.± c+a+oo++ _o=+++.
c..+o± =±+++co+c ô± t_.. ++(+c =+.c.. c+a..+.o o+++o++Cc +co=± ..+++o +
=+++ ±á.¬=.c+= +o.+ +±a.Go+ Cc=(±.
+o.+aoo+...(cooc ±....ao+c C.+_..+.o co+o=co+++c c±++.(oo+.oa±
+..c.++.oa± ±á.¬=. c±c.±+++ oc+++.
±á.¬c..+o++c -o c+a++c ±o+c +..++c +..c.++c +±±+o±++ t_.. ++(+c +o.+ C+aa
Cc=(± cc_ ±á.¬ c..+o++c .=+ ·¯.¯ Coáco+++. +..++c +..c.++c +..o++ C+aco+++c
+o.±+c. c+a..+c. =..+oo+ c+a++c. co+o+± +c+ C++++á.±+.o oc+++ .ac.(++c.o
o(..o+++c +.c±o.++c c+a++o ..o.cc.++ Cc=(±.
c..+o. .=+ ·¯.¯ .c ô±+c Co+a +..++c +..c.++c .++ +o.+ C+aco+++c +..c.++c .++a±
c= IP/C/2.o ++...(coc.
±á.¬ c..+o++c i.¯ ±+_± ¯.i .=++o+c.c Co+a ==c.++c ±+_± .ac C._.ca+c +±±+o±+c
c.aa.++.o o+++o++Cc +a=a++o C++cco+= =±+ao+c+c. ..± c±++..(± c.aa.++c
=+++ ±á.¬ =.c+= +o.+ +±aco+ Cc=(±.
.=+ i.¯ ±+_± ¯.i.c ô± oa+áo+..(++ +o.++c IP/N/2 .++a++oc Co+.a++ ccCa++o+... Cc=(±.
.+o C±+C++=(± .co++ cccc+o+co+c IP/C/W/5 .++a++o ++=o +..o+ Cc=(±.
±á.¬ c..+o++c .=+ :=o= c+. cc t_.. ++( ±+c± Cc=..... ++.( C.+_.c c++ coo= C.+
C+c± C.++ +c+C++++á.± .++++.. +±±+o.... +acCo+ c..+o++c -o± co+c+ =+o±. ++o+±.
+o.+. oo+ o+++.. C.+c+c+.+ C.+_ .o to+ ca+o+ .±.c=c a.±o+ c.ca±+c+o ..±....
c..+o++c =+++ ±á.¬ =.c+= +o.+ C+aa Cc=(±. ±++ t_.. ++(+oc =±±o+«o= +a+a±
..±o+o +.++. ++o= .+±.+c .+a..+± ++..o +.++.
C.+ oa+á..+.o ++_co++++ t_.. ++(+c ccca ±++cco= toc C+aco+= c+c++ t_.. ++(+c
Co+.a. .±a++.o +_c c+.+. .++a cca++.o ±á.¬=.c.± +±a.co+ Cc=(± cc..o .=+
·¯ c a_+++++.
101
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
+o Co+.a. .±a++c =+++ o+co+c .++a± IP/N/3 -o± ccCa++o+ Cc=(±. ..c+c =++o .+C+ao.+.
+c+o++c. Co+.a++a+c .áôo.c _+acc+.+ C±+C++co Cc=(±.
c..+o++o oc.... c.+ao oa...(co +o.+ oo+ Cc=±a C.+_..+c .o C.ac ±+_± Ca+±
++.. ±+++.( +a+++oo .c++ C.+...( ±á.¬ c..+o++o =+..+o++ C+ao+...(coc. _c+o c++c
-o++o tco oc+= ±á.¬=+..+oo .c .±o+... co.o.
±á.¬ coo +..± i¯¯· c.acáao +±a C.++ ...±.... +o.++.o c±+=±+_ t_.. ++(+c
.c+++=± Cc=(C++c c(+o+. t_.. ++(+c c++cCc C.ac. Ca+± ++.. ±+++(+oc ±....ao
+o.++c C++(++c+o+o± ±á.¬=.c.± ±=(± oa C+.(o C++co....ca.
.cc+o.+ ±o+c cccc o+co+c IP/C/W/15 .++a++oo +..o+ Cc=(±. .cc.+ +o.++c IP/N/5
.++a+ Co+.a+c -o± ccCa++o+..(+c+c.
+o.+ C+aco+++c c.++c =++o Co+±oa.. .+.ca+ .++a± WT/TC/NOTIF/TRIPS/1)ao +o.+ C+ac+
=++o các+c o+co+c tcoc.
Co+±o a.. c++.±.. +±±+o±+c cca++.o coa++a..+o ++(+o.±c++ ++± c..± C._c+¯
coc± ++(+c ±+_± cco++a ++(+c C+.(o C++c«± C.++ .a¬.a± c..o C++c«± +..+..++oc
±....ao coa++a..+o ++(+c Co+±o a..± ±+_± ++ c++.±... c±++ Cc=(± cc_ ±á.¬
c..+o++c .=+ ·¯ +_+++.
.+ c+a±++ o=+o o+co+c C._co+++c c±c.++.o t_+..(+o +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o.... +.++oo
o++o+ Co+±o a.. c++.±.. =++o c+a++.o coa++a..+o ++(+c _=(o= cc c.+ ±á.¬
=.c.± oo+ c..o C++=(coc. .+o+co+c ¿././a .++a+ Co+.áo c±++..(+++. ..=a oo++c
...=+ao +(oo cca++c +..o+c+c
ccc.+ Co+±o a.. c++.±.. +±±+o.... o+co+.o ccCc+o c+cá+oo C.+o+± cc+ +ac++
.±a++.o. .++a cca++.o +o.+ C+aa Cc=(±.
.+o Co+.a. .±a++.oo =++o cca++c .++a± IP/N/4 .o ..=o+ Cc=.±. ..c+c ±o+c c+C+ao.+.
+c+o++c Co+.a++a+c .áôo.c _+ac+.+ C±+C++co Cc=(±.
102
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TôLm þ1: ùTôÕf NWjÕLÞm A¥lTûP ùLôsûLLÞm
Aj§VôVm þ 8
Tϧ þ 1: ùTôßl×L°u CVp×m Yônl×LÞm
i. c..+o++c +a+++«o= t_.. ++(+c taaoo+ Cc=(±. c..+o++o C+.(o C++=(co.oc.
+(oo .++++.. oa+oo+c.+ao t_.cca+c o++c +..++.o +..c.+ .(+oo+±. _c+o ..±các+c
c.+ao o+c co+o+ Cc=(± cc_ +..±....ca+o++ .co+ Cc=±a+o.o. t_.. ++(+c o++c
cc....± +(oo++ c±+=± .++++.. c.++c ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++«o= ca=++. C.+ac.o +.++.
.+o c..+o++c +a+++.o o++c C+++o +.. +..c.++«o= t...( C.+_+o±+c c.+ao co+o=c+
=+++ c±c c(o+ t_.. ++(+«o= +o++a± c±++...(co+.
¯. .+o c..+o++++++ .ac.(++± +c+ C++++ cc+ c+o+a±+c+ ±á.¬c..+o++c .++±
¿¿.c i coo ¯ coo tco các+«o= +±±+o.... coo+c.+a+c +c+ C++++á.±+.oa± =+o=±.
¯. ±á.¬ c..+o++o t_.. ++(+c c+c++c =±±o+c c+a++o cc.++ Cc=±a ==c.++c
.++ ++acocc+++= t_.. ++(+c ..+++ +.o+ Cc=(±. i Co C+a++o .+ᬠ++.. ±+++( i¯·¯
C.ac ++.. ±+++( i¯¯i Ca+± ++.. ±+++( ±+_± c_++.=+o ±c ++_+c ±o+c +c+ C++++á.±
c..+o± .c++o .+C++_co to+ ca+o+ .±.. t_.. ++(+«o= ++.. C._co+= oo+...(co
o=++.o c+ t_.. ++.( +.a+c. C.++c+o+Co +c+ C++++á.± C.+ c±a± cc..oa± .á++ C++co
Cc=(±. ¯. C+a± ++.. ±+++.±c .=+ ·.c ¯c+ .+a+ oo+ .=+ ·.c ¯c+ .+a+co c±++...(co
++++ao+_+c t_.. ++( c+ cc_± C.++co=±+c+o c++o tco.±a+c +a+++.o ±á.¬=.c+=
+o.+ C+aa Cc=(±.
Tϧ:2:
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU £\l× UôSôÓLs
i. ±á.¬ c..+o++c .++++c ¿¿. ¿¿¿. ±+_± ¿ao= ±+..oo=± c.+ao .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c
i¯·¯ i coo i¯ c±ac± ±+_± i¯c+ .=++«± ..=++ C+ao..o+±.
¯. .+ᬠ++.. ±+++(. C.ac ++.. ±+++(. Ca+± ++.. ±+++( ±+_± c_++.=+o ±c ++_+c ±o+c
+c+ C++++á.± c..+o++oo t_.. ++(+«o= C.+_..+c c+c± ±á.¬c..+o++c .++++c i coo
¿a c±a tcocc+++= ..o= c+.(++c.o+.++.
Tϧ: 3: úR£V AÔÏØû\:
i. +c+ C++++á.±o= ++..oo=± c+a++o oc+ C+++o =±±o+«o= c±++o+±ao+= c+o c.+ao±
=.+a+o ++... t_.. ++(+c c+c++c
=±±o+«o=± c±++Cc=(±. .+o c+coo++c +o.±+c =+++ .+ᬠ++.. ±+++( i¯·¯ C.ac ++..
±+++( i¯¯i. Ca+± ++.. ±+++( oo+ c_++.=+o ±c++_+c ++a+o +c+ C++++á.±+c c..+o±
_+acc++o ++...(coc. +.o.a+c ..++o.( oa+á..+oa+c. c .a.. .±..+c c+a++o .+o.
C.+_..+o+c.c .cCc+..+o++o c±++...(co tá.±+oc ±....ao ±.(C± C.+_+ooo+.c. C.ac
++.. ±+++( i¯¯i.c .=+· oo+
Ca+± ++.. ±+++.±c .=+ i·. i+.c ±....ao ...±.... ++++ao+_+.o t_..++(+c co++o±
C++=( .co=±+c+o cc.a++.o .c+oo tco.±Ca ±á.¬ =.c+= +o.+a++ oo+ Cc=(±.
¯. ++++.+ ±+_± +ac++++.+ +.c±o.++c +±±+o±+c t_.. ++(+c o++«o= o+++Co c+coo=+c
=±+++o C++co+oo+c+.+ .+a+i c a_+++++. C+.co++c Co+.a. c+cá.a Cooc++ =+.c(c+
oo+ t_.ccác +.. co.o+«o= t.... ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++«o= C.+_+o+oo+o++c± o=..a
+.. +..++«o= t.c..o+±acc++c± .c+o+o ±.(C± ..±.... coo=+.o oo+ c±a±. Co
C+a++o .cCc+.+(+o+c.c ±+_Cc.++o c++ ca+o++.o o....(++co++ .co+o +.++.
Tϧ:4: ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ AÔÏØû\:
+c+ C++++á.± .++++.. c+a++o c+o cc ++o+c±. _oac±. ++..á.±a± c+coo=± t_.. ++(
co+c+ cc_ oc+ =±±o+«o= c±+=C±a+c+o ccá.±+c t.c±a++ c+oco+±+c +.+o.ca±c+
c+ t_.. ++(+oc =±±o+«o=± c±++... Cc=(±. .+o C.+_.c c++ coo= C._coc -o± co+c+
=+o±. _oac. ++..á.± oo+ c+ coo= _+acc+.+ t_.. ++( cc_ =±+o+o+±.
103
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
. C.++c+c .aocc±....ao+c +.. co+o+± oo+ ++++.+ toco++c +acCo+ c..+o++c
-o++ c++ C.+_ccco++ .cc== c.+ .co+ Cc=(±.
_ C.ac ++.. ±+++( i¯¯i oo+ Ca+± ++.. ±++.±c +a+++oc ô± +±±o± C.+_ =±+o+..(±
C.++ +o ==c.+a+c+ Co+a ==c.+ao C+ao.. c..oC++co....o++ .co++±o +±±+o....
±+C++c ++.±c ==c.+o= c..o C++coo+±ao++ .co+ Cc=(±.
. +.o.a+c. ..+o.( oa+á..+oa+c ±+_± c .a.. .±..+c _+acc+++= .cCc+..+o++c
ô± C++=(ca...co.o.
= to+ ca+o+ c..+o++c C+ao.+(+«o= cccCa C+aoo= c++c.. +c+ C++++á.± .++++..
++a+o +acCo+ c..+o++oc -o++ c++ C.+....o++ .c+o+o± ..±.... c..+o++c =+++ ±á.¬
c..+o+++= +o.+ C+aa Cc=(±. C±o± ±+C++c t_.. ++.±c =±±o+«o= c+a++ +++a±++
=±+.o.aCa+ c+a.+a+o +.o.±.aCa+ +_co +.++.
Tϧ þ 5: Lôl× ùTßRp LôlûT TWôU¬jRp NmUkRUô] TuØû] JlTkReLs:
+c+ C++++á.± .a+±á.. oo+ ++.. C._oo +±±+o±+c c+a++o to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc
Cco++++c ô± t_c+o+.... .cc.c c..+o++o c±++...(co +..c.++oc .+o .=+ ¯ ±+_±
:.c ô±+c C.+_..+.o t.Ca++o+o +.++.
Tϧ þ 6: TXaÉm
.=+ ¯ ±+_± :.c +a+++oc ô± cao+±a o+c+o+.o .cCc+..+o++c +a+++oc ô± +a++.co=±
C++o+++++++ .ac.(++±C.++ +c+ C++++á.±+.o .occ..(++± ca++.c.a c(++.+o+
.cCc+..+o++o tco c+ cc.+a± .ac.(+oo+.++.
Tϧ:7: úSôdLeLs:
+c+ C++++á.±+«o= .++++.. o..oc -oc± .o +..c.+..(++coc -oc± Co+±oa..
.+...cc+.o coa+Co(...o ±o+..(+o c±+++. Co+±oa..+.o ±+C++c ..+++= ±+++c± .acc±
C+aa c±+++. .oc -o± Co+±o a.. +.c t+.++a+oa+«± t.Ca++..+oa+«± .a¬.a± +c.±
C.++ +±a c.+ao .ac.(+o c±+++. C±o± tá.±+«o=± C.+_..+«o= ...Ca +±+.o c+.(++±
+cca++c± .ac.(+o c±+++.
Tϧ þ 8: ùLôsûLLs:
i t_.. ++(+c o++c +..+..++.o .±..o+=± +c++co+=±+c +.c±o.++c C±+C++c«±
C.++ C.++ +++o+a+.oa± ±..++++± +..o++ C+acoc ±o+c c+a++.oa± .++++o=± +.c±o.++.o
C±+C++cc+ c+a±+c+. o++c +-+ C.+co+o+a Co+±o a.. coa++o++c +co+a++c± tco +.++c
±+ C.++ ±o+«o= tco o+.a.a +.(c+±. co+a C++o+±+=±. .o++++ C±+C++co..(± +c+o++«±
+.. t_c+o+++«± .cCc+..+o++c +a+++«o= C.+_++aco+ Cc=(±.
¯ c..+o++c +a+++«.c ...± C.+_++cao+±a.c +c+ C++++á.±+.o oc tá.±a+oa+o+o
oc+++ .ac.(++c.o o(++ +_++co++c±. +acCo+ Co+±oa.. .á±+++++.o +(.±a++ .++o+o+±a+±.
ca+o++.o Co.caoo+±o +.(..(+oo+±a+± _c C+ao+«o= ..o+o± o...o o(++
+_+oo+±ao++c± .c..o+++c oo+ +.c±o.++.o C±+C++co Cc=(±.
104
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TôLm þ 2: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u úSôdLm, ¡ûPl×
¨ûX Utßm TVuNôokR RW ¨oQ«l×Ls.
Aj§VôVm þ 9
©¬Ü þ1 Lôl׬ûUÙm AÕ NôokR E¬ûULÞm:
Tϧ þ 9 ùTo² £\l× UôSôhÓP]ô] E\Ü ¨ûX:
i. t_.. ++(+o+c.c C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c i¯¯i i coo ¯i c±a tco .=++«o=± c+C+ao.+o=±
C.+_++ C++co+oo+.c. Co C+a++o .+o ++.. ±+++.±c .=+ . · +=c.c ô± t_+..(+....
oo+ .o -o±++o C++=( C.+.... tá.±+c _+accc++c ±....ao ±á.¬c..+o++c ô±
tá.±+.oCa+. C.+_..+.oCa+ C.++co+ c±a++.
¯. .+..á.±+.o. C.+_+oc.a. +±±+o.... c+a+.o Cco..(++± ++=o=+o+c .++++.. c±++
Cc=(±. c==++c. C+aoc.++c .ao=co+++c c.+=c.++c oo+ +=ocao =++a++c
C.+c+c+++= .++++.. c±++ Cc=±a+o.o.
Tϧ þ 10: L¦² §hP YûWÜLs Utßm úRokùRÓdLlThP ®YWjùRôÏl×Ls:
i. C.ac ++.. ±+++( i¯¯i ô± .oo+a .....+«o= c±++..(+++ C.+c+ .++++... +=c +..
c.ac+«o= .c+c -oc±c c+o+o± C++o+++c =+c±c +o+o± c±++ Cc=(±.
¯ Coa+Co(o+.... cca+ Co+=..+c oo+ c+ cca++c .c+c c++a++o+o .±+o+a+oo+ c±cCo+
oo+ Cc_ c±cCo+ .c+o+o± c++c Coac+++.. +.o ++a=±++ oo+ c++c ++a±
.±o+...(co co± ++a=±++ +c.ac±+c .....++o +co...( .++++.. C.++oo+o++++. Co
C+a++o +Co+=.c=c tco oc+oc cca++c ±+_± .=++«o= .++++... các.(+o c±a++. +o
cca++c oo+ C.+cc+«o= .co++ .+..á.±.a .++o++±o± .+a++o C++co Cc=(±.
Tϧ: II: YôPûL E¬ûU:
t_.. ++(+o+c.c =.++o..+± +=c +.. c.ac+c ±+_± +c±+ +a+co¬ .=+«o= c++c
.....+o+c ±+_± ca+o+ Co+.a tá.±a+oa+«o= o++o+ .....+.o ca+o+ *+ao C.++ ±o+«o=
-oc±cCo+ ca+Ca(..o+++c .+..á.± c±cCo+ c+..+o= c(co+=± oo+ =±+ac+ ±++ca+c
oc+++ .ac.(++c.o o(..o+=± c+.+(+c C+aa Cc=(±. +c±++a+co .=+«o= c+..+ ++..oo+
Cc=±a C.+_.c c++ cc t_.. ++( coo= C.+o+±. +±±+o....
....cc _+áaa ±+_± o.o.cc +± cc++ Co+.a tá.±a+oa _+Ca+ác oc+++..+c tá.±.a
C+o..(++++ c.+ao ca+«o= ±_ oa+á.. +....o o(..o+= t_..++( ca+«o= t_+..(++o
C++(++coo+= ±++++ C.áa oc+= ca+Ca(o=± C+ao +..C.++± c+o+o ±.(C± .+o coo=
C.+c±a±. +=c +.. c.ac+.o. C.+_+oc.a c+..+ c+a++o +=cac +.. c.acc tcCo
.co=± c+a++c c+..+o= c(co+++c c+a±+c c+a++.o tco.o++oo++ .co.+ao .+o= C.+_...
c+_o C++co Cc=±a+o.o.
Tϧ:12: TôÕLôl©u LôXm:
cc ....cc .++++.. ++o+.o c.C.++ +=o+. Cc=±cc++Co+. .C.++ oc .....+oac
.a+.+a+c taac+.± ++o± +=o+o c(++o C++co Cc=(±. ++.. +±±+o±+c +++a.ac Ccoa(
c+o ++.++.± _=±c c±c c++ ·. _=(+«o= =.+a+±o +o ++o +..± .co+o+(± oo+
..±.... ..... t_c+c+ c++ ·. _=(+«o=c +++a.ac Ccoa( ca+c..+o. +o .....
tcc+c ++.++.± _=±c c±c c++ ·. _=(+c +=o+o c(++o C++co..(±.
Tϧ: 13: CXÏTÓjÕYÕm ®XdL°lTÕm:
tá.± .c++cocác +...ac cc..++.o Co.caoo+o c.+ao .++o++o ±+_± ++o+a=±+c .ac.+.(.c
ca=..+o. =+.c.+oo+ oc c.+ C+ao.+(+«o= oc tá.±+c c±+=co+++c C.+_..+o c++ t_..
++(+c coo= C.+o+± oo+ c.aa.+ +a=a++ C+ao..o+±.
Tϧ:14: LûXOoLs, CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs (J- lT§ÜLs) Utßm J- TWl×
AûUl×LÞdLô] TôÕLôl×:
i. ..+o+.o.a+oc +ô++a+.o. C.++±o ca+o+ ..+ ±..o+.oCa+ =ao c +.oCa+
105
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
..++o.±o .+...o o(++ +_++co+++c tá.±+.o t_.. ++(+c c±++ Cc=(±. .c.c.+ao ô±+=.
tá.± ±ao+c +..C.+ c+a..co+. +.o.a+oc .+c C+aa...+o +.oc±c++.o +++a.ac±++
c.+ao .+c C+ac+± ±_ t+.++ C+ac+± tá.±±ao+o+=±. o++o+ =±+ac+ +..C._± ô±+=.
c.+ao+c C+ao+.o o(++ +_++co++ac tá.± +.o.a+«o= tco+. +.o.a+o+ ++±+++.o c+Cc+
Co+±o a..++c -o± c .a..c.oa± C.++±o+«o= c(+++ C+oc.oa± o(o=± tá.± +.o.a+«o=
tco+.
¯. ..++o.( oa+á..+oa+c o++o+ ..++o.(+.o C+a±a++Cc+. ±.+c+±++Cc+ ±++ca+c ±_ t+.++
C+ac.o o(o+c± tá.±...+oca+c. +++a .ac±++ =±+o+c± tá.± ...+oca+c.
¯. o++o+ =±+aoo+±o C±+C++co..(± ô±+=. +.c±o.++.o o(++ +_++± tá.± ...+o.c
c .a.. .±..+c. .+c C+aoo. .+c C+ao.o ±_.±a± Ccoa(oo. c+Cc+ Co+±oa..± C.+c+c++c
-o± c+.+ ±_c .a.. C+aa ca+++oo _+acc+.+ o(o+ tá.± tco+. Co+.oo++.+
co.a..+.oa± .Co C.+o +..c.+..(+o tá.± tco+. ..±.... tá.±+.o c .a.. .±..+«o=
t_..++(+c c±+++o +.oao C.ac ++.. ±+++( i¯¯i.c +a+++«o= t...( .+..á.± +a+++oc
±....ao ..±.... c .a..+.o o(++ +_c++co+++c c+.+(+c C+aao+±.
:. .=+ ii .c +=c +..c.ac+«o= oo+...(co +a+++.o ..++o.( oa+á..+oa+«o=±
c+a±+c +c+o++c C+a+ C.+_+oo+±. t_.. ++(+oc +..++c ô± ..++o.( tá.±
.c++c..ca+«o=± C.+_+oo+±. i¯¯: c.ao i·_± Co+ac_ c+o cc t_..++.+c+ ..++o.( c+..+
+±±+o±++ oc ±+ tá.± .c++c..ca+«o= +±±+c Cc=±+ +....o+++c c.+.a
co.(++aco=C±Caco ..++o.(+.o ca+o+ *+ao c+..+o= c(± ..±.... c.+.a Co
C.+o Co+.ao+±. +o c+.+.±o ±_ t+.++o= _c oc tá.±.a .c++co=± tá.±a+oa+«o= C.+cc
*+ao C+o± c+.(++co+=± c±Ca+.(+o+±o .+a++o C++co Cc=(±.
·. +.o.a+c ±+_± ..++o.( oa+á..+oa+«o= =.++o ..+± +o ..... t_+..(+o.... oo+
..... ++±+o.... ++.++.± _=±o .c++ ·. _=(+«o++c+ +=o+.( .cCc+..+o++c ô±
.++++.c+++c ++o +a=a± C+aa... Cc=(±. .+a+ ¯.c Co+.a++a++ c±++..(± .++++..+c+ =.++o
..+± ¯. _=(+«o= .co++oo++. o+c+ c .a.. C±+C++co.... ++.++.± cc.++c +..+a c++
¯. _=(+c.
·. .+a+o+c i. ¯. ±+_± ¯.c ô± .+c C+aa.... tá.±+c c+a++o c+o cc t_.. ++(± +.+o.c+c.
oc+c. coo=+c ±+_± c+oô(+.o +a=ao=±C.++ Ca+± ++.. ±+++( =±+++co oc+=c .co+
Cc=(±. Co C+a++o ..++o.(+oo +.o.a+«o=± ..+++.( oa+á..+oa+«o= tá.±+c c±+=±
c+a++o C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c i¯¯i .=+ i- .c +a+++.oa± C.+_++.o+±.
©¬Ü þ 2: YojRL Øj§ûWLs
Tϧ þ 15: TôÕLôdLjRdL êX ®NVeLs
cc +_cc++c C.+cc oo+ C+.c.a .cCc+c +_c++=..a+ c++ Cc_.(++o ++..o+±ao++
.co++ c+o cc =+ oo+ =++oc +o.ca+c+ oc oc.± cc ca+o+ c++.aa++ +.o+_++c
C++c«± ++c...+oo+=±. ..±.... =++c. C+++o. C.aa+c tco.. =+.c.. c+a+.o+o++c±.
c.+++o++c±. c=+o++c±. tcc++o++c±. c==o +o.c+o++c± .co+o+±. =++oc +o.c+.o.
C.+_+oc.aao± C±++=.c.+ao t=a+o+oo+ o=+ c+o =+a(+«o= .ao.++Cc .oo++co++Co+
.C.++ c++.c t.Ca++++o c.. ccc+o .c cá++.++oo+ ++.c c+o oc+= Cco..(+++++
cc.oc ±....ao
t_.. ++(+c .+c C+aao+±. =++o+c.c ++.+ c±c++o cá++..+a+o+a+oo+o++ .co+ Cc=(±
cc..o .+co++c +.+o.c+a++ t_.. ++(+c C++ao+±.
¯. cc t_.. ++( ca+o+ c++.a .+.c Cc_ ±+oo++o c++ ±_...o o(..o+= .+a+ i tco+
cc_ oc+++ .á++ C++coo+.++. +o ++...(co.c .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c +a+++«o= ..o=
c+.(++c.o +.++.
¯. t_.. ++(+c .ac.+.±c±....ao .+.o c±++o+±. Co C+a++o .+co++c c==..± .a++
C+aco+= ca+o+ c++.aac +..c.+ t.Ca++± cc..o cc +.+o.ca++ cc.co+ Cc=±a+o.o.
c==.co+...( -c_ _=(+c +±++ ++o+c+a+c ccc+o± t.Ca++ c±co+c C+ao C++o+±
+.+Cc++...co.o cc.o++++ ±.(C± cc c==..± +a++áo+...( c.o+++.
:. cc ca+o+ c++.a t.Ca++o+..(++ C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+c C..±o=c ..o+...±co++
.aoC.+( .c..oc -o± +Cc ca+o+ c++.a .+c C._co+= o..a++. C.+ac.o+.++.
106
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
·. +±±+o... ca+o+ c++.a .+c C+aco+= cccCa+ oo+ táa++o++o .+c _+ac+o cccCa+
c+.+ t_.. ++(+c Ccoa. Cc=(±. oc -o± C±+.± .+.c a++ C+aaoC++c± c==..++c
C+aco+= +a+a±+c c+a... c±++ Cc=(±.
Tϧ:16: i tá.±a+oác =±+C.++±o -c++c+ +.a ccca +o tá.±a+oác ca+o+ =+ ..a+o+.o
o=..a c±c++Co+ oo+ +o ca+o+ c++.a .+c C+aa...(coc+++= c+o oo+ c.c+ c+o
C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o= .ac.(++c+ cCa ±++áa++ .co+c+c cc+ =±..+.o c+.(++±. ccCc
=±+ C.++o ..±.... t.Ca++.o o(++ +_++co+++c oc+++.. tá.±.a .+c C+aa...(co
ca+o+ c++.a tá.±a+oa C.+o+±. C±++=.c.+ao ccáo+...(co tá.±+o+c.c cc=á.±
C.++co=± tá.±+c cc+.+a± .++++c.o+.++. t.Ca++++c ±....ao t_.. ++(+c tá.±+c
c+.(++co+++c c+a..+.oa± .++++c.o+.++.
¯ .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c i¯·¯ .=+ ·bis C+.c+«o= C.+_+o+oo++ c+a±+c +c+o++c C+a+ cc
ca+o+ c++.a ±+c± ca.o+±++aco+ cc..o =+++ cc c±co= ccco+= C.++±o+oc C.+_+o±+c
.=+ao +±±+o... ca+o+ c++.ao= tco .á++a+.oo +=o+o c(++o C++co Cc=(±. Co C.+o
+±.+o.... t_.. ++.±o C±+.± ca+o+ c++.a.a cc++ C+aa± +.c±o.+ao + =.±aco
.á++a+.oa± +=o+o c(++o C++co Cc=(±.
¯ c+o C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o= ca+o+ c++.a .+c C+aa...(coCo+ .c+.o.
C.+ooo+occ+++= .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c i¯·¯ .=+ · +=c ..c c+a±+c +c+o++c C+a+ .ac.(+o
c±a±. ca+o+ c++.a.a ..± C+aa± C.++ .+c C+aa.... ca+o+ c++.aac tá.±a+oa+«o=
oo+...(co +oc+c .++o+... c+a.. tco+. ccCc ..± t.Ca++..(++co+= =±+..+c+
tá.±a+oa+o +o ca+o+ c++.a c+o C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o= .+c C+aa...(coCo+ o+=±
+o ca+o+ c++.a.a .ac.(++ =±+o+..(co C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o=± ...Ca tco
Co+.a.. c(++.a..o++ .co+ Cc=(±.
Tϧ:17: ®§®XdÏLs:
ca+o+ c++.a .+cc -o± t_+...(co tá.±+«o= c.aa_o+... c+coo=+.o t_.. ++(+c
c±++o+±. ca=.c c+o+a++.o c.+a++. .ac.(++c+ c+a++o c+coo=+c c±+=co+++c c+.+(+c
C+aa± C.++ ca+o+ c++.aac tá.±a+oa ±+_± +±±+o.... -c++c+ +.a _+Ca+ác +...ac +oc+.o
+c++o C++co Cc=(±.
Tϧ:18: TôÕLôl©tLô] LôXm:
+co+ .+cc C.++± ccCc+c .+.c.. .+cc C.++± ca+o+ c++.ao= =.++o ..+± c. _=( ++..
c±++o+±. ca+o+ c++.a .+c+c+ ++oc.aa++ c.+ao .+.co++oo++.
Tϧ:19: TVuTôh¥u úRûY:
i. .+.c .a+±á..o++++ ±.(C± .ac.+.±o .co+++ cco. ..±.... t.Ca+++++= tco +a±++.o.
.++a +áa+c ++a=++.o +±±+o.... ca+o+ c++.a tá.±a+oa ++.. Cc=(±. ..±Ca .oo+c..+o±
c+oco±+c o..+«± .oo+±o -c_ _=( ++o± .ac.(+o...+± o=±C.++ ±.(C± o+= oo+....
.+.c a++ C+aa c±a±. ca+o+ c++.aac tá.±a+oác cc..++= c+. occ+.+a+c =±+.o tcc+o+
o+c+ .+o=±+ +.(..+(+c +o c++.a+c t.Ca++o+..(± C.+cc+c C+.c+c C±o c+o+...o+±
oo+ a+Co.c+«o+++ .c+c ±+ +.(..+( c+o+...o+±. ..±.... +.oao .o t.Ca++++o
.oo+± c..o+++c c+++oo+ ++a=±++ C++coo+±.
¯. tá.±a+oác +.(..+.±+= t.... c.+ao ca+ ca+o+ c++.a.a CcC++cca .ac.(++c.o
ca+o+ c++.a Co+.a++ +..c.+..(+++ cc_ +co+oo+o++o C++coo+±.
Tϧ þ 20 : ©\ úRûYLs
++.. ++a=++oc C.aáo ca+o+++o t.Ca++++oco ca+o+ c++.a.a _a+a±o o.. C+aao+.++.
ca+o+ c++.a+c c+c+_.c C+a++ .ac.(++c+. ca+Ca+±+c c±co .ac.(++c+ ±+_± cc +_cc++c
C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o= c±++...(co ca+o+ c++.a ±+C++c +_cc++c C.+cc+c C+.c+.o
Cc_.(++o ++..o +±a c .±o= C+( c.oco+o +±a c.+ao+c +.c±o.++c _+ac
C±++=.c.+ao o..C+aa +.++. ca+o+ c++.a.a c(++co +_cc± C.+cc+.oa± C+.c+.oa±
cá++ ..a+o± ++.(++ ca+o+ c++.aac C±o C+cc c.++co +.oao oCc+( Co+.a.
.oo+c..+o± ++_cc± t+.++ C+a++ C.+cc+c C+.c+«o= .ac.(++±C.++ +o.+a ca+o+
c++.a.a .ac.(++co++++ c±++...(co c±c.++.o coo+ c(co++o.o.
107
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Tϧ þ 2: E¬ûUdÏ CûNÜm JlTûPl×m:
ca+o+ c++.a+c ±o+c tá.±+c ±+_± c......+c +±±+o±+c +.+o.c+.o t_.. ++(+c tcc+o+o+±.
ca+o+ c++.ao= +..+a tá±± c±+=c+ =±+o+...±+..+ cc..o t_.. ++( .á++ C++co Cc=(±.
Co C+a++o ca+o+ c++.aac tá.±a+oa +o ca+o+ c++.a.a cccco= +o ca+o+ c++.aa.c
+±±+o...(co.c .c++.Cc+ oo+ oca++Cc+ c....o+ tá.± C.++oo+ca+c+a.
©¬Ü:3: ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLs:
Tϧ:22: ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ TôÕLôl×
i .+o c..+o++c C++o++++++c .cao =+a..a+o++c t_.. ++( cc+c Co+a co.oo=....
-o ..±++ .c...o c(++o++.(± =+a..a+o±++ .co+c+c. +o ++.±c =+.c.. ±=.o± oo+
.=+.a ..a+o± t=a++co++ .co+o+±. ..±.... +.oao +o C.+coc oa±. +c±+.. oo+
c+ ==++c .caao -o ..++c ++... Cco..(+oo+±a c.+ao oc=c C++=±co+ Cc=±a+
c+a±+c+.
¯. .cao =+a..a+o++c c+a++o o+++c ++... c+aC++o=± +.a+oc +...ac cc..++.o
.a++ C+aco+++c c±c.++.o t_.. ++(+c c=o+o+±.
+±±+o.... cc C.+coc +c+± oo+ +a±+.o c+o cc c±c++o+c+ .ac.(++c+ +o+.o
c+.(++±. C+cco=+a C.+cc =+.c(++ oo+ cc.co++ .caao .=+ ccCc.o t=.±a+c
-o..=+o= ..++...o++ .co+o+±. .C.++ C.++±o+.o t=.±a+c C.+coc .caao -o+oc+.o.
C.+c_ +co± .± oc+++ + c±++.(± c.+ao .±++ c(±.
_ .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c .=+ i.+=c.c a+o+++= t...( .+ao=±C.++ c+o cc .cao
=+a..a+o±+c+ c.+a++ C.+.±.a t_c+o=± c.+ao .ac.(+o..(c+ +=co+..(± C.++
+±±+o....ca+o+ +.. tá.±+.o t_.. ++(+c .++++o+ +..±...(coc.
¯ cc C.+c«o= .cao =+a..a+o+.o ca+o+ c++.aa++ .+o=± C.++ +±±+o.... .caao
.=+ +±±+o.... C.+c«o= -o ..±++ .oo+o C.++ +o. C.+c«o++c .caao =+ ..a+o±
++a+o ca+o+ c++.a .+.c cc t_.. ++( +a++áo+Cc+ oo+ a+Co+ C+aao+±. +o t_.. ++.±o
..±.... =+a..a+o+.o c..±.... cc C.+cc+«o++c+ =+a..a+o±++ t.Ca++o=± C.++
=+a..a+o++c .a+.+ -o..± +o+c cc_ +±.+ C+a+c(±.
: CcC++c _.+ co.oo=.... ..+.o -o..±++ C++=( tco C.+c«o= tco tá.±.a
±+C++cca oc+ .caao =+a..a+o±++ oca++ ca+++++c..(++co+= c+a++ i. ¯ ±+_± ¯c+ .+a+o+oo
tco .++++.. c+.+(+.o C.+_+oo+±.
Tϧ: 23: Jnu Utßm NôWôVj§tLô] ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ Es[ áÓRp TôÕLôl×:
i .caao =+a..a+o..(+o...(co ..+.o -o ..±++ C++co+o cac oo+ .cao
=+a..a+o..(+o...(co ..+.o -o ..±++ C++co+o ++a+a+++= ..a+o..(+o...(co .caao
=+a..a+o+.o .ac.(++co+++c tá.±.a o++«o= c+o++ oc±+_ C++c.ca+«o= C.++±+c +..
c+.+(+.o t_.. ++(+c C+a+ oa Cc=(±. ccCc.o C.+coc t=.±a+c -o ..+.o
..a+o..(+o...(± oo+ .cao =+a..a+o± C±+±C.aao+.... +.oao t.Ca++..(+o...(±
oo+ C.+c+ c±c+c. c.+a+c. c+o+ cc+ c±co Cco..(+o...±c+o+o± C±+.± c+.+(+.o
C+a+ oa Cc=(±.
¯ .cao =+a(+.o ..a+o..(++co++ _+...±co++ oo+ cc..a+o+.o C++=±co++
cac c.++c .cao =+a(+.o ..a+o..(++co++ _+...±co++ oo+ C++=±co++ ++a+a c.++c
_+acc+++++c .+.c oco+± ++a.+cca+o+o a++ C+aa...o+± oo+ +a++áo+o+±. .+o ..+.o
-o±++ C++=±a+o cac oo+ ++a+a c.++.o t_.. ++(+oc +..++oc ô± oo+ .+ c+a++o
cc..cco +.a C+.(o C++ccoc ±....ao C±++=.c+_ a++ oo+ +a++áo++ C+aao+±.
108
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
¯ .caao =+a..a+o+.o C++=(co cac+c c+a++o ccCc+c =+o=± .++++.. c±+++oo++.
.=+ ¯¯.c :c+ .+a+co .o+++c +a+++c tcoc. C+cco=áa .cao=+a..a+o+.o. C.+_+oc.a
t_.. ++(+c ccCc+c_± o++«o=co+c Cc_.+(+.o c(++.ao=± c.+ao C+aoc.+ c±c++.o
tcc+o+ Cc=(±. t+.++ a+ac+oa+«o= oc+++ c±++.±c.o+.++.
: cac+«o= _c .caao =+a..a+o++«o= tco .++++.. c.++.o coo+o=co+++c c+a++o
o+++c C.++c+a+.o+.o ±á.¬ =.cc ô± +.++.o+±. oc-o± +o C.++c+a+.o+oo .+C+++
++(+oo cac c.++«o= .caao =+a..a+o++c .+c C+aco+=± +o.+ C+aco+=± _c .cc.c
c..+o+.o c+.(+oo+±
Tϧ: 24: NoYúRN úTfÑ YôojûRLs: ®§®XdÏLs:
i .=+ ¯¯.c ô± oc.... .cao =+a..a+o++.o .++++..o+++c +(oo c+.+(+.o C+aa± C++o+++o+c
C.++ c+a+.o+oc ô± ca t_.. ++(+c c..o C++co Cc=(±. C.++ c+a+.o+c +.++ oc c±c++
.a¬.a oo+ .cc.c c..+o± c+.(c.o o(o+ .+a+o+c : coo - c±a tcoc++c +a+++.o t_..
++(+c .ac.(+oo+.++. oc.... .caao =+ ..a+o++.o .ac.(++c+ +±±+o±++ +..C._±
.+o. C.++ c+a+.o+oo C±+=+.c.. +a+++.o oc.... .cao =+ ..a+o++«o= Co+.a++
.ac.(++c+ =+++ _Co++o+ t_.. ++(+c ccca Cc=(±.
¯. .+o cácc +a+++.o co+o=c.o oc+ .áôo.cac ô± ±á.¬ =. .c++o C++co Cc=(±. to+
ca+o+ .±.. c..+o± coo= c+o .a=( _=(+«o=c ...±.... coo .áôo.c +..C.++oo++.
.+o +a+++oc ô±+c C.+_..+Co+( .=++.C.+c.o .++o+o+±a c+a++c ±á.¬=.cc +cc+++=
C++=( C+oo+oo++. .+ c+a±++ t_.. ++( cc_ ±+C++c(.Cc+ ±++.c+«.Cc+ C.++c+a+.o+c
+.++.o+±. t_.. ++(+«.c .a¬.a± oo+ .cc.c _Co++.c+.o +.++a± +c.+a+c +ac ++=
c±a+o +.oao C±+=+.c..c+_ ±á.¬=.c+c+ +.c±o.+ c(o+o+±. oc -o± .+o. cácc
C++o+++c ccc++ C+aa..(co+=± +..c.+.a coo+o=co+=±+c c..o.o c+.(+oo+±.
¯ .+o. cá.c co+o=±C.++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± co+o+± +c+=±C.++ +o
++.±o c o .c+o .caao =+a..a+o+++++c .++++... cac c.++«o=± ++a+a c.++«o=±
.ac.(+o..(± .caao =+a..a+o++.o +±±+o.... t_.. ++.±c =± ±o+Co+ oo+ +o ++.±o
Co+.a++ c+.± cccCa+ C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o= +±±+o.... cac c.++«o++c
=+a..a+o++.c. C.+cC+ Co+.a++ .ac.(++c.o t_.. ++(+c o(o+ Cc=±a.o. .++ .+o. cáco
c+c± C+.(o C++co...co.o. Co C+a++o i¯¯: c.ao i· c++ =.++o ..+± i. _=(+c. oo+
_ +a=ao+.... ++«o= c+.oa Co+ c.a +c+±co.+ac ±....ao C±+.± .cao =+a..a+o
.ac.+( Co+.ao+±.
· +cc±co.+ac ±....ao cc ca+o+ c++.a .+co+++ c==.co+...±co+o+± oo+
.+c C+aa...±co+o+±. ca+o+ c++.ao++c tá.±+c Co+.a t.Ca++± -o± +cc±co.+ac ±....ao
C.+...( .co+o+±. ..±.... +.oao.
+±±+o.... t_.. ++.±o .+o+ +a+++c co.(+o..(co+= c+.oa ++c c.aa+c +.c±o.++c
.++± IV.o tco+ .±. oo+
_ +±±+o.... .caao =+a..a+o++c -o ++.±o .++++o+...±c..+ C.+o
C±+=+.c.(co.±a+c c+.oa ++c c.a +.c±o.++c C±+C++co Cc=(±.
.+o cáco= tco.o+aco +.c±o.++.o C±+C++c«±C.++ ca+o+ c++.a .+co++c o=++.o
ôa=.±..o++Cc+ oo+ +o .+cc C+oo.±+oc.±.a ôa=.±..o++Cc+ .c++ c.o++++.
· +±±+o.... ±+C++c ++.( co.oo=.... .=+ao ..±.... C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+«o=
C.++C±+±ao C.++.C.aác ±....ao ..a+o±+c+ C.+cc+«o=± C+.c+«o=± ..=++.
.ac.(++c+ Cooc++ Cco..(± C.++ cc t_.. ++( .+o.cácc +a+++.o C.+_++c+ =+++
.+o.cáco c+c± =+.c....co.o. +±±+o.... ±+C++c ++.( co.oo=.... .=+ao cac
oa+á..+«o= ..=++. .ac.(+o..(± .caao =+..a+o++c +o t_.. ++.±c co.oo=....
c.++oc C.aa+Co+( C+a++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± co+=± Co+ao +++c..+ Cooc++
Cco..(± C.++ C±+C++co Cc=±a +±c±o.++c =+++ .+o cc_± =+.c.co.o.
cc ca+o+ c++.aac t.Ca++± oo+ .+c +±±+o±++ .+o cácc ±....ao cc.co+..(±
Cc=(C++c ±o+c .+.o .++++o+.... +o =+ac c+a±.+a+c .ac.+.±+= c+o ++o c++ ¿++
_=(+«o=c c±++ +..±...(coc. o+c+ +o =+a+c+ ca+c++a++ tco ++.±o C±+.± ca+o+
c++.a .+c C+aa...( +o ca+o+ c++.a Ccoa..... ++o c++ · _=(+«o=c .+o oo+Cc
+..±...(coc. .+o Ccoa.( Co+a+c+. +o ++.±o c+a±.+ .ac.+( C.++c++ +a..(co+=
109
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
- ca+o++.o. C.+_+oc.a cc +.c..a C.aa oo+ ca+.+a++o cco= cc. =(..±c+ocác
C.a.a t.Ca++..(++co+= +o +.co= tco tá.±.a .++o++ C+aco+++c c+o c±a± .+o. .ácc
+a+++oo .o.o. C.++±o+.o oc++c +.+o= .±+++ C+oo± co++o +o. C.aa .ac.(++coc
±+ ±.(C± ..cácc +a+++oc -o± +.c±o.+ C±+C++co c±a±
¯ cc .caao =+a..a+o± oc -o ++.±o .++++o+...+±o .c++c+o+Co+ oo+ c±co=
C++=(ca..±c+o+Co+ oo+ -o ++.±o .ac.(+o...+o +.oo= C+c+c+o+Co+ +o .caao
=+a..a+o+++= .++++.. c±+=co+= .+o c..+o++o c+oco C.+_..+«± +a=ao+...co.o.
©¬Ü:4: ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs:
Tϧ:25: TôÕLôl×dLô] úRûYLs:
i +o++a±++ t_c+o+.... .+a oo+ -o c±co tco Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c+++= t_.. ++(+c
.++++.. c±++ +..±...(coc. c++cCc +a...(co c.ac±c++Co+( C.áa oc+=
Cc_..+oo++c±. +a...(co c.ac±c++oc ++..±+++o+ +o.ca++c±. .+acc+++++c
oc.±a++o++c±. -oc±c+++++c oc.±a++o++c± .c+o+o± c+++= t_.. ++(+c ++.. c±++o
+(±. ..±....+.oao Co+±oa..*+ao± .a+=oc.± ±....ao± ±+c± co+a++c± c+a+o
C±+=+.c.. c.+ao+c c.ac±c++«o= t_..++(+c ++.. c±++o +.++.
¯ eco++.+ c.ac±c++«o= .++++.. C._± c+a++o o+= Co.c..(± c+a++c ..±....
.++++.. C._co+++c c+a..+.o ++a=±++ c.+ao C+o..(+oo+.++ t_.. ++( ..o t_+..(++±
co++o oo+ c+.+(+c C+aa Cc=(±. =+..++ _ac oo+ Ccoa.±+= Co.c..(± c+a++c C.+c+
c+o cc c±c++o± .++.. c+.(++ c.o+.++. .+o C.+_... t_.. ++(+c Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c
+..± oo+ .+..á.± +..± -o± +o++a±++ c+a C++coo+±.
Tϧ:26: TôÕLôl×:
i .++++o+.... Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++c tá.±a+oa+ =±+aoo+±o -c++c+ +.a+c +o
c.ac±c++c t_c+.o ..±Ca ++o oo+ ++.o C.+c+ c±c++c -o± c(++. .ac.(++c+.
t+.++ C+ac+. c+..c C+ac+. +o c.ac±c++o tco .=++.o c(++o .+a+cc+ _+a ca+o+
C++o+o+c .ac.+(+.o o(..o+++c tá.± .++++o+.... +o c.ac±c tá.±a+oco= tco+.
¯ Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++«o= .++++.. c±+=± c+a++o t_.. ++(+«o= ±+c± c.aa_o+....
c+coo=+c ±.(C± oa...(coc. Co C+a++o ..± oa...(co c+coo=+o+c.c .++++o+....
Co+±o+.+ c.ac±c++.c ++o+a=+.oao t.Ca++..+.c Co.ca++ co++o ca=..o +.++.
.++++o+.... +o c.ac±c++c -c++c+ +.a+oc +...ac tá.±+.oa± +=o+Co(++o C++co
Cc=(±.
¯ .+ c+a++o .++++.. +....o ++o±+c+ =.++o ..+± i. _=(+o+c+ .co+o+±
©¬Ü 5: Lôl׬ûULs :
Tϧ:27: Lôl× ùT\jRdL êX ®NVm
i c+a±+c+ .+a+o+c ¯ ±+_± ¯.c +a+++«o= t....o++ .co=±C.++ + c+o.+a +=(c±..++
.c+o+o± ++.. C.++oo++. Co+±oa..++c c+o cc +.+ ++a+o C.+cc+c oo+ oa+á.. c.++o++
.c+o+o± +á +±±+o.... +=(c±..+o+c.c .+ao++c± +=(c±... .± +.o+«o= tco+co++c±
Co+±o+.+ .ac.+.±+= t++oo++c± .c+o+o±
+á ++.. C.++oo++. .=+ ··.c :c+ .+a+. .=+ ¯..c -c+ .+a+ .+o .=+a+c ¯¯.c ¯c+ .+a+ _+acc++c
ô±cc± c+a++.o. C.+_+oc.a ++..á.±+c C.+ c+a..+c tcoc. C±+.± ++..á.±ac tá.±+.o
c+oco±+c .+a..+c± .c+ =.co+o+±. +=(c±.. ++±+o.... ..++o tco+ C.+c+ tá.±+.o
=.co+o+±. .c Co+±oa..++.+ac ±....ao _c+o± +á oo+ C.+cc+o++ .co=± ..+++o
+ tc=á=..ao+a=± .+o=±+ C+aa....o+a=± +á.
t_.. ++(+c +=(c±..+«o= ++..á.± c±+=c+ c++ c+coo= C.++oo+.c. +o ++.±c C.++
c.+= oo+ c.o+ C++.a .++++.c+= c+a±+c ca+o+ *+ao +a=(c.o o(..o+++c o++o+
o(.. +..c.++.o .+a+oo+±. Co C.+o ±coa+c. co+=+c ±+_± .a++oc t.o +oc .++++o+c±.
++_+ =±oo= ±++ c+.(++c.o o(o+c± oco=co c+coo=+.o t_.. ++(+c .ac.(+oo+±.
..±.... c+coo=+.o ..±Ca Cc_±c++ .ac.(+o c±a++. +o ++.±c+ +..++c -o±o+c
..±.... +a=..o o(o+ c±a±.
110
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
¯ t_.. ++(+«± ++..á.± c±+=c+ c++ coo= C.++oo+.c.
±coa+c ±+_± co+=+«o= _c C++aáoo. +o+.+ao+oo ±+_± _.c +++.+ c.++«o=
++..oo=± c+a++o coo= C.+o+±.
_ a= t_.cao +=(c±..+c oca++ .aa+c ±+_± co+=+c +=(c±.c+= t_.. ++(+c coo=
C.+o+±. taáao ++a+o ±+_± a= taáao C+ac.++c oca++ .a++c ±+_± co+=+c t+.++ C+aco+=
c+a±+c taáao C+aoc.+ +=(c±..+«o= t_.. ++(+c coo= C.+o+±. Co C+a++o .aa
c.++«oC++ oo+ C+aco+± ±o+ +aCecáa¬ c.+ -oC±+. oo+ + C.+c+ +o.. c.+ao
t_c+o+...c+++C++ t_.. ++(+c ++.. c±++ +..±...(coc. .+o +.= .+a+_cc +a+++c to+
ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± co++++c++ ++c= cc.++c +±++ .áô o++oo++.
Tϧ :28: EߧlTÓjRlThP E¬ûULs:
i cc ++..á.± oc tá.±a+oco= +±+=. ++.. tá.±+.o t_+..(+oo+±.
++..á.±ac -oc+a± oa+á... C.+c.o. .++ao++ .co=±C.++ -c++c+ +.a+c
++..á.±a+oác =±+aoo+±o ca+ +=(c±...o C++=( oa+á...oCa+. t.Ca++...oCa+.
c+..co= cc.c...oCa+. c+..oCa+ oo+ .+o C++o+++++++ +o oa+á... .+o=±+ C+ac.oCa+
o(..o+++c ++..á.±.
_ ++..á.±ac -oc+a± C+aoc.+.a. .++ao++ .co=± C.++ -c++c+ +.a+c ++.. tá.±a+oác
=±+ C.++±o +o C+aoc.+.a .ac.(++c.oCa+. t.Ca++...oCa+. c+..co= cc.c...oCa+.
c+..oCa+ oo+ +o C+aoc.+.a C+a±a++ C.+_co C.+c.o .+o C+aoc.+o+++ .+o=±+
C+ac.oCa+ o(..o+++c ++..á.±.
¯ ++..á.±ac tá.±a+oa oc+ tá.±a .+=cá+++oa tá.±acoca. c+á++«o= ±+++ c.++oa
tá.±acoca. ++..á.± ±.(±oo++ tá± =+o.++.oa± .+= cá++ oa tá.±acoca.
Tϧ :29: Lôl׬ûU ®iQlTeLs ÁRô] ¨TkRû]Ls:
i ++..á.± C++c± c==..o+aa oc+ c==..++.c +=(c±.... .++a cca++.o .o+=(c±..
+±±+o.... +.+ao ++=co ccca+o. .á++C++co Co.c..(± oc+= Cooc++c± c..±a++c±
Co+=++o C++(o+...±co+ Cc=(±. c==..± +.+c C+aa.... ++oo +=(c±..+oa +=(c±..
+±±+o±++ oco= Coá++co c+a++.o occ+o .ac+ oc ++..++ Co+=++o C++(++co+ Cc=(±
oo+ cc=á.± ca++.c c.++co +.oao c==..++c cc=á.±+ Co+ao oc+ +=(c±..
.++a cca++.o C±+C++cc ±....ao Co+=++o C++(++co+ Cc=(±.
¯ cc c==..o+aá.± ca+ ++..á.± +±±+o±++ +o c==..o+a+ Cco++.( c==.. cca++c
oc ±o+c tá.± c±++o+c =++o cca++.o oc±+_ t_.. ++(+c C++ao+±.
Tϧ:30: Eߧ ùNnVlThP E¬ûULÞdLô] ®§®XdÏLs:
++..á.± t_+..(++aco ++.. tá.±+«o= t_.. ++(+c c.aa_o+.... c+coo=+.o +a=ao+o+±.
Co C+a++o ..±.... c+coo=+o+c.c +o tá.±ac +a+a±+c .ac.+.(.c Co.ca++ co++o
ca=..o+.++. ++..á.±ac tá.±a+oa+ +...ac tá.±+.o Co.ca++ co++o .++....a+
C+aao+.++. -c++c+ +.a+oc +...ac cc..++.oa± +=o+o C++co Cc=(±.
Tϧ:31: E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTY¬u AàU§«u±úV ©\YûL«p ETúVô¡jRp:
t_.. ++( cc+c +..++o ++..á.±ac -oc+a+.o oc tá.±.a .+ao .c++cocác
=±+ac+Ca .ac.(++co+= ..±oo+...±co+o+±. o+o+ a+ o+Cc t.Ca+++oo oo+
a++++±+c+ -c++c+ +.a+«o= =±+ao+oo cc+ c.+ao .++.c±o.++c .±++co+o+±.
..±.... C+a++o ô±+=. +a+++«o= ±+..oo+ Cc=(±.
++..á.±ac oc.... +c±+.c.c +c++o C++=C. ..±.... t.Ca+++++= a+
=±+aoo+o+±.
111
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
. ..±.... t.Ca++++c C++o+±. t.Ca++.. ++o +..± _+a.c c+o ++a=++++++
=±+....Co+ o+= ±.(C± t.Ca++o+... Cc=(±. =.+ ±c +.++ Co+±o a..+.o C.+_+oc.a
ca+o+± ++a+o C.++ t.Ca+++++= ±.(C± ..± =±+aoo++oo++. oo+ ++++.+ c±c+«o=
c+.oa +..c.++c oo+ C.+.± oca..o++c +ac++ +..c.++c -o± ±.(C± .+a+o+oo++.
= .cc.+ t.Ca++± oc+++.. +o.+ C.++oo+ooo.
t .cc.+ t.Ca++± .+=C.+.+oo+ooo. _c+o .cc.Ca+++o+o o=.c +±±+o.... +_cc±
oo+ +c±+.. _+ac .+= cáo++oo++.
± t_.. ++.+c+ ..±.... t.Ca+++++= =±+ao..o+c+ oc tc++.( ++.oo= C.+cc+.o
ccCa++..o+= cc+ c+a++o oco+co++ c. +++a+Co+( =±+ c±++o+±.
c ..±.... t.Ca+++.o +_++ .c..o+=áa =±+.oo=+ C+c_ ±=(± C±+.± +.o.± ôa..a++
cc_ +a..(±C.++ ..±.... =±+ +c±..C.++oo++ C+.(oC++co..(coc ±....ao oo+
+++á.ao C++=( =±+.o.±+oc Co+.a++.a .áô o+ Cc=(±.
c =±+aoo+...(cooc ccCc+c+c oc+oc C.+co+o+a ±+... +=o+o c(++oC++=(
=±+.ooC++. oo+ Cc=±+ oo+... Cc=(±.
¿ ..±.... t.Ca+++++++c c±cc ±o+c +....ac ±+.. =+++ +...ac .áôo.c C+aa+oo++
oo+ t_.. ++.±c oo+ taa +++á.ao C++=( +o++a±++ .áôo.c C+aa+oo++.
c +.= .+a+o+c _ ±+_± ±.c ô± cc++ +..±+.o cc.++ t_.. ++(+c +..±...±co+co.o.
C.+.±+o.. +.c±o.+ cc_ ++++.+ oo+ +ac++++.+ c±c C+aa.... ccca .á++a +.c±o.+a++
±.(± C±+.± +.= .ac.(+oo+±. ccca o+o =±+.a coo+o C++=. c+=± .o =±+o+o+±
cc_ =±+.o+c t=a++± C.++ c++a.= C+aa± oo+ +++á+c ..±.... coo+oo+ c±a++ cc_
coo= C++c± c==..+.o +a++áo+o+±.
cc cc ++..á.± ..± .ac.(++co+= =±+o+...( t.Ca++o+..(±C.++ .a=.+c+ ++..á.±
+ CcC++c ++..á.±.a coo+c+ ++..á.± t+=+. .ac.(+o+oc+_ +..C.+ Cc=(±. ..o t_+
C+aco+= ô±cc± +(oo+c +.+o.c+.o C.+_+o Cc=(±.
(i) coo+co++ ++..á.± C.+++o tco +=(c±.cc ++..+oc.±.a c. .a=.+co++ ++..á.±
C.+_co+c +=(c±..+oc.±ao co+a±+c Co+±oa.. ccCc++± ++=...±co++oo++.
ii) .a=.+c+ ++..á.±ao t.Ca++..(± oc+ +=(c±.cc .=++«o= coo+c+ +=(c±.cc
tá.±a+oa oc+ tá.±.aa± C.+ Cc=(± cc_ C++ao+±.
iii). ..± t.Ca++o+..(± coo+c+ ++..á.± .+= cá..Coc.+ .a=.+c+ ++..á.± .+= cáo+...(
c.. +.oao ++++a±o.o.
Tϧ :32: WjÕ ùNnRp/T±ØRp ùNnRp:
cc ++..á.± a++ C+ac+ .+coo C+ac+ +±±+o±+c c+o cc c±c± ++++.+ .áôo.co= t..(+o
c+a..oo+...(co+.
Tϧ:33: TôÕLôl©u LôXLhPm:
c==..± o+o+o C+aa.... ++c coo C++=( .c.+ _=(+«o= cc... Co+ao ++o+c+a+++o
++o+.. oc+= ++..o ++o± c±+++oo++.
Tϧ: 34: RVô¬l× ùNVpØû\ Lôl׬ûU: ¨ì©lT§p Es[ £WUm:
i oa+á.. C+aoc.+ ++..á.± ±+ +.. ±+o +.++coo++ oc tá.±a+oa .=+ ¯- c .+a+ i_cc
ô± c++a.= C++c±C.++ oc ±+ C.++ ++ c++a.=+c +.+o..(+c+c. .C.++ oc+ +.o.a
+=co=± c.+ao +±±+o.... c±o+o =+.c....(co oa+á.. C+aoc.+o=± CoC.+c+ C.+c.o
oa+á..o+= o+c .ac.(++aco C+aoc.+o=± +±±+o±o.o cc..o ca+c++ +=co+o +..±....ca.
ccCc t_.. ++(+c ô±cc± co+c+ cc =±+.o.a o+c+ ..a+o+++=.... co+c+ cc oa+á.co
++..á.±a+oác =±+ C.++±o .ac.(+o...(co+± .o ca+c++ ±_o+c±a+o+±+c +.oao +o
oa+á.co ++..á.± C.+_co oa+á.. C+aoc.+ =(.(+o...(coo++ c±c C+aao+±.
+±±+o.... C.+coo t.Ca++..(+o...(co ++..á.± .+o++ .co=± +.oao.
_ +±±+o.... oa+á.. C+aoc.+a+c+ c+o+.oaoco C.+coo =(.(+o...(co+
t_+a+o+...(co +.oao ++..á.±ac tá.±a+oa +o C+aoc.+ t.Ca++..(+o...(co.o oo+
112
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c.+ao t_+..(+o .ao+o +.oao t_.. ++( oc .ac.+... =+++ c±co= cao+±.
¯ t_.. ++(+«o= +±±+o.... ca++.c.a .+a+ i.c ô± +=co+ Cc=±a C.+_.c c++ c(..
ô±o+=. +o.± .co+ Cc=(±. +.. ±+o C+aa.... +.oa+c+ cc_ +.= .+a+ .o
=+.c....(co.o +.+c C+aco++ .co+ Cc=(± oo+ +.= .+a+ _.o =+.c....(co.o
+.+c C+aco++ .co+ Cc=(±.¯ ca++.co=co++aco.o +=co=± Co Cc.oao ca+c+++oc
t+.++ ±+_± ca+o+ +oc+.o .++++..o+++c +...ac cc..++.o +=o+o c(++o C++co Cc=(±.
©¬Ü:6: Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u §hP YûWY¥YeLs
Tϧ:35: Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NôokR JlTkRm
+..c.ac±c++c cc_ .+o c..+o++o =+.c...(± c_++.=+o ±c++_+oc +.. c.ac±c++«o=
.=+ ¯ coo ¯ c±a tco +a+++«o= c+. .=+ ·.c .+a+ ¯ oca .++++.. c±++ t_.. ++(+c c..o
C++=(coc. c_++.=+o ±c++_+c ++a+o +c+ C++++á.± c..+o++c .=+ i¯. ±+_± .=+ i·.c
.+a+ ¯o=± c+. ++.. c±++ c..o C++=(coc. ..c (++cc± +a+++«o=± C.+_++ +++oo+.c.
Tϧ:36: TôÕLôl©tLô] Yônl×:
tá.±a+oác c..o oo+± ô±cc± C+ao+.o C+ac+ +..+++= .+±.+c+ cc_ .=+ ¯¯.c coo+c+
.+a+cc +a+++«o= t...( t_.. ++( +coo+±. .++++o+.... +.. c.ac±c+.o .+o=±+ C+aoo.
c+..c C+aoo oo+ ca+o+ C++o+++++++ ccCa+++oo. .++++o+.... +..c.a c±c+.o oc=c
C++=(co c_++.=+o ±c++_ oo+ oc cc .=+.a oc=c C++=±c..+ cc.+ C.+c+ co+c+
cc_ ca++.co=co +..c.a c±c++o Co+.a++ .c++ cc± ++o+..± c.a + +..c.ac±c+.o
+..+++= .+.±.++ ±_ t+.++ C+aco++ +co..(±.
Tϧ:37: E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTY¬u Jl×RûX G§oTôodLôR NhPeLs
i +..+++= .+±.++ oa+áo+.... +.. c.ac±c++o c_++.=+o ±c++_ cc+c c.ac±c± oo+
+o c_++.=+o ±c++_ cc .++±++ tco.++ .c+o+o± +o= +.c±o.+ .=+¯·.c ô± ca+o..+++o
c+o cc t_.. ++(± ..±.... +±c±o.+.a +.. cCa+o±++ +co Cc=±a+o.o. ..± cc +.a
.ac.(++±C.++ + ..± .ac.(+oo+.+o+ cc.+ cco= Coáa+± +o+Co+. ..±
+++C++coCc=±ao+++c +a+a±+c ++a=++c cco= Coá++co++o ..+++Co+ ±_ t+.++ C+aa....
+..c.ac±c++o +..+++= .+±.++ c_++.=+o ±c++_ tco.o+...±c+o+Co+ oo+ +o
c_++.=+o ±c++C+ cc .++±++ ..=o+...±c+o+Co+ C±++=.c+_ +.. cCa+o±+co++ +co
Cc=±a+o.o.
¯ +..c.ac±c+++++c +..+a tá±± oo+ .o oc tá.±a+oác =±+ac+ a++++±
.ac.(++c+ _+acc+++= .=+¯i.c +.= .+a+o+c coo _c.a tco.o oo+ +c+o++c C+a+
.ac.(+oo+±.
Tϧ : 38 : TôÕLôl× LôX LhPm:
i .++++.. c±+=co+= .+c c+a±++ tco +.oao .++++.. ++o +..+.o t_.. ++(+c
+a=ao+Cc=(±. +.. c.ac±c .++++..o++c ++o +..± o+++c .+co++c c==..± o+o+o
C+aa.... ++o c++ i. _=(+c oo+ +o c.ac±c± ca+o+ C++o+o to+c c+o .=+ao coccoo++
.ac.(+o.... ++o c++ .++ cc.++«o= =.+a+o ++o+..+++= .++++.. ++o± c±++o+±.
¯ .++++.. c±+=co+= .+c c+a±++ .oo+o t_.. ++(+oo +.. c.ac±c++«o=
cc.ac±c++c to+c c+o cc .=+ao+c+ coccoo++ .ac.(+o.... ++o c++ i. cc.++«o=
++o +a=a± C+a+ .++++.. c±++ Cc=(±.
¯ .+a+o+c i ±+_± ¯ _+acc+_.c ..=++ +a++occ++c c+a++o +o +.. c.ac±c
t_c+o+.... ++c coo i· _=( ++o +..+++= c+= ++o+c+a+=±+_ .++++.. ++o+.o t_.. ++(
+a=ao+o+±.
©¬Ü :7:ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLÞdLô] TôÕLôl×:
Tϧ:39:
i C++c.+a++ C.+.±o= c+a++ C+aco+± ±o+ .++++.. c+.+(+.o t_+..(++c+
+±±+o±++ .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c i¯·¯ .=+ i. +=c.o ++...(co+. oc±....ao Ccoa....+o
o+co+«o= t_.. ++(+c .++++.. c±+=±C.++ ...=+ac ¯c+ .+a+co= c+.c±. a+ ±+_± a+
113
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
++a.+c +_cc++«o= +±aco+..(± o+co+c c+a++o ...=+ac ¯c+ .+a+co= c+.c±
++..oo++oo+ca+c.
¯ o++c +...ac +.(..+.±o Ccoa....+o o+co+.o .c++co .a+.+a+c ±+_± +...ac
tá.±a+oa+c o++o+ .+o o+co+«o= .++++.. C.++oo+ca+c. C±+.± tá.±a+oa+oc =±+ C.++±o
C+a.±a+c ca+o+ +..c.++«o= i. ±++++ o+co+c Ccoca+ C+ac.oCa+. .+oC++co..(c.oCa+.
c+a+o t.Ca++o+..(c.oCa+ o(++ ca+o+ tá.±o= .++++.. C.+c± oo+o+=±.
a++a± cc.+ oc a+o++o. o+c+ oc .±.. oo+ oc +o a ±+_± oc .++++oc
C+a.+c±c± _+ac++c ±....ao _c a++a± o.c.C.+c+ C.++c+c c+c+.+ C.+ooo+o _=±.
oo+ C+cco=+a o+co C.+c+c+_.c Co+.a++ =(.(± ccca+o t.c±a++ +++ C++co .ao+o
o+co _+ac a++a++c _=±.
_ oc.± ca+.+a ±+.. .c..oc ++a=±++ + a++a+oc.± t..ao++++. ±+_±
. o+c.o +....± oc+ ++.(..+.±+=c .c++co +.a+o oo+ ++a=++oc ±....ao c+.(±
=±+.o+o+o + a++a+oc.± t..ao++ ++o+... Cc=±aco+.
¯ ±c+++c oo+ Cco+= a++a=. C.+cc+c _+a.c .+a a++a=. C.+cc+.o C++=(
oa+áo+..(±C.++ c+++++c c+..c =±+.a o+++o+o c±+=co+= C++a..(± Ccoa....+o
C++o.c cca++c oo+ =+..+c C++a++ ca+.+a t.Ca+++++= .ac.(+o...+±o .+a++o+ Cc=±a+
t_.. ++(+oc +..±a+=±. C±o± ..±.... cca++c Ccoa...(cocc_± .c t_.. ++(+o+o
.++++o++oo+o+=±.C++a++ ca+.+a +.c±o.++«o= t.Ca++..(++c.o o(..o+++c +.c±o.++c
c(o+...±co+ Cc=(±. ...±.... C++o.c =+..+c oo+ cca++c _+acc++c .ac.+.± c++
C.++±o+.o .++++++. Cc=±aco+ cc+ +.oao ±.(± Ccoa...(c.o o(o+ Cc=±a+o.o.
các .-. c..+o tá± +.c±o.++oo C.+.± oca. ca+++.o +.(..(++oo.
.=+. :..
i C.+.±.a +.(..(++.c..+C.+c+ c.+ao+c +c+ C++++á.±+c ++a+o o++o+ +o tá±
c±++o +..c.++c ca+o+++c ±+ +(± .++... c+.(++cCo+( tá.± ±++++.oa± Co+±o a..
.a.c.oa± o(o+o +±ao++ tco+ cc..o t_.. ++(+c c... C++c+c+c.
¯ t_.. ++(+c o++c +..++oo tco.± c..+o tá± c±++o c.++.o .+a+cc.o o(o+c±.
=+.c.. +oc++o +c+ C++++ tá.±+c ±+...(co+ cc..o +_cco+= t_.. ++(+c +a=a++co
+o c+c.++c +±±+o.... oa+á.cc ++.o.a +(.±a++ .++o++ C+ac.o o(o+c± .+o c..+o++o
c±c.+c c+±o.o. C±+=+.c.. c.+ao .+ao=± C.++ ...±.... +.c±o.++.o o(..o+= oo+
+.(..(++co+= _c +.c±o.++.o c(o=±C.++ c..+o++c ca+a++o= ca=..+oc+_ .+a++o C++co
Cc=(±. ±+ca toc c±ca+ +c±.. C._co+++c ++.. c+c.++c C+oo.±o++o+++= +c+o
c.o+±ao++ C+ao.(c+ ±+_± .oc+o±++ tá.±ac ô± .o=c+ _+a +.c±o.++.o t_.. ++(+c
o++o+ o=+o +..++c ±+_± c+c.++«o= t...( C±+C++cc.o o(..o+++c c.+ao C±+=+.c..
c+.+(+c C+aa+oo++.
¯ C+.(o C++ccoc ±....ao t_.. ++(+c cc_ ±+C++c_.c _Co++.c+.o +.+oo+±. cc
++.±c =±±+c oo+ +++.±o Co+.a++ =±ac++ cc± cccc..a +c+ C++++á.± +±±+o±++
C±++=.c+_ _Co++.c +.+oo+±. .+o. .=+ac .=+ :. -oc+a++c ±....ao+c oc+ +..++c
±+_± c+c.++.o ±_co++ +.c±o.++c .c..o++ +c+ _Co++.c.a C++ao+±. .cc+Co++.c+c
c+o c.+ao+c +..++«o=± C.+_+oo+±ac.+ao±. +o c.+ +..++c +.c±o.+ac ±+ o+o+±
.++.. c+.(+oo+±ao++c± _Co++.cao +o++ C++c«± (+o t_.. ++( occ+.+a++c± +o++a±++c±
c±c c(o+ oo+o++c± .co++oo++. _Co++.co= .±o+...(co ++(± oc+ .+++= ±+c± =o+.±+c
c±co= C+oo+oo++. C.++±+c c+a..+.oa± _Co++.c.a C+.(o C++c«± ++.±+= c±++o+±.
C+cco=+a c+a± +±±+o±+c a++a+oc.±a++ C.++c++ +..o++ o+co+.o c±++o+±. ._+a++ .a¬.a±
+c.+...o+±a c.+ao+c c..+o± c.....+oo++. .±o+.... ++.±c +±.++oc.±.a .++++o+o+±a
c.+ao .±o=± ++.±c +.c±o.++c cCc+..+o++c C.++ .±++co++oo++.
: .+o .=+ac .=+ :. -o c+a++c ±....ao ±+C++c t_.. ++.±c +..++c ±+_±
c+c.++.o ±+ao++ +c+± +o t_.. ++.±c c++a.=o= t...(co cc t_.. ++.±c =±±o+c
oo+ +++.±o Co+.a++ =±ac++ cc.ca+oc c+a++o ca+o+ ++( _c+ =++=++.(± ++.±.±
...=+ac .=+ :. ¯c+ .+a+co tco.± _Co++.c C±+C++co C+.=± C.++ o+= c+a..oo+o+±.
114
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TôLm þ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs AØXôdLm
Aj§VôVm þ 10
©¬Ü þ 1 ùTôÕl ùTôßl×Ls
Tϧ þ 41
i .+o..=+ .=+ :i .o =+.c....(co .±a+c co+o+ +..c.++.o t_..++(+c o++c +..++c
ô± C++=( cao+±. oc -o± .+o c...+o++c ô± C++=(ca...(co +c+ C++++ tá.±+c ±o+c
+.. ±+o+«o= c+a++ ++áa ++++a±+c +.c±o.+ c(o+ c±a±. +.. ±ao+.o o(..o+++c Cc+±+c
+ac+c ++=.oc -o± C±+C++=(± +.. ±ao+c +..C.++±o o(..o+++c c+.+(+o++ + .co+ Cc=(±.
...±.... +..c.++c co+o=coc -o± +.. .ac ca+o++++= o..+c c+.(c.o o(o+ c±a±.
.c+.o oc+++ .ac.(++c.o o(..o+++c .++++.. c+.+.++c± + .co=±.
¯ +c+ C++++á.±+c co+o+ +..c.++c C+a.±a+co++c± +±c+a.. o..o++c± .co+Cc=(±.
Co.ca++ c.+ao+c +o+o ±o+o++c± C+oc c±..o++c± .oo+± co+o+±. CoC.+o c++ .ao+o ++o
+a=a..+c ±+_± c+a.+a+o ++o o+±o++c _+ac c+..+±o .+a++o C++co Cc=(±.
¯ c±o+c o=++c +±±+o.... c±c+c c.++ c±c++o±. oo+ ++a= ±....ao± .±++c..+
caCc+++ oo++. c±o+o +±±+o...(co +.a+«o++c+ ++oo+±o±oo+±o +o cca++c C.+a+ C+cco++
.co+ Cc=(±. c±o+c o=++c +±±+o.... c±c+c + +±±+o....ca+c +.. .ac±++ +++
C++co+oo+ ++.++.o tco±o+a c±co +..o++oo+++ .co+o+±.
: ._+a+c +ac++ c±coo+o +±a ++++.+ .±...o C++=( .áô o++oo+ c+a... c±o+o +±±+o....
+.a+«o= c±++o+±. c±o+c co+a±+c .=+ +±±+o±+c +a+++c t_.. ++.±=..a +++a ca±.o=
t....o++ .co+ Cc=(±. c±o+c o=++c ±o+c _a±. +.oao+c ++++.+ c±c+.o c(o+ toco+±a
c.+ao+c+ .co+ Cc=(±. Co C+a++o .+ cca++o =++cao c±o=o= cca++o .áôo.c
C+aco+++c c+a.. =++o c+o co±+c C.+_..± +a=ao+...co.o.
C.++c+c +.. co+o+ c.+o= ±++++ tco +c+ C++++á.±+c co+o++++++c +.. c.++oc
..++o c+o cc C.+_...a± .+o .++± .++± ¿¿¿ C++=( c++ +_+oco.o cc..o .á++ C++co
Cc=(±. CoC.+o t_.. ++(+«o= o++o+ C.++c+c +..+.o co+o+ tco .o+.oa± .++++c.o
+.++. C.++c+c +.. co+o+ c.++«o=± +c+ C++++á.±+c co+o+ c.++«o=± ...Ca
cc++.=++co c+a..+c ±+± .+o .++++c .++±¿¿¿ c+o cc .=+a± C.+_.. +a=ao+co.o.
©¬Ü þ 2 ùTôÕ Utßm ¨oYôL SûPØû\LÞm AûYLÞdLô] ¾oÜLÞm
Tϧ þ 42 ùY°lTûPVô] NUYônlT°dÏm SûPØû\Ls
.+o c..+o++c ô± cc++ +c+ C++++ tá.±+c co+o+± ±o+c C.++ ++ +..c.++c +±±+o....
cca++c tá.±o+aco= +..++. t_.. ++(+c ca+++c C±+C++coo+±. C.++±+c cca++«.c +±a
c.++ .ac±+c +o.+.a oo+ C+a++o c±++. ca+c+++«o= c+a..oo+o+±. +±±+o.... tá.±+oc
±....ao+c cca++.oa± ca+c oo+o+±. +o++a±+c +..o =.c.c +a±++o C++co c±o+o
+±±+o....ca+«o= =±+ oao+±. oc.... c.+ao+c t+oac+c .++a cca++.o C++c±C.++ c±o=
+.c±o.++c o+++ c±a+o +.±a++. C.+ac.o+.++. c±o= +.c±o.+ao +±±+o.... .c++
oa.ccco=± ca+«o= tco tá.±+.o +=co+
c+a... c±++o+±. +±.++oc.± c+a+o o+co+.o ..a+o++=( .++++o+o+±a c.+ao c±o=
+.c±o.++c .±++co+ Cc=(±. ..± .oo+c..+o c++cCc tco .±..+ +.. Cc=(C++c+«o=
ca=...o++ ±++c(±.
Tϧ þ 43 Nôh£Ls
i o±+ tá.± C++ao+«o= _oac++ .co++oo+o++ occ.cco ++.+a++.o ccca +a+a±+c c.+ao
+±.co=± C.++ .c ca+ tá.±+c c+a oa.ccá.± t.Ca++++o tcoc cc..o +=co=± c.+ao+c
=+.c.+oo+ ++.+a++o++c± .co+c+c. .c+.+ C.+_co ++++.+ +++á+c .Co C.+c+ ++.+.a
c+a oa.ccc± +±ac++co=± C.++ .c++o coc+ a++a±+c o+co+c +.+o.c+«o= t...( .++++..
C.++oo++ cc..o t_+..(+o Cc=(±.
¯ c±o= +..c.+ao o+c++ ..=a± cc +..a. C.+_+oc.a c+oco±+c oo+ ++a=c± .oo+±o cc±C.++
c+a.. +a++áo+o+± oo+ +a+a±+c ++o +..+++=c Co.ca+c o+co+.o oa+c..+Co+ ca+o+
115
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
cá.+ co+o+ +..c.++c +±±+o.... c±o= +..c.++«o= C.áa oc+= o.. c+.(+oo +±ao++
.c+o+Co+ c+a.. +a++áo+o+±. Co C+a++o c±o+o +±±+o....ca+«o= +o c±o+c C±o+c
=+++++.(+c oo+ ++.++.o o..o+++c cca++c ±+ c±Cc(..o+= ++++.+ +++á+«.c
t_.. ++(+c ..=++ C+ao.. Cc=(±. ca+o.± +±aco+..(± .++a+c oo+ c±o= +.c±o.++«o=
c+a..oo++oo+o +(.±a++ .++..o= tco+=± cc+ c.+ao+c +o +.ác =+++++.(+c _+acc++c
±...ao ++o+±++Cc+ .+o+±++Cc+ ++++.+ +++á+c c±c c(o+o+±. .oc±....ao ++++.+
+++á+c .+ =+++ +co+ +.o ±+_± ._+ +.o c±c+«o= cc+c+ca.
Tϧ þ 44 YZdÏ SPY¥dûLLs ¨ßj§ ûYl×
tá.± ±ao+.o ocao=±+_ cc +.co= ++++.+ +++á+c _.= c+.co+ +++a± ...+oca+c
_c+a+c. o++c ++ co.oo=.... .=+o=c .+o=±+ C+aa.... C.+cc+oc ca+o+++o +c+
C++++á.± ±+o+c .c++co=C±a+c+o ..±.... c.+ao a.±c.o +++ .o+o++ =±+ C.+_ +ao=c
tcCo cc± +.oao t.c±a++ o(o+o+±. ..± _.=a(± +.a oo+ .++++o+.... -o cca+.o
C.+_co +.a+c ccca++.o .+a+«.ca+c cc+ c.+ao +o -o cca+.o ++oca++ .c..o+=
c+a..+c tcoc. ..±.... +.oao +±±+o.... -o cca± +c+ C++++á.±.a ±+o+±ao++
.co=± ..+++o t_.. ++(+c ..±.... +++á+«o= ..+++ +.o+ +..±... Cc=±a+o.o.
¯ .+o .=+ .=+ :: ac c+ +a+++c ±+_±. =+..++ .++± ¿¿.o a++++++oc t.Ca+++++= cc_
=+......(co +a+++c. oo+ tá.± .c++cocác =±+Ca+( ..=++ cc+ c.+ao oo+o
c.+ao a+++++o+o -c++± +.a+«o= =±+ c±++...(co+ cc+ +.o.+(+«.c t_.. ++(+c
t_+a++ +++ Cc=±a+o.o. ..±.... t.Ca+++++= =.+c Co+.+ c±+=± cca++o .=+ ¯i .c
+.= .+a+ c cc ô±+c +a=a..+.o t_.. ++(+c +.(..(+oo+±. c.c c±o=+c cca++o .+o..=+
.=+ :: .c ô±+c +ac c.++.o co+o+o+±. t_.. ++(+oc +..+++= C.+c+o+o c.+ao .+o +ac
c.++c .oo+o ..+++o. t_+a+c +a..+c -o± C.++±+c =.(+Co+.+ C.+o+±.
Tϧ þ 45 Tô§l×Ls
i tá.± ±ao C+a+coca oc+ C+ao+o ccá.± .c++cocco+ .±.G( Co+.+ c±++ _.=a(co+++c
+++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. ±aoo= tco++ tcocác +c+ C++++á.±ac cca++o
..±.... ±a o =(..(coca oco=+ Coá+Co .+o
tá.± ±a o =(..±c+o+o± oo+ cco= tá.± ±ao +.o+++ cc.+ Coá++c..o+++c oo+ _o+a++c
.co=± C.++± oo+ .±.G( c±+=±+_ ++++.+ +++á+c C++ao+±.
¯ c±o= cca++o tá.± .c++c..cco= c+.(± C+oc+ Co+.+.aa± tá.± ±a o =(.(.ca c±+=±+_
_.=a(co+++c +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. c±o++= C.+_+o±+c c±o++.ác +..=c±
.+o .+=±. Co C.+o tá.± ±ao C.aáo =(..(coca C+ao+o cc+.±Ca c+.(+o...(co
.++..+«o= _c .±.G.( Co+.+ oo+ o+. Co+.+.a +áa+c c±o=+oc cca++o +a=ao=±+_
++++.+o= t_.. ++(+c =±+aoo+o+±.
Tϧ þ 46 ©\ ¾oÜLs
cc C.+coc oa+á.. +.c±o.+ao tá.± ±+o .co+++ cc_ +a..(± C.++ .o o(..o+++c oo+
+..c.++.o .+a+«± +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. .++.c±o.++.o ca+o+ +..c.++«o=
..++... +.oa c++ c+o co±+c .±.G(+«± +a=ao++±o .+a+ccoc -o± tá.± .c++c..cco=
c+.(± +(± .++..+.o ocao+o+±. ..± .oo+c..+o .+ c++cCc .c++ cc± .±..+ +..++c
C++ao+«o= ±++++ .±++c(±. +.. ±+ o oa+áo+...(co C.+coo c=+aco++ -o. C.+cc+c
±+_± C+aoc.++c c+o co±+c .±.G(± c+o++±o ca+o+ +..c.++«o= Ccoao +c_ C+a+
c±o+..(coc -o± C±+C++=(± tá.± ±ao+c +....o ±.(..(++± +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o=
tco+. ..±.... C+.(o C++coo+.o +=o+Co(++o C++c«± C.++ tá.± ±a c .+a+.oa±
o+++c +ac+.oa± +=o+Co(++o C++c++ Co C+a++o -c++± +.a+oc cc..++.oa± +=o+o
c(++o C++co Cc=(±. c+coo++c +oc+.++ oca++ C.+ a+c ca+o+ c++.a+c C++=. c+ C.+cc+c
cca++o +..+++= .+±.++ C.+_+o...(co +o ca+o+ c++.a+.o ++_c+ ±.(C± C.+cc+.o
ca+.+a +..c.++«o= ++++ c(co+= C.++±+c.c oo.
Tϧ þ 47 RLYpL°u E¬ûU
tá.± ±ao C+aa.... C.+cc+c oo+ C+.c+c oa+á.. ±+_± ccCa++++o =(..(co -c++±
+.a+c ±+_± ca+c .C.+cc+.o ccCa++++co c±+.oa± .++ tá.± ±ao C+a+coca+cca
+o tá.±ac C+++oo++aco= Coáco=±+_ _.=a(± +++a+.o ++++.+ +++á+«o= t_.. ++(+c
116
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c±++o+±. ..± tá.± c±+++c..+o tá.± ±ao+oc .+a+.o. .++ +áa++ +=o+. c±a+o +.oo=+
C+c_c(±.
Tϧ þ 48
©W§Yô§dÏ SxP DÓ ¨oQ«jRp
c+o cc +.ác Cc=(C++«o= c+. +.c±o.++c C±+C++co....cCc+ +o +.Ca co+o+ +..c.++.o
oc+++ t.Ca++++co=± C.++ oc+o ±+C++c +.ác C±o oc+++ =++± +±+o...( ca+ C+ao+c
+.(..(+o..(± C.++ cco= c+.(± .++..+.o =(+.(co+++c oo+ .±.G... c±++ Cc=(± cc_
+o +.co= _.=a(± +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. ca+c++o= c+.(± C+oc+.o c±+=±+_
c==..o+aco= _.=a(± +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. C.+_+o±+c c±o=.+.ác
+..=c± .+o .+=±.
¯ +c+ C++++ tá.±+c co+o+± oo+ .++++.. +±±+o±+c +.. +ac++ +..c.++.o. C.+_+oc.a
oo+ +ac c.++.o co+o=± C.+_.c co=±. oo+ +o +.. +ac++ +.c±o.+ac ±o+c
+cc±co.+ac ±...ao t+Co+o+...(co C.+_..+oo .c++± C.++ +ac++++c ±+_± oc
ocoa+«o= ±.(± t_.. ++(+c coo+oo+o+±.
Tϧ þ 49 ¨oYôL SûPØû\Ls
c±o+c o=++c ±o+c +ac++ +.c±o.++oc c±co co+c+ C.++ +ac _.=a++aco=± ..+++o
..±.... +ac++ +.c±o.++o+c.c .+o. cáco các ¯ cccCa +=co+...(co +.+o.c+«o=
c++.C.+ccc++ .co++oo+.c.
Tϧ þ 3 RtLô- L SPY¥dûLLs
Tϧ þ 50
i +oo .ocoo=±.±a+c t.c± o+++ + +.c±o.++«o= _.=a(± +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o=
tco+.
+c+ C++++á.± ±a.o tco C.+cc+c Ccoao Coc.(c.o o(o+ Cc=(±. C.+cc+oc ca+o+++o
...±.... C.+cc+.o o(o+ Cc=(±. .+o=±+ C+aa...(co ...±.... C.+cc+.o +++ .o+++
oco+++ cCo ++.oo= ca+±o o(o+o+±.
_ +±±+o.... tá.± ±aoo++c oo+ _o+a±++ ..o .++++++ .c++co+ Cc=(±.
¯ c+C+ Cooc++ +=( t=a .ao+o c.+ao cc.++ +c++ .ac.(++ .co+++a+Co+ +C+ oc ±+
o+++ + +.c±o.++.o C±+C++cco+++c +++a± ++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. ++oo+±o± C+aco+o
tá.± .c++cocco= =( C+aa c±a+o .++.. cc+co=± C.++ o+++ + +.c±o.++c c(o+o+±. ±ao
+.++co+ .++ C+a±a++ ++..+oo+ ++.++c .oo+oc++c cca++o± o+++ + +±c±o.+c C±+C++coc±
++++.+o= +++a± tco+.
¯ tá.± .c++c..ca+c oc+ tá.±.a CcC++cca ±+ac..o++ +c+ oc ±+ +.c±o.+ C++á
c==.co=± C.++ ..±.... ±ao+c =++o cca++.o oc±+_ c==..o+aá.± C++c± +++a±
++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+. tá.± ±ao =(.(+o.... oa+á.co +o tá.± ±ao .ac.(+o....o+++c
oo+ C++=++o+c c+o oc.± tcoo+ cc_ ++++.+aca _a+a .+ .ac.(±. Co C.+o ca+c++ac
+o.c .++++o+c± oc+++ t.Ca++o+..(c.o ocao+c± C.++±+c t_+ C±+±.a c±+=±+_
c==..o+aco= _.=a.o+±.
: Cooc++ +=( t=a .ao+o c.+ao cc.++c++. .ac.(++ac..oc ±+ ._+a++ +..++co++
cca++oc ô± o+++ + +.c±o.++oc ±....ao +a=ao+...(co o=..c.a t.c±a++ co.(+o
Cc=(±. tá.±±ao cca++o .++o+.... +.a+«o= +o.+ c±++o+±. +.. .ac±++ C++a..(coc
±+± ±+_± c±c c(o=± C++o+o ca+c++ C+.(o C++ccoc ±+± cc .áôo.c C±+C++co... Cc=(±.
.+o o+++ + +.c±o.++c =+++ o+co Coáco+...( +a+a±+c ++o c+++± o+o c+= .+o o+++ +
+.c±o.++.o ±+++a.±o+o+±. coo+o C++coo+± oo+ t_+..(+oo+±.
· o+++ + +.c±o.+c co+o=co+=. +±±+o.... C.+c.o c+oo++ tco C.+c.o..++a c+a±+c
c+ cca++.o c±+=±+_ c==..o+aa C+.(o C++coo+±.
· o+++ + +.c±o.++c ...=+ac .=+ ·. .+a+o+c i ±+_± ¯ c ±....ao C±+C++co..(+c+c.
..±.... +±c±o.++c .+a+ :¿ .++++c.o+.++. ca+c++ C+.(o C++ccoc ±....ao
+.c±o.+.a ±+++ .±++o C++coo+±. oo+ co+o+++ c++ +_++ .co+o+±. c±o+c o=+ac
117
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
±....ao c±c c(..o+++c +..c.++c oo+ ++o+++=c c±c..a+c±o t_.. ++(+oc +..++c
=±+o=± c.aa.a+oc ô± ++++.+ .±.. c±Cc(o+o+±. ..± c±co= ca+o +.oao co++a=+.oo
C++=(± c±Cc(..o+++c ++oC+(.c ¯. Cc.o ++.+c oo+ ¯i ++.++.± ++.+c .+o c+ ++..+±++
tcoCo+ o+= C±o +.±o+o +.++.
¯ o+++ + +.c±o.+c ±+++ .±o+...±c+o+Co+ oo+ c==..o+aác co+c+ C+ao oo+ c(oo
C.+c+c+++o C+a ±++ c..+Co+ +c+ C++++á.± ±ao +..C._± cc+ ++_+oo oo+ ±ao cc.+
+=co+...+c..+Co+. ca+c++ C+.(o C++ccoc ±....ao ca+c++o= c+..(co .++..+.o
=(+.(co+= C.++±+c oc .±.G.(+ Co+.+.a c±+=±+_ c==..o+aco= _.=a(± +++a±
++++.+ +++á+«o= tco+.
- +ac++ +..c.++oc c±c++ o+++ + +.c±o.++c co+c+ _.= _+ Cc=(C±co +o +.c±o.++c
.+o. .=+ac .=+ ·. c+.=+ao +_c...( tcoc++o t_+..(+o...( tcoc+++= ..=a+c
C++c.++oc ô± t_+..(+o...o+±.
©¬Ü þ 4 YWm©PlThP SPY¥dûLLÞdLô] R²júRûYLs
Tϧ þ 51 ùTôÚsLs ùY°«ÓYûR ÑeL CXôLô A§Lô¬Ls RtLô LUôL ¨ßj§ ûYjRp
C.+ a+c ca+o+ c++.a oo+ +c.( ca+Ca(+oo ±...ao+c C.+cc+c .+o=±+a++c+c cc+c+
++Co++++= +±.+o.... ca+o+ c++.a oo+ .+..á.± tá.±a+oa cc±..+++o +ac++ oo+ ++++.+
++a+o oo+ +++á+o.± ca C±+.±
C.+cc+c o+a+o±++ Ccoa...(c.o +++ .o+++cca o+++ +±++ o..C+a+ .co=±+_ t_.. ++(+o.±
c==.co=± C.++ t_.. ++(+c oc ±+ ô±+=.c+_ c±c.±o+...(co +a+++oc ±....ao
C±o +.c±o.++c C±+C++co Cc=(±. .+o.các các ¯ c+aC++coo +±a .oCc_ tco.o+++«o=
t.... .oc.+ao+c. +c+ C++++ +.o+c ±ao+c =(.(+o...(co C.+cc+c ±+ +.c±o.+ C++á
c==.co+ t_.. ++(+c c+.+(+c C+a+ oao+±. o++c ++.± c++ c+_±+ C+aa +..±....(co
C.+cc+oo tá.± ±ao+c .c++ o.c Ccoa(co+= +++ .o+++cc+o o+++ + o.. c+o+...(co
+.oao c++c cca++o± C±++=. c.+ao +.c±o.++c C±+C++co t_.. ++(+c =±+ oao+±.
Tϧ þ 52 ®iQlTm
c+o cc tá.±a+oc..a +c+ C++++á.± tá.± ±+. .ac.(+o...(co+ cc_ c++a.=ac +co+++o
Coáa cc± C.++ .=+ ·i c ô± c++a.= +.c±o.++oo =(.(± tá.±a+oa +±±+o.... C.+cc+.o
.+o=±+ C+aa± ++.±c +..+++= c+...a c.+ao oo+ ++.+a++.o oo+ +++á+«o= +c.+aoo=±
c.+ao c±++. +..±....ca+c. +++ .o+++ +++á+c t.c±a++ +ô+áo=± c.+ao +o. C.+c.o.
.++a cca++.o C.++±+c oc các.(++ c±++ Cc=(±. .+o c==..± c+_o C++co....
cca++.o +a+a±+c ++o oc+=c c==..o+aco= Coáco+ oo+ c++a.= +++á+c +..±...(coca.
+++ .o+++cca c+o ++o +..+++= +.c±o.+ C±+C++coo+± cc..oa± oo+ c++a.= +++á+c c±c
C+a+ C++ooo+±.
Tϧ þ 53 Eߧ ùUô¯ ApXÕ CûQVô] EߧV°l×
ca+c++.aa± oo+ c++a.= +++á+.oa± .++++o+c± ±+_± oc++c C++o+o+c .ac.+...a± o(o+c±
c++ c.+ao ++.. t_+C±+± oo+ ..=a+c t_+ao... .±+=±+_ c==..o+aá.± oo+ c++a.=
+++á+c C+.(o C++coo+±. _c+o ..± c±++..(± t_+C±+± oo+ ..=a+c t_+ao..+c+
Co.ca++ c.+ao .+o c++a.=+.c±o.++«o= o..a++ +ao+ ++a=±++c.o+.++. .+o c==..++o
=+.c....(co tá.± ±ao C.+co=.c Co+.a++ =(.(++ .co+o +±a Co+±o +.+ c.a c±c++c
++..á.±+c. +.. c.a c±c++c oo+ o+a+o c+Ca+++++= c....(co Ccoa....+o o+co+c
_+ac+.+ o++o+ c±cc ±....ao± o+++ +±++ +_++ .co+o+±. ++++.+ oo+ c+ oc
+++á+oc c±c+«o= ..++..(± +++ .o+++ +++á+c C±++=.c+_ +.c±o.++c C±+C++coo+±.
..±.... +.oao .=+ ·· .c ô± +a=ao+.... ++o oc cc.+ ++o+c+ _+c(+++. oo+ C+a++o
oo+ +++á+c +a=a++co ±+ca± c±++...+o +.oao +. .+ ++o+c+ _+c(+++. ..± co+c+
tá.± ±ao +.++co=± ..+++o .+o=±+ _=± C.+cc+oc .+o +a=ao+.... +.+o.c+c C.++.
tá.±a.c .c++c..cco= tá.± ±ao+o .±.. c+.(c.o o(o=± oc+++c Co+.+.a tá.± ±ao
+.++coo++ +co..(± C.+cc+.o =..± tá.±a+oa. .+o=±+a+oa oo+ +o. C.+cc+.o c+_o
C++c.ca t_+ao..+ Co+.+a++ +++ .o+++ +=o+o C+o++coc ±....ao C±+.± C.+c.o +++
.o+++cca c(co+o+±. ...±.... t_+ao.. Co+.+ c±++..(co+c+ tá.± .c++c..cco= +..o+
Cc=±a c+ +ac+.o o(..o++ C.+ac.o++++. Co C+a++o tá.± .c++c..ca+cca .+ +±±+o±+c
C±o +.c±o.+o= Cc=±a oo+ +..c.++.o oo+ ++o +..+++=c c±+++c±o C±+.± t_+ao..+
118
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Co+.+ .o C+o++accoC+ +c.caoo+...( c(± cc..oa± .á++ C++=±co++oo++.
Tϧ þ 54 RtLô- L ¨ßj§ ûYl× A±dûL
.=+ ·i o= c+. C.+cc Ccoa...(c+ +_++ .co+...( tco+ cc..o +±±+o.... C.+c.o
.+o=±+ C+a.cco=± c==..o+aco=± táa c.+ao Coác++.+oo++.
Tϧ þ 55 RtLô- L ¨ßj§ ûYl× LôXm
o+++ + +_++ .c.. C+aa...(co cca± c==..o+aco= Coáco+.... ++oo .c++ i. Cc.o
++.+«o= C±o ++o +.±.. +..a++. o+= C±o C.+cc+c c(co+...( c.o+±. C.+cc+c c(c...
o+++ +±++ +_++ .c..+.o o+++ + +.c±o.++.o C±+C++c«± oo+
+++a± ...+o +++á+c oo+ ca+c++.a oca c±o.+ Co+.++ .c++cocác o=+o c+o++oc
±....ao c±o=_c+ c±.c C++o+ C+c_ C++=(co+ cc..o +++ .o+++ +++á+«o=
Coáco+...±co++o +.oao± C±+.± C.+cc+c c(co+...o+± C.+c+o±+c c±o=+c cca++o .+oo
++oo C+(.c C±o± i. Cc.o ++.+«o= +.±o+o+±. c±o= +c++. ++a=±+c cca++oc o=++oc
±....ao c±.c c.(c.o C++o+ cc Cc.o +.c±o.+c C+c_ C++=( .co=±+c+o ca+c++
C+.(o C++c«± ..+++o c±.c c.(± C++o+o+c .áôo.c cc..o C±+C++coo+±. ca+c++ +..
.ac±+c c.+ao± ..oo C++ao+±. oo+ ++o+..++o .+ +.o+ Cc=(±. .+o +..c.++c
±+++a.±o+....o++Cc+. +c+o....o++Cc+ oo+ t_+..(+o....o++Cc+ .co+o+±. C±++=.c+C++(
..=++ ++++o +.oao ++++.+ac o+++ + +.c±o.+ac ±....ao C.+cc+c c(c.. ±o+c
o+++ + +_++ .c... Co+.ao+± oo+ Co+.ao+±. .=+ ·. .+a+ · o tco +a++o+.o .o+= C.+_+oo+±.
Tϧ þ 56
ùTôÚsL°u E¬ûUVô[o Ut\m C\dÏU§Vô[ÚdÏ SxP DÓ ùNnRp
.=+ ·· c Co+.a++a++ +.+ .c.c c++ C.+cc+c c(co+..(± C.+Co+ oo+ oc+++ +.+
.co+...(coo+o c+.(± .++... =(+.(co+++c oo+ .±.G.(+Co+.+.a .+o=±+a+oa oo+ C.+c.o
C.+_o C++c.ca+«o= c==..o+aa c±++ Cc=(± cc_ _.=a. oo+ +++á+«o= +++a± tco+.
Tϧ þ 57
RLYpLû[ BnÜ ùNnYRtLô] E¬ûU
tá.± .c++c..các tá.±.a .cCc+cca ±+ac...o _ac C+aooc ±....ao +o tá.± ±+o
t_+...( +±±+o.... C.+cc+.o +++ .o+++cca c±++ .c++co=± C.++ oc ±o+c c++a.=o=
oc tá.±a+oco= C.++±+c c+a.. c±+=± +++a+.o oo+ +++á+«o= t_.. ++(+c oao+±. .+
+.c±o.++oc C.++ a++a±+c o+co+«o= .++.. c+..( c.o +.++. ..±.... C.+cc+.o .+o=±+
C+a.cco=± Co C.+c+ +± c+a.. oo=± +++a± oo+ +++á+«o= tco+. c±o+c o=++oc
±....ao ++o+±+c +a.. cc± ..+++o +±±+o.... C.+c.o =.c .c+oca. .+o=±+a+oa ±+_±
C.c.o C.+_o C++c.ca ±+_± C+cco=áa C.+coc oc _+a cca++.o tá.± .c++c..cco=
Coáco=± +++a+.o oo+ +++á+«o= t_.. ++(+c c±++o+±.
Tϧ þ 58 A§LôW YWl©tÏ ùY°«Xô] SPY¥dûLLs:
cc C.+coo +c+ C++++ tá.± ±ao ++±+o...(co coo c==++c ±....ao+c ++.++c +..o+.
C._±..+++o .C.+cc+c Ccoccc.o oo+ +++á+c o+++o+Cc .++o+....cc..a c==..±
.c+Ca o+++ +±++ +_++ .c..o+++c +++a+.o c±+=±+_ t_.. ++(+c C+.(o C++co...(coc
oo+ +++á+c o+++o++Cc C±+C++c«± ...±.... +.c±o.++c =++o o+co+c co+c+ Co.c....+o
ca+c c+.+ c+o C+a++o± +±±+o.... tá.±.a .c++c..cá.±c++ C.+_o C++coo+±
_ .+o=±+ C+a.cco=± tá.±a+oco=± o+++ + +_+o± =++o cca++c t.=o=.c Coáa..(++.o+±.
o+++ + +_+o± C+aa...(co +.c±o.+o= c+a++ ++.c±o.+.a C±+C++=(co oo+ +++á+o.±
.+o=±+a+oa c.+a( C+aao+±. o+++ + +_++ .c.. +.c±o.+a+c+ .=+ ·· o c=o+...(co
+.+o.c+«o= t....o+=±. c+a±+c +c+o++c C+aa+ oo+o+=±
. +cc±co.+ac ±....ao +c++..(± oo+ C±+C++co..(± +.c±o.++oc c±co
C±+C++co..(± oo+ +ac +..c.++oc C.+_.c c++ C.++ +++á+«o=± ocoa+«o=± ±.(±
t_.. ++(+c coo+oo+o+±.
119
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Tϧ þ 59
¾oÜLs
tá.± .c++c..các c+ tá.±+oc .+o +.c±o.++c C±+C++cco+= tco c+a..+«o= .++..
c+..+oc+_ .+a++o C++=( ++++.+ +++á+o+o ±_ .áôo.c C+aa... Cc=(± cc_ ca+c++ C+.(o
C++cco+= tco tá.±a.ca± +=o+Co(++o C++=( .=+ :· c
ô± c=o+...(co C++ c.++«o= c+.. tá.± ±ao =(.(+o...(co C.+cc+.o ±..o+= oo+
.+±.(++co+++c _.=.a c±+=± +++a± oo+ +++á+«o= tco+. C.+ a+c ca+o+ c++.a+c
t.Ca++o+...(c C.+cc+c cca++o. .C.+cc+c tco+ tco.±Caa+c c.+ao ±_ c+_±+
C+aa..(c.oa± +++á+c o(o+o+±. oo+ c+.+ +++ .o+++cc ±+_... +..c.++oc ô± C++=(
cao+±. coo+oo++oo+ =±+.o+c cca++o .+ C.+_+o++.
Tϧ þ 60
ªLd Ïû\Yô] A[®Xô] C\dÏU§Ls
.a=+oc +.±+c -o± cc++ ca+o+ t.Ca++++c ô± ca+o ±+o =.++o oco+c .+o=±++c oo+
±+o =.++o oco =....(++ C.+cc+oc cca++o C±++=. +a+++.o =(.(++c+ c++ t_..
++(+«o= coo= oo+...(co+.
©¬Ü þ 5
Ït\®Vp SûPØû\Ls
Tϧ þ 61
ca+.+a C++o+o+c C+ao.+.±+= +±±+o.... C.+coo occ+.+a++ C.+ ca+o+ c++.a.a
.ac.(++a_..oc ±+± +c.(+oc±++ .+.. C+aa...(cooc ±+± t_.. ++(+c =++cao
+..c.++.oa± caCa++++ o=..c c±++o+±. .++..o= =( C+aa± oco+c .a+oo +..=±
oo+ +.+ o=..ca± +. c±++o+±. c±o=+c +áa++ .co=± ..+++o tá.± +.++co C.+cc+.o
.+..++Ca+ .+coo C+aCo+ ±++ c.o+±. C±+.± =++ +.c±o.+ao ±+.C.áa oc+=
=(.(+o...(co -o++c ±+_± co+o+++.oa± C±+++ac+_ ±++ c.o+±. occ+.+a++c± ca+o+
C++o+o± +c+ C++++ tá.±.a tá.± ±ao C+a+ .ac.(++ tcooc ±+ =++cao +..c.+ac ô±
t_.. ++(+o+c.c +.c±o.++c c(++ o=..c c±++o+±.
120
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU ûLlTt\Ûm TWôU¬jRÛm AÕ
NmUkRlThP CÚ RWl× SûPØû\LÞm
Aj§VôVm þ 11
Tϧ þ 62
i +c+ C++++á.±.a .a+±á+oo oo+ .+..+_oo +.c±o.++c _+ac+.+ .++± các+c ¯ coo ·
c±a tco .=++«o= c+. C±+C++c«± C.++ .c oo+ +..c.++c ±+_± +.+=+«o= t...(
.co+ Cc=(± cc_ t_.. ++(+c C+.(o C++coo+±. ..±.... +..c.++c ±+_± +.+=+o+c.c
.+o c..+o++c +a+++«o= ..++oo++ .co++oo++.
¯ .+Ca+..++oco +c+ C++++á.±a+c+ .+c C+aa....o++Cc+ oo+ tá.± =±+ tcoo++Cc+
.c+o+o ..±.... .+c oo+ =±+ +..c.++.o t_+..(++± c.+ao t_.. ++(+c +.++
C++co+oo+ca+c. .c+oo =+.c....(co c±c.++oc ±....aCoCa tá.± ±ao t_+
C+aa...(co oa+á... .+..+_oo C+aa Cc=(±. C±o± oo+ ++o c++++++=c +o tá.±ac
=±+ c±++c oo+ .+.c t.c c±++. Cc=(±. .oc -o± .++.+.. ++o +..++c C±o tco
t+oac+o±++ =±+.o.a oca++o C++coo+±.
¯ C+.c c++.a+oc cca++o .+ᬠ++.. ±+++( i¯·¯ c .=+ : o c+a±+c +c+o++c C+a+
.ac.(+oo+±.
:+c+ C++++á.±+c .+..+_oo oo+ .a+±á..o+++c +..c.++«o= c++ +..c.++.o t_..
++.( +..c± =±+o=± ..+++o +ac++ *+ao+c a++ C+aoo. .c oa.ccao=±+c +..c.++o+c
c+a... a++ C+aoo. +++ c(oo _+a +.c±o.+c C±+ C++c«± C.++ + +.c±o.++c .=+ :i
.+a+o+c ¯ ±+_± ¯ .c C.++o C++c.++oc ô± C±+ C++co...o+±.
· .+a+ :c ô± cc± +..c.++oc ±....ao ._+ c±c c(o=± C.++ .c+c ++++.+ oo+
++++.+ +++á+o+o ±_ .áôo.c C+aa+oo++. Cc++ C.++a+o c+a.. oo+ +ac++ *+ao+c a++
C+aoo _+acc++c ±+ ..±.... .áôo.c C±+ C++co Cc=(±
cc_ c+o C.+_..± +a=ao+ Cc=±a+o.o. ±+.c±o++ C+aco+++c +..c.+oc ±....ao o+c
C±+.± .áôo.c C+aa...+oo++.
121
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
RôYô RÓl×m ¾oÜm
Aj§VôVm þ 12
TôLm þ 4 RôYô RÓl×m ¾oÜm
Tϧ þ 63 ùY°lTûPjRuûU
i. .+o c..+o++c -o cca+++= t.c...o++ tco +c+C++++á.±+oc +.... +.o. c+a...
.+..+_oo. co+o+±. c.+C+.+c t.Ca++ o(... t_.. ++(+oc +..++c. c+c.++c ++++.+ac
._+ c±c+c ±+_± C.++c+c t.Ca+++++++c +ac+++ +..++c _+ac Ccoa( C+aa+oo+.c. Co+a
C±+±ao C±+.± Ccoa... C.++co c±++ c±a+o +.oao +o Ccoa.±c a+o++o C±+.± cca++c
a++++++c ±+_± tá.± .c++c..ca+«o= Coáa..(+oo +±a c.+ao .co+ Cc=(±. .+o c..+o++c
-o c+a++c ±....ao cc t_.. ++.±c a++++++c ±+_± tá.± .c++c..ca+«o= Coáa..(+oo
+±a c.+ao .co+ Cc=(±. .+o c..+o++c -o c+a++c ±....ao cc t_.. ++.±c a++++±
oo+ a+ c+c+c.±o=± (+o cc t_.. ++.( a++++± oo+ a+ c+c+c.±o=± ...ao
co+o++oo+ c.+ao+c c..+o++«± Ccoa.+oo+.c.
¯. .+o c..+o++c co+o++.o ±á.¬ =. .áôo.c C+aco+= c++ c.+ao ±á.¬=.cc i o tco
.±o++c +..++c ±+_± c+ c.++.o t_.. ++(+c +co+o+±. .+o C.+_..+.o c+a C++cco+=
t_.. ++(+«o= tco +a±++.o ±á.¬=. ±.(..(++ toc.o+±. to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±...c
+o+o+Co++++ .+o +..++c ±+_± c+c.++.o tco.o+a C.++c+c .+Cc( Cc+++a±++ t_c+o+..(±
+.oao ..±.... +..++c ±+_± c+c.++c =+++ ±á.¬=.c+= +co+ Cc=±a C.+_.c c++
t_.. ++(+.o c(co+o+±. .+ᬠ++.. ±+++.±c .=+ · c +a+++o c++ t_c+o+.... .+o c..+o++c
C.+_..+oc Co+.a++a++ +o.+ C+aco+= Co+.a.co C+ao.+(+c =+++ ±á.¬=. +cc± C+o+oo+±.
¯ ±+C++c t_.. ++( c.++ .ac±++ C+.(o C++c«± C.++ .+a+ io =+.c.(co cca++.o c.+cá++
c±++. ccCc+c t_.. ++(± oa+a++ .c++.+oo+o+=±. +c+ C++++á.±ac .+o. .=+ac ±o+c
=+.c.+oo+ ++++.+ c±c+c. +ac++ c+c.++c oo+ .a¬.a c..+o± _+ac .++.. c+.(+oo+±ao++
tco+ cc.o+++c +±.+±+c ++a=++.o occ.± .c++co=± C.++ ++++.+ac ..±.... c±c+c
oo+ +ac++ c+ c.++c oo+ .a¬.a c..+o++c .++ C.++±+c các.aCa+( o+co oao+± oo+
oo+ c.+ao c.++ c±co oao+± cc_ cc t_.. ++( C+.(o C++co...o+±.
: =+.c.. C.++++.+ oo+ oca+a+.+ +_cc++oc +.. .ac ca+o+ +oc+.o .++o+o +±a c.+ao
oo+ C.++ +oc+«o= ca=..±co++ c.+ao oo+ +.. co+o++++= o.. c+.(+oo +±a c.+ao
_c a++a o+co+.o Ccoa.+ C++o .+o. .=+ac .+a+o+c i.¯. ±+_± ¯ .o c+c± C+.(o
C++co...co.o.
Tϧ þ 64 RôYô ¾oÜ
i o+c+o+c =+++ C.++ c+a+.o+c +.++ +ac ++=.o+= .+o c..+o++o ++..++ C+ao+...(co.c
oca. c.ca .=++c .c++± C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o± i¯¯: c .=++c ¯¯ ±+_± ¯¯ c +a+++occ_
C.+.....ca+=±.
¯ to+ ca+o+ .±.. c..+o± coo= c+o+ c++ · _=(++o+++= C.+++ +++++a.c c..+o±
i¯¯: c .=+ ¯¯ c +.= .+a+o+c i _ ±+_± i ._+acc+.+ .+o c..+o++c ô± o+c+o+c +ac
+..c.++«o= .ac.(+o c±a++.
¯ C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o± i¯¯: c .=+ ¯¯ c +.= .+a+o+c i _ ±+_± i. o C++(o+...(coc+++=
c+o c.+ao+c .++a+«o++c +ac+«o= .+o .+a+o+oo tco c+a..+c ±+_± o=+ =+++ ...=+ac
.=+ ·: .+a+ ¯ =+.c..... ++oo C+(c+=c ±á.¬=. .áC++o.c C±+C++=( .±++a+c +.oao+c
±+++.±o +ô++a+++= .co+ Cc=(±. ..±.... .á++.++.o +ô+á.o+++c .±++a+c +.o
±+++.±c c+o cc c±co= oo+ C±+.± ¯c+ .+a+co =+.c..... ++o +..+++= +.±..+ cc+ c+o
cc c±c± C.++c+c ..c+oc ±....ao c(o+... Cc=(±. C±+C++=(± +±cao+a++oc
±....ao +ô++a± oo=± c.+ao cc+oo+±o. ±á.¬=.cc+o +ô+áo+.... .á++.++c
C+a±a++ coo+ t_.. ++(+oc+o± C+ao.(+o+oo+o+=±.
122
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Aj§VôVm þ 13
TôLm þ 4
UôtÈhÓ LôX LhPj§tLô] HtTôÓLs
Tϧ 65
UôtÈhÓ LôX LhP HtTôÓLs
i to+ ca++ .±.cc c..+o± coo= c+o C.++c+c ++o +..± ++o+c+a+co+++c cc _=(
c..± ..co+= cc. ...=+ac .=+ ·· .+a+o+c ¯.¯ ±+_± : c +a+++.o t_.. ++(+c caCa++o+
Cc=±a+o.o.
¯ ...=+ac .+a+ i.o =+.c.(co+ C.+o C±+=+.c.. +a++o+.o caCa++..o+++c ++o +..+.o
C.+_+oc.a c..+o± coo= c+o ++o c++ C±o± ++c= _=(+c ++o c+++±+c+ coc± ++(+«o=
c±++...(co+. .=++c ¯.:. ±+_± · c +a+++.o oca++ c.cac+++= o+c .+ C.+_++±.
¯ ±++a..(+o.... +..±.. C.+co+o+a c.+a c++ ++.o. C.+co+o+a+++= ±++oC++=±co=±
++(+«o=± ±+_± oc+ +c+ C++++á.± c.+ao ±.... ±+++++c C+a+cc± o..a++
+_cc.C.+co+o+a .±..+«o=± ±á.¬c..+o++c ô±+c +c+ C++++á.± ±+_± c+c.++.o
co+o=± C.++ c+a C++c«± ca++.c+«o= +ac ++=.o+=± .+a+¯ o c(++.+o+...(co ++oo+±
c+a.. .acoo=±.
: t+.++o ++..á.± ±o+c .++++... Co+±o a..++.+o=± +.±.. C+ac+ +±±+o±++ .cCc+..+o++o
coc± ++(+«o= c(++.+o+...(co+. o.c co+o+ +++(+c +..±...(coc. ...=+ac .+a+¯
o c(++.+o+...(co.± .cCc+..+o++o +o t_.. ++.±+= +a=ao+...(co co+o+ Co+ao
+o ++.±c a+eea co.oao ccoc++ .++++.. c+.+(+c C+aa...±co++o ..+++o .++± ¯ c các
· c +a+++oo ..±.... Co+±o a..++.+o= +.±+++ oa...(co +(oo+c · _=(+c ++o c++++.o
c(++o C++=( cCc+.+(+.o C+aao+±
· .+a+o+c i.¯.¯. ±+_± : c ô± ±++¹.(o++c ++o+..+.o t_.. ++(+c c+o=± C.++ oc +..++c.
c+c.++c t_c+o=c+± c+.+ .o++o+..++o co+o=c+±+c +.c±o.++.o C±+C++coo +(±.
_c+o ..±.... +.c±o.++c ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++.o c. co =c+a c.+ao .c++ c.o
+.++.
Tϧ þ 66
ªLÜm ©u Re¡V Eßl× SôÓLs
i ±+c± cc o++a ++(+.o. C.+_+oc.a .c+oc C.+co+o+a± ++ +.o ±+_± +ac++± +o+o+.oa±
.oCa+.±a Co.c+.oa± c+a++.oa± +=o+o c(++o C++co Cc=(±.
¯ ±+c± cc o++a ++(+c o++c Co+±o a.. .o+.o +.o+o oc.±Ca+( ccc++ C+a+ C++cco+=
toca++ coa++a..+o t_.. ++(+oc +_cc++«± .±..+«± o++o+ Co+±o a..++.o ±+++o
C++(...o ±o+..(++± c.+ao o++c a+eea co.oao tco ..±.... +_cc++«o= coa++a..+o
t_.. ++(+c ±o+±oo+ Cc=(±.
Tϧ þ 67
ùRô¯p ÖÔdL JjÕûZl×
coc± ++(+c ±+_± ±+c± cc o++a ++(+«o= ++o+±++ Co+±o a=o+ ±+_± +++.o c++.±...
+o=±+_ C+.(o C++co..(± C.++ .a¬.a± c..o C++co.... c+c.++c ±+_± +.+o.c+oc
±....ao coa++a..+o t_.. ++(+c cCc+++.±... +o=± C.++ ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++.o
coo++ co+o+o +±ao++ .o .+a++o C++co Cc=(±. +c+ C++++á.±+.o .++++o=±
+.c±o.++«o++c +..++c ±+_± c+c.++.o t_c+o=co+++c c++.±..++ + .co+o+±. CoC.+o
ccá.±+.o oc+++ .ac.(++c.o o(..+± .+o .+=±. .c+.+Caoo+± co+o=co+=
oco+++c.
c+c+c.±+c ±+_± +o .=a++_.ca+«o++c .a++ao+oo _+acc± .cCc+++.±.cc ô± cc+c+c.
123
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
TôLm þ VII ¨ßY] ç«Xô] HtTôÓLs þ Cߧf NWjÕLs
Aj§VôVm þ 14
Tϧ þ 68 ±á.¬ =.. .cCc+..+++.c =+..++ ô±cc± C.+_..+.o t_.. ++(+c c++c±
+.+Cc+_+c+c cc..o ±á.¬=. +=++=o+o+±. C±o± +c+ C++++á.±+oc ca+o+± ++a+o
±+++.oo =+++ _Co++.c +.++co+= t_.. ++(+«o= c+a.. oo+o+±. t_.. ++(+o+o ..±
c±++..(± _Co++.c+oc ±....ao C.+_..+.o .o=. +a=a++o C++(o+o+±. =+..++ o+c+
+ac +..c.++c +±±+o±++ t_.. ++(+c toc C++c± C.++ cc.+ toc+.o c±++Cc=(±.
±á.¬=.c+c+ oc+ oco+c +±±+o±+c t_.. ++(+c tocCa+c± C.++ cc.+ toc+.o c±++
Cc=(±. ±á.¬ =.c+c+ oc+ oco+c +±±+o±+c t_.. ++(+Co+( _Co++.c
+.++cCo+(c++.±c++ o+c c+a.+ao=± cca++.o C.+o+±. .o=. oc+ coo +..+++= c+=
ca+=(o=c to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.c=.c _Co++.c +.++ .o=.cc .oCc_ các+«o=cCo
c++.±... c+.(++co+++c oo+ c+.+(+.o C+a+ C++co+oo++.
Tϧ þ 69
NoYúRN JjÕûZl×
C.+cc+oc +acCo+ ca+o+ +.c±o.++oo +c+ C++++á.±+c ++ ±+. .ac.(++c.o ocao=±
C++o+o t_.. ++(+c o++«o=± c++.±.. C±+C++co +±±+++coc. .+ cca±++ o++c +ac++
.±.co Co+.a. C++co Cc=±ao+++c .±a++.o Coáco+c+ca. Co C.+o tá.±+c ++±+.
.ac.(+o...(co cca++.o o++«o=c .á±+áoC++coc± t_.. ++(+c oa+a++ tcoc. =+..++
++..á.±.a +co+oc±++ .ac.(++aco C.+cc+c +±±+o±++ t_.. ++(+oc +++ .o+++ccá..Ca
c++.±...a± .a¬.a o+co .á±+++++.oa± ccc++ C+a+ C++co Cc=± tco+.
Tϧ þ70
+..coco -o cca++«o++c .++++..
i ±á.¬c..+o+.o C+cco=+a ++.±o co.(++co+++c Co+o= ccca +++.±o +oca +..++«o=
C.+_..+.o +.(± c.+ao .cCc+..+o± c±c.±o+...co.o.
¯ .+o c..+o+++= c+. .oo+c..+o± C+cco=áa t_.. ++.±o c..+o± co.(+o..(++ ++c c.a
.c++cc++ coo+ -o cca++«o=± .cCc+..+o± C.+_... +a=a++ C++(++co+. C±+ C++cc
Co+ao +o t_.. ++.±o ± -occa++«o= .++++.. +o+...(co+. oo+ .cCc+..+o++c
c+c.++oc ô± .++++.. C._co+++c +..c..±+c oc(+«o= oo+ c+.+ c+aC++co+oo+
c.+ao .c++coc. .+o .+a+ .+a+ ¯ ±+_± ¯ ±+_± : .+a+o+«o= c+. tco .++..á.± C.+_..+c
C.ac ++.. ±+++.±c i¯¯i .=+ i- o= c..±a++ C.+_+o+oo+ c.+ao ±+++a.±o+...±co++oo++.
..++o.(o+c oa+á..+oa+c ±+_± ..+o+.o.a+«o= tco ..++o.( tá.±+.o. C.+_+oc.a .c+c
c.c+± C.ac++.. ±+++.±c i¯¯i .=+ i- o= c++ c.+ao ±+++a.±o+...±co+ Cc=(±. C±o±
±á.¬c..+o++c i: c .+a+ ·o= C.+c+oo+±ac.+ao t_c+o+...±co++oo++.
¯ +±±+o.... -o cca± C+cco=áa t_.. ++.±o a+c C.++. .ac.+.±c ô± c++ c.. +.oao
oc ±+ ++..oo+ Cc=±a C.+_.. c+c± +a=ao+ Cc=±a+o.o.
: ++±+ .ac.(+o...(co .++++o+...(co -occa++o cc c.++co =+.c.. C++o+++c .+o+c
c+o cc +..++c C++o+++o+c.c ±á.¬c..+o++c +.. .ac c+c.++«o= t_+..(± c.+ao
.co+ Cc=(±. +±±+o.... ++( to+ ca+o+ .±.. c..+o+.o co+o+ Co+.++a ccca C±+=+.c..
+c+ C++++á.±.a Co+.a++ +±±+o.... oa+á..+oa .ac.(+o Cc=(± cco +o +c+ C++++á.±
.c++cocco= c.aa_o+.... oco =(+.(± Co+.+.a +a=a++ c±++ Cc=(± C±++=.
oa+á..+oá.± t_.. ++( C+.(o C++coo+±.
· cc t_.. ++( to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬c..+o+.o co+o=co+= ccca c+++.... -o++c
oo+ ca++c cca++o .=+ i ±+_± .=+ i: c : c+ .+a+cc +a+++.o caCa++o+ Cc=±a C.+_..
cc t_.. ++.±+= .o.o.
· .=+ ¯i ±+_± .=+ ¯¯ c .+a+ i _+ac ++..á.±+.o Co+±o a..++.+ao c+o co .+a..+c± .c+
.ac.(++c.o =+++± tá.± .c++c..các =±+ .c+ .ac.(+oo +.+o.o..++a± c(++.+o+c+c.
124
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
.++.oao to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬c..+o± +o ++.±o +a..(co+= c+.oa ++oo C±+=+.c..
tá.± .c++c..các tá.±.a a++++± CcC++ccco= C++(++co=± ..+++o C±+=+.c.. .=++.o
t_.. ++(+c t.Ca++o+ Cc=±a+o.o.
¯ .+c C+ao+o o+c +c+ C++++ tá.±+«o= .++++.. c±++..(± cc_ cc± C.++ C+cco=+a
++.±o c..+o± coo= cc± ++oo +o.cao tco .++++.. C++c± c==..++.o. C.+_+oc.a
.+o ±á.¬c..+o++c +a+++oc ô± cc++ c+o cc +(oo .++++.. c.+.aa± C++c± c.+ao +o
c==..++o oo+ +c+o++c C±+ C++coo+±.
- to+ ca+o+ .±.cc ±á.¬c..+o± coo= cc± ++oo ±c+++c ±+_± Cco+= a++ac.
C.cc+«o= cc t_.. ++.±o oo+ .++++.. c+.+(+c C+a+ oa...+o +.oao cCc+..+o++c .=+
¯¯ c +a+++oc ô±+c C.+_..+«o= oo+ c+.+(+.o C+a+ oa...+o +.oao
to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± coo= cc± Co+a c++ .++± · c ô± c±++...(co +a+++oc
ô± +++ Cc=±a+o.o. .oc a+o± cccCcc++o ..±.... +=(c±..+«o= ++..á.± C++á +..+a±
c==.co+ Cc=(±.
_ .+o c..+o± co+=± Co+ao .+o c==..++«o= + c==.co+...(co ++.±o
+a=ao+...(co +..c..±+c oc(+c ±.(±oo++ .cCc+..+o++c +..c..±+c oc(+.oa±
C.+_+o Cc=(±. C±o±
. cc++= ++..á.± c±++...(coC.++ oc +a++o+«o= c++c± .cCc+..+o++c +a+++oo ++...(
tcoo+= c+.c± ++..á.± .++++.. c±++ Cc=(±. .cCc+..+o++c .=+ ¯¯ o= c+. c==..± o+o+o
C+aa.... ++oo .c++ +=o+.( ++..á.± ++o+.o +=o+Co(++oC++c«± C.++ .c.c.+a+ coo+
c==..++«± .++++.. C._co+= ...=+ac .+a+ - c +.= .+a+ _ o =+.c....(co +..c..±+c
oc(+.o cc.++ Cc=(±.
¯ ...=+ac .+a+ - c +.= .+a+ c+= C.+c+oo +±a c.+ao ++.. ++.o tá.± ±+_± oa+á..
++..á.± C.+Cc=±a c==..++c ±+++c ô± cc++ oa+á... C.+c+oc.a. cc==..+++=
±+C++c t_.. ++.±o oa+á.. ++..á.± c±++...+oo+o++c± ..±.... CcC++c ++.±o ++.o =±+
=..o+±a c.+ao± .co=± C.++ cc.+ =±++c c±++o+±. .c+c .++± · c +a+++«o=
C.+_++ +++ Cc=±a+o.o. +o t_.. ++.±o ++.o =±+ =......o+= c+= · _=(+c oo+
oa+á.. ++..á.± =±+o+.... oo+ +a++áo+.... ++c c.a .+o c+ =.+c+c ++o+..C±+ o++o
+..± c.a .cc=±++.o c±++o+±.
Tϧ þ 71
T¬ºXû]Ùm §ÚjRØm.
i .=+ ·· c .+a+ ¯o =+.c....(co .±a+c ++o+..++o ±++¹.( ++o+..± c±c++ ccc+o
.cCc+..+o++c co+o+± =+++ ±á.¬=. .áôo.c C±+C++coo+±. cCc+..+o± co+o+a+o
+..+o =.c++oc ±....ao co+o+. Co+.++a Co+ao .c++ +=.+a+oo+ ...Cco C++(++
o+c+ co+c Co+ao .c++ .a=( _=(+c +±++ ±á.¬=. ...áôo.c.a C±+C++co+oo++.
+±±+o.... +.+ao c+..(co .+a ccCc++++.o +=o+o c(++o C++=( oc Cco++++o
±á.¬oc+ .áôo.c +.++ oc ±....ao ccc++ C+aco+++c +++a± oo+o+± oo+
c..+o+++= oo+ +c+o++c oao+±.
¯ +c+ C++++á.±+c .++++.c+= c++cCc C.+...(co .++++.. c.++«o= C±o± +(oo++ .++++..
c±+++oo+o++ .co=± c.+ao +c+o++c C±+C++co... Cc=(±. Cc_ .cc.c c..+o++«o= c+.
C±+.±a+c ±+++++c C+aa...( += c++...±c.cc c+.+ .±++a+c +.o ±+++.±c ccca
.co+o+±. to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o++c .=+ i. c .+a+ ·o tcoo+= .=++ co+o=co+= c+.
±á.¬=.c+c+ C±+.± +c+o++.o C.++ c..ooo++c ccC±+±a++ c±c.±++ .±++a+c +.o
±+++.±c cc .co+o+±.
Tϧ þ 72
NÛûLLs (Reservations)
c+ t_.cca+oc +±±o± .oo+±o .cCc+..+o++c c+o cc +a+++oc .+o± +o.+ a.±++c.o+.++.
125
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
Tϧ þ 73
TôÕLôl©]¥lTûP«p B] ®§®XdÏLs:
.+o c..+o++c c+o cc .=+a± ô±cc±+_ C.+ccC++=( c.o+.++.
cc t_.. ++.±c ++a+c+a .++++.. +oc+«o= cCa+o±+c c+o o+co+.oa± ..=o+ Cc=(±
cc_ t_.. ++.±.± C++coo oo+
_ cc t_.. ++( oc+ ++a+c+a .++++.. +oc+«o= ++a+c+a±+co++ +c+± c+o cc
+.c±o.+.aa± +o t_.. ++( C±+C++cc.o o(++ +_++c+.
i. coo++oo+ = -o. C.+cc +±±+o.....c oo+ +o -o.C.+cc+c c+ c++ C.+.....cCa+
.c
¯. _ao++c. ooc+.++c. C.+áo =(.(++co+++c C.+o=ca+++c ±+_± c+ C.+cc+c ±+_± -o.C.+cc+c
_+ac a+=c .±..+c t_c+o=co+= C+a±a++c± ±.+c+±++c± C++=( ccco+++c C.+o=ca+++c.
¯. C.+a++o+..++oo +acCo+ *+ao c+a ++o++oo ...± c(++ ca..(c+. oo+
. +acCo+ .±+ ±+_± .++++.. .a+±á.c+++c ¿o+a ++(+c +..ac C.+_..+oc Co+.a +.c±o.++c
±o+c c+o cc +..c.+.aa± C±+C++cc+ c++ .++++..+.
.++++.. +.+ +±±+o.... cca++«o= C±++=. c.+ao coo= C.+o+± cc_ c+o cc +.oao±
.á++ C++=( c.o+.++.
126
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
"¥¬lv"JlTkRjûR T¬º lTRtLô] Es AûUkR §hPm
Aj§VôVm þ 15
Tϧ : 7: "¥¬lv"JlTkRm ¸rdLiPYôß T¥jR±VjRdLÕ:
T¬ºXû]Ùm §ÚjRØm:
i .=+ ··.c .+a+ ¯.o =+.c....(co .±a+c ++o +..++o ±++¹.( ++o +..± c±c++ ccc+o
.cCc+..+o++c co+o+± =+++ ±á.¬=. .áôo.c C±+C++coo+±. cCc+..+o± co+o+a+o
+..+o =.c++oc ±....ao co+o+. Co+.++a Co+ao .c++ +=( +a+oo+ oc oo+
...Cco C++(++ o+c+ co+c Co+ao .c++ .a=( _=(+c +±++ ±á.¬o= =. ...áô .c.a
C±+C++co+oo++. +±±+o.... +.+ao c+..(co .+a ccCc++++.o +=o+o c(++oC++=( oc
Cco++++o ±á.¬=. oc+ .áôo.c+.o +.++ oc ±....ao ccc++ C+aco+++c +++a±
oo+o+± oo+ c..+o+++= oo+ +c+o++c oao+±.
¯ +c+ C++++á.±+c .++++.c+= c++cCc C.+...(co .++++.. c.++«o= C±o± +(oo++
.++++o.. c±+++oo+o++ .co=±c.+ao +c+o++c C±+C++co Cc=(±. Cc_ .cc.c c..+o++«o=
c+. C±+.±a+c ±+++.±c ccca .co+o+±. to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o++c .=+ o.c .+a+ ·.o
tcoo+= .=++ co+o=co+= c+. ±á.¬=.c+c+ .±++a+c +.o ±+++.±c cc .co+o+±.
±++¹.( ++o +..± ++o+c+ _c ccc+o .cCc+..+o++c co+o+± =+++ .áôo.c C±+C++co Cc=(±
cc_ .cCc+..+o± C++c+++. o+c+ ii¯...o=. c+= .áôo.c C±+C++coo C++c+++. o+=. c+=
.a=( _=(+«o= ccc.+ .+o .áôo.c C±+C++coo+±. c..+o co+o+± =+++ +..C._± coo
.áôo.c ¯..._± _=±o +..C._± C.++ coac+ ++(+.o. C.+c+oc.a ++oc+ Co+ ii¯....o c±+++.
ccCc. ..o .áô ..+ ±++ +a±±+c+ oo+ .+o .áôo.cac -o± c..+o++o +c+o++c C++=(
ccc+± ±++ +o+o+co+=±. .c ¯..¯.o± o+=. c+= .a=( _=(+«o= ccc.+a± ±á.¬=.
.áôo.c C±+C++cocco+. c..+o± co+o+++o +..+o =.c++c .C.++ .áô o+..(±. to+
ca+o+ .±.cc +..c.+a++ .+ .co=± C.++ ..±.... +c+o± C.++o +c++c ±....ao
c..o C++co... Cc=(±. C±o± ++ ..+ .++++.. c±+=±+_ C++cco+= .+o..=+ t_.. ++(+«o=
+o.±+c c± c+.(++o C++(o+++. to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.. C.+c+ c+ .cc.c c..+o++oc
ccc++ c+. ..c .±a+oo+o+=±. Co C+a++o .++++..+ oa+.o =.+o+Cc+ oo+ +a++.
C.++Cc+ C+a++ a+o++o+c +c+o++c ±+c± +o+o+c =±+.o.a c+.(++ c(±.
ccCc ¯..¯.o o+= c+=± ±á.¬c..+o++c C±o +.+o...cco .áôo.cac tco.±+o +..±+c+
+c+ C++++á.±o= +(oo .++++... c+.(++c.o ++++a..(++co++ .co++oo++. t±. cac ±+_±
++a+a++«o=± c+c.+ .caao =+a..a+o++«o=± +(oo .++++... Co C+a++o o+C.++co .++++..
o.c =.+o+ Cc=(± cc_ C++cc+ ±+c± +a±±+c+ t±. ±c++ t+.+++ +.+o= ++..á.± .++++..
o..+o .c++ coo+oo+ Cc=(± cc_ c+a.+a..+.
+a+.±o ++áo +..C.++ .±++a+c +.o ±+++.±++++ oa+áo+.... coa++. .á++.++oc cc .=+a++
±á.¬c..+o+.o C±o± .o..(++co+++c +o ccC±+±c+.o e..+c ±+_± ¿Ca+.ca cc+a± C.+c+
+o ++(+c cc.c+oc. to+ +c+ C++++á.± .±.cc .+..á.± c..+o++c C.+c+ +c+
C++++á.±+c c..+o++c ±+ ±á.¬c..+o++c ô± ++..á.± c==..++c .a++ C+aco+= tco
.a=( coo+co++ o+o+o C+aco+= coo+co++ +=(c±o+..(co+= c.++«o= ..+c++ coa++.
.á++.a+.o cc .c+oc. _c+o ±+++.±o c+o c±c± c(o+...co.o. Co C.+o coc± ++(+«±
co+o+++o o++«o= tco +o +a±++oc ++a=±++ +o ca++.c+.o c..cc. ±á.¬c..+o
C.+_..+.o +.+Cc+_co+= c+. o++.o oa+a.(++o C++cco++++ ±++¹.(o ++o +..+.o +.±++o
C++(o+o C++ác. cac+c ±+_± ++a+a++«o= c±++..(± taa oc .++++... c+c+++=± +.±o+
C++ác. (+o .áôo.cac C.++ ..ca++.c+c ±=(± c.....(±.
Tϧ 27.3 (B)
.=+ ¯¯.¯ ±+_± _ _+ac ô±+=.c+_ tcoc.
LôlT°dLjRdL êX ®NVm:
¯ t_.. ++(+«± ++..á.± c±+=c+ c++ coo= C.++oo+c.
±coa+c ±+_± co+=+«o= C++a+oo +++.+ao+oo ±+_± _.c +++.+ c.++«o= ++..á.±
c±+=c+ c++ coo= C.+o+±.
_ a= t_.cao +=(c±..+c oca++ .aa+c ±+_± co+=+c +=(c±.c+= t_.. ++(+c coo=
C.+o+±. taáao ++a+o ±+_± a= taáao C+ao c.++c ô± oo+o .a+c.++«o= ++..á.±+c
127
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
c±++Ca+ oo+ C+ao ±o+± ±o+ +a Cecáa¬ c.+ -oC±+. oo+ + C.+c+ +o.c c.+aCo+
t_c+o+....c+++= t_.. ++(+c ++.. c±++ +..±...(coc. .+o +.= .+a+ _cc +a+++c to+
ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o± co+o++ +c++ ++c= cc.++«o= c+= .áô o++oo++. .=+ ¯¯.c .+a+
¯.c +a++ _ ±o+c .áôo.c i¯¯¯.o C±+C++co....+. .±++a+c +.oao+c -c++c+ ±+++.±o
cc.c..o+++c tco.±+o +..++c cc .=+a++ ...á+o.c C±+C++co....+. +a+.±o ++áo +..C.++
.±++a+c +.oao+c ±+++.±+= oa+á.. +.c±o.+a++ C±+C++co.... ...áôo.c .oCc_
ccC.+±c+.o C.+++. .a+c.++c ±+_± a= t_.. .ao _+ac+++= ++.... .++++.. +..o+++c
c+.+(+.o.+o. .=+ao C+ao+ Cc=(± cc_ C±áo+ ccC±+±+o+. taa +.oao tcoc+++= ++..á.±
o..+ c++ coo= oo++oo+ c.+ao ...=+.a ooa+o Cc=(± cc_ .++a+c± cc ±....a+c
ccC±+±.c .c+o+. _c+o .+o ±+++.±o c±c C+aco++++ c+ c+a++.o. C.+oCc .+c± Cc++
C.+co.o. Co C+a++o ¯..._± _=( +..C.++ ±á.¬=.cc coo+c+ .áôo.cao +o++ C++=.
.o t_.. ++(+c ...=+ac ±o+c .áôo.c Co+.a Cc=(± cc_ c++..ca. ccCc c++cCc .co=±
+a+++oc ±....aCoCa .++a Cco+= .±++a .aac.++c .++++.. ±o+c ±+_± ++..á.± +..++c
±o+c +c+o++.o .+a+«±c+++c ccCc .c++co+a.
C±áo+ c++cCc oc+ tc++.( +..++o .a++c ±+_± co+=+«o= ++..á.±+.o c±++aco+. ±a.
*+a++ ccc++ C+aa...(co a= t_.cao tco.. taáao Co+±o a..++c ±o+c t+oa.c ¿Ca+.ca
cc+ac± +±.++o Cooc .(++aco+. .+o t+oac ¿Ca+.ca cca. .+a+«±c+++o .c=± c..oo
C.+co.o.
+±.++o +..C.++ taáao .aco ++.. ±+++.±c c..+o+++= .co+.... coo =+..+c ±+ +.++
c±o+...(co C.++c+a+.o+c _c.c t_.. ++(+c ca+o+ +.(..+( c.++c =±+o=± oc+«o=c
+c_ ±a. *+a++ ccc++ C+aa...(co a= t_.cao .+o=±++c ±o+c ±+c± ccCc+a o+co+c
C._co+++c c..+o++«o= =±+ c±++aco+o +(±. ccCc coa+o ++(+c +o .=+ ¯¯.¯ _.o
+....o+= ..+o tacco +.o+«o= _c .++++.. oa++.o. .o..(+o Cc=(± cc_ +a.++o+c+c.
±_.+± coc± ++(+Co+ .+o .=+ac +a+++c taáao .aco .+a±.áa +c C.+c+c+.+ .++++c.o+.++
cc_ +a.+o± C++(+oc.
TϧLs 23.4 Utßm 24.2
.=+ ¯¯.: ô±+=.c+_ .±+o+a+oo++.
cac c.++c ±+_± ++a+a c.++«o= .cao =+a..a+o++«o++c +(oo .++++...
cac c.++«o++c .cao =+a..a+o++«o= .++++.. c.++.o coo+o=co+++c c+a++o o+++c
C.++c+a+.o+.o ±á.¬ =.cc ô± +.+oo+±. oc -o± +o C.++c+a+.o+oo .+C+++ ++(+oo
cac c.++«o= .cao =+a..a+o++c .+c C+aco+=± +o.+ C+aco+=±+c .cc.c C+aoc.+.a
t_c+o+o+±.
.=+ ¯:.¯. ô±+=.c+_ .±+o+a+oo++.
NoYúRN úTfÑYôojûRLs : ®§®XdÏLs:
.+o cácc +a+++.o co+o=c.o oc+ .áôo.cac ô± ±á.¬ =. .c++o C++co Cc=(±.
to+ ca+o+ .±.. c..+o± coo= c+o .a=( _=(+«o=c ...±.... coo .áôo.c
+..C.++oo++. .+o +a+++oc ô±+c C.+_..+Co+( .=++.C.+c.o .++o+o +±a c+a++c ±á.¬
=.cc +cc+++= C++=( C+oo+oo++. .+ c+a±++ t_.. ++( cc_ ±+C++c(.Cc+ ±++ .oc++c
t.Cc+ C.++ c+a+.o+c +.++.o+±. t_.. ++(+«.c .a¬.a± oo+ .cc.c _Co++.c+.o +.++a±
+c.+a+c +ac++= c±a+o +.oao C±+=+.c..c+_ ±á.¬=.cc cc ca++.c.a +±±+o.... ++(
c(+++ C+ooo+±. .oc ±+ ±á.¬ =.c+c+ +.c±o.+ c(o+o+±. oc -o± .+o. cácc C++o+++c
ccc++ C+aa..(co+=± +..c.+.a coo+o=co+=±+c c..o.o c+.(+oo+±
.cc.c .+c c.+.a c+.(++coc -o± cac c.++c ±++± ++a+a c.++«o= tco .caao
=+a..a+o++c .++++.. oa Cc=(± cc_ .=+ ¯¯.:.c ô± +..C.++ C.++c+a+.o+oo ccC±+±a....+.
cac c.++c ±+_± ++a+a c.++c oca c+ oa+á.. C.+cc+«o=± .cc.+ao taa+o. ..+ .++++..
+o+ Cc=(± cc_ C++áaoc -o± .++a+ occ+oca++ +c_ C±+=+.c.. c.+ao+c .cc.c .+c
c.+ac ±....ao .++++.. occo+++c +.c±o.+.a o(o+ c±+o+. .caao =+a..a+o++c
.++++.c+++c .=+ ¯:.¯.c cácc ±o+c .á+o.cac ±....ao ++ ..+ .++++.. c+.(++co+++c
c+a... c+.oa ccC±+±co cc.co+....+. .+o C++o+++o+c .++++.. +±±+o±++ cc++o+...(co
c+a++c +++..a .±++a+c +.o ±++.±+++c ±á.¬=. +o.+ao C+a++o C++co...o+± cc_
Cooc .(+o....+. ±á.¬=. o+C.++ ..ca++.c.a cc++++ cc+++. .++a+co= ¿Ca+.ca
128
Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights
CODISSIA
cc+a± +c++ao+++. C+o =±aa+ c+C+á. +co+ C.+c+ ++(+c _oac Coác++coc. +±. ++o+++=co++
.o+++c c+a... ++..(++co+++c c..+o± c+..++ ..± .c+oC.++o± .++a .+a+«±c+++o
.caao =+a..a+o++c +±±+o±++ +.+Cc++...(co +a±+c++o +o.+ C+aa..(± oa+á..+c ±+
++ ..+ .++++.. occo+= c+a.. c+.(+o...(co+. .++a+c+c+ c+a++o++o ±á.¬=.co
..ca++.c.a Co+.a++ c... tco+.
Tϧ þ64 ¸rLiPYôß T¥jR±VjRdLÕ: RYô ¾ol×:
i oc+o+c =+++ C.++ c+a+.o+c +.++ +ac ++=.o+= .+o c..+o++o ++..++ C+ao+...(co.c
oca c.ca .=++c .c++± C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o± i¯¯:.c .=+ oo¿¿ ±+_± oo¿¿¿.c
+a+++occ_ C.+.....ca+=±.
¯ to+ ca+o+ .±.. c..+o± coo= c+o+ c++ · _=(++o+++= C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o±
i¯¯:.c .=+ oo¿¿¿.c +.= .+a+o+c i_ ±+_± i. _+acc+.+ .+o c..+o++c ô± o+c+o+c +ac
+..c.++«o= .ac.(+o c±a++.
¯ C.+++ ++++ +a.c c..+o± i¯¯:.c .=+ oo¿¿¿.c +.=.+a+o+c i_ ±+_± i..o
C++(o+...(coc+++= c+o c.+ao+c .++a+«o++c +ac+«o= .+o..+a+o+oo tco c+a..+c ±+_±
o=+ =+++ ...=+ac .=+ ·:.+a+ ¯ =+.c..... ++ooC+(c+=c ±á.¬ =. .áC++o.c C±+C++=(
oc+ .á++.a+.o .±++a+c +.oao+c ±+++.±o +ô++a+++= .co+ Cc=(±. ..±....
.á++.a+.o +ô+á..o+++c .±++a+c +.o ±+++.±c c+o cc c±co= oo+ C±+.± ¯c+ .+a+co
=+.c..... ++o +..+++= +.±..+ cc+ c+o cc c±c± C.++c+c ..+cc ±....ao c(o+...
Cc=(±. C±+C++=(± +±cao+a++oc ±....ao +ô++a± oo=± c.+ao cc+oo+±o
±á.¬=.cc+o +ô++áo+.... .á++.a+c C+a±a++ coo+ t_.. ++(+oc+o± C+ao.(+oooo+o+=±.
±á.¬c..+o++c .=+ ·: _c+ to+ ca+o+ .±.co .cCc+..+o+++= t_c+o+...(co o+c+
+ac +..c.++.o ±á.¬c..+o++c ±+ co+o=c+ .++ao+=±. Co C+a++o to+ ca+o+ .±.cc
o+c+ +ac +..c.++c ca±. ±+o oo+o c+ .++a+.oa± tco.o+aco+++. .o=..a a+o± to+
ca+o+ .±.cc +a+++Co+( c+o co±+c ca=.+(+«± .oo+o +.oao +±±+o....ca+«o=
+..o+o+±a .oc+c .oc+_. C.+++ C+a++ oo+ C+o..(++++ ca++.c+.o to+ ca+o+ .±.cc
o+c+ +ac +..c.++c c+_o C++c+c+c. ii¯... c.a .+ +..c.+..(+ooo+o++ .co+co.o.
c..+o++c ô± .c+o ca±. ±+o+c ±o+c o+c+o+c ±.(C± c++áo+....c. .±++a+o+o cc±+o
+c++c ô± C++=(ccco++++ ii¯...o= ccca .+o+ +a++ .áô o+....+. .+o +.c±o.++«o=
ccC±+±c+.o .++a+ tco.. t_.. ++(+c .c+oc. +a+.±o ++áo +..C.++ .±++a+c +.oao+c
±+++.±+++c oa+á..+oc cc .=+a++ .+ C±+C++co....+. _c+o c+ c+a++.o. C.+oCc .oc
±+± c+oco c..+oc± ++=...co.o .oc Co+.a++a++ ..C.++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc t_.. ++(+c
±+o+c oo+o ca++.c+.o c...+c+ca. +a+.±o ±+++.±o ..o coo+o +_co+++c ca+++c
C±+C++co...( Co+oca..++co+. .oc+o ca++.c+c +..co C.+...(± +.oo= oco...(coc.
ii¯...o= c+.oa ca±. ±+o+c oo+o ca++.c+.o ±á.¬o= C.+_+o .ao+o +.o.a +.±..o+++c
ca++.c.a +o t_.. ++(+c c..cc.
AØXôdLl ©WfNû]Ls:
+a+.±o .±++a+c +.o ±+++.±+= oa+á.. .=+oc cc .=+a++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc c..+o++c
co+o+++c ±+ t_.. ++(+c ccC±+±c+.o C+a =±+o+....ca. c++cCc .co=± c..+o++o
tco +±+ôa++ oc.±+.o ++_c+± .o=c .+=±. CoC.+o coc± ++(+«o= ++o+±+c C+ao.(+oo
oo+ occ.+.... +a+++«± cc.co+....c. .++a+ ocCc+( +c++ cc±+o ++(+Co+( .+c.+....
ccC±+±c+.o .c+o+. ±á.¬c..+o+++= t.... c.+ao+c ccC±+±c+c ô±ccccc+.+
tco.o+ac+ooc.
i ±á.¬ c..+o++c ca±. ±+o oo+o .++a C+aco+++c ++ooC+(.c +.±..+.
¯ ±á.¬c..+o++c .=++c ¯ ±+_± - _+acc+.+ C+ao.(++co+= c+. Co+±o a.. .á±+++++.o
C+a.±a++c± .a¬.a± ++o+±+co++c± tco c+c.++«o= t...( .á±++oC++co c±Ca+.(++c+.
cc +=(c±.co t.Ca++o+...(co taáao -o.C.+cc+oc -o ..++.c..++a cca++.o
Cco..(++co+++c +..c.+.a c+.(++c+. -o ..++c ++.±c c..o.o =.(c+ o+++c +ac++
c+.+(+.o Co+++oc ±..++o c+.(++ C±+.± cca++.o ca+o+ *+ao +a=.o .oo+o c.+ao
.ac.(++o C++cc+. +±co.+.a +.±a.±..o+++c +±c±o.++oc cc .=+a++ to+ ca+o+ .±.cc
C.++o=.c+c+ :c+ .±++a+c +.o ±+++.±+= cc.++ co+o+ ca++.c+.o +a..o+++c cc c±.c
c(++co+. .++a+.c. C.+_+oc.a ±á.¬c..+o co+o+++c .+o+c =.++a.. +.c±o.++c =+++
Co+.a++ c a_+o tco+.
129

CODISSIA

Index
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Trade Related Intellectual property Rights Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights TRIPS - What are IPRs? Intellectual Property : Protection and Enforcement Trips : A more detailed overview of the TRIPS Agreement Patenting an Invention What are “Intellectual Property Rights” Trips : Agreement on Trade Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Part - ! Part - II General Provisions and Basic Principles Standards concerning the availability, scope and use of Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights Dispute Prevention and Settlement Institutional arrangements; final provisions 35 1 3 8 9 13 20 29

37 45 51 53 55

Part - III Part - IV Part - V 9.

Built in Agenda for Review of the TRIPS Agreement

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

CODISSIA

TRADE RELATED INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
CHAPTER - 1
India and IPR
We were always taught that India was a land of sadhus and sanyasis. India was also the land of scientists, technologists, inventors and physicians among many other intellectual groups known anywhere in the world. India was the birth place of many important inventions. From ayurveda to decimal system, from agriculture to wootz steel, India pioneered inventions in all the areas of life. The 350 A.D. ayurvedic text susruta samhita mentions 300 different plastic surgery operations using more than 120 surgical instruments. Even in 1700 India’s share in the gross products of the world was 22.6% and ours was the largest civilisational group in the world. But the Indian system believed that ‘knowledge is not for sale’. That is the reason why for thousands of years we have allowed our wisdom to go everywhere without restrictions. But now things have changed with the advent of WTO. Intellectual property, meaning all the creation of the intellect, have rights – rights to exclude everybody from using a product unless they pay the price to the one who registers it first. Many consider Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to be the single most disadvantageous agreement for India. Even the noted free trade supporter Prof. Jagadish Bagawati has pointed out the biased nature of the present IPR agenda.

INTRODUCTION

Why should we be aware of TRIPs?
a) It is going to affect all of us. For example, increase in the prices of drugs. Even common cures become costly. 5 million South Africans suffering from HIV are not able to get medicine as the prices are very high. Battles are going on between the government and the multinational companies in South Africa. b) For a country like ours, where we have been following traditional healing system for thousands of years, the new IPR systems might make us aliens in our own society. Global corporations have already started snatching our system from us. For example, patents for Ginger remedies of India. c) Community resources are under threat. International NGOs have documented a number of instances where ‘bio-piracy’ has taken place without even any recognition or reward to the communities. d) It will seriously affect agriculture, where about 70% of our people depend upon for their livelihood. Millions of people may find it impossible to continue their vocation. e) Food security is threatened. It is feared that it will not be possible to get food at nominal rates for common man. f) TRIPS agreements is certainly not a fair agreement. The present reports say $ 1.5-2 millions are required for countries to build an infrastructure for TRIPs. Many countries cannot afford this and flight with a country like America, whose Patent and Trademark office with an annual budget of $1 billon and a staff of more than 3000 highly trained Scientists, Engineers and Legal experts.

Origin of TRIPS
With the signing of the Final Act of GATT, the emerging relation in international trade have become highly significant. WTO should ensure freer trade regime. The Agreements on services, Textiles, Agriculture, Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS), Trade related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) would have profound effects on pattern of comparative advantage. Out of eight rounds of multi lateral trade negotiations under GATT, the first six rounds concentrated almost exclusively on reducing tariffs while the seventh i.e., Tokyo Round, focused on non-tariff barriers, apart from tariff reduction. The eight round known as the Uruguay Round, in terms of coverage was the most extensive as well as ambitious. It took GATT into areas which are not within the traditional preserve. These include services. TRIPS, TRIMS and focused on agriculture also. These new areas were included in the GATT negotiations primarily at the instance of USA. The Final Act included as many as 19 new instruments constituting multilateral agreement on Trade in goods, four Plurilateral Trade Agreements, an agreement each on TRIPS and services, an understanding on Dispute Settlement, an Agreement on Trade Policy Review Mechanism and Numerous decisions and declarations. The underlying theme of TRIPS being free trade as provided in the WTO / GATT, countries are required to prepare necessary legal frame work spelling out the scope and standards of protection for rights in regard to the intellectural

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

1

The corporate decisions of the MNCs for location of their plants for specialization of different stages of production are governed by complex factors. confirms the belief that trade flows in the GATT – 1994 Scenario would be more technology – driven than ever before. increased outflow of foreign exchange due to commitments undertaken in the field of TRIPS. exchange rate policies. of lesser significance. process patenting. brands. trade secrets. have changed the profile of structural characteristics of the products that enter into trade. The large debt burden in the indebted developing countries. etc. Many disadvantages are attributed to the IPR provisions of WTO. such as chemicals. labour laws etc. such as technological dependence on Foreign firms. Now issues have come to the forefront to influence the trade patterns – environment. Etc. micro-organisms and plant varieties. recognition of IPRs as private property right. Intra – industry trade among developed countries of Western Europe Measured as the bilaterally balanced proportions of total trade turnover is more than 60 to 70 per cent for the product groups. industrial designs. plants. the economic power centers are also getting shifted and re-structured. photovoltaics. provisions for exclusive marketing rights. human rights. etc. such as biotechnology. microelectronics. such as the profit – tax policies of the countries. child labour – to mention a few. increasing intrusion in domestic sovereignty. packaging etc.CODISSIA property. convertibility of currency. geographical indications. credit rating of a country. these defy traditional theories of trade. This has prompted the Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) to spread across the globe. There is evidence of close intra-firm and intra-industry linkages in regard to the identification of production runs. The share of services in the GNP has been sharply increasing both in the developing and the developed countries. these developments carry potentials of limitless opportunities and threats. USA has been fast losing its comparative advantage in goods sector and it is expanding the market space for its service sectors. integrated circuits. The WTO covers nine types of intellectual property – copy right. • •· • • • Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 2 . has revolutionized the world production and trade. The TRIPs with provisions for product patenting. policies towards foreign investment. The Character of World Trade has undergone profound structural changes in recent years exhibiting the following characteristics: • Intra – industry trade: Countries engage in both exporting and importing in the same product group such as textiles for textiles. The emergence of many new frontier technologies. Product diversification. process – wide decomposition of the final product into components and intermediate goods. Factor – endowments has become one of the factors. etc. packaging. TRIMS and services. etc. The world in witnessing transfer of polluting industries to the developing countries. textiles and non-electrical machinery. designs. product – differentiation with slight changes in designs. trademarks. chemicals for chemicals. have also generated unprecedented forces which influence the production and trade patterns in the world as a whole. However.

moulds. The EMR is available for five years from grant or till the patent is granted or rejected.1. casts. In the area of copyright and related rights (i. broadcast transmission or any other form of reproduction. translation. The creators of literacy works and artistic works such as writer. Where a country does not make available patent protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products as on 1.2 The Agreement on Trade – Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) provides for minimum norms and standards in respect of the following categories of intellectual property rights – (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Copyrights and related rights Trademarks Geographical Indications Industrial Designs Patents Lay out designs of integrated circuits Protection of undisclosed information (trade secrets) The Agreement sets out minimum standards to be adopted by the parties. requires analysis.1. patent and marketing approval granted in that Member country. multiplication of copies or dissemination. where a patent application has been filed after 1. The law in essence is concerned with the negative right of preventing the copyright of physical material. Section I of Part II of TRIPS Agreement is related to copyright and related matters. The Patent (Amendment) Act. Article 9 to 14 of the TRIPS Agreement deal with copyright and related matters. a cinematography film. concerts. by means of printing. apply applicable priority rights and provide exclusive marketing rights (EMRs) for such products. Countries that did not provide product patents in certain areas of technology as on 1. in case of copyright registration is not necessary and it subsists automatically. poets. While in case of patents. A transition period of five years is available to all developing countries to give effect to the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. copying. It offers protection to those who produce intellectual works in the field of literature. 1999 was passed in March 1999 to provide for mailbox and EMR facility. labour and capital employed by the author. oral delivery or recitation. an application has been filed in the mailbox in India and marketing approval obtained in India. the clerical representation. producers of phonograms and broadcasting Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 3 . in force in India to meet the requirements of minimum protection sought by the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. existing in the field of literature and art.2005. It is a monopolistic right to reproduce a work and for certain works. This period ended on 1. i.2000.1995. however. The law on the subject products the skill.1. can delay the grant of product patents in those areas for another five years ie. designs and trademarks.CODISSIA TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. right of public performance. The EMRs have to be provided in India only if a set of conditions have been met.. However.1. Copyright is an exclusive right to dispose sell and commercially exploit an intellectual work. films and records. performance. copy rights protection as obtained by the domestic law of a country and the adequacy of the present copyright Act. piracy and imitation.1995. Like all the intellectual property rights. or rolls for mechanical instruments.e. they have to provide a means for accepting applications for such inventions (mailbox). though they are free to provide higher standards of protection. These rights are afforded legal protection to prevent unlawful re-protection of such works. lithography. (a) Copyrights and related rights Copyright Copyright is the exclusive right given by law to the creators of literacy.2000 in respect of the seven IPRs covered under TRIPS is briefly given below. 1999. upto 1. for grant of national treatment and most – favoured – nation treatment. The state of play of India’s obligations under TRIPS arising as on 1. composers of music and artists have rights of ownership of their works.e.. gramophone record. 1957 (The copyright (Amendment) Act. The copyright enables the author to claim authorship of the work as well as to restrain or claim damages in respect of distortion or other modifications in the work or any other action which is prejudicial to his honour or reputation in relation to that work. production of an identical item through independent creative research is not prohibited and there can be no liability for infringement in such cases. the rights can be acquired only by registration.1. photography.1995 in any WTO member. rights of performers. CHAPTER .1. musical and artistic worlds. films and performance of artists. whichever is earlier. plagiarism. music and fine arts including photographs. No transitional period is available. adaptation. The object of the Copyright Act is to protect the writer and the artist from unlawful re-production. graphic protection.

device or emblem. (b) Trade marks Trade mark is an identification symbol which is used in the course of trade to enable the purchasing public to distinguish one trader’s goods from similar goods of other traders. damages.CODISSIA organizations). label. WTO member countries are obliged to grant full protection to the registered trade marks. by enabling him to distinguish the product. which a trade mark has helped the supplier of the goods to built over a period of time. or any goods of handicraft or goods of industry including food stuff. the term of protection is to be at least 20 years. the Agreement enquires compliance with the substantive provisions of the Berne Convention. to everyone carrying on business in a Member’s territory. bears the geographical indications to attracts the attention of the consumers. especially when the name of that place is taken as a synonym necessarily after long and continuous use. The trade marks give the consumer of final buyer a guarantee of identity of origin of marked product. It is considered to be a type of property. generally. justifiably. or otherwise. Traders attach considerable value to the public recognizing the source. Example are: Darjeeling tea. on the period for copyright protection (which is 60 years in India). particularly the place of origin of the goods. The purpose of a trade mark is to indicate the source of origin of goods or such source of a service. name. The law was amended in December 1999 to grant 25 – year term of protection for neighbouring rights. in respect of which also a mark may be applied for. sign motto. natural goods or manufactured goods. by an action for infringement in which he can obtain injunction. with no risk of confusion. A trade mark is a commercial asset intended to be used commercially by businessmen. In course of time. in accordance with this Agreement (Article 15 to 21) and other relevant conventions on trade marks. signature. the owner of which gets a perpetual right to its exclusive use in relation to his goods and services. A trade mark performs three functions – it identifies the product and its origin. for some special quality associated with the product originating from that place. claim an exclusive right to use such geographical appellations in the description of their products. For all these reasons a trademark. TRIPS aims that the members provide the maximum protection to this mark. The owner of the mark. it guarantees its unchanged quality and it helps in advertisement of the product. is a property of considerable value to the owner of the mark. letter or numeral or any combination thereof. ticket. identifies them with a particular trader or with his successor as the owner of the particular business. India’s copyright law has been amended and in some ways exceeds the requirements of the TRIPS Agreement. a trade mark is a powerful tool to move goods and the basis of that power is the customer’s preference for a brand. Kanjeevaram silk. word. In case of broadcasting organizations. whether registered or unregistered gets a long term right to the exclusive use of it in relation to particular goods in respect of which it is registered or used. The word “Mark” includes a device. A trade mark which is distinctive identification of manufactured produce or of a service taking the form of a name. India is already a signatory to the Berne Convention and our laws conform to the provisions of the Convention. Trade Mark Law: When a person gets his trade mark registered under law. Computer programmes are to be protected as literary works. not associated with such names. (c) Geographical Indication Certain geographical names have acquired a lot of importance in the commercial market. 1999 has provided for the registration of service mark also. There is every possibility of misusing such geographical names and wrongly applying to even those goods or products. for example. particularly with regard to the goods uniquely associated with such names. In respect of any agricultural goods. the mark came to represent to the customers a certain quality relating to the goods in relation to which the marks were used. brand. the term of protection for copyrights and right of performers and producers of phonograms is to be no less than 50 years. Registration of his trade mark gives him the exclusive right to the use of the trade mark in connection with the goods in respect of which it is registered and if there is any invasion of this right by any other person using a mark which is the same or deceptively similar to his trade mark. etc. TIPS Agreement of the WTO:Section 2 of Part II of the TRIPS Agreement is concerned with the “Trade Marks”. now that the new Trade Marks Act. whether he is a national of that Member. which it is well established. he acquires valuable rights by reason of such registration. heading. or an account of profit made by the other person. from products of different origin. Persons producing such articles will. Today. however. which implies that they would seek to prevent traders producing those goods elsewhere Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 4 .

separate or combined. Creation for registration of a design is that it should be new or original. There are four features relevant to an industrial or product design.. To prevent unauthorized person from misusing geographical indications. It also adds to the economic prosperity of the producers of such goods. Hence. An article to which the design is to be applied must be something which is to be delivered to the purchaser as a finished goods. They are shape. A design in order to be registered must be both new and original and not previously published. time and creative skills. to provide better protection to geographical indications a new law “The Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act. However. Section 3 of the Part II of TRIPS Agreement deals with the Geographical Indications. or ornament itself. TRIPS Agreement also provided the protection of geographical indications. The Agreement contains a general obligation that parties shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in question originates in a geographical area other that the true place of origin of the good. Publication may be of two types – i) Publication in prior documents. The development of a design for commercial purposes involves considerable expenditure on research. But portable structures or models which are sold as finished articles may subject matter for registration of design. 1999 has since been enacted. whether manual. In deciding the question of novelty or originality evidence of experts in the trade is admissible. which in the finished article appeal to and are judged solely by the eye. Hence.CODISSIA from appending these applications to their products for the simple reason that those description are not true and it would be misleading the public as to the true suppliers of those goods. However. protection should be provided. geographical indication. Some articles with a particular design may attract the public and within a short period. pattern or ornament applied to any article by any industrial process or means. At the time of purchase. 1999 is now the law in India. The value of a design as an intellectual property right direct proportion to originality. (d) Industrial Designs Consumers are influenced by the appearance of the article in their choice. which is extendable for a further period of five years. but does not include any more or principle of construction or anything which is in substance mere mechanical device. Some intellectuals do hard work by pulling much thought. and ii) Publication by prior use Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 5 . sold or licensed. Design right is a new intellectual property right which applies to original. design of goods increases profits by attracting customers. may be bought. time and expense to find a design for a particular article which will increase sales. It should not also have been previously published. “Design” means only the features of shape. Under the Design Act. Pattern and ornament are decorative features ordinarily applied to be surface of the article and they are in the nature of two-dimensional. novelty and eyeappeal. The design refer to features of shape which appeal to the eye should be judged solely by the eye and not by any functional considerations. which like any other business commodity. Such protection helps the consumer from deception. configuration. The design for registration should not be published previously. A design right is a property. The buildings and structure are not articles within the definition of design. The Geographical Indications of Good (Registration and Protection) Act. pattern and ornament. and for another period of five years on payment of requisite fee. It is not a monopoly right but a right to prevent copying and lasts until five years from the date of registration. but it would inhere in all those carrying on their business in that area. We currently provide protection to geographical indications through passing off action in courts or through certification marks.e. The object of design registration is to see that the creator of a profitable design is not deprived of his reward by others applying it to their goods without his permission. Many people blindly choose the article which catches their eye by appearance. shape. configuration. the international community has taken note of the necessity to protect the ‘indications of source and appellations of origin’ i. and does not include any trade mark. Producers hunt for an attractive design which will increase sales. the whole stock may be sold in the market. A design is something which is applied to an article and is not the article itself. people are attracted by a design which has an artistic merit. The words ‘new’ or ‘original’ involves the idea of novelty either in the pattern. it should be remembered that no individual would be able to claim this right. The shape and configuration refer to the form of an article and is usually three dimensional in nature. All applications for registration of design are to be made to the controller of patents by a person claiming to be proprietor to the design. mechanical or chemical. 1911. non-common place designs of the shape or configuration of articles.

which could be deemed to be providing effective protection. as it stood before the 1999 Amendment. human. the issue of a patent in respect of claim for the substance itself where: (a) The invention claimed that the substance was one intended for use. It is a statutory privilege granted by the Government to inventors and other persons deriving their rights from the inventor. A decision has been taken to put in place a sui generis system as it is perceived to be in our national interest. In respect of plant varieties. With regard to the duration of the exclusive right. for a limited period of time.2000. optical glass. 1970 is a successor to the Indian Patent and Design Act. or (b) The invention related to a substance prepared or produced by chemical processes (including alloys. which applies to the entire TRIPS Agreement. inventions in all fields of technology whether products or processes shall be patentable if they meet the three tests of being novel. Obligations envisaged in respect of industrial designs are that independently created designs that are new or original shall be protected. useful proprietary knowledge moves physically across borders constantly. and the present Patent Act. involving an inventive step and being capable of industrial application. The international convention for the protection of Industrial Property (i.1. adjustable. animal plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment. as food or as medicine or drug. Under the concept of exclusive right. A patent is a form of industrial or intellectual property. An inventor has exclusive right to keep it secretly. plants and animals other than microorganisms. the rights conferred on a patentee are purely statutory rights conferred by the Patent Act 1970 and as amended from time to time. Patents have assumed an international character. Section 5 of Part II of TRIPS Agreement relate to the patent. there is a length of time. To meet our TRIPS obligations as on 1.e. Paris Convention) and the TRIPS Agreement of WTO provided patent rights for industrial property in all the countries of the union for the protection of industrial property.CODISSIA If a copy of the publication is available in a public library that may be sufficient to constitute publication. India has had a patent system since 1856. the Patents (Second Amendment) Bill. A patent granted in one state cannot be enforced in another state unless the invention concerned is also patented in that state. renewable or indefinite. an inventor may exclude all others from the manufacture. designs dictated by technical or functional consideration. In some cases. whether fixed. A patent is not granted for an idea or principle as such. In addition. 1999 has been introduced in the Parliament in December 1999 and is before the Joint Committee of the Houses. we can exclude from patentability diagnostic therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of human and animals. The patent is granted for a statutory period and after the expiry of monopoly period others can use the invention or improve upon it. Mainly states that the concept of patent and its essential ingredients like novelty. semi-conductors and intermetallic compounds). A Bill in this regard is before the Joint Committee of the Houses of the Parliament. Under patent system. use and sale of a qualifying invention. lack of obviousness and sufficiency of description have remained the same ever since was conceived over four hundred years ago. The Bill to amend Industrial Design Act was passed early this year. through section 5 of the Act. Section 4 of the part II of TRIPS Agreement covers Industrial Design. there is an obligation to provide for protection either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof. as against aesthetic consideration. 1911. by expressly prohibiting. and essentially biological process for the production of plants and animals other than non-biological and micro biological processes. (e) Patents A patent is a legal monopoly granted to the owner of a new invention which is capable of use. but for some article or the process of making some article applying the idea. There in an option to exclude from protection. In addition to the general security exception. specific exclusions are permissible from the scope of patentability. A patent is to encourage and develop new technology and industry. invent step. or capable of being used.. The 1970 Act made a significant depature from the previous Act in removing the scope in the 1911 Act for obtaining product patents for drugs and medicines and certain classes of chemicals. The basic obligation in the area of patents is that. The Agreement dos not spell out the elements of an effective sui generis system and it is left to each Government to determine the elements. In India. A patent being a creation of statute is territorial in extent. the patent life may be for 17 to 20 years. which constitutes the coverage of industrial designs. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 6 . These are available in the areas of inventions whose commercial exploitation is to be prevented to protect public order or morality.

1957. inventive administrative procedures which contribute to efficiency in production and value addition undisclosed. 1989. trade and manufacture prepare to keep the information relating to their financial management. the condition therefore. And to confirm fully to the requirements of the different Articles of the TRIPS Agreement relating to layout designs (topographics) of integrated circuits. trade and manufacture. The protection of the integrated circuits and layout designs was internationally recognized and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated circuits was made at Washigton D. The nature of the subject matter of protection would. map. defined under sec. retain and protect undisclosed information about his business. which definition includes: “ A drawing (which would include a diagram. The right in undisclosed information is a civil right. special provisions covering them such as the definition of the right. chart or plan)…” or “any other work of artistic craftsman ship”. It is not felt necessary to have a separate legislation on the subject. The protection is conferred on the basis of national treatment. The Agreement provides in this area that natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to. Section 6 (Art – 35 to 38) of Part II of the TRIPS Agreement covers the right of the layout design (Topographics) of integrated circuits. India is a signatory to the international agreement administered by WIPO on this subject known as the Washington Treaty. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 7 . the limits of the right. the duration of the right and what are not infringements have been incorporated into the special enactment. Secrecy and a belief in its efficiency and utility are the factors which make the information undisclosed. (g) Undisclosed information (Confidential Information) People in business. In India we do not have a separate legislation dealing with trade secrets. acquired by or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices. the value it would gain in certain applications and other related matters. The main obligations of the Washington Treaty are also incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement with some enhancement and cover the protection of the intellectual property in respect of lay-out designs that are original in the sense of being result of their creator’s own intellectual efforts. Section 7 part II of TRIPS covers undisclosed Information. However. the procedure for registration. It is inherent in every person acquire. as an artistic work. A Bill in this regard was introduced in the Parliament in December 1999 and is awaiting passage. 2C. it seems. All the modern products are having transistors and other circuity elements which are inseparably formed on a semiconductor material and these semiconductors are intended to perform an electronic function. It was brought into existence in response to laws enacted in several countries for protection of integrated circuits and layout designs. The obligations include national treatment to foreign right holders and a term of protection for 10 years. appropriately be covered by the copyright Act. The disclosure of such information might help his competitors and predators of knowledge. on May 26. Infringement of these layout designs is punishable. ‘The semiconductor Integrated circuits layout Design Bill 1999’ now before the parliament. If the undisclosed information is already known or is in common use or ceases to be of any utility the information loses its characteristics of undisclosure or confidentiality. Further. undisclosed or other data obtained as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products. Layout designs of integrated circuits are considered as intellectual property.C. Common law on the subject is evolving and the courts have provided relief where allegations of wrongful disclosure have been proven. The Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of WTO protects the undisclosed information globally. might require separate treatment under some specific law. the nature of the work.CODISSIA (f) Layout Designs (Topographics) of Integrated Circuits Modern age is the electronic age. parties are required to protect against unfair commercial uses. The TRIPS Agreement of WTO also protected the rights of layout designs.

In this category fall inventions (protected by patents). The main social purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work. for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author. joint ventures and licensing. Intellectual property rights are customarily divided into two main areas: (i) Copyright and rights related to copyright. actors. The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings. industrial designs and trade secrets.3 Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. The protection may last indefinitely. sculpture. paintings.CODISSIA TRIPS : WHAT ARE IPRs What are intellectual property rights? CHAPTER . (ii) Industrial property. Industrial property can usefully be divided into two main areas: * One area can be characterized as the protection of distinctive signs. it should also be noted that the exclusive rights given are generally subject to a number of limitations and exceptions. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 8 . While the basic social objectives of intellectual property protection are as outlined above. provided the sign in question continues to be distinctive. A functioning intellectual property regime should also facilitate the transfer of technology in the form of foreign direct investment. The protection of such distinctive signs aims to stimulate and ensure fair competition and to protect consumers. producers of phonograms (sound recordings) and broadcasting organizations. singers and musicians). thus giving the incentive and means to finance research and development activities. by enabling them to make informed choices between various goods and services. musical compositions.g. in particular trademarks (which distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings) and geographical indications (which identify a good as originating in a place where a given characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin). computer programs and films) are protected by copyright. design and the creation of technology. * Other types of industrial property are protected primarily to stimulate innovation. The protection is usually given for a finite term (typically 20 years in the case of patents). aimed at fine-tuning the balance that has to be found between the legitimate interests of right holders and of users. Also protected through copyright and related (sometimes referred to as “neighbouring”) rights are the rights of performers (e. The social purpose is to provide protection for the results of investment in the development of new technology. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.

he obtains the right to stop other people making unauthorized copies. paintings and films come under copyright. The 1986-94 Uruguay Round achieved that. and to bring them under common international rules. and so on. So the TRIPS agreement adds a significant number of new or higher standards. · · · · · · The agreement covers five broad issues: How basic principles of the trading system and other international intellectual property agreements should be applied How to give adequate protection to intellectual property rights How countries should enforce those rights adequately in their own territories How to settle disputes on intellectual property between members of the WTO Special transitional arrangements Basic principles: national treatment. They take a number of forms. In some cases. and economic and social welfare should be enhanced. computer software and on-line services are bought and sold because of the information and creativity they contain. innovation. the starting point of the intellectual property agreement is basic principles. How to protect intellectual property: common ground-rules The second part of the TRIPS agreement looks at different kinds of intellectual property rights and how to protect them. It says intellectual property protection should contribute to technical innovation and the transfer of technology. When an inventor or creator is granted patent or copyright protection. Many products that used to be traded as low-technology goods or commodities now contain a higher proportion of invention and design in their value — for example brandnamed clothing or new varieties of plants. Most of the value of new medicines and other high technology products lies in the amount of invention. New internationally-agreed trade rules for intellectual property rights were seen as a way to introduce more order and predictability. Society at large sees this temporary intellectual property protection as an incentive to encourage the development of new technology and creations which will eventually be available to all. not usually because of the plastic. the WTO’s dispute settlement system is now available. design and testing involved. National treatment is also a key principle in other intellectual property agreements outside the WTO. Here the starting point is the obligations of the main international agreements of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) that already existed before the WTO was created: Some areas are not covered by these conventions. these differences became a source of tension in international economic relations. For example books. The WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an attempt to narrow the gaps in the way these rights are protected around the world.4 Ideas and knowledge are an increasingly important part of trade. The purpose is to ensure that adequate standards of protection exist in all member countries. metal or paper used to make them. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 9 . inventions can be patented. Origins: into the rule-based trade system The extent of protection and enforcement of these rights varied widely around the world. When there are trade disputes over intellectual property rights. designs or other creations. brandnames and product logos can be registered as trademarks. The TRIPS Agreement recognizes the need to strike a balance. Both producers and users should benefit. non-discrimination features prominently: national treatment (treating one’s own nationals and foreigners equally). and most-favoured-nation treatment (equal treatment for nationals of all trading partners in the WTO). music recordings. the agreement says. the standards of protection prescribed were thought inadequate. and technological progress As in GATT and GATS. books. research. And as in the two other agreements. MFN. and as intellectual property became more important in trade. These rights are known as “intellectual property rights”. Films. and for disputes to be settled more systematically. Creators can be given the right to prevent others from using their inventions.CODISSIA INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY : PROTECTION AND ENFORCEMENT CHAPTER .

then the rights must extend to the product directly obtained from the process.CODISSIA Copyright The TRIPS agreement ensures that computer programmes will be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention and outlines how databases should be protected. For example. Marks that have become well-known in a particular country enjoy additional protection. however. A patent-owner could abuse his rights. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 10 . allowing a competitor to produce the product or use the process under licence. But any country wanting to make an exception for these reasons must be willing to negotiate with the country which wants to protect the geographical indication in question. the agreement says governments can issue “compulsory licences”. must be protectable by patents or by a special system (such as the breeder’s rights provided in the conventions of UPOV — the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants). The TRIPS agreement says countries have to prevent the misuse of place names. i. industrial designs must be protected for at least 10 years. Well-known examples include “Champagne”. But the issue is also important for other types of goods. If a patent is issued for a production process. the agreement provides higher levels of protection. A similar exclusive right applies to films where commercial rental has led to widespread copying. It also expands international copyright rules to cover rental rights. But it also allows certain exceptions. The agreement describes the minimum rights that a patent owner must enjoy. even where there is no danger of the public being misled. The agreement provides for further negotiations in the WTO to establish a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines. Under certain conditions alleged infringers may be ordered by a court to prove that they have not used the patented process. “cheddar” now refers to a particular type of cheese not necessarily made in Cheddar. reproduction and broadcast of live performances (bootlegging) for no less than 50 years. and biological processes for the production of plants or animals (other than microbiological processes).e. “Tequila”. Patent protection must be available for both products and processes. “Scotch”. For wines and spirits. Producers of sound recordings must have the right to prevent the unauthorized reproduction of recordings for a period of 50 years. using the place name when the product was made elsewhere or when it does not have the usual characteristics can mislead consumers. Owners of protected designs must be able to prevent the manufacture. But this can only be done under certain conditions aimed at safeguarding the legitimate interests of the patent-holder. for example by failing to supply the product on the market. It says that service marks must be protected in the same way as trademarks used for goods. Therefore. in almost all fields of technology. To deal with that possibility. The agreement says performers must also have the right to prevent unauthorized recording. Wine and spirits makers are particularly concerned about the use of place-names to identify products. Governments can refuse to issue a patent for an invention if its commercial exploitation is prohibited for reasons of public order or morality. The use of a place name to describe a product in this way — a “geographical indication” — usually identifies both its geographical origin and its characteristics. affecting copyright-owners’ potential earnings from their films. Some exceptions are allowed. They can also exclude diagnostic. and “Roquefort” cheese. Geographical indications Place names are sometimes used to identify a product. plants and animals (other than microorganisms). Trademarks The agreement defines what types of signs must be eligible for protection as trademarks. Authors of computer programmes and producers of sound recordings must have the right to prohibit the commercial rental of their works to the public. therapeutic and surgical methods. and what the minimum rights conferred on their owners must be. and the TRIPS agreement contains special provisions for these products. Plant varieties. for example if the name is already protected as a trademark or if it has become a generic term. Patents The agreement says patent protection must be available for inventions for at least 20 years. and it can lead to unfair competition. sale or importation of articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy of the protected design. Industrial designs Under the TRIPS agreement.

integrated circuit designs. under certain conditions. The registration includes a description of what is being protected — the invention. to order the disposal or destruction of pirated or counterfeit goods.CODISSIA What’s the difference? Obviously. 5 or 11 years to fall into line When the WTO agreements took effect on 1 January 1995. The procedures must be fair and equitable. Integrated circuits layout designs The basis for protecting integrated circuit designs (“topographies”) in the TRIPS agreement is the Washington Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. geographical indications and trademarks — have to be registered in order to receive protection. If the government allows the relevant pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical to be marketed during the transition period. Governments have to make sure that intellectual property rights owners can receive the assistance of customs authorities to prevent imports of counterfeit and pirated goods. Wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale must be criminal offences. The agreement says governments have to ensure that intellectual property rights can be enforced under their laws. design. People involved should be able to ask a court to review an administrative decision or to appeal a lower court’s ruling. Test data submitted to governments in order to obtain marketing approval for new pharmaceutical or agricultural chemicals must also be protected against unfair commercial use. it has up to 10 years to introduce the protection. But for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products. Curbing anti-competitive licensing contracts The owner of a copyright. brandname. Patents . protection must be available for at least 10 years. it must — subject to Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 11 . Least developed countries have 11 years. including rules for obtaining evidence. the country must accept the filing of patent applications from the beginning of the transitional period. It also says governments must be prepared to consult each other on controlling anti-competitive licensing. developed countries were given one year to ensure that their laws and practices conform with the TRIPS agreement. though the patent need not be granted until the end of this period. damages and other penalties. which comes under the World Intellectual Property Organization. and that the penalties for infringement are tough enough to deter further violations. They must not entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays. It says courts must have the right. The TRIPS agreement adds a number of provisions: for example. If a developing country did not provide product patent protection in a particular area of technology when the TRIPS Agreement came into force (1 January 1995). etc — and this description is public information. etc. etc apply to different types of creations or inventions. injunctions.and in many cases. design. Developing countries and (under certain conditions) transition economies are given five years. They must be enforcable. patent or other form of intellectual property right can issue a licence for someone else to produce or copy the protected trademark. Other conditions may also differ. The agreement describes in some detail how enforcement have to be handled. provisional measures. This is covered in Part 3 of TRIPS. Undisclosed information and trade secrets Trade secrets and other types of “undisclosed information” which have commercial value must be protected against breach of confidence and other acts contrary to honest commercial practices. This was adopted in 1989 but has not yet entered into force. work. It says that under certain conditions. and not unnecessarily complicated or costly. copyrights. They are also treated differently. invention. They do not have to be registered. logo. Copyright and trade secrets are protected automatically according to specified conditions. But reasonable steps must have been taken to keep the information secret. industrial designs. for example the length of time that each type of protection remains in force. governments have the right to take action to prevent anti-competitive licensing that abuses intellectual property rights. The agreement recognizes that the terms of a licensing contract could restrict competition or impede technology transfer. patents. trademarks. Transition arrangements: 1. Enforcement: tough but fair Having intellectual property laws is not enough.

whichever is shorter. the general rule is that obligations in the agreement apply to intellectual property rights that exist at the end of a country’s transition period. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 12 . A Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights monitors the working of the agreement and governments’ compliance with it. as well as to new ones. or until a product patent is granted.CODISSIA certain conditions — provide an exclusive marketing right for the product for five years. Subject to certain exceptions.

Dispute settlement. which relate. special requirements related to border measures and criminal procedures. The second main set of provisions deals with domestic procedures and remedies for the enforcement of intellectual property rights. the Agreement sets out the minimum standards of protection to be provided by each Member. applied of course with respect to all WTO Members whether or not they are party to those conventions.5 The TRIPS Agreement. the layout-designs of integrated circuits. These persons are referred to as “nationals” but include persons. the TRIPS Agreement adds a substantial number of additional obligations on matters where the pre-existing conventions are silent or were seen as being inadequate. These conventions are the Paris Convention. the procedures and remedies that must be available so that right holders can effectively enforce their rights. · · In addition the Agreement provides for certain basic principles.1 of the TRIPS Agreement. International Convention for the Protection of Performers. natural or legal. the Berne Convention. and some general rules to ensure that procedural difficulties in acquiring or maintaining IPRs do not nullify the substantive benefits that should flow from the Agreement. Certain general provisions As in the main pre-existing intellectual property conventions. The criteria for determining which persons must thus benefit from the treatment provided for under the Agreement are those laid down for this purpose in the main pre-existing intellectual property conventions of WIPO. who have a close attachment to other Members without necessarily being nationals. respectively. which specify. and undisclosed information including trade secrets and test data. all the main substantive provisions of these conventions are incorporated by reference and thus become obligations under the TRIPS Agreement between TRIPS Member countries. the rights of performers. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 13 . Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention). the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (Paris Convention) and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Berne Convention) in their most recent versions. the rights to be conferred and permissible exceptions to those rights. which allows Members to provide more extensive protection of intellectual property if they so wish. Secondly. it contains provisions on civil and administrative procedures and remedies. The three main features of the Agreement are: · Standards. geographical indications including appellations of origin. is to date the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property. producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations). the basic obligation on each Member country is to accord the treatment in regard to the protection of intellectual property provided for under the Agreement to the persons of other Members. and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty). patents including the protection of new varieties of plants. In addition. Members are left free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of the Agreement within their own legal system and practice. that the substantive obligations of the main conventions of the WIPO. With the exception of the provisions of the Berne Convention on moral rights. in a certain amount of detail. Enforcement. such as national and most-favoured-nation treatment. industrial designs. provisional measures. The Agreement makes disputes between WTO Members about the respect of the TRIPS obligations subject to the WTO’s dispute settlement procedures. The relevant provisions are to be found in Articles 2. but developing countries will have a longer period to phase them in. The Agreement lays down certain general principles applicable to all IPR enforcement procedures. The TRIPS Agreement is thus sometimes referred to as a Berne and Paris-plus agreement. In respect of each of the main areas of intellectual property covered by the TRIPS Agreement.e. which came into effect on 1 January 1995.CODISSIA TRIPS : A MORE DETAILED OVERVIEW OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT Overview: the TRIPS Agreement CHAPTER . Special transition arrangements operate in the situation where a developing country does not presently provide product patent protection in the area of pharmaceuticals. The obligations under the Agreement will apply equally to all Member countries. and the minimum duration of protection. The TRIPS Agreement is a minimum standards agreement. must be complied with. Each of the main elements of protection is defined.1 and 9. to the Paris Convention and to the Berne Convention. first. The Agreement sets these standards by requiring. trademarks including service marks. The areas of intellectual property that it covers are: copyright and related rights (i.3 defines who these persons are. namely the subject-matter to be protected. Article 1.

comparison of terms for copyright protection in excess of the minimum term required by the TRIPS Agreement as provided under Article 7(8) of the Berne Convention as incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement). whether in source or object code.CODISSIA Articles 3. or of the rights derived therefrom.1 provides that computer programs. Article 8. to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare. Certain other limited exceptions to the MFN obligation are also provided for. The obligation to protect computer programs as literary works means e. However. which would be prejudicial to the author’s honour or reputation). These objectives include the reduction of distortions and impediments to international trade.2 clarifies that databases and other compilations of data or other material shall be protected as such under copyright even where the databases include data that as such are not protected under copyright. which are common to all categories of intellectual property covered by the Agreement. In addition to requiring compliance with the basic standards of the Berne Convention. Article 9. that the form in which a program is. Furthermore. according to which the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology. whether machine readable or other form. Substantive standards of protection Copyright During the Uruguay Round negotiations. and rights to be conferred and permissible limitations to those rights.e. procedures. of that Convention. provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement. promotion of effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights. which reproduces the basic Uruguay Round negotiating objectives established in the TRIPS area by the 1986 Punta del Este Declaration and the 1988/89 Mid-Term Review. Possible shorter terms applicable to photographic works and works of applied art may not be applied. i. that only those limitations that are applicable to literary works may be applied to computer programs. for the most part. It confirms further. maintenance and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as those matters affecting the use of intellectual property rights specifically addressed in the Agreement. entitled “Principles”. The Appendix allows developing countries. While the national treatment clause forbids discrimination between a Member’s own nationals and the nationals of other Members. and ensuring that measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves become barriers to legitimate trade. the TRIPS Agreement clarifies and adds certain specific points. The provision also confirms that databases have to be protected regardless of which form they are in. methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such. the moral rights (the right to claim authorship and to object to any derogatory action in relation to a work.g. Thus it was agreed that the point of departure should be the existing level of protection under the latest Act. This provision confirms that computer programs must be protected under copyright and that those provisions of the Berne Convention that apply to literary works shall be applied also to them. Where these exceptions allow material reciprocity. minimum term of protection. i. whether in source or object code. and to a balance of rights and obligations. scope. The point of departure is expressed in Article 9.g. under certain conditions. Members do not have rights or obligations under the TRIPS Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention. The provisions of the Berne Convention referred to deal with questions such as subject-matter to be protected. acquisition. entitled “Objectives”.1 under which Members are obliged to comply with the substantive provisions of the Paris Act of 1971 of the Berne Convention. the Paris Act of 1971. These obligations cover not only the substantive standards of protection but also matters affecting the availability. does not affect the protection. to make some limitations to the right of translation and the right of reproduction. These objectives should be read in conjunction with Article 7. the most-favoured-nation treatment clause forbids discrimination between the nationals of other Members. 4 and 5 include the fundamental rules on national and most-favoured-nation treatment of foreign nationals. provided adequate basic standards of copyright protection. recognizes the rights of Members to adopt measures for public health and other public interest reasons and to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights. The general goals of the TRIPS Agreement are contained in the Preamble of the Agreement. Article 10.2 confirms that copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas. the exceptions allowed under the pre-existing intellectual property conventions of WIPO are also allowed under TRIPS. Databases are eligible for copyright protection provided that they by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations. Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix thereto. shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention (1971). In respect of the national treatment obligation. It also confirms that the general term of protection of 50 years applies to computer programs. a consequential exception to MFN treatment is also permitted (e. the provision clarifies that such protection shall not Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 14 . it was recognized that the Berne Convention already. Article 10.e.

3. These provisions are supplemented by Article 12 of the TRIPS Agreement. However.1. the exclusive rental right is subject to the so-called impairment test: a Member is excepted from the obligation unless such rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction conferred in that Member on authors and their successors in title. other than a photographic work or a work of applied art. had in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms. and 20 years for broadcasting organizations (Article 14. an exclusive rental right at least to producers of phonograms. in accordance with Article 14. limitations. the date of the signature of the Marrakesh Agreement. They shall also have the possibility of preventing the unauthorized broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live performance.2. the recording of a live musical performance). is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person. Broadcasting organizations shall have. Paragraphs 2 through 4 of that Article specifically allow shorter terms in certain cases. In accordance with Article 14. and the rebroadcasting by wireless means of broadcasts. producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations. it is limited by a so-called grandfathering clause. but the provision makes it clear that they must be applied in a manner that does not prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.5). or any combination of signs. as well as the communication to the public of their television broadcasts. With respect to cinematographic works. In addition to this. According to the general rule contained in Article 7(1) of the Berne Convention as incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement. may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders. exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention. must be eligible for registration as trademarks. figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of such signs. capable of distinguishing the goods and services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. the obligation does not apply to rentals where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental. However. The application of these limitations is permitted also under the TRIPS Agreement. In respect of computer programs. Therefore it is not subject to the impairment test as in respect of cinematographic works.4. must be eligible for registration as a trademark. The term of protection is at least 50 years for performers and producers of phonograms. in certain circumstances. The fixation right covers only aural. Article 13 requires Members to confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder. not audiovisual fixations. which on 15 April 1994. Members have to grant producers of phonograms an exclusive reproduction right. provide for conditions. Article 14. numerals. producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations are included in Article 14. the right to prohibit the unauthorized fixation. provided that it is visually perceptible.6 provides that any Member may. the term of protection shall be the life of the author and 50 years after his death. i. in particular words including personal names. which provides that whenever the term of protection of a work.e. in accordance with Article 14. Performers must also be in position to prevent the reproduction of such fixations. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 15 . and that it shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in the data or material itself. it is not necessary to grant such rights to broadcasting organizations. in relation to the protection of performers. Such signs.CODISSIA extend to the data or material itself.g. such term shall be no less than 50 years from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication. they have to grant. Related rights The provisions on protection of performers. This is a horizontal provision that applies to all limitations and exceptions permitted under the provisions of the Berne Convention and the Appendix thereto as incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement. the reproduction of fixations. performers shall have the possibility of preventing the unauthorized fixation of their performance on a phonogram (e. subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention. letters. 50 years from the end of the calendar year of making. The provisions on rental rights apply also to any other right holders in phonograms as determined in national law. According to Article 14. of cinematographic works the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public of originals or copies of their copyright works. This right has the same scope as the rental right in respect of computer programs. failing such authorized publication within 50 years from the making of the work. Trademarks The basic rule contained in Article 15 is that any sign. if owners of copyright in the subject-matter of broadcasts are provided with the possibility of preventing these acts. or. according to which a Member. Article 11 provides that authors shall have in respect of at least computer programs and.

16.1). and use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (Article 22. reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin (Article 22.2 and 62. where a given quality.g. and each renewal of registration.CODISSIA Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services. that distinctiveness has been acquired through use. The owner of a registered trademark must be granted the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not having the owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services which are identical or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion. sound or smell marks). it is required that knowledge in the relevant sector of the public acquired not only as a result of the use of the mark but also by other means.3). such as fair use of descriptive terms. The Agreement requires service marks to be protected in the same way as marks distinguishing goods (see e. such as use with another trademark.3). and the interests of the owner are likely to be damaged by such use (Articles 16. as indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a Member. Initial registration. and to prohibit the use of a mark conflicting with a mark which is well known. First. However. including as a result of its promotion. such as import restrictions or other government restrictions. interested parties must have legal means to prevent use of indications which mislead the public as to the geographical origin of the good.1. provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third parties (Article 17). as an additional condition for eligibility for registration as a trademark. Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark. for the purposes of the Agreement. In respect of all geographical indications. of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years. Thus. In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services. reputation or other characteristics of a good can each be a sufficient basis for eligibility as a geographical indication. Member countries are allowed to require.2). Members may make registrability depend on use. Use of a trademark by another person. and at least three years must have passed after that filing date before failure to realize an intent to use is allowed as the ground for refusing the application (Article 14. or a region or locality in that territory. Second. Geographical indications Geographical indications are defined. The TRIPS Agreement contains certain provisions on well-known marks.1). Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark. Members are free to determine whether to allow the registration of signs that are not visually perceptible (e.g.3).2 and 3). which obliges Members to refuse or to cancel the registration. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 16 . be taken into account. where they are essentially attributable to the geographical origin of the good. the protection of registered well-known marks must extend to goods or services which are not similar to those in respect of which the trademark has been registered. this definition specifies that the quality. actual use of a trademark shall not be permitted as a condition for filing an application for registration. Articles 15. a likelihood of confusion must be presumed (Article 16. which supplement the protection required by Article 6bis of the Paris Convention. or use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the goods or services (Article 20). Furthermore. shall be recognized as valid reasons of non-use. as incorporated by reference into the TRIPS Agreement. provided that its use would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark. Cancellation of a mark on the grounds of non-use cannot take place before three years of uninterrupted non-use has elapsed unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark owner. when subject to the control of its owner. the provisions of that Article must be applied also to services. use in a special form. The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely (Article 18). must be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration (Article 19). The registration of a trademark which uses a geographical indication in a way that misleads the public as to the true place of origin must be refused or invalidated ex officio if the legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party (Article 22. It is further required that use of the trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements.

1). for example. Moreover. of the protected design. Article 25. Industrial designs Article 25.3). Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 17 . Under certain circumstances. Members availing themselves of the use of these exceptions must be willing to enter into negotiations about their continued application to individual geographical indications (paragraph 1). The use of this exception is subject to the condition that the commercial exploitation of the invention must also be prevented and this prevention must be necessary for the protection of ordre public or morality (Article 27. For example. in particular in regard to any cost. taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties.1 requires Members to grant the owner of a protected industrial design the right to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from making.CODISSIA Article 23 provides that interested parties must have the legal means to prevent the use of a geographical indication identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication. The exceptions cannot be used to diminish the protection of geographical indications that existed prior to the entry into force of the TRIPS Agreement (paragraph 3). These exceptions are of particular relevance in respect of the additional protection for geographical indications for wines and spirits. The wording “amount to” allows the term to be divided into. there is no unfair competition and the true origin of the good is indicated or the geographical indication is accompanied be expressions such as “kind”. provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design.2 contains a special provision aimed at taking into account the short life cycle and sheer number of new designs in the textile sector: requirements for securing protection of such designs.3(b)). Similar protection must be given to geographical indications identifying spirits when used on spirits. Patents The TRIPS Agreement requires Member countries to make patents available for any inventions. The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years (Article 26. in all fields of technology without discrimination. or substantially a copy. Article 26. Members are not obliged to bring a geographical indication under protection. Article 24 contains a number of exceptions to the protection of geographical indications. this explicitly includes inventions dangerous to human. the whole provision is subject to review four years after entry into force of the Agreement (Article 27. The third is that Members may exclude plants and animals other than micro-organisms and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. One is for inventions contrary to ordre public or morality. This applies even where the public is not being misled. whether products or processes. Members are free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law. Members may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations. There are three permissible exceptions to the basic rule on patentability. Article 26.2). animal or plant life or health or seriously prejudicial to the environment. any country excluding plant varieties from patent protection must provide an effective sui generis system of protection. two periods of five years. where it has become a generic term for describing the product in question (paragraph 6). when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes. “type”. subject to the normal tests of novelty.1 of the TRIPS Agreement obliges Members to provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. However. The second exception is that Members may exclude from patentability diagnostic. Measures to implement these provisions shall not prejudice prior trademark rights that have been acquired in good faith (paragraph 5). continued use of a geographical indication for wines or spirits may be allowed on a scale and nature as before (paragraph 4).2 allows Members to provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs. The TRIPS Council shall keep under review the application of the provisions on the protection of geographical indications (paragraph 2). must not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection.3(a)). It is also required that patents be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination as to the place of invention and whether products are imported or locally produced (Article 27. “style”. examination or publication. inventiveness and industrial applicability. “imitation” or the like. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features. selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy. Protection against registration of a trademark must be provided accordingly. therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals (Article 27.

Certain of these conditions are relaxed where compulsory licences are employed to remedy practices that have been established as anticompetitive by a legal process. where priority is claimed. where certain conditions indicating a likelihood that the protected process was used are met (Article 34). inter alia. and whether products are imported or locally produced. instead of the provisions of the IPIC Treaty on compulsory licensing (Article 37. The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of 20 years counted from the filing date (Article 33). According to Article 39. registration and disclosure. If the subject-matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product. The conditions are mainly contained in Article 31. at least one of which is an active element. in which the elements. Certain limitations to these rights are provided for. but are made subject to conditions aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the right holder. the protection must apply to information that is secret.2). An “integrated circuit” means a product.1). and some or all of the interconnections are integrally formed in and/or on a piece of material and which is intended to perform an electronic function. Protection of undisclosed information The TRIPS Agreement requires undisclosed information — trade secrets or know-how — to benefit from protection. In addition to requiring Member countries to protect the layout-designs of integrated circuits in accordance with the provisions of the IPIC Treaty. The Agreement does not require undisclosed Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 18 . Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent. as a general rule. of the elements.2. the patent and to conclude licensing contracts (Article 28). which require that patent rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the field of technology. Compulsory licensing and government use without the authorization of the right holder are allowed. The exclusive rights include the right of reproduction and the right of importation. provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner. or transfer by succession. and a requirement that decisions be subject to judicial or other independent review by a distinct higher authority. the applicability of the protection to articles containing infringing integrated circuits (last sub clause of Article 36) and the treatment of innocent infringers (Article 37.1. the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process. the definitions of “integrated circuit” and “layout-design (topography)”. These provisions deal with. and limitations. sale and other distribution for commercial purposes. or such a threedimensional disposition prepared for an integrated circuit intended for manufacture. the requirement to pay adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case. offering for sale. Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or. Process patent protection must give rights not only over use of the process but also over products obtained directly by the process. that has commercial value because it is secret and that has been subject to reasonable steps to keep it secret. the TRIPS Agreement clarifies and/or builds on four points. Article 38).CODISSIA The exclusive rights that must be conferred by a product patent are the ones of making. These conditions should be read together with the related provisions of Article 27. exclusive rights. A “layoutdesign (topography)” is defined as the three-dimensional disposition. selling. however expressed. The conditions in Article 31 of the TRIPS Agreement apply mutatis mutandis to compulsory or non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or to its use by or for the government without the authorization of the right holder. requirements for protection. negotiated under the auspices of WIPO in 1989. at the priority date of the application (Article 29. in its final form or an intermediate form. and of some or all of the interconnections of an integrated circuit. to grant such licences only if an unsuccessful attempt has been made to acquire a voluntary licence on reasonable terms and conditions within a reasonable period of time. at least one of which is an active element.1). using. as well as exploitation. These points relate to the term of protection (ten years instead of eight. taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties (Article 30). and importing for these purposes. These include the obligation. Layout-designs of integrated circuits Article 35 of the TRIPS Agreement requires Member countries to protect the layout-designs of integrated circuits in accordance with the provisions of the IPIC Treaty (the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits). The obligation to protect layoutdesigns applies to such layout-designs that are original in the sense that they are the result of their creators’ own intellectual effort and are not commonplace among creators of layout-designs and manufacturers of integrated circuits at the time of their creation. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign. taking into account the economic value of the licence.

except where necessary to protect the public. The Agreement provides for a mechanism whereby a country seeking to take action against such practices involving the companies of another Member country can enter into consultations with that other Member and exchange publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in question and of other information available to that Member. Control of anti-competitive practices in contractual licences Article 40 of the TRIPS Agreement recognizes that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual property rights which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and dissemination of technology (paragraph 1). appropriate measures to prevent or control practices in the licensing of intellectual property rights which are abusive and anti-competitive (paragraph 2). In addition. acquired by. The Agreement also contains provisions on undisclosed test data and other data whose submission is required by governments as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical products which use new chemical entities. Members must protect such data against disclosure. but it does require that a person lawfully in control of such information must have the possibility of preventing it from being disclosed to. “Manner contrary to honest commercial practices” includes breach of contract. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 19 . breach of confidence and inducement to breach. as well as the acquisition of undisclosed information by third parties who knew. or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use. Similarly.CODISSIA information to be treated as a form of property. consistently with the other provisions of the Agreement. or used by others without his or her consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices. subject to domestic law and to the conclusion of mutually satisfactory agreements concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting Member (paragraph 3). that such practices were involved in the acquisition. a country whose companies are subject to such action in another Member can enter into consultations with that Member (paragraph 4). or were grossly negligent in failing to know. Member countries may adopt. In such a situation the Member government concerned must protect the data against unfair commercial use.

sale of his work for a specified period of time. a professor at the universities of Padova and of Florence to invent and produce a mechanical watch in the year 1369. use or selling the clocks. for any infringement of his patent rights. The patentee must therefore be his own “policeman”.CODISSIA PATENTING AN INVENTION CHAPTER . using or selling a telephone. Introduction Intellectual Property like any other property owned by an individual. but nowhere. is the inventor or the owner of a patented invention given the right to make. This sets up the necessity and importance of licensing. In these circumstance. use. The government grants this right for exclusive use and profit in order to provide an incentive for the advancement of science and the useful arts. it may happen. It should be emphasized. use or sell the dial telephone. This electric power driven clock was patented and Alexander Bain. a Scotman became the first patentee of the invention. This search came to an end to a grant extent when a mechanical watch was invented in the year 1327 by Richard of Wallingford but unfortunately the description was not complete. this second person would then be able to prevent anyone else. including Bell. The patent is granted in return for the patentee’s disclosure in his patent application of the details of the invention or discovery. he had the power to prevent anyone else making. upon application which describes an invention. This sets up the necessity and importance of licensing. It permits him to derive the material benefits to which he is entitled as a reward for his intellectual effort. using or selling this invention. Patents are frequently referred to as “monopolies”. carried on and a significant advancement came through by providing electric – power instead of manual power. while the owner is not given a statutory right to practice his invention. Thus. particularly when the patent of one person improves on the patent of another. (b) When Alexander Graham Bell received his patent for the telephone. (a) (b) (c) Patentability Criteria The invention must consists of patentable subject matter It must be new (novel) It must exhibit a sufficient “inventive step” (be non-obvious) In most countries of the world. in most laws. that neither patentee will be able to merchandise or utilize the improved product without the consent of the other as illustrated in the following cases: a) The Human race has been in search of a time keeping device. Under these circumstances the original inventor of the mechanical clock would require a license from Alexander Bain to make an Electric clock and on the other hand the Electric clock patentee would require a license from the original patentee of mechanical clock in order to use or sell the clock. and creates a legal situation in which the patented invention can normally only be exploited with the authorization of the owner of the patent. using or selling a dial telephone in accordance with that patent. The effects of the grant of a patent are that the patented invention may not be exploited in the country by persons other than the owner of the patent unless the owner agrees to such exploitation. work and compensation for the expenses incurred in research and experimentation leading to the invention. however. is a document on intellectual property issued by a government office. The right to take action against any person exploiting the patented invention in the country without his agreement constitutes the patent owner’s most important right. both the inventors would prevent anyone else from making. This gave an opportunity to Giovanni Dondi.6 1. an invention must meet the following criteria if it is to be eligible for patent protection: Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 20 . Assume that someone else later invented a dial telephone for which that person also received a patent as an improvement on Bell’s telephone. Bell would need a license from the owner of the dial telephone patent and who in turn would need a license from Bell under Bell’s basic telephone patent in order to make. from making. keeping the basic principle of the mechanical watch intact. The instinct to improve it further. It is a government guarantee to the discoverer or inventor of some new and useful process or product that he will have exclusive rights to the production. Though the right to exclude all others from exploiting the potential product operates to invest the patentee with a monopolistic franchise to make. usually under civil law. which could provide them proper and correct time. Had the earlier person who invented the basic clock acquired a patent for his invention. use or sell anything straightway. 2. that while the State may grant patent rights it does not automatically enforce them and it is up to the owner of patent to bring an action. gives him an exclusive right on that property after registering the same with the concerned government authority. he is given a statutory right to prevent others from exploiting his invention. A patent therefore. use or sell the potential invention. which is frequently referred to as right to exclude others from making.

sale. that it becomes a part of ‘prior art’ and may be established in three ways. Examples of fields of technology which may be excluded from the scope of patentable subject matter include the following: discoveries of material or substances existing in nature Scientific theories or mathematical methods. a document in the broad sense of the term. Such a disclosure being a ‘disclosure by use’. animal varieties. pictures including photographs. namely: by description of the invention in a published writing or document on. or essential biological processes for the production of such plant or animal varieties. even if that knowledge was available abroad before the said date. One viewpoint is that ‘prior art’ should be established against a back ground of what is known only in the protecting country. such as those for doing business. Patentable subject matter is established by statue and is usually defined in terms of the exceptions to patentability. Disclosure by use is essentially a public. however. Oral disclosure.CODISSIA (d) (e) (a) It must be industrially applicable / useful The disclosure of the invention in the patent application must meet certain standards. if it anticipates the subject matter of the claim. In addition. An invention is new if it is not anticipated by ‘prior art’. typescript. This would exclude knowledge from other countries. such a disclosure being termed an oral disclosure. or diagnostic methods practiced on humans or animals (but not products for use in such methods). such as for example. whether they be discs or tapes in either spoken or coded language. that is. or by putting the public in a position where any member of the public may access it. implies that the words or form of the disclosure are not necessarily recorded as such and includes lectures and radio broadcasts. Schemes. Patentable subject Matter In order to be eligible for patent protection. an invention must fall within the scope of patentable subject matter. The subject matter set forth in a claim of an application under examination is thus compared element by element with the contents of each individual publication. Plant. ‘Prior art’ simply stated is the total comprehensive knowledge that existed prior to the relevant filing or priority date of a patent application. (b) Novelty Novelty is a fundamental requirement in any examination as to substance and is an undisputed condition of patentability. and recording. The current trend is away from such temporary exclusions. temporary exclusions from patent protection may be provided for certain kinds of products or processes for reasons of public interest. writings (whether they be manuscript. drawings or films. that is. in other tangible form. by a description of the invention in spoken words uttered in public. if it was not imported into the country before the invention. Another viewpoint is based on the differentiation between printed disclosures / publications and other disclosures such as oral and prior use. made available to the public in any manner. The disclosure of an invention should be so. other than microbiological processes. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 21 . agricultural chemicals or inventions in the nuclear field. performing purely mental acts or playing games. pharmaceutical. Publication in tangible form requires that there be some physical carrier for the information. whether it existed by way of written or oral disclosure. by the use of the invention in public. only its absence can be proved. or printed matter). A document will only destroy the novelty of any invention claimed if the subject matter is explicitly contained in the document. visual disclosure such as by display. The document must have been published. the general rule being that patent protection shall be available for inventions in all fields of technology. demonstration. Methods of treatment for humans or animals. as the expression suggests. rules or methods. Lack of novelty can only be found if the publication by itself contains all the characteristics of that claim. unrecorded television broadcasts and actual public use. It must be emphasized. He question of what should constitute ‘prior art’ at a given point in time is one which is the subject of debate. Publications include issued patents or published patent applications. that novelty is not something which can be proved or established. by offering for sale to deposit in a public collection.

For inventive step to be destroyed.” The word “industrial” in the same expression has a very special meaning in the terminology of patent laws. The expression “inventive step” conveys the idea that it is not enough that the claimed invention is new. it is necessary that not only the combination. the question arises whether or not the result is obvious or whether it is surprising either by its nature or by its extent. for instance a new form of washing machine including a particular type of motor coupled to a particular type of pump. except where there is no technical link between them. Novelty exists if there is any difference between the invention and the prior art. This is why. The inclusion of a requirement like this in patent legislation is based on the premise that protection should not be given to what is already known as part of the ‘prior art’. There must be a clearly noticeable difference between the state of the art and the claimed invention. It is the sum of the differences that have been discovered which must be compared with “prior art” and judged as to obviousness. It should be noted that novelty and inventive step are different criteria. the result of a creative idea and. The evaluation of the differences should not neglect any of the three aspects that typifies all inventions. and. that process must be capable of being carried out – “used”. must be of a kind which can be applied for practical purposes. and not each of the new elements taken individually. If no inventive step is found in the solution. as distinct from the assessment of novelty. that product must be capable of being made. an “industrial” activity means a technical activity on a certain scale. If the invention is intended to be a product or part of a product. Firstly. Thus. the question as to whether or not the invention “would have been obvious to a person having ordinary skill in the art” is perhaps a difficult standard to determine in the examination as to substance. account has to be taken of “prior art” as a whole. it must be a step that is noticeable. but that this difference must have two characteristics. and foresee the result. that is. and a result guaranteed by the application of that solution. In order to assess the nature of the differences. the concept is to look for an “advance” or “progress” over the prior art. in order to be patentable. but with the combinations thereof. “industrial” applicability of an invention means the application (making use) of an invention by technical means on that certain scale. namely: (a) (b) (c) a problem to be solved. whereas the claim may define a set of subject matter known separately.CODISSIA (c) Inventive Step In relation to the requirement of inventive step (also referred to as “non-obviousness”). Here. is a person with appropriate technical training and practical experience. have generally been invalidated in the courts on the ground that they involved no more than the skill of a good dressmaker. it is required that this advance or progress be significant and essential to the invention. (d) Industrial Applicability / Utility An invention. different from what exists in the state of the art. or to anything that the person with ordinary skill could deduce as an obvious consequence thereof. in so far as each such combination is obvious to the person having ordinary skill in the art. Secondly. “is there an inventive step?” The question only arises if there is novelty. the examination will bear on the originality of the solution claimed. it must be “inventive”. the design must be more than some thing merely new and pleasing enough to catch the trade. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 22 . which are relied upon as constituting an inventive step. that is. The expression “ordinary skill” is intended to exclude the ‘best’ expert that can be found. If the problem is known or obvious. To be patentable. as it is said-in practice. If a person having ordinary skill in the art would have been able to pose the problem. It is the possibility of making or manufacturing in practice and. The combination may be global. It is intended that the person be limited to one having the average level or skill reached in the field in the country concerned. In other words. that are reflected in the word “applicability” in the expression “industrial applicability. but also the choice of the combined elements. a solution to that problem. solve it in the manner claimed. Design patents too must show originality and exercise of inventive faculty. when granted by the patent and Trademark Office. the incentive step is lacking. the subject matter of the claim under examination is compared not with each publication or other disclosure separately. In common language. the invention cannot be purely theoretical. The person having ordinary skill in the art. this possibility of carrying out or using in practice. in some jurisdictions. is obvious. The question. particularly the standard is necessarily vague and generally difficult of application. Women’s were design patents for example. It must be an invention that can be carried out in practice and applicable for the benefit of mankind. And if the invention is intended to be a process or part of a process.

The grounds upon which an opposition may be filed are limited by relevant legislation. The drafting of a patent application can therefore. especially inventive step. but also in the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 23 . Drafting and Filing a Patent Application Before actual drafting of the patent application is carried out. was acknowledged to be the first to apply the technique of Thermostatic electric circuit breakers to this use. This involves: summarizing all the necessary features which in combination solve a particular technical problem. the law in some countries only allows an opposition to be based on non-compliance with certain substantive requirements. and an examination of this combination to determine whether it would. First. Opposition Whether or not there is an examination as to substance. Second. so as to enable persons skilled in the art to make and use the invention. an inventor may be so involved in his own considerations that he may be prejudiced in regard to the direct result of his work. inventive step or industrial applicability. the public must be informed of the content of the application. Generally speaking. the identification of the invention is a must. the broadest claim is the one restricted by the least number of features. or the fact that an amendment made to a Patent application has gone beyond the original disclosure in the application as filed. the claims should be as broad as possible. must be described in such detail. it should be possible for an opposition to be based on non-compliance with any substantive requirement. the essential novelty. can the specific features be substituted or altered while still achieving the end result. There are two important reasons for this. unless opposition is filed within a prescribed period. It is during this process that a full comprehension of the essence of the invention is obtained. Some jurisdictions make it possible to file an opposition on the ground that the applicant has no right to a patent. lighting cigars and cigarettes and other purposes outside motor cars and the improvement made by the patentee. these grounds are lack of novelty. including proportions and techniques where appropriate. Specific operative embodiments or examples of the invention must be set out in the description. The result of this is a limited understanding by the inventor of his own invention. This is important not only in drafting the claims. which must be wide enough to cover these substitutes or alternatives. Typically. insufficient disclosure of the invention. as this is important in helping to draft the description and claims. having identified the critical features and their effect. While the prior art setting may be mentioned in general terms in the description. to be complete. or a patent has been granted on the application. So that oppositions may be filed. according to one’s own judgement. be divided into two parts: (a) (b) (a) Identification of the invention Practical aspects of drafting patent applications Identification of the Invention: The first task in drafting a patent application is the identification of the invention. 4. fulfill the requirements for patentability. particularly the specific problem which he attempted to solve and all the specific features which lead to the most effective solution. the essence of the invention. It is essential to identify the critical feature or features and elaborate as to how they contribute to an effective solution of the problem. Examples and other descriptive passages should be of sufficient scope as to justify the scope of the claims. A disclosure in an application. However. must contain such description and details as to enable any person skilled in the art to which the invention relates. some jurisdictions provide for an opposition procedure which may be instituted either before or after the grant of a patent. An example of such a conflict arose in relation to the validity of an attempt to patent a device used to light cigars and cigarettes that could be installed in the dashboard of motor cars. it is necessary to ask how else may this effect be achieved. and / or the Patent Office will. brought before the Supreme Court of the United States. to make and use the invention as on the filing date of the application.CODISSIA (e) Disclosure of the Invention An additional requirement of patentability is whether or not the inventions is sufficiently disclosed in the application. and this is done by the patent office by publication of a notice in an official journal or gazette to the effect that the application is open to public inspection. On the other hand there are sometimes inventors who consider their invention in such a broad light that it easily covers the state of the art. specifically that of making it suitable for use while driving did not qualify as an invention. Often the invention contains many new features. An opposition procedure is designed to allow third parties to present objections to the grant of a patent. Generally speaking. 3. Although the patentee in a case. grant a patent.

Again these elements or components should be numbered for ease of reference. there are typically three basic requirements to be complied with in drafting of a patent application. An important phrase to note in this requirement is “a person having ordinary skill in the art”. preferably in a way which clearly sets out the difference between the present invention and the previous solutions. This section may also describe the object of the invention. the description should disclose the invention in a sufficiently clear and complete manner for the invention to be evaluated and to be carried out by a person having ordinary skill in the art.” In the second section. The second section of the description is important to provide a good understanding of the invention and to put it into perspective against “prior art”. This is of fundamental importance since one of the main functions of the description is to provide new technical information to third parties. to produce a wording of the claims which defines the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 24 . The claims must be clear and concise and fully supported by the description. the manner in which the machine or electrical circuit operates is extremely helpful in understanding the invention. Thirdly.CODISSIA description of the invention which must include details of the substitutes or alternatives so that the broad claim can be supported by the description. for example. the agent can avoid any disputes that might arise based on differences between the invention described and the invention as defined in the claims. drawings can be used effectively to show the connections between the various elements or components of the circuit. the drawing may be graph. Exceptions. If the device. Where the invention is in the chemical field. Where the invention is an electrical circuit. Therefore. more specifically. Elements of the drawings which are described are numbered in the drawings and these numbers utilized in the description of the embodiment. elevation and sectional views of that object. Firstly. In drafting this section. drawings illustrating plan. It is from the claims that third parties are able to know what they may do and what they may not do. for example. may be made when single descriptive words can be used where they do not interfere with the lines of the drawings. or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a single general inventive concept. and. could be used. Previous solution to those problems or difficulties should be described. the application must contain claims which determine the scope of the protection. Thus in any drawing illustrating an electrical circuit. The claims may not be significantly broader or different from that which has been described. the background of the invention is described. In the fourth section of the description. however. This requirement. It is usual for the description of the embodiment to include a passage which briefly describes the actual operation of the invention. These paragraph usually form the basis for dependent claims which follow the broad main claim. This third basic requirement is important since the claims are the basis of interpretation of paten protection. If the invention relates to some form of mechanical object. The first section of the description typically contains two elements namely. This allows for a simplified description since it can be assumed that the reader will be an informed reader having the background knowledge which makes it unnecessary to describe every basic detail of the invention. This description of the invention in general terms is usually followed by a series of paragraphs which set out different preferred features of the invention. the title of the invention and a brief statement of the technical field in which the invention lies. if drawings are appropriate and. By using this technique. for example. Extensive use of drawings can assist in describing details of the invention. referred to as “unity of invention”. standard components may be indicated in the drawings by boxes which may be labeled. the scope of the exclusive right provided by the patent. there is a requirement that the application should relate to one invention only. the drawing may be a diagram such as a phase diagram. that is to say. is particularly important when claims are being drafted. Usually this statement is in the form of a short introductory paragraph which commences with the phrase “This invention relates to …. where the invention is of a metallurgical nature. Secondly. (b) Practical Aspects of Drafting Patent Applications: Drafting practices and requirements differ from country to country. The patent agent will normally describe the invention first in general terms which correspond to those he intends to use in the main claim. what the invention sets out to achieve. However. Similarly. two elements are generally found namely a brief description of the drawing. schematic or flow sheet diagram. the patent agent usually sets out any existing problems or difficulties which the invention overcomes. The claims are the center or the heart of any granted patent because hey define the protection which is the purpose of the patent. is a machine or an electrical circuit. where the invention relates to a process. Normally the drawings should contain no textual matter. and blocks or boxes contained therein may be labeled as appropriate. it is the most important task within the work of the patent agent when preparing the application. drawings may show block. a detailed description of one or more embodiments of the invention. The third section of the description provides a summary of the invention in terms that it may be readily understood.

5. claims and drawings and the inclusion of an abstract. The last element of a patent is the abstract. and if such defect are not corrected within a specified time. the steps to be taken to secure protection in the various countries of interest to him. This is a fundamental check since if a filing date is not established. or by third parties during any opposition or invalidation proceeding. The abstract presents a short summary of the description and the claims. (a) Examination as to Form Examination as to form is normally carried out as soon as an application has been accorded a filing date. It should be emphasized that there must be some element of additional invention in each succeeding claim for it to be stronger. The narrower claims following the broad main claim usually refer back to one or more of the preceding claims. There it is usually explained that these are preferred features which produce a better technical form of the invention. takes the applicant’s instruction and responds accordingly to the patent office’s communications. The applicant is given an opportunity to correct any defects identified during examination as to form. The filing date or priority date is also relevant to the evaluation of novelty and inventive step. the application will not be treated as filed and it proceeds no further. the applicant. The applicant can use that period to organize with due care. The patent agent acts as a go-between in the sense that he receives communications from the Patent Office. The series of claims drafted by the patent agent generally commences with a broad main claim followed by a number of claims of narrower scope. It should be noted however. the application is checked to ensure that all the requirements necessary to accord the application a filing date have been satisfied. The features introduced in each of the dependent claims must find some basis in the description. The filing date is important in the general scheme of things since it constitutes the date from which certain actions are calculated such as the term of the patent and where appropriate. It must be emphasized that the right or priority is only available in those countries which are party to the Paris Convention. the patent office rejects the application. statement concerning the inventor. The right of priority offers great practical advantages to an applicant who seeks protection in several countries. advises the applicant as to the appropriate course of action. After having decided on the filing date and priority date. regional and international application filed less than twelve months earlier. It must be emphasized that it is not used to interpret the scope of protection. Its effect is to substitute the date of the earlier filing for the date of the national filing and this is particularly important with respect to the relevant “prior art” for evaluating novelty and inventive step. between an examiner in the patent office and. The applicant is not required to present all applications in his own country and in foreign countries at the same time. Processing of New Application As soon as the application form is submitted in the patent office.CODISSIA invention in terms of the technical features disclosed in the description and which do not contain any reference to commercial advantages. that under some national laws. representation. The right of priority may be based on a national. The broad claim is drafted so as to avoid the “prior art” known at the time of preparing the application. The priority date is also important in the general scheme of things. the search will be conducted either separate Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 25 . physical requirements governing the description. priority rights are granted on a bilateral basis of reciprocity for countries not parties to the Paris Convention. the normal procedure is for a dialogue to be carried out in writing. (b) Search Depending on the examination procedure provided in the relevant law. Thus the abstract has to be as concise as the disclosure permits containing between 50 to 150 words. It serves the purpose of enabling third parties to obtain quick information about the essential contents of the invention. Because of this they are usually called dependent claims. Basically this covers the following points. determines the priority date of any subsequent application in another country under the terms of the Paris convention for the protection of Industrial Property (Paris convention). the patent office starts processing of the application and concentrates mainly on the following points: (a) (b) (c) Examination as to form Search Examination as to substance In each of these areas of activity. The patent agent drafts the succeeding claims more narrowly and hopefully this results in a stronger claim which could withstand any anticipation by more relevant prior art which might be produced by a patent office during examination. since he has up to twelve months to decide in which foreign countries he desire protection. The guiding principle is that the abstract should be so drafted that it can efficiently serve as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art. content of the request.

this ideal may not necessarily be obtained because of such factors as the inevitable imperfections of any classification and information retrieval system. 6. the objective of the search is to determine the “prior art” in the specific field to which the invention relates. the Register Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 26 . does not seek to determine whether disclosure had taken place by public use.CODISSIA from and prior to. This involves certain action on the part of the patent office. In conducting the search the patent office checks its documentation holdings to ascertain whether any documents exist which describe a solution which is same or similar to that. which disclose subject matter the same as or closely resembling the invention. the invention is not new. the paten office will only refuse to grant a patent if the result of the examination clearly preclude the grant. The search itself is a documentary search in a collection of patent documents that are primarily arranged for search purposes according to the specific areas of technology. It must be realized that whilst completeness is the ideal of the search. and the claims in the application that should be compared with each of those documents The report may also give an indication of the scope of the search. but the need for such extension must be judged by the examiner in each individual case. In essence. does not involve an inventive step and / or is not industrially applicable. It should be noted that since the purpose of any patent law is to protect inventions. and then only if that use has been brought to the attention of the patent office by some third party’s action. and the specific areas of technology searched. As with examination as to form. this is to prevent the grant of a patent where: the invention is excluded from patent protection by specific provisions in the legislation. Grant and Publication If and when the examination process has reached a conclusion favourable to the applicant. the original application number. and assuming no opposition has been filed or that any opposition has been unsuccessful. In either case. Any doubt is resolved in the applicant’s favour. the filing date. will only be taken into account during the examination as to substance phase. and may not be economically justified if the cost is to be kept within reasonable bounds. a list of the documents located during the search. the invention is not sufficiently disclosed in a clear and complete manner in the documents filed. the applicant is given the opportunity to remove any objections raised during the examination as to substance phase. described in the application. or some other physical requirements of the application have not been met. It is in the interest of both the applicant and the public that there exists the possibility to amend the application. the patent office will grant a patent on the application. The search does not extend to disclosure other than publication and in particular. since final adjudication on the validity or otherwise of a patent is usually possible via the courts. the details of the patent are entered into the Patent Register. that is to say all the necessary requirement as to form and substance have been fulfilled. This type of disclosure if any. Not only can deficiencies be eliminated and thus a better patent grant secured but also. Additionally. and if he fails to do so within a specified time. The patent office conducts the search only in respect of documents in the search file. As a general rule. an amendment is not allowable if it goes beyond the original disclosure in the application. the time span covered. the examination as to substance. or at the same time as. that is the type of documents which may have been searched. The search itself will first cover all directly relevant technical fields and may then have to be extended to analogous fields. a search report will be forwarded to the applicant setting out. These patent documents may be supplemented by articles from technical journals and other so-called non-patent documents. (c) Examination as to substance: The aim of the examination as to substance procedure is to ensure that the application satisfies certain conditions of patentability. in countries where annual fee payments are required in order to maintain the patent in force. This total collection of documents is usually referred to as “the search file”. the name and address of the applicant / patentee. the name of the inventor. If the search is conducted separately to the examination as to substance. when the patent is granted. Not all amendments are permissible. certain priority application details and the title of the invention. taking into account the outcome of the search in the directly relevant areas of technology. Firstly. It does not contain any technical information. The Register usually contains bibliographic data such as the patent number. the patent office will refuse the grant of a patent. amendments to clarify the disclosure will result in a better description of the invention and a precise definition of the scope of protection.

as a source of technical information and to third parties. Two such examples are given in the Annexure I and II.. Copies of the patent document are made available by the patent office for use by patent libraries. which is the legal document establishing his ownership of the patent. say every three to five years. publication number and date International application number International filing date Priority date Name of the applicants and inventors Designated states International search report – only reference Title of the patent Abstract along with drawing giving brief description with reference to the drawing. Typical first page of patent from USPTO (US). the most illustrative drawing. Lastly. the maintenance fee is payable even before the patent is granted. Each country has its own prescribed format for presenting it. Some of the data bases also have adopted typical formats to give specific details for the patents. The title of the patent Abstract – brief description of the invention Name of the inventor. for the term of the patent. In some countries. and may also list any details of licenses or assignments which may have been recorded. The entry in the official gazette may also contain the abstract or the main claim. subject to the payment of a fee.1 US Patent: The front page (page No 1) contains the following information: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 7. date of filing Related US Application Data References cited US National Classification as well as International Patent Classification.2 US Patent no. In some countries the courts accept a certified copy of the extract from the Register as being proof of the correctness of the position recorded in respect of the patent. International orgaizations like WIPO or the European Patent Office do publish information on inventions after their research is completed. Often the title page in such data bases give very valuable information. In some countries the maintenance fee is not required annually but may be paid. because it reveals the actual status of the patent. A copy of the granted patent is also issued at the same time. assignee. a reference to the grant of the patent with the prescribed bibliographic data. in order to keep the patent in force each year. a Certificate of Grant is issued to the applicant. First page of a Patent Document Patent Office in each country do publish information about the patent after granting the same. the patent office publishes the patent document itself in printed form. PCT is provided here for information. 7. and if there are drawings. As stated above. where a deferred examination system exists. Having discussed various aspects of patenting an invention it would be of interest to discuss a few examples by applying patentability criteria. Inventors name and the date of issue. 7. Application no.CODISSIA will contain details of when such fees have been paid. has to be usually paid to the patent office. EPO. A small number of countries do not require the payment of maintenance fees. for example. The Register can thus be very useful to third parties especially competitors of the patentee. Thirdly. a prescribed renewal or maintenance fee. PCT The title page contains the following details: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) International patent classification. the patent office publishes in an official gazette. Secondly. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 27 .

It also issues a notice to the general public stating that if any person is interested in opposing the grant of application which he should do it within four months from the date of issue of the gazette. It also issues a notice for opposition if any person desires to do so for this restoration. (h) Patent sealed / granted – This provides the numbers of the patents which have been approved and sealed. (d) Opposition Proceedings – It provides details of opposition filed by any person on application for patent before the same is granted. A copy of the front page of a copy of the Gazette is given on page 23. (i) Registration of Designs – It provides the details of the design registered.5 Gazette of India Part III Section 2 of the Gazette of India deals with Notifications and Notices issued by the Patent Office relating to patents and designs. It also mentions that these design can not be inspected for a specific period. Delhi and Chennai. Refusal proceedings – It provides details of the rejection of the applications submitted for examination to the patent office. (b) Application for patents filed at the patent office – It provides details about filing the application in the head office and the branch offices. 7. generally two years from the date of issue except under special permission as per the provision of Design Act.CODISSIA 7. It also provides details of national phase application filed under PCT. It generally contains the following information: (a) Addresses and jurisdiction of the patent office – It provides details about the main office. (g) Amendment proceedings – This provides details of amendments on the patent application submitted by the patentee. head – quarters at Calcutta and branch offices at Mumbai. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 28 . (c) Complete specification accepted – It provides details about the classification in respect of each specification according to Indian classification and international classification system. (e) Cessation of Patents – It provides the details of cessation of patens due to non-payment of fees. (f) Restoration proceedings – It provides the details of restoration of any patent which was ceased due to nonpayment of renewal fees within the prescribed time. It will be noticed that the presentation brings out the “The Problem” and its “Solution” in a patent invention. if any. It also indicates that any person can inspect the amendment and submit his opposition.3 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) EP – Title Page Title of the patent Patent number Publication date Name of the inventor Name of the applicant Application number Priority number and date International publication classification Name of the representative Designated contracting states Designated extension states Brief description of the patent and drawing of the same 7.4 Japan An abstract page (page – 22) for Japanese patent is also given.

Cuba. Least-developed countries are granted a longer transition period of a total of eleven years (until 1 January 2006). Indonesia. design and the creation of technology. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creations for a certain period of time. Venezuela. This includes copyright and related rights. The main transition periods are: · Developed countries were granted a transition period of one year following the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. The TRIPS Council reviews the legislation of members after their transition periods have expired.e. These delays define the transition from before the agreement came into force (before 1 January 1995) until it is applied in member countries. Papua New Guinea. Dominican Republic. Jamaica. Namibia. Tunisia.e. Therefore it applies to all WTO members. Suriname. 4 and 5 which deal with general principles such as non-discrimination. Developing Countries WTO members can make use of the general transition periods without having to notify the WTO and fellow-members. Malta. Honduras. and (2) industrial property protected primarily to stimulate innovation. Trinidad and Tobago. Guyana. Guatemala. Brazil. Ghana. The TRIPS Agreement is part of that package. The main purpose of protection of copyright and related rights is to encourage and reward creative work. could also benefit from the same delay (also until 1 January 2000) if they met certain additional conditions.. · Industrial property: This includes (1) the protection of distinctive signs such as trademarks and geographical indications.) But the agreement allows countries different periods of time to delay applying its provisions. China. Korea. Argentina. Morocco. Brunei Darussalam. with the possibility of an extension. Israel. Bahrain. trademarks. rights granted to authors of literary and artistic works. Hong Kong. Qatar. Kitts and Nevis. Barbados. For the purposes of the TRIPS Agreement. Côte d’Ivoire. St. Bolivia. i. Poland (areas which were not reviewed in ’96–’98). Belize. Turkey. and the rights of performers. Grenada. it is reviewing the legislation of the following members whose transition periods expired on 31 December: Antigua and Barbuda. Which countries are using the general transition periods? 1. i. Botswana. to 1 January 2000) to apply the provisions of the agreement other than Articles 3. St. Colombia. Egypt. Chile. integrated circuit layout-designs and protection of undisclosed information. Macau. Pakistan.e.CODISSIA WHAT ARE “INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS”? CHAPTER . Mexico. Malaysia. a “single undertaking”. Paraguay. until 1 January 1996. The members each accepted all the agreements as a single package with a single signature — making it. Nigeria. “intellectual property” refers to: . El Salvador. Uruguay. producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations. Fiji. Congo. Mauritius. Vincent and Grenadines.. Cameroon. Philippines. Kenya. industrial designs. members in the process of transformation from centrally-planned into market economies. In this category fall inventions (protected by patents). Gabon. Dominica. Costa Rica. India. industrial designs and trade secrets. geographical indications. Sri Lanka. Singapore. (More on the single undertaking. Kuwait. In 2000 and 2001. Developing countries were allowed a further period of four years (i. Nicaragua. Swaziland.e. in the jargon. United Arab Emirates.7 Intellectual property rights can be defined as the rights given to people over the creations of their minds. Intellectual property rights are traditionally divided into two main categories: Copyright and rights related to copyright: i. Saint Lucia. · Transition economies. Cyprus. Peru. patents. Estonia. Does the TRIPS Agreement apply to all WTO members? All the WTO agreements (except for a couple of “plurilateral” agreements) apply to all WTO members. Thailand. Zimbabwe Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 29 . all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II of the agreement (Article 1:2).

Tanzania. i. the country must accept the filing of patent applications from the beginning of the transitional period. a number of countries have joined it. have had to comply with obligations on national treatment (equal treatment for foreign and domestic individuals and companies. Article 65. Burundi. New Members The general transitional periods apply to the original members of the WTO. Chad. A list of WTO members in question can be found here. Niger. whichever is shorter (Art 70. More specifically. At present.e.4). Madagascar.CODISSIA Please note. Gambia.8). Senegal. Togo. In addition. Article 4) from 1 January 1996. Democratic Republic of the Congo. if a developing country did not provide product patent protection in a particular area of technology when the TRIPS Agreement came into force (1 January 1995). nonetheless. Guinea. Burkina Faso. even those availing themselves of the longer transitional periods. Central African Republic. regulations and practice made during the transition period do not result in a lesser degree of consistency with the provisions of the agreement. Benin. Myanmar. Uganda. this webpage says: The WTO recognizes as least-developed countries those countries which have been designated as such by the United Nations. and their dates of joining the WTO. This is sometimes called the “mailbox” provision. There are currently 48 least-developed countries on the UN list. Lesotho. Rwanda. there was no specific agreement on intellectual property rights in the framework of the GATT multilateral trading system. 29 of which to date have become WTO Members. Djibouti. The latest list of countries (and “customs territories”) applying to join the WTO can be found here. Guinea Bissau. 3 or 4 of Article 65) must ensure that any changes in their laws. Zambia Several additional least-developed countries are in the process of accession to the WTO. If the government allows the relevant pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical product to be marketed during the transition period. However. Maldives. governments that were members on 1 January 1995. Malawi. These are: Angola. it has up to 10 years (to 1 January 2005) to introduce the protection (Art 65. without the benefit of any transition period. Details here. Special transition rules apply in the situation where a developing country does not provide product patent protection in a given area of technology. Haiti. as can the list of all WTO members. Sierra Leone. Least Developed Countries In the WTO. even though the decision on whether or not to grant any patent itself need not be taken until the end of this period (Art 70. least developed country members are those recognized as least developed countries by the United Nations. Mali. Were intellectual property rights covered under the old GATT (GATT 1947) before the TRIPS Agreement came into being? Before the 1986–94 Uruguay Round negotiations.5 of the TRIPS Agreement says countries using the transition period should not backslide — members availing themselves of a transitional period (under paragraphs 1. that many of these members put into effect national legislation to implement much of the TRIPS Agreement before 1 January 2000. Bangladesh. 2. These countries have generally agreed in their membership agreements (their “accession protocols”) to apply the TRIPS Agrement from the date when they officially became WTO members. or until a decision on granting a product patent is taken. Article 3) and mostfavoured-nation treatment (non-discrimination between foreign individuals and companies. But for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products. Solomon Islands. some principles contained in the GATT had a bearing on intellectual property measures taken on imports or exports. 3. Do members have any obligations under the agreement during the transition period? All members. Mauritania.9). Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 30 . 2. it must — subject to certain conditions — provide the patent applicant an exclusive marketing right for the product for five years. Since the WTO came into being. Mozambique.

The administration of the unions created under the various conventions is centralized through WIPO’s secretariat. The TRIPS Agreement says WTO member countries must comply with the substantive obligations of the main conventions of WIPO — the Paris Convention on industrial property. Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention). It has been a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1974. and administers a number of international unions or treaties in the area of intellectual property. The TRIPS Agreement is therefore sometimes described as a “Berne and Paris-plus” Agreement. as embodied in the WTO. The TRIPS Agreement is often described as one of the three “pillars” of the WTO. The text of the TRIPS Agreement also makes use of the provisions of some other international agreements on intellectual property rights: · WTO members are required to protect integrated circuit layout designs in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty) together with certain additional obligations. Article 2 of the TRIPS Agreement specifies that nothing in Parts I to IV of the agreement shall derogate from existing obligations that members may have to each other under the Paris Convention. in collaboration with any other international organization. measures which would otherwise be inconsistent with the General Agreement could be taken (subject to certain conditions) to secure compliance with laws or regulations relating. among other things. the other two being trade in goods (the traditional domain of the GATT) and trade in services. the Berne Convention. where appropriate. all the substantive provisions of these conventions are incorporated by reference. the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of integrated circuits. The TRIPS Agreement is part of the “single undertaking” resulting from the Uruguay Round negotiations. such as the Paris and Berne Conventions. and apply them to the individuals and companies of all other WTO members. That implies that the TRIPS Agreement applies to all WTO members. which entered into force in 1970.CODISSIA Article XX(d) of GATT 1947 (now Article XX(d) of GATT 1994) specifically referred to intellectual property rights. What is the place of the TRIPS Agreement in th e multilateral trading system? One of the fundamental characteristics of the TRIPS Agreement is that it makes protection of intellectual property rights an integral part of the multilateral trading system. They therefore become obligations for WTO member countries under the TRIPS Agreement — they have to apply these main provisions. Under this provision. or were thought not to be sufficiently addressed in them. to intellectual propertyrights. WIPO also aims to ensure administrative cooperation among the intellectual property unions created by the Paris and Berne Conventions and sub-treaties concluded by the members of the Paris Union. the “International Bureau”. With the exception of the provisions of the Berne Convention on moral rights. The TRIPS Agreement also introduces additional obligations in areas which were not addressed in these conventions. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 31 . · The TRIPS Agreement refers to a number of provisions of the International Convention for the Protection of Performers. and the Berne Convention on copyright (in their most recent versions). What is WIPO? The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) was established by a convention of 14 July 1967. WIPO’s objectives are to promote intellectual property protection throughout the world through cooperation among states and. without entailing a general requirement to comply with the substantive provisions of that Convention. It also means that the provisions of the agreement are subject to the integrated WTO dispute settlement mechanism which is contained in the Dispute Settlement Understanding (the “Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes”). The International Bureau also maintains international registration services in the field of patents.

An agreement on cooperation between WIPO and the WTO came into force on 1 January 1996. CH-1211 Geneva 20 telephone: (41 22) 338 9111 fax: (41 22) 733 5428 website: www. how members comply with their obligations under it. (Compulsory licensing = authorization. For example: (unless there is an emergency) the person or company applying for a licence must have first attempted. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 32 .e. In particular. and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes”. The authorization granted under compulsory licensing must also meet certain requirements. This is why the TRIPS Agreement is sometimes described as a “minimum standards” agreement. either by patents or by an effective sui generis system (i. so long as the additional protection does not contravene the provisions of the agreement. in 1999).int. This review is underway in the TRIPS Council. unsuccessfully. In addition. training and furnishing of documents.wipo. and. More specifically. Box 18. it cannot be exclusive. But Members may choose to implement laws which give more extensive protection than is required in the agreement. It is responsible for monitoring the operation of the agreement. given by a government. a system created specially for this purpose) or by any combination of the two.3(b) four years after the agreement entered into force (i.O. access to and translation of national laws and regulations implementation of procedures for the protection of national emblems and technical cooperation. the agreement gives members the freedom to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of the agreement within their own legal system and practice. to use a patented invention without the consent of the patent-holder) Does the agreement require members to provide patent protection to plant varieties? Article 27. The agreement provides cooperation in three main areas: · · · notification of.3(b) allows members to exclude some types of plant and animal inventions from patenting in their countries. to obtain a voluntary licence from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms. Geneva mailing address: P. What is the role of the TRIPS Council? The TRIPS Council comprises all WTO members. the TRIPS Agreement requires members to comply with certain minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property rights covered in it. The agreement thus takes into account the diversity of members’ legal frameworks (for instance between common law and civil law traditions). and it must as a general rule be granted predominantly to supply the domestic market. But this can only be done under a number of conditions aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the right holder. it allows them to exclude from patentability “plants and animals other than micro-organisms. in particular. These agreement calls for a review of the provisions of Article 27. However. and adequate remuneration must be paid to the right holder.CODISSIA trademarks. Does the TRIPS Agreement require all member’s rules on protection of intellectual property to be identical? No. the agreement says members must provide for the protection of plant varieties. industrial designs and appellations of origin. WIPO is located at 34 chemin des Colombettes. WIPO also undertakes development cooperation for developing countries through advice.e. Does the agreement allow compulsory licensing of patents? Article 31 allows compulsory licensing and government use of a patent without the authorization of its owner.

REVIEW OF TRIPS AGREEMENT The TRIPS Council will hold a general review of the agreement after five years. 5. REVIEWS AND NEGOTIATIONS ON SPECIFIC SUBJECTS The WTO is a forum for further negotiations aimed at enhanced commitments in the area of intellectual property.2 of the TRIPS Agreement. the review. It can also clarify or interpret provisions of the agreement. but it is also empowered to review it at any time in the light of any relevant new developments which might warrant modification and amendment (Article 71). Follow-up questions and replies are made orally during the course of the meeting. and further follow-up is possible at subsequent meetings. Each country has to make sure its laws comply with the obligations of the agreement. members wishing to avail themselves of certain options allowed under the Agreement have to notify the Council. after four years. 3. These laws are notified to the TRIPS Council.3(b)). In addition. The TRIPS Agreement calls for further work in specified areas. This article sets out the developed countries’ commitments on technical cooperation. Members have to supply the TRIPS Council with copies of their laws and regulations that deal with the TRIPS Agreements’ provisions. In these reviews. 4.2). CONSULTATIONS: On any TRIPS issue The TRIPS Council is also a forum that countries can use to consult each other on problems they may have with each other to do with the TRIPS Agreement. The reviews are central to the TRIPS Council’s task of monitoring what is happening under the agreement. countries supply written questions about each others’ laws before the review meetings. What are members’ main notification obligations under the TRIPS Agreement? The TRIPS Agreement obliges WTO members to make certain notifications to the TRIPS Council. MONITORING: Members review each others’ laws. and promoting the transparency of members’ policies on intellectual property protection. The work programme ensures that developing countries can have adequate information on the assistance on offer. the Council has adopted procedures and guidelines relating to Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 33 . It also ensures any of their unfulfilled needs are identified and responded to. as in other areas covered by the WTO agreements.4). 2. They also promote the transparency of members’ policies on intellectual property protection. Most have to enact laws implementing the obligations. and the examination of the applicability to TRIPS of non-violation complaints under the dispute settlement process (Article 64). according to the timetable spelt out in the agreement. including: · · · the negotiation of a multilateral system of notification and registration for geographical indications for wines (Article 23. These notifications are then used as the basis the Council’s reviews of members’ legislation. the review of the application of provisions on protecting geographical indications (Article 24. TECHNICAL COOPERATION: A work programme The Council follows a work programme on technical cooperation with a view to monitoring how developed countries fulfil their obligations under Article 67 of the TRIPS Agreement. an important part of the council’s work. These notifications allow members to review each others’ legislation. The requirement to notify comes under Article 63.CODISSIA 1. The answers are also in writing. of the option to exclude from patentability certain plant and animal inventions (Article 27. In order to implement these notification obligations. allowing members to review each others’ legislation.

provided that such agreements are notified to the Council for TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other members. Detailed information on the notification procedures can be found in the Technical Cooperation Handbook on Notification Requirements: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights How can I get information on technical cooperation available from developed country members? Article 67 of the TRIPS Agreement says developed country members must provide. developed country members have notified contact points in their administrations to which requests for technical assistance may be addressed and from which information on technical cooperation can be obtained. acquisition. provided that notifications are made to the Council for TRIPS. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 34 . In addition.series of documents. This information is circulated in the IP/C/W/. Further background information on these notification possibilities can be found in document IP/C/W/5. Article 69 of the agreement requires members to establish and notify contact points in their administrations for the purposes of cooperation with each other aimed at the elimination of trade in infringing goods. a number of notification provisions of the Berne and the Rome Conventions are incorporated by reference into the TRIPS Agreement but without being explicitly referred to it. Notifications of this kind are circulated in the IP/N/5/. enforcement and prevention of abuse of intellectual property rights). To ensure access to relevant information in this regard. At its meeting in February 1996.series of documents. In addition to notification obligations specifically provided for in the agreement.3 and 3. a Member may exempt from the most-favoured-nation obligation any advantage. Articles 1. In accordance with Article 4(d). Notifications made under Articles 1. Further background information on these notification possibilities can be found in document IP/C/W/15. The information on such contact points is circulated in document IP/N/3. The procedures for the notification of national laws and regulations under Article 63.1 are circulated in the IP/N/2/. developed country members have agreed to present annually to the TRIPS Council a description of their technical cooperation activities in the area of intellectual property. and addenda. Click here for more information.2 of the TRIPS Agreement says members must notify the laws and regulations on the subject-matter of the agreement (the availability.1 of the TRIPS Agreement allow members to avail themselves of certain options in regard to the definition of beneficiary persons and national treatment.CODISSIA them. scope. A list of these contact points is contained in document IP/N/7. technical and financial cooperation in favour of developing and least-developed country members. and addenda.2 are contained in document IP/ C/2.3 and 3. Article 63. corrigenda and periodic revisions. on request and on mutually agreed terms and conditions.series of documents. even if the member in question had already made a notification under the Berne or the Rome Convention in regard to the same issue. privilege or immunity according by that member deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. favour. the council invited each member wishing to make such notifications to make them to the TRIPS Council. corrigenda and periodic revisions.

this obligation only applies in respect of the rights provided under this Agreement. implement in their law more extensive protection than is required by this Agreement. In respect of Parts II. the nationals of other Members shall be understood as those natural or legal persons that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the Paris Convention (1967). including the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an agent within the jurisdiction of a Member. favour. provided that such protection does not contravene the provisions of this Agreement. Article 3 National Treatment 1. Article 2 Intellectual Property Conventions 1. For the purposes of this Agreement.8 Article 1 Nature and Scope of Obligations 1. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage. the Rome Convention or the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. (1) In respect of the relevant intellectual property right. Article 4 Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment With regard to the protection of intellectual property. 3. Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 12. the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. of the Paris Convention (1967). privilege or immunity accorded by a Member: (a) deriving from international agreements on judicial assistance or law enforcement of a general nature and not particularly confined to the protection of intellectual property. Each Member shall accord to the nationals of other Members treatment no less favourable than that it accords to its own nationals with regard to the protection (3) of intellectual property. In respect of performers. Members may avail themselves of the exceptions permitted under paragraph 1 in relation to judicial and administrative procedures. III and IV of this Agreement. but shall not be obliged to. Nothing in Parts I to IV of this Agreement shall derogate from existing obligations that Members may have to each other under the Paris Convention. respectively. Members shall accord the treatment provided for in this Agreement to the nationals of other Members. the Berne Convention. Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in Article 6 of the Berne Convention (1971) or paragraph 1(b) of Article 16 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for TRIPS. any advantage. subject to the exceptions already provided in.CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Part I — General Provisions and Basic Principles CHAPTER . producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations. the Rome Convention and the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. and Article 19. (2) Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in paragraph 3 of Article 5 or paragraph 2 of Article 6 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the “Council for TRIPS”). the term “intellectual property” refers to all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II. 2. (b) granted in accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) or the Rome Convention authorizing Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 35 . 2. privilege or immunity granted by a Member to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the nationals of all other Members. the Berne Convention (1971). Members shall be free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Agreement within their own legal system and practice. Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement. were all Members of the WTO members of those conventions. Members may. favour. 2. the Berne Convention (1971). only where such exceptions are necessary to secure compliance with laws and regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement and where such practices are not applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on trade. the Paris Convention (1967).

producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations not provided under this Agreement. Article 5 Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition or Maintenance of Protection The obligations under Articles 3 and 4 do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral agreements concluded under the auspices of WIPO relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights. to the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare. provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 36 . in formulating or amending their laws and regulations. 2. Article 6 Exhaustion For the purposes of dispute settlement under this Agreement. Members may. (c) in respect of the rights of performers. and to a balance of rights and obligations. Appropriate measures. adopt measures necessary to protect public health and nutrition. provided that such agreements are notified to the Council for TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members. Article 7 Objectives The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology. Article 8 Principles 1. (d) deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. provided that such measures are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.CODISSIA that the treatment accorded be a function not of national treatment but of the treatment accorded in another country. may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology. subject to the provisions of Articles 3 and 4 nothing in this Agreement shall be used to address the issue of the exhaustion of intellectual property rights. and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their socio-economic and technological development.

Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas. shall be without prejudice to any copyright subsisting in the data or material itself. 3. whether in machine readable or other form. this obligation does not apply to rentals where the program itself is not the essential object of the rental. performers shall have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation of their unfixed performance and the reproduction of such fixation. or. Computer programs. Article 11 Rental Rights In respect of at least computer programs and cinematographic works. Article 13 Limitations and Exceptions Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder. Compilations of data or other material. However. 2.9 SECTION 1: COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS Article 9 Relation to the Berne Convention 1. 2. Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PART II — Standards concerning the availability. shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention (1971). which shall not extend to the data or material itself. A Member shall be excepted from this obligation in respect of cinematographic works unless such rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction conferred in that Member on authors and their successors in title. is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person. 50 years from the end of the calendar year of making. Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect reproduction of their phonograms. Article 12 Term of Protection Whenever the term of protection of a work. In respect of computer programs. In respect of a fixation of their performance on a phonogram. other than a photographic work or a work of applied art. procedures. 2. such term shall be no less than 50 years from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication. methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such. scope and use of Intellectual Property Rights CHAPTER . Broadcasting organizations shall have the right to prohibit the following acts when undertaken without their Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 37 . Article 10 Computer Programs and Compilations of Data 1. Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix thereto. Such protection. Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and the communication to the public of their live performance. failing such authorized publication within 50 years from the making of the work. which by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations shall be protected as such. whether in source or object code. Producers of Phonograms (Sound Recordings) and Broadcasting Organizations 1. Article 14 Protection of Performers. a Member shall provide authors and their successors in title the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public of originals or copies of their copyright works.

nor shall they affect the possibility of Members making rights available on the basis of use. the reproduction of fixations. An application shall not be refused solely on the ground that intended use has not taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of application. Article 16 Rights Conferred 1. 3. Paragraph 1 shall not be understood to prevent a Member from denying registration of a trademark on other grounds. 5. The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior rights. 2. as well as the communication to the public of television broadcasts of the same. shall be eligible for registration as trademarks. limitations. mutatis mutandis. 4.CODISSIA authorization: the fixation. 5. Where Members do not grant such rights to broadcasting organizations. Members may require. The provisions of Article 11 in respect of computer programs shall apply mutatis mutandis to producers of phonograms and any other right holders in phonograms as determined in a Member’s law. However. it may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders. they shall provide owners of copyright in the subject matter of broadcasts with the possibility of preventing the above acts. provide for conditions. that signs be visually perceptible. capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. SECTION 2: TRADEMARKS Article 15 Protectable Subject Matter 1. Such signs. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply. shall be capable of constituting a trademark. in particular words including personal names. In determining whether a trademark is well-known. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 38 . Any sign. 2. as a condition of registration. actual use of a trademark shall not be a condition for filing an application for registration. 3. numerals. to services. mutatis mutandis. provided that use of that trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or services and the owner of the registered trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the registered trademark are likely to be damaged by such use. 2 and 3. If on 15 April 1994 a Member has in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of the rental of phonograms. The owner of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not having the owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services which are identical or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would result in a likelihood of confusion. Members may make registrability depend on use. or any combination of signs. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply. mutatis mutandis. Members shall take account of the knowledge of the trademark in the relevant sector of the public. and the rebroadcasting by wireless means of broadcasts. In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services. The term of protection granted pursuant to paragraph 3 shall last for at least 20 years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast took place. Members may afford an opportunity for the registration of a trademark to be opposed. to the rights of performers and producers of phonograms in phonograms. The term of the protection available under this Agreement to performers and producers of phonograms shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the calendar year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place. figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of such signs. provided that they do not derogate from the provisions of the Paris Convention (1967). However. The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an obstacle to registration of the trademark. Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services. exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention. a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed. 6. to goods or services which are not similar to those in respect of which a trademark is registered. Any Member may. including knowledge in the Member concerned which has been obtained as a result of the promotion of the trademark. letters. the provisions of Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971) shall also apply. Members shall publish each trademark either before it is registered or promptly after it is registered and shall afford a reasonable opportunity for petitions to cancel the registration. In addition. Members may make registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use. in relation to the rights conferred under paragraphs 1. subject to the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971). 4.

but without linking it to. use in a special form or use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. region or locality in which the goods originate. A Member shall. 4. The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely. If use is required to maintain a registration. unless valid reasons based on the existence of obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark owner. or a region or locality in that territory. 2. the trademark distinguishing the specific goods or services in question of that undertaking. it being understood that the compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a registered trademark shall have the right to assign the trademark with or without the transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs. Article 19 Requirement of Use 1. The protection under paragraphs 1. Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent: (a) the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the good in question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner which misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the good. (b) any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967). the registration may be cancelled only after an uninterrupted period of at least three years of non-use. Article 20 Other Requirements The use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements. and each renewal of registration. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 39 . In respect of geographical indications. 3. shall be recognized as valid reasons for non-use. use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration. SECTION 3: GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS Article 22 Protection of Geographical Indications 1. reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin. 2 and 3 shall be applicable against a geographical indication which. This will not preclude a requirement prescribing the use of the trademark identifying the undertaking producing the goods or services along with. When subject to the control of its owner. Article 21 Licensing and Assignment Members may determine conditions on the licensing and assignment of trademarks. Circumstances arising independently of the will of the owner of the trademark which constitute an obstacle to the use of the trademark. for the purposes of this Agreement. of a trademark shall be for a term of no less than seven years. provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark and of third parties. such as use with another trademark. although literally true as to the territory. where a given quality. falsely represents to the public that the goods originate in another territory. ex officio if its legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party. if use of the indication in the trademark for such goods in that Member is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin. 2. Geographical indications are.CODISSIA Article 17 Exceptions Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark. Article 18 Term of Protection Initial registration. such as fair use of descriptive terms. refuse or invalidate the registration of a trademark which contains or consists of a geographical indication with respect to goods not originating in the territory indicated. such as import restrictions on or other government requirements for goods or services protected by the trademark. indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a Member.

“style”. The Council shall take such action as may be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives of this Section. “type”. which. protection shall be accorded to each indication. “imitation” or the like. even where the true origin of the goods is indicated or the geographical indication is used in translation or accompanied by expressions such as “kind”. the first such review shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 40 . subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22. In implementing this Section. taking into account the need to ensure equitable treatment of the producers concerned and that consumers are not misled. 6. at the request of a Member. shall consult with any Member or Members in respect of such matter in respect of which it has not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral or plurilateral consultations between the Members concerned. negotiations shall be undertaken in the Council for TRIPS concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines eligible for protection in those Members participating in the system. Exceptions 1. Any matter affecting the compliance with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention of the Council. or the right to use a trademark. The registration of a trademark for wines which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying wines or for spirits which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying spirits shall be refused or invalidated. on the basis that such a trademark is identical with. 3. Article 24 International Negotiations. (4) 2. In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines. 4. Each Member shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent use of a geographical indication identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question or identifying spirits for spirits not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication in question. 5. 4. Each Member shall determine the practical conditions under which the homonymous indications in question will be differentiated from each other. 3. or (b) before the geographical indication is protected in its country of origin. ex officio if a Member’s legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party. Where a trademark has been applied for or registered in good faith. The provisions of paragraphs 4 through 8 below shall not be used by a Member to refuse to conduct negotiations or to conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements. 2. In the context of such negotiations. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to products of the vine for which the relevant indication is identical with the customary name of a grape variety existing in the territory of that Member as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Members agree to enter into negotiations aimed at increasing the protection of individual geographical indications under Article 23. or similar to. with respect to such wines or spirits not having this origin. The Council for TRIPS shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section. a geographical indication. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to prevent continued and similar use of a particular geographical indication of another Member identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services by any of its nationals or domiciliaries who have used that geographical indication in a continuous manner with regard to the same or related goods or services in the territory of that Member either (a) for at least 10 years preceding 15 April 1994 or (b) in good faith preceding that date. or where rights to a trademark have been acquired through use in good faith either: (a) before the date of application of these provisions in that Member as defined in Part VI. a Member shall not diminish the protection of geographical indications that existed in that Member immediately prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. measures adopted to implement this Section shall not prejudice eligibility for or the validity of the registration of a trademark.CODISSIA Article 23 Additional Protection for Geographical Indications for Wines and Spirits 1. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to goods or services for which the relevant indication is identical with the term customary in common language as the common name for such goods or services in the territory of that Member. Members shall be willing to consider the continued applicability of these provisions to individual geographical indications whose use was the subject of such negotiations. In the case of homonymous geographical indications for wines.

in particular in regard to any cost. However. whether products or processes. Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new or original. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. (5) Subject to paragraph 4 of Article 65. Article 26 Protection 1. and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from making. 2. A Member may provide that any request made under this Section in connection with the use or registration of a trademark must be presented within five years after the adverse use of the protected indication has become generally known in that Member or after the date of registration of the trademark in that Member provided that the trademark has been published by that date. patents shall be available for any inventions. examination or publication. paragraph 8 of Article 70 and paragraph 3 of this Article. that person’s name or the name of that person’s predecessor in business. Each Member shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs. Article 28 Rights Conferred 1. 3. The provisions of this Section shall in no way prejudice the right of any person to use. 3. Members may provide that such protection shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ from known designs or combinations of known design features. There shall be no obligation under this Agreement to protect geographical indications which are not or cease to be protected in their country of origin. 2. Members may exclude from patentability inventions. 2. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3. Members shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design law or through copyright law. in the course of trade. provided that they are new. Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by any combination thereof. animal or plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment. provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design. if such date is earlier than the date on which the adverse use became generally known in that Member. patents shall be available and patent rights enjoyable without discrimination as to the place of invention. involve an inventive step and are capable of industrial application. 8. SECTION 4: INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS Article 25 Requirements for Protection 1. taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties. 9. do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to seek and obtain such protection. or which have fallen into disuse in that country. selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a copy. the prevention within their territory of the commercial exploitation of which is necessary to protect ordre public or morality. The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years. provided that such exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation is prohibited by their law. or substantially a copy. except where such name is used in such a manner as to mislead the public. when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes. in all fields of technology. (b) plants and animals other than micro-organisms. Members may also exclude from patentability: (a) diagnostic. A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights: Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 41 . SECTION 5 : PATENTS Article 27 Patentable Subject Matter 1. the field of technology and whether products are imported or locally produced. therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals. provided that the geographical indication is not used or registered in bad faith. including to protect human. Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs. of the protected design.CODISSIA 7.

and in the case of semi-conductor technology shall only be for public non-commercial use or to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive. selling. be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist and are unlikely to recur. except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys such use.CODISSIA (a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product. taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties. or transfer by succession. using. the patent and to conclude licensing contracts. Article 29 Conditions on Patent Applicants 1. 2. and from the acts of: using. where priority is claimed. prior to such use. the continued existence of these circumstances. the right holder shall. or importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process. provided that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner. such use may only be permitted if. The competent authority shall have the authority to review. 2. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign. In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency. subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests of the persons so authorized. any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the Member authorizing such use. without making a patent search. including use by the government or third parties authorized by the government. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 42 . such use shall be non-exclusive. Article 30 Exceptions to Rights Conferred Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent. the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member. Article 31 Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder Where the law of a Member allows for other use (7) of the subject matter of a patent without the authorization of the right holder. nevertheless. Members may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning the applicant’s corresponding foreign applications and grants. authorization for such use shall be liable. the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case. upon motivated request. the following provisions shall be respected: (a) (b) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits. the proposed user has made efforts to obtain authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts have not been successful within a reasonable period of time. any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member. at the priority date of the application. the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized. selling. where the government or contractor. (b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process. to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from the acts of: making. such use shall be non-assignable. to prevent third parties not having the owner’s consent from the act of using the process. or importing (6) for these purposes that product. offering for sale. the right holder shall be informed promptly. Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the filing date or. offering for sale. In the case of public non-commercial use. knows or has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government. This requirement may be waived by a Member in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of public non-commercial use. taking into account the economic value of the authorization.

or an article incorporating such an integrated circuit only in so far as it continues to contain an unlawfully reproduced layoutdesign. in the absence of proof to the contrary. 3. Article 12 and paragraph 3 of Article 16 of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits and. to comply with the following provisions. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 43 . Members shall consider unlawful the following acts if performed without the authorization of the right holder: (9) importing. 2. selling. In the adduction of proof to the contrary. that any identical product when produced without the consent of the patent owner shall. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur. Article 32 Revocation/Forfeiture An opportunity for judicial review of any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent shall be available. if the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a product. in at least one of the following circumstances. the legitimate interests of defendants in protecting their manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account.CODISSIA (k) Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (b) and (f) where such use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive. an integrated circuit in which a protected layout-design is incorporated. or otherwise distributing for commercial purposes a protected layout-design. Any Member shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph 1 shall be on the alleged infringer only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (a) is fulfilled or only if the condition referred to in subparagraph (b) is fulfilled. the following additional conditions shall apply: (i) the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent. and (iii) the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment of the second patent. Article 36 Scope of the Protection Subject to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 37. in addition. be deemed to have been obtained by the patented process: (a) if the product obtained by the patented process is new. (ii) the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-licence on reasonable terms to use the invention claimed in the second patent. Members shall provide. Article 33 Term of Protection The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years counted from the filing date (8) Article 34 Process Patents: Burden of Proof 1. The need to correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the amount of remuneration in such cases. SECTION 6: LAYOUT-DESIGNS (TOPOGRAPHIES) OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Article 35 Relation to the IPIC Treaty Members agree to provide protection to the layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits (referred to in this Agreement as “layout-designs”) in accordance with Articles 2 through 7 (other than paragraph 3 of Article 6). the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to obtain an identical product is different from the patented process. Therefore. (b) if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner of the patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used. For the purposes of civil proceedings in respect of the infringement of the rights of the owner referred to in paragraph 1(b) of Article 28. (l) where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent (“the second patent”) which cannot be exploited without infringing another patent (“the first patent”).

3. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to. (b) has commercial value because it is secret. when acquiring the integrated circuit or article incorporating such an integrated circuit. a Member may provide that protection shall lapse 15 years after the creation of the layout-design. generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question. Members shall protect such data against disclosure. 2. the term of protection of layout-designs shall not end before the expiration of a period of 10 years counted from the date of filing an application for registration or from the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs. The conditions set out in subparagraphs (a) through (k) of Article 31 shall apply mutatis mutandis in the event of any non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or of its use by or for the government without the authorization of the right holder. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 44 . 3. 2. and (c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances. but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent to a reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated licence in respect of such a layout-design. Members. as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities. or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use. that it incorporated an unlawfully reproduced layout-design. Notwithstanding Article 36. Members shall provide that. the submission of undisclosed test or other data. or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices (10) so long as such information: (a) is secret in the sense that it is not. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2. In addition. the origination of which involves a considerable effort. acquired by. except where necessary to protect the public. that person may perform any of the acts with respect to the stock on hand or ordered before such time. to keep it secret. when requiring. after the time that such person has received sufficient notice that the layout-design was unlawfully reproduced. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967). 2.CODISSIA Article 37 Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder 1. by the person lawfully in control of the information. no Member shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts referred to in that Article in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-design or any article incorporating such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such acts did not know and had no reasonable ground to know. layout-designs shall be protected for a term of no less than 10 years from the date of the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs. SECTION 7: PROTECTION OF UNDISCLOSED INFORMATION Article 39 1. In Members requiring registration as a condition of protection. shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components. In Members not requiring registration as a condition for protection. Article 38 Term of Protection 1. Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3.

or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays. Article 44 Injunctions 1. The procedure shall provide a means to identify and protect confidential information. including the basis of the claims. and procedures shall not impose overly burdensome requirements concerning mandatory personal appearances. It is understood that this Part does not create any obligation to put in place a judicial system for the enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of law in general. including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to further infringements. 4. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party to desist from an infringement. Procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable. Decisions on the merits of a case shall be based only on evidence in respect of which parties were offered the opportunity to be heard. Defendants shall have the right to written notice which is timely and contains sufficient detail. subject to jurisdictional provisions in a Member’s law concerning the importance of a case. where a party has presented reasonably available evidence sufficient to support its claims and has specified evidence relevant to substantiation of its claims which lies in the control of the opposing party.CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PART III — Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights CHAPTER . 2. In cases in which a party to a proceeding voluntarily and without good reason refuses access to. or significantly impedes a procedure relating to an enforcement action. 2. on the basis of the information presented to them. or otherwise does not provide necessary information within a reasonable period. there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for review of acquittals in criminal cases. of at least the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case. 5. Parties shall be allowed to be represented by independent legal counsel. affirmative or negative. The judicial authorities shall have the authority. Article 43 Evidence 1. All parties to such procedures shall be duly entitled to substantiate their claims and to present all relevant evidence. subject in appropriate cases to conditions which ensure the protection of confidential information. Decisions on the merits of a case shall preferably be in writing and reasoned. Parties to a proceeding shall have an opportunity for review by a judicial authority of final administrative decisions and. Nothing in this Part creates any obligation with respect to the distribution of resources as between enforcement of intellectual property rights and the enforcement of law in general. Members shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this Part are available under their law so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Agreement. 3.10 SECTION 1: GENERAL OBLIGATIONS Article 41 1. However. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse. nor does it affect the capacity of Members to enforce their law in general. subject to providing the parties an opportunity to be heard on the allegations or evidence. They shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly. to order that this evidence be produced by the opposing party. unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements. They shall be made available at least to the parties to the proceeding without undue delay. including the complaint or the allegation presented by the party adversely affected by the denial of access to information. a Member may accord judicial authorities the authority to make preliminary and final determinations. inter alia to prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of imported goods that involve the infringement Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 45 . SECTION 2: CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND REMEDIES Article 42 Fair and Equitable Procedures Members shall make available to right holders (11) civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any intellectual property right covered by this Agreement.

disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm caused to the right holder. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the applicant to pay the defendant expenses. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods. or by third parties authorized by a government. to order the infringer to inform the right holder of the identity of third persons involved in the production and distribution of the infringing goods or services and of their channels of distribution. Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith in the course of the administration of that law.CODISSIA of an intellectual property right. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder expenses. immediately after customs clearance of such goods. to permit release of the goods into the channels of commerce. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Part and provided that the provisions of Part II specifically addressing use by governments. where these remedies are inconsistent with a Member’s law. Members are not obliged to accord such authority in respect of protected subject matter acquired or ordered by a person prior to knowing or having reasonable grounds to know that dealing in such subject matter would entail the infringement of an intellectual property right. other than in exceptional cases. engaged in infringing activity. engage in infringing activity. Article 48 Indemnification of the Defendant 1. or with reasonable grounds to know. measures: (a) The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order prompt and effective provisional to prevent an infringement of any intellectual property right from occurring. Members may limit the remedies available against such use to payment of remuneration in accordance with subparagraph (h) of Article 31. and in particular to prevent the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 46 . The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of that person’s intellectual property right by an infringer who knowingly. 2. 2. the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order that goods that they have found to be infringing be. Article 49 Administrative Procedures To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case. or. Article 45 Damages 1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were taken and who has abused enforcement procedures to provide to a party wrongfully enjoined or restrained adequate compensation for the injury suffered because of such abuse. such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section. In other cases. which may include appropriate attorney’s fees. SECTION 3: PROVISIONAL MEASURES Article 50 1. In respect of the administration of any law pertaining to the protection or enforcement of intellectual property rights. or with reasonable grounds to know. Article 46 Other Remedies In order to create an effective deterrent to infringement. without compensation of any sort. unless this would be out of proportion to the seriousness of the infringement. without the authorization of the right holder are complied with. 2. In considering such requests. In appropriate cases. disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements. declaratory judgments and adequate compensation shall be available. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order that materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be. which may include appropriate attorney’s fees. without compensation of any sort. unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements. destroyed. the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient. Article 47 Right of Information Members may provide that the judicial authorities shall have the authority. the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the infringement and the remedies ordered as well as the interests of third parties shall be taken into account. the remedies under this Part shall apply or. Members may authorize the judicial authorities to order recovery of profits and/or payment of pre-established damages even where the infringer did not knowingly.

and to order the applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and to prevent abuse. if proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case are not initiated within a reasonable period. A review. revoked or confirmed. be revoked or otherwise cease to have effect. 7. upon request of the defendant. The applicant may be required to supply other information necessary for the identification of the goods concerned by the authority that will execute the provisional measures. the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant. the period for which the customs authorities will take action. in conformity with the provisions set out below. Article 52 Application Any right holder initiating the procedures under Article 51 shall be required to provide adequate evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that. there is prima facie an infringement of the right holder’s intellectual property right and to supply a sufficiently detailed description of the goods to make them readily recognizable by the customs authorities. The competent authorities shall inform the applicant within a reasonable period whether they have accepted the application and. 8. Members may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the suspension by the customs authorities of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from their territories. within a reasonable period after the notification of the measures. in the absence of such a determination. shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding. without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest. or where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or threat of infringement of an intellectual property right. whether these measures shall be modified. in particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder. Where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission by the applicant. 6. provided that the requirements of this Section are met. administrative or judicial. patents.CODISSIA entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of goods. 2. 2. whichever is the longer. provisional measures taken on the basis of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall. Members may enable such an application to be made in respect of goods which involve other infringements of intellectual property rights. who has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods (14) may take place. to provide the defendant appropriate compensation for any injury caused by these measures. for the suspension by the customs authorities of the release into free circulation of such goods. under the laws of the country of importation. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 47 . 4. including imported goods immediately after customs clearance. The competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. including a right to be heard. To the extent that any provisional measure can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures. where determined by the competent authorities. to lodge an application in writing with competent authorities. to be determined by the judicial authority ordering the measures where a Member’s law so permits or. such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section. Where provisional measures have been adopted inaudita altera parte. or where there is a demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed. upon request by the defendant. Without prejudice to paragraph 4. not to exceed 20 working days or 31 calendar days. Where pursuant to an application under this Section the release of goods involving industrial designs. 5. adopt procedures (13) to enable a right holder. Article 53 Security or Equivalent Assurance 1. Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures. the parties affected shall be given notice. (b) to preserve relevant evidence in regard to the alleged infringement. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to adopt provisional measures inaudita altera parte where appropriate. SECTION 4: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO BORDER MEASURES (12) Article 51 Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities Members shall. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is the right holder and that the applicant’s right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent. 3.

Article 54 Notice of Suspension The importer and the applicant shall be promptly notified of the suspension of the release of goods according to Article 51. If proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated. the authorities shall not allow the re-exportation of the infringing goods in an unaltered state or subject them to a different customs procedure. Article 58 Ex Officio Action Where Members require competent authorities to act upon their own initiative and to suspend the release of goods in respect of which they have acquired prima facie evidence that an intellectual property right is being infringed: (a) the competent authorities may at any time seek from the right holder any information that may assist them to exercise these powers. revoked or confirmed. or that the duly empowered authority has taken provisional measures prolonging the suspension of the release of the goods. including a right to be heard. within a reasonable period. this time-limit may be extended by another 10 working days. the goods shall be released. in appropriate cases. Article 55 Duration of Suspension If. the owner. Notwithstanding the above. set out at Article 55. Members may provide the competent authorities the authority to inform the right holder of the names and addresses of the consignor. and the period provided for in Article 55 has expired without the granting of provisional relief by the duly empowered authority. the consignee and the owner of the goods appropriate compensation for any injury caused to them through the wrongful detention of goods or through the detention of goods released pursuant to Article 55. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 48 . it being understood that the security shall be released if the right holder fails to pursue the right of action within a reasonable period of time. Members shall provide the competent authorities the authority to give the right holder sufficient opportunity to have any goods detained by the customs authorities inspected in order to substantiate the right holder’s claims. the importer and the consignee and of the quantity of the goods in question. other than in exceptional circumstances. Payment of such security shall not prejudice any other remedy available to the right holder. the customs authorities have not been informed that proceedings leading to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated by a party other than the defendant. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods. Where the importer has lodged an appeal against the suspension with the competent authorities.CODISSIA layout-designs or undisclosed information into free circulation has been suspended by customs authorities on the basis of a decision other than by a judicial or other independent authority. (c) Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith. and provided that all other conditions for importation have been complied with. Article 57 Right of Inspection and Information Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information. where the suspension of the release of goods is carried out or continued in accordance with a provisional judicial measure. the provisions of paragraph 6 of Article 50 shall apply. a review. importer. the suspension shall be subject to the conditions. Where a positive determination has been made on the merits of a case. or consignee of such goods shall be entitled to their release on the posting of a security in an amount sufficient to protect the right holder for any infringement. provided that all other conditions for importation or exportation have been complied with. whether these measures shall be modified. (b) the importer and the right holder shall be promptly notified of the suspension. Article 59 Remedies Without prejudice to other rights of action open to the right holder and subject to the right of the defendant to seek review by a judicial authority. mutatis mutandis. within a period not exceeding 10 working days after the applicant has been served notice of the suspension. Article 56 Indemnification of the Importer and of the Owner of the Goods Relevant authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant to pay the importer. shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding. competent authorities shall have the authority to order the destruction or disposal of infringing goods in accordance with the principles set out in Article 46. The competent authorities shall also have authority to give the importer an equivalent opportunity to have any such goods inspected.

Remedies available shall include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 49 . forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offence. SECTION 5 : CRIMINAL PROCEDURES Article 61 Members shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. consistently with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity.CODISSIA Article 60 De Minimis Imports Members may exclude from the application of the above provisions small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature contained in travellers’ personal luggage or sent in small consignments. In appropriate cases. Members may provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement of intellectual property rights. remedies available shall also include the seizure. in particular where they are committed wilfully and on a commercial scale.

2. 3. there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for such review of decisions in cases of unsuccessful opposition or administrative revocation. subject to compliance with the substantive conditions for acquisition of the right. where a Member’s law provides for such procedures. Members shall ensure that the procedures for grant or registration. Members may require. Such procedures and formalities shall be consistent with the provisions of this Agreement. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 50 .CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PART IV — Acquisition and maintenance of intellectual property rights and related inter-partes procedures CHAPTER . 4. 5. provided that the grounds for such procedures can be the subject of invalidation procedures. administrative revocation and inter partes procedures such as opposition. Article 4 of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply mutatis mutandis to service marks. as a condition of the acquisition or maintenance of the intellectual property rights provided for under Sections 2 through 6 of Part II. revocation and cancellation. Final administrative decisions in any of the procedures referred to under paragraph 4 shall be subject to review by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority. Procedures concerning the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights and. compliance with reasonable procedures and formalities. shall be governed by the general principles set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 41. Where the acquisition of an intellectual property right is subject to the right being granted or registered.11 Article 62 1. However. permit the granting or registration of the right within a reasonable period of time so as to avoid unwarranted curtailment of the period of protection.

in such a manner as to enable governments and right holders to become acquainted with them. Subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of disputes under this Agreement for a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. 3. During the time period referred to in paragraph 2. in a national language. The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement except as otherwise specifically provided herein. and approved recommendations shall be effective for all Members without further formal acceptance process. may also request in writing to be given access to or be informed in sufficient detail of such specific judicial decisions or administrative rulings or bilateral agreements. Nothing in paragraphs 1. The Council shall attempt to minimize the burden on Members in carrying out this obligation and may decide to waive the obligation to notify such laws and regulations directly to the Council if consultations with WIPO on the establishment of a common register containing these laws and regulations are successful. the Council for TRIPS shall examine the scope and modalities for complaints of the type provided for under subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 made pursuant to this Agreement. or where such publication is not practicable made publicly available. 4. Laws and regulations. scope. Each Member shall be prepared to supply. 2 and 3 shall require Members to disclose confidential information which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises. public or private.12 Article 63 Transparency 1.CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PART V — Dispute Prevention and Settlement CHAPTER . information of the sort referred to in paragraph 1. Agreements concerning the subject matter of this Agreement which are in force between the government or a governmental agency of a Member and the government or a governmental agency of another Member shall also be published. A Member. Members shall notify the laws and regulations referred to in paragraph 1 to the Council for TRIPS in order to assist that Council in its review of the operation of this Agreement. Article 64 Dispute Settlement 1. made effective by a Member pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement (the availability. Any decision of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or to extend the period in paragraph 2 shall be made only by consensus. having reason to believe that a specific judicial decision or administrative ruling or bilateral agreement in the area of intellectual property rights affects its rights under this Agreement. 2. 2. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 51 . and final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application. 3. and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial Conference for approval. enforcement and prevention of the abuse of intellectual property rights) shall be published. in response to a written request from another Member. The Council shall also consider in this connection any action required regarding notifications pursuant to the obligations under this Agreement stemming from the provisions of Article 6ter of the Paris Convention (1967). acquisition.

5. In view of the special needs and requirements of least-developed country Members. 3 or 4 shall ensure that any changes in its laws. 4 and 5. no Member shall be obliged to apply the provisions of this Agreement before the expiry of a general period of one year following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. as defined in paragraph 2.13 Article 65 Transitional Arrangements 1. regulations and practice made during that period do not result in a lesser degree of consistency with the provisions of this Agreement. other than Articles 3. 2. for a period of 10 years from the date of application as defined under paragraph 1 of Article 65. on request and on mutually agreed terms and conditions. technical and financial cooperation in favour of developing and leastdeveloped country Members.CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PART VI — Transitional Arrangements CHAPTER . upon duly motivated request by a least-developed country Member. 4. 4 and 5. accord extensions of this period. Article 67 Technical Cooperation In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement. A developing country Member is entitled to delay for a further period of four years the date of application. of the provisions of this Agreement other than Articles 3. 2. To the extent that a developing country Member is obliged by this Agreement to extend product patent protection to areas of technology not so protectable in its territory on the general date of application of this Agreement for that Member. Article 66 Least-Developed Country Members 1. Developed country Members shall provide incentives to enterprises and institutions in their territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to least-developed country Members in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base. financial and administrative constraints. 2. their economic. and their need for flexibility to create a viable technological base. developed country Members shall provide. Any other Member which is in the process of transformation from a centrally-planned into a market. and shall include support regarding the establishment or reinforcement of domestic offices and agencies relevant to these matters. The Council for TRIPS shall. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2. A Member availing itself of a transitional period under paragraphs 1. free-enterprise economy and which is undertaking structural reform of its intellectual property system and facing special problems in the preparation and implementation of intellectual property laws and regulations. Such cooperation shall include assistance in the preparation of laws and regulations on the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as on the prevention of their abuse. 3 and 4. it may delay the application of the provisions on product patents of Section 5 of Part II to such areas of technology for an additional period of five years. may also benefit from a period of delay as foreseen in paragraph 2. such Members shall not be required to apply the provisions of this Agreement. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 52 . as defined in paragraph 1. including the training of personnel. 3.

6. Members’ compliance with their obligations hereunder. before the date of acceptance of the WTO Agreement by that Member. or the requirement in paragraph 1 of Article 27 that patent rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the field of technology. Such amendments shall not include new matter. In carrying out its functions. A Member is not obliged to apply the provisions of Article 11 and of paragraph 4 of Article 14 with respect to originals or copies purchased prior to the date of application of this Agreement for that Member. Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement. 8. 4. this Agreement gives rise to obligations in respect of all subject matter existing at the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question. appropriate arrangements for cooperation with bodies of that Organization. at least provide for the payment of equitable remuneration.CODISSIA TRIPS: AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PART VII — Institutional arrangements. They shall. in particular. 5. and obligations with respect to the rights of producers of phonograms and performers in existing phonograms shall be determined solely under Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971) as made applicable under paragraph 6 of Article 14 of this Agreement. and which is protected in that Member on the said date. in particular. applications for protection which are pending on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question shall be permitted to be amended to claim any enhanced protection provided under the provisions of this Agreement. in particular. In the case of intellectual property rights for which protection is conditional upon registration. however. the Council for TRIPS may consult with and seek information from any source it deems appropriate. This Agreement does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts which occurred before the date of application of the Agreement for the Member in question. In consultation with WIPO. Article 69 International Cooperation Members agree to cooperate with each other with a view to eliminating international trade in goods infringing intellectual property rights. copyright obligations with respect to existing works shall be solely determined under Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971). Where a Member does not make available as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement patent Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 53 . and which were commenced. and shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on matters relating to the traderelated aspects of intellectual property rights. or which meets or comes subsequently to meet the criteria for protection under the terms of this Agreement. or in respect of which a significant investment was made. There shall be no obligation to restore protection to subject matter which on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in question has fallen into the public domain. provide any assistance requested by them in the context of dispute settlement procedures. and it shall. they shall establish and notify contact points in their administrations and be ready to exchange information on trade in infringing goods. It shall carry out such other responsibilities as assigned to it by the Members. within one year of its first meeting. In respect of any acts in respect of specific objects embodying protected subject matter which become infringing under the terms of legislation in conformity with this Agreement. promote the exchange of information and cooperation between customs authorities with regard to trade in counterfeit trademark goods and pirated copyright goods. to use without the authorization of the right holder where authorization for such use was granted by the government before the date this Agreement became known. Members shall not be required to apply Article 31. In such cases the Member shall. 7. For this purpose. final provisions CHAPTER . In respect of this paragraph and paragraphs 3 and 4. the Council shall seek to establish. Article 70 Protection of Existing Subject Matter 1. 2. 3. any Member may provide for a limitation of the remedies available to the right holder as to the continued performance of such acts after the date of application of this Agreement for that Member.14 Article 68 Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights The Council for TRIPS shall monitor the operation of this Agreement and.

for those of these applications that meet the criteria for protection referred to in subparagraph (b). The Council may also undertake reviews in the light of any relevant new developments which might warrant modification or amendment of this Agreement. a patent application has been filed and a patent granted for that product in another Member and marketing approval obtained in such other Member. that Member shall: (a) notwithstanding the provisions of Part VI. Where a product is the subject of a patent application in a Member in accordance with paragraph 8(a). or (c) to prevent a Member from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the United Nations Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security. (b) apply to these applications. Article 73 Security Exceptions Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed: (a) to require a Member to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its essential security interests. counted from the filing date in accordance with Article 33 of this Agreement.CODISSIA protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products commensurate with its obligations under Article 27. (iii) taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations. as of the date of application of this Agreement. exclusive marketing rights shall be granted. The Council shall. Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual property rights achieved. subsequent to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment. having regard to the experience gained in its implementation. 9. review it two years after that date. notwithstanding the provisions of Part VI. or (b) to prevent a Member from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its essential security interests. in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those agreements by all Members of the WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article X of the WTO Agreement on the basis of a consensus proposal from the Council for TRIPS. (i) relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived. provided that. the criteria for patentability as laid down in this Agreement as if those criteria were being applied on the date of filing in that Member or. for a period of five years after obtaining marketing approval in that Member or until a product patent is granted or rejected in that Member. and (c) provide patent protection in accordance with this Agreement as from the grant of the patent and for the remainder of the patent term. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 54 . The Council for TRIPS shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of the transitional period referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 65. and in force. provide as from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement a means by which applications for patents for such inventions can be filed. the priority date of the application. Article 71 Review and Amendment 1. and at identical intervals thereafter. whichever period is shorter. Article 72 Reservations Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members. where priority is available and claimed. 2. (ii) relating to the traffic in arms.

for example by harmonizing the two existing systems for filing patent applications (first-to-file and first-to-invent). as a part of their implementation concerns. will focus on implementation of the Agreement after the expiration of the transition period available to developing countries up to 1. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.CODISSIA BUILT IN AGENDA FOR REVIEW OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT CHAPTER . in the year 2000. it may be possible to generate consensus for a higher form of IPR protection (e. seeking exemption for the pharmaceutical sector from patent protection). EC) had made some proposals for further strengthening of the TRIPS Agreement. The first review. it may be very difficult to review or seek to amend the provisions of the Agreement in this review.15 Article 71: Article 71 of the TRIPS Agreement reads as under: Review and Amendment “1. The Council for TRIPS shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of the transitional period referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 65.3 (b) Article 27. which might warrant modification or amendment of this Agreement. In the built-in agenda for the review of the TRIPS Agreement from 2002 onwards. The Council shall. review it two years after that date. 2. b. applying under TRIPS international agreements on IPRs like the WIPO agreement on Copyrights. Therefore. therefore. Similarly.1. i. The Council may also undertake reviews in the light of any relevant new developments.e. This Article calls for a review of the implementation of the Agreement after the expiration of the transitional period. plants and animals other than micro-organisms. and in force. In the year 2002 and every two years thereafter.” A review of clause (b) of para 3 of Article 27 was due in the year 1999 and was a part of the built-in agenda that the Third Ministerial Conference was to address. USA had made proposals to the effect that a higher level of protection of plant Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 55 . therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals. higher protection for geographical indications other than wines and spirits). having regard to the experience gained in the implementation of the Agreement. such an amendment would have to be agreed to by consensus. Various proposals had been received for this review in preparation for the Seattle Ministerial Conference. The article makes it easier for Members to propose amendments requiring a higher standard of protection. and to extend the higher level of protection available for wines and spirits to other products. Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual property rights achieved. Article 27.g.g. raised some issues like extension of transition period available to developing countries to meet their TRIPS obligations. and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However. in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those agreements by all Members of the WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article X of the WTO Agreement on the basis of a consensus proposal from the Council for TRIPS”. However.2000. some developed countries (Japan. in line with the developments in other multilateral agreements (like WIPO). By implication amendments requiring lowering or dilution of the standard of protection would be more difficult. and at identical intervals thereafter. having regard to the experience gained in its implementation.3 (a) and (b) are as under: Patentable Subject Matter “3. after 1-1-2000. Members may also exclude from patentability: a. some developing countries had. No decisions were taken in the Conference. At the same time it may be very difficult to get a consensus on lowering of the standard of protection existing in the Agreement (e. As part of the process established for developing recommendations for the Seattle Ministerial Conference. Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective sui generis system or by a combination thereof. These issues may be raised during the review again. This review can suggest any amendment to the Agreement also. diagnostic. This review shall be conducted biannually thereafter. as this is the practice in WTO. the TRIPS Council shall review the Agreement.

4 negotiations are proposed to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines and spirits by establishing a multilateral system of registration of such products. Recently the EC had cleared a Directive on Biotechnology. USA already provides patents for plants and animals in its domestic law. In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications of wines. the law on geographical indications passed by the Indian Parliament has provided for grant of higher protection for products by notification.4 reads as under: Additional Protection for Geographical Indications for Wines and Spirits “4.2 Article 23. Turkey etc. this proposal also did not meet any success. The Directive has not yet been approved by the EU Parliament. Thus. there may not be any agreement on increasing the scope in the near future. 3. it was clarified that the review would include matters relating to the scope of protection. which includes issues relating to patenting of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Nevertheless. which. However.CODISSIA varieties and microorganisms should be interpreted into this Article. In the report of the TRIPS Council to the Ministers at Singapore.2 read as under: International Negotiations: Exceptions “The Council for TRIPS shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section: the first such review shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. shall consult with any Member or Members in respect of such matter in respect of which it has not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral or plurilateral consultations between the Members concerned. However. many Members have argued in the first TRIPS Council meeting in the year 2000 that the review of the Article should continue. at the request of a Member.3 (b).4 and 24. India has the support of EU. negotiations shall be undertaken in the Council of TRIPS concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification of geographical indications for wines eligible for protection in those Members participating in that system. Any matter affecting the compliance with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention to the Council. traditional knowledge etc. The TRIPS Council is currently discussing the issue. Switzerland. The Council shall take such action as may be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives of this Section. as was the case with all the other issues raised by Members for decision in the Conference. The recently negotiated Biosafety Protocol in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) may be considered trade restrictive as it allows parties to install advanced information agreements for the imports of GMOs. India had also made a proposal basically to retain the flexibility available in this Article to exclude patents on life forms and to provide for benefit sharing mechanisms for utilization of biological material in patents. However. Subparagraphs 1 (b) and 1 (c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of disputes under this Agreement for a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Czech Republic.” Under Article 23. The amendments to the Patent Act and the Bill on plant variety protection introduced by the Ministry of Agriculture in the Parliament are in line with the existing provisions. The latter proposal for increasing the scope for higher protection was made as a part of the review of the section on geographical indications under Article 24. India would continue to raise this issue in the TRIPS Council in the future. Article 64 Article 64 reads as under: Dispute Settlement 1.” Article 24. During the time period referred to in paragraph 2. 2. India was able to single handedly block progress of these negotiations by positing the need for grant of higher level of protection for products other than wines and spirits. The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement except as otherwise specifically provided herein.2. Hungary. there could be pressure from some developed countries to strengthen the standard of protection for life forms beyond that available in Article 27. Articles 23. On the other hand there could be pressure from developing countries to ensure that the provisions of this Article do not adversely affect biological diversity. the Council for TRIPS shall examine the scope and Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 56 .

To establish a mechanism for disclosure of the source of origin of biological material used in an invention and obtaining the consent of the country of origin so that institutional mechanisms could be established at the national level for sharing of benefits arising out of the commercial exploitation of such inventions. Members were allowed to make proposals on implementation of the WTO Agreements. as was the case with other issues. and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial Conference for approval. As a part of the confidence building measures. no agreement could be reached. This provision was to be reviewed before 1. India had.2000. along with like minded developing countries made proposals under this category. these proposals included the following: 1. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES As a part of the preparation at the Seattle Ministerial Conference. including proposals to remove imbalances in the existing agreements as well as proposals to operationalise special and differential provisions in favour of developing countries. To operationalise Articles 7 and 8 of the TRIPS Agreement by providing for transfer of technology on fair and mutually advantageous terms. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 57 . To extend the period for application of non-violation complaints to the TRIPS Agreement. 3. Since there is an attempt to interpret the failure at Seattle as leading to ‘freezing’ of the issues.1. In respect of the TRIPS Agreement. It is however to early to assess whether there would be any consensus to revive the issue. India will continue to press for the redressal of the Indian concerns on “Implementation of TRIPS Agreement”. Any decisions of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or to extent the period in paragraph 2 shall be made only by consensus. 2.2000 by a consensus proposal to the Ministers. It will be important for India to resist expansion of the scope of dispute settlement to cover non-violation cases. some Members could revive the issue of extension of the non-application of non-violation complaints to TRIPS beyond 1.” Article 64 of the TRIPS Agreement relating to dispute settlement extends the Dispute Settlement Mechanism of the WTO to this agreement.2000 as only disputes relating to violation of obligations under the Agreement were covered. meaning situations where there is nullification or impairment of benefits without there being any conflict with the WTO provisions. As a consequence non-violation complaints can now be made by WTO Members on TRIPS issues also. the General Council of WTO has taken a decision to resolve the “Implementation Issues” of the developing countries before the 4th Ministerial Conference. and approved recommendations shall be effective for all Members without further formal acceptance process. the Dispute Settlement Mechanism of the WTO also covers non-violation complaints. While proposals to this effect were made by many Members including India as a part of the preparations for the Seattle Ministerial Conference.1.CODISSIA modalities for complaints of the type provided for under subparagraphs 1(b) and 1 (c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 made pursuant to this Agreement. However. This was not applicable up to 1.1.

B). 350BYÕ Bi¥p GÝRlThP BÙoúYR èXô] ÑxÚR NUv¡ÚRô®p ϱl©PlThÓs[Õ. AeÏ UÚjÕYm úLô¬ ùT¬V A[®tÏ úTôWôhPm SPkÕ YÚ¡\Õ. D). CkRdLôWQjRôp SUÕ A±Üf ùNôjÕdLs EX¡u GkR JÚ TϧdÏm GkR JÚ LhÓlTôÓm CpXôUp B«WdLQdLô] BiÓL[ôL ùNuß ùLôi¥ÚkRûR SmUôp RÓdL Ø¥VY§pûX. úUÛm SUÕ NêLUô]Õ EX¡p ªLlùT¬V SôLÃLUûPkR NêLUôL CÚkÕs[Õ. ùTôÕ UÚjÕYm áP A§L ùNXÜ ©¥lTÕ B¡®hPÕ.©. '¥¬lv' JlTkRjûR AØXôdLYRtLô] HtTôÓLû[ ùNnYRtÏ JqùYôÚ Eßl× Sôh¥tÏm Ïû\kRÕ ìTôn 7 1/2. Cuû\dÏm ®YNôVm SUÕ UdLs ùRôûL«p 70 NRj§]odÏ ©ûZl×j ùRô¯XôL CÚkÕ YÚm ¨ûX«p AYoLs ®YNôVjRp ùRôPokÕ ùNVpTP CVXôR ¨ûXûV CkR קV ¨ûX HtTÓjÕm. TpúYß Ød¡V LiÓ©¥l×L°u ©\l©PUôL Ck§Vô CÚk§Úd¡\Õ. 100 úLô¥VôÏm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 58 . NôRôWQ Ï¥ULu C² NôRôWQ ®ûX«p EQÜl ùTôÚsLû[ ùTßYÕ CVXôR ¨ûX HtTÓùU] AgNlTÓ¡\Õ. TôWmT¬V £¡fûN Øû\Lû[ TpXô«WdLQdLô] BiÓL[ôL ©uTt±YÚm SmûUlúTôu\ Sôh¥p קV A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Øû\L°]ôp SUÕ ùNôkR NêLj§úXúV SmûU AL§L[ôL ¨odL§VôdÏm ATôVm Es[Õ. ¥¬lvûNl Tt± Sôm ®¯lúTôÓ CÚdLúYi¥VRu AY£Vm Hu? A). A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Øû\ ®YNôVjûR LÓûUVôL Tô§dÏm. Ju±u E¬ûUûV GYo ØR-p T§Ü ùNnÕs[ôúWô AYÚdÏ RdL LhPQm ùNÛjRôUp ARû] Utù\ôÚYo TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtLô] E¬ûULs EhTP CRàs APdLm. A±Üj§\²u GpXô LiÓ©¥l×LÞm A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûU ùT\jRdLRôL Es[]. úUÛm AkR AÛYXLj§p ØYô«Wj§tÏm úUtThP ªLÜm úRof£ ùTt\ ®gOô²Ls. SmªPØs[ SUÕ TôWmT¬V £¡fûN Øû\Lû[ Tu]ôhÓ HLúTôL ¨ßY]eLs HtL]úY E±gNj ÕYe¡®hP]. C). úY[ôiûU ØRp úNúL¬V CÚl× YûW G] Ck§Vô YôrdûLdÏ úRûYVô] TpúYß Õû\Ls NmUkRlThP LiÓ©¥l×L°u ØuûWeLUôL CÚkÕs[Õ. E). B]ôp EXL YojRL AûUl×j úRôu±V ©u]ôp RtúTôÕ ¨XûULs Uô±®hP]. ERôWQj§tÏ UÚkÕ ®ûXLs EVokÕ Es[]. HIV úSôndLô] UÚkÕL°u ®ûX ªL A§LUôL EVokÕ ®hPRôp AkúSôVôp Tô§dLlThÓs[ 50 XhNj§tÏm úUtThP ùRu]ôl©¬dL UdLs AY§lTÓ¡u\]o. F). EQÜl TôÕLôl×dÏ AfÑßjRp HtThÓs[Õ.6 NRUôL CÚkÕs[Õ. CÕ Sm GpúXôûWÙm Tô§dLlúTô¡\Õ. AÕÜm AùU¬dLô úTôu\ SôÓLÞPu CÕ ®`Vj§p úTôh¥«P Ø¥VôÕ. Ck§Vô ®gOô²Ls. ¡. ùRô¯p ÖhT YpÛ]oLs LiÓ©¥lTô[oLs Utßm UÚjÕYoLs Utßm EX¡p TpúYß SôÓL°p A±VlThÓs[Õ úTôuú\ A±Oo ÏÝdLû[Ùm ùLôi¥Úk§Úd¡\Õ.CODISSIA A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u YojRLm NôokR ¨ûXLs ÁRô] JlTkRm Aj§VôVm þ 1 A±ØLm Ck§VôÜm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULÞm Ck§Vô NôÕdLs Utßm NôuVô£L°u úRNm GußRôu Sôm ùTÚmTôÛm ¨û]jÕd ùLôiÓ CÚk§Úd¡ú\ôm.1700Cp áP EXL JhÓùUôjR EtTj§«p Ck§Vô®u TeÏ 22. 120 AßûYf £¡fûNd LÚ®Lû[d ùLôiÓ 300 ùYqúYß YûLVô] úRôpUôtß AßûYf £¡fûNLs ùNnRÕ Tt±V ϱl×Ls. úLô¥«-ÚkÕ ì. B]ôp Ck§V Øû\Vô]Õ "A±Ü B]Õ ®tTû]dLpX" Gu\ Sm©dûLûV A¥lTûPVôLd ùLôi¥ÚkRÕ. TX CPeL°p E«¬Vp Y[eLs AkRkR NêLeL°u AàU§ûV ùT\ôUÛm ApXÕ ARtLô] NuUô]m YZeLlTPôUúX §ÚhÓjR]UôLÜm LYWlTÓYûR AWÑ NôWô ùRôiÓ ¨ßY]eLs HtL]úY Ñh¥d Lôh¥Ùs[]. NêL Y[eLÞdÏ BTjÕ HtThÓs[Õ. 10 úLô¥ YûW ùNXÜ ©¥dÏm. AùU¬dLô®p Es[ YojRL Øj§ûW Utßm Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§u BiÓ Thù_h ì. '¥¬lv' JlTkRm úSoûUVô]ùRôÓ JlTkRªpûX. ùTô±Vô[oLs Utßm NhP YpÛ]oLs T¦×¬¡u\]o. Eßl× SôÓLs TXYt±tÏ CqYôß ùNXÜ ùNnYÕ Nôj§VUôL CpûX. BÙoúYRm ØRp RNU GiLs YûW. LhÓlTôPt\ NkûR«u BRWYô[o úTWô£¬Vo _L¾v TLY§ áP RtúTôûRV A±Üj ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u ªûLlTÓjRlThP RuûUûV Tt± ϱl©h¥Úd¡\ôo. CÚlTYt±úXúV Ck§Vô®tÏ ªLÜm TôRLUô] JlTkRm '¥¬lv' Guß Be¡X AûPùUô¯«p ÑÚdLUôL AûZdLlTÓm A±Üj ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u YojRLm A±kR ¨ûXLs ÁRô] JlTkRm (C² CkR ×jRLm ØÝYÕm CqYôd¡Vm "¥¬lv"Guú\ ϱl©PlTÓm) Rôu Guß TXo LÚÕ¡u\]o.

A§p ¾oûYL[pXô ©\ ®NVeLs ÁÕ LY]m ùNÛjRlThPÕ. ùY°SôhÓ êXR]eLs ÁRô] ùLôsûLLs. JÚe¡ûQkR ªuÑtß. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUûV R²Vôo ùNôjÕ¬ûUVôL Ae¸L¬lTÕ B¡VYt±tLô] NWjÕdLs "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕL°p Es[]. Y¥YeLs. A§L¬dÏm Au²Vf ùNXôYô¦ ùY°úVt\m. £\l× NkûR E¬ûULs. ùTh¥«p AûPlTÕ úTôu\Yt±û] R²jR±YRtLô] HtTôÓLs Tt± NmUkRlThP ¨ßY]eL°ûPúVÙm. EtTj§«u JqùYôÚ ¨ûX«Ûm úRof£ ùTt\ ¨ßY]eLû[ GeùLeúL AûUdLXôm Guß ¨ßY] Ø¥ÜLs GÓdLlTÓm Øu]o BûXLs AûUV[Üs[ SôÓL°u XôT ®¡R Utßm Y¬d ùLôsûLLs. ùRô¯p ÖhTeLÞdLôL ùY°SôhÓ ¨ßY]eLû[ NôokÕ CÚdL úYi¥Ùs[Õ. HZôYÕ Ñtß úPôdúVô®p SûPùTt\Õ. LPu Yh¥ ®¡Rm. RôYô¾oÜ ÁRô] ®[dLeLs. YojRLm NôokR ØRÄhÓ Øû\Ls (TRIPS). YojRL WL£VeLs. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUô] EXL YojRL AûUl©u NWjÕL°p TX TôRLeLs Es[]. úNûYLs. YojRLm ØRÄhÓ Øû\Ls. ùRô¯p Õû\L°ûPúVÙm ùSÚe¡V ùRôPo×Ls CÚlTRtLô] Nôh£ Es[Õ. ùRô¯Xô[o NhPeLs úTôu\ûYLs LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[lTÓ¡u\]. YojRL ùLôsûL T¬ºXû] Øû\ NmUkRUô] JlTkRm. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs. "¥¬lv' Utßm YojRLm NôokR ØRÄhÓ Øû\Ls Utßm ®YNôVj§u ÁÕ TôoûY ùNÛjRlThPÕ. Utßm Gi¦XPeLô Ø¥ÜLs Utßm A±®l×Ls B¡VYt±tÏ A¥lTûPVô] 19 קV ®NVeLs Cߧ JlTkRj§p úNodLlThP]. CRu ùTV¬p Y[of£VûPkR úUtÏ IúWôl©V SôÓL°ûPúV UhÓm CÚdÏm WNôVQeLs. ClT¥lThP LôW¦L°p Uô²VeLû[ A°lTRtLô] LôW¦ AqY[Ü Jußm Ød¡VUô]Õ ApX. "¥¬lv"Utßm úNûYLs ÁÕ RXô JÚ JlTkRm. ùRô¯p Õû\dÏ Esú[Vô] YojRLm: _Ü° RVô¬l×LÞdLô] _Ü°Ls. EÚÏúY Ñtß G] A±VlTÓm GhPôYÕ Ñt±p GhP úYi¥V ϱdúLôsLs ϱjÕ ªLÜm ®¬YôL ®Yô§dLlhPÕ. "¥¬lv"B¡VYt±u ÁRô] ùTôÚl×L[ôp A§L¬dÏm Au²Vf ùNXôYô¦ ùY°úVt\m. CûYLû[ùVpXôm ûYjÕlTôodÏm úTôÕ 1994 ùTôÕfÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkR§u ùY°lTôPôL ùRô¯p ÖhTm NôokR YojRLeLú[ Øu GlúTôÕm CpXôR YûL«p ùY°lThPÕ Gu\ Sm©dûL EߧlTÓ¡\Õ. YojRL Øj§ûW. CRû]d ùLôiÓ Tu]ôhÓ HLúTôL ¨ßY]eLs (MNCS) ®ûWYôL EXL ØÝYÕm TWY Ø¥kÕs[Õ. ×®«Vp Ïû\VûPVô[eLs. ùTôÚû[Ùm R²jR²VôL EÚYôdÏm EtTj§ ©¬®p ùTôÚ°u ØÝY¥Yj§tLô] E§¬TôLeLs Utßm CûPlThP TôLeLs RVô¬l× G] RVô¬l× Øû\ûV BZUôL ©¬jÕ ùNVpTÓYÕ. RVô¬l× Lôl׬ûU. Øj§ûWLs B¡VYt±p £ß£ß Uôt\eLs ùNnÕ RVô¬l×Lû[ úYßTÓj§d LôhÓYÕ úTôu\ûY NkûR«p ÖûZÙm RVô¬l×L[Õ A¥lTûP CQeL[Õ ØLjúRôt\jûRúV Uôt±®hP]. NÁT BiÓL°p EXL YojRLm ARu RuûU ç«úXúV A¥lTûP Uôt\eLû[ AûPkÕs[Õ GuTûR ARu ¸rYÚm SPY¥dûLLs EQojÕ¡u\]. YojRL T¬Uôt\j§p TWvTWm HtTÓm Tt\ôdÏû\ûV DÓLhÓYRtLô] A[Ü ®¡RjûR TWôU¬lTRtÏ ØVp¡u\]. JqùYôÚ TôLjûRÙm. RVô¬l× Øû\ Lôl׬ûU. ùTôÕf ÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkR AûUl©u ¸r SûPùTt\ GhÓ Ñtßl úTfÑYôojûRL°p Bß ÑtßL°p ùTÚmTôÛm ÑeLj ¾oûYLs Ïû\lTÕ Ï±jÕ UhÓúU R²dLY]m ùNÛj§l úTNlThPÕ. AùU¬dL Id¡V Sôh¥u ØuØVt£Vôp CkR קV TϧLs ùTôÕ ÑeLj§oûY JlTkR AûUl©u úTfÑYôojûRL°às ÖûZdLlThP]. WNôVQd LXûYLÞdLô] WNôVQeLs úTôu\ JúW Uô§¬Vô] ùTôÚsLû[ RVô¬lT§p DÓThÓs[ SôÓLs ReLÞdÏsú[úV CYtû\ C\dÏU§Ùm HtßU§Ùm ùNnÕ ùLôs¡u\]. CfÑt±p TôWmT¬VUôL TôÕLôdLlThÓ YÚ¡\ ®NVeL°àsú[ ùTôÕf ÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkR AûUl©u LY]m ùLôiÓ ùNpXlThPÕ C§p úNûYLÞm APe¡«ÚkR]. _Ü°Ls Utßm ªuNôWm NôWôR Gk§WeLs ®NVj§p CqYûL ùRô¯pÕû\LÞdÏ Esú[Vô] HtßU§ C\dÏU§Ls SûPùTß¡u\]. T«oLs ÖiE«odáßLs Utßm T«oYûLLs B¡V JuTÕ YûL A±Üf ùNôjÕdLs EXL YojRL AûUl©u ¸r YÚ¡u\]. EtTj§ ùNnYÕ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ NmUkRlThP E¬ûULÞdÏ Sm©dûLV°dÏm YûWVû\Lû[Ùm AûYLÞdLô] NhP SûPØû\Lû[Ùm YÏdÏUôß Eßl× SôÓLs úLhÓd ùLôs[lThÓs[]. EXL YojRL AûUl× RûPVt\ YojRL SûPØû\ûV EߧlTÓjÕYRôL Es[Õ. ùTôÚsLs YojRLm NmUkRUô] TuØû] JlTkRm. ®YNôVm. ùTh¥«p AûPlTÕ. YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs (TRIPS) JlÀhP[®p SUdÏs[ Yônl×Ls ÁÕ ªL BZUô] RôdLjûR HtTÓjRlúTô¡u\]. EXL YojRL AûUl× Utßm ùTôÕf ÑeLj¾oûY JlTkRj§p Es[Õ úTôuß "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Es[ôokR úSôdLØm RûPVt\ YojRLúUVôÏm. TQUôtß ®¡Rm. úNûXLs. Y¥YûUl×Ls. _Ü°.CODISSIA ùTôÕfÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkRj§u Cߧ NhPm ûLùVÝjÕ B] ©\Ï ØuYkÕs[ûY NoYúRN YojRL ç«p ªLÜm R²jRuûU YônkR]YôL Es[]. T§l׬ûU. SôuÏ YojRL JlTkReLs. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 59 1 . TQ UôtßjRuûU. EsSôhÓ Cû\VôuûU«u úUp A§L¬dÏm FÓßYp G] TX TôRLeLs Es[].

U²R E¬ûULs. ãtßfãZûX UôÑTÓjÕm ùRô¯pLû[ Y[of£VûPÙm SôÓLÞdÏ Uôtßm Y[of£VûPkR SôÓL°u SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ LiáPô] Es[]. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 60 . NkûR Yônl×L°p AkSôh¥u úNûYjÕû\L°u Y[of£ûV A§LlTÓjÕ¡\Õ. ÏZkûR ùRô¯Xô[oLs úTôu\ TX ©WfNû]Ls YojRL SûPØû\Ls ÁÕ RôdLm ùNÛjRdá¥V]YôL ØuYkÕs[]. úUÛm Uôt± AûUdLlTÓ¡u\]. NWdÏLs Õû\«p Jl©hP[®p R]dÏ CÚkR NôRLeLû[ AùU¬dL ªLúYLUôL CZkÕs[Õ. AúRúTôX ùTôÚ[ôRôWm B§dLûUVeLs áP CPmùTVo¡u\].CODISSIA קRôL ØuàdÏ YkÕs[ E«¬Vp ùRô¯p ÖhTm: Öi ªu]à®Vp ÖhTm úTôu\ ùRô¯pÖhTeLs EXL EtTj§ Øû\L°Ûm YojRL Øû\L°p JÚ ×Wh£ûVúV HtTÓj§Ùs[Õ. Y[Úm SôÓL°p ØuYkÕs[ ùT¬V LPu ÑûULs LôWQUôL G§oTôWôR Nd§Lû[ EÚYôd¡®PlThÓs[]. CkR Y[of£Ls Juû\ Nôj§VlTPf ùNnYRtLô] GpûXVt\ NkRolTeLû[ YZe¡«Úd¡\ AúR úSWj§p AfÑßjRXôLÜm Øu YkÕs[]. AûYLs EXL SôÓLs Aû]j§u EtTj§ Utßm YojRL SûPØû\Ls ÁÕ B§dLm ùNÛjRj ÕYe¡Ùs[]. Y[of£VûPkR SôÓL[ô]ôÛm N¬ Y[Úm SôÓL[ô]ôÛm N¬ AYt±u AqYûL«Xô] úR£V JhÓ ùUôjR EtTj§«p úNûYjÕû\L°u TeÏ ùYÏYôL A§L¬jÕdùLôiúP Es[]. ÑtßfãZp. YojRLm NmUkRUô] TôWmT¬V ùLôsûLLÞdÏ G§ofNôYôp ®ÓY]YôL CûY Es[].

§ûWlTPeLs Utßm T§ÜLs B¡VY±tÏ T§l׬ûU GuTÕ NhPm EÚYôd¡d RkÕs[ £\l× E¬ûUVôÏm. §ûWlTPeLs LûXOoLÞûPV NmUkRlThP RVô¬l×L°p AûYL°u B£¬VoLs DÓTÓj§V §\u. K®VlT§Ü. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 61 . UÚkÕLs Utßm úY[ôi WNôVQ RVô¬l×LÞdLô] Lôl׬ûUdÏ 1þ1þ1995 úR§Vuß HtTôÓLs ùNn§WôR SôÓLs AlT¥lThP RVô¬l×LÞdÏ Lôl× úLôÚm ®iQlTeLû[ Htßd ùLôsYRtLô] (RTôp ùTh¥) HtTôÓLû[ ùNnV úYiÓm. NmUkRlThP RVô¬l©tÏ Lôl׬ûUdLô] ®iQlTm EXL YojRL AûUl©u HRôYÕ JÚ Eßl× Sôh¥p 1þ1þ1995dÏl ©\Ï úNodLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. CûNVûUlTô[oLs Utßm LûXOoLs ReLs TûPl×LÞdÏ EPûUVô[o E¬ûU ùT\jRdLYoLs. A) Lôl׬ûULs Utßm AÕ NôokR E¬ûUûLs: CXd¡Vm. ©W§ùVÓjRp. 1999 Uôof UôRm ¨û\úYt\lThP Lôl׬ûU (§ÚjRm) NhPm 1999Cu ¸r RTôp ùTh¥ Utßm £\l× Lôl׬ûU YN§Ls HtTÓjRlThÓs[]. YôojÕ EÚdùLôÓjRp. L®OoLs. §ÚhÓ Utßm úTôRVô¬l×L°p DÓTÓRp B¡VYt±-ÚkÕ GÝjRô[oL[Õm LûXOoL[Õm E¬ûULû[l TôÕLôlTÕ T§l׬ûUfNhPj§u úSôdLUôÏm.CODISSIA Aj§VôVm þ 2 A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u ¸rLiP ©¬ÜLÞdÏ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u YojRLm NôokR ©¬ÜL°u ÁRô] JlTkRm (¥¬lv) B]Õ Ïû\kR ThN YûWVûWLs. ùUô¯ ùTVol×Ls. ¨Lrf£úNûYLs. ùTôßjRUô] Øuà¬ûU A¥lTûP«p AlT¥lThP RVô¬l×LÞdÏ £\l× NkûR E¬ûULs YZeL úYiÓm. CûN. §\uLs úTôu\Yt±u TûPlTô°LÞdÏm £\l× Lôl× E¬ûULs Es[]. TôÕLôl×. C§p GkR LôX LhPm Ïß¡VRôL Es[úRô AkR LôX LhPj§tÏ £\l× Lôl׬ûU ùNpÛT¥VôÏm. §ûWlTP ÑÚs. CûN ÖiLûXLs Y¥®Xô] ×ûLlTPeLs. AûYL°u ®NVj§p NhP Á\pLs SPkÕ ®hPRôL ùTôßlúTtL úYi¥V§pûX. T¥Y AfÑ. ÑRk§WUô] TûPlTôn®u êXm ϱl©PjRdL ùTôÚs RVô¬dLlTÓYRtÏ RûP CpûX. A) B) C) D) E) F) G) T§l׬ûULs Utßm AÕ NôokR E¬ûULs YojRL Øj§ûWLs ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs Lôl׬ûULs Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u YûWY¥YeLs ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLÞdLô] TôÕLôl× (YojRL WL£VeLs) NmUkRlThPYoLÞdÏ ùTôßkRdá¥VYûL«p Ïû\kR ThN A[ÅÓLû[ ¨oQ«lTRtÏ JlTkRm Y¯YÏjÕs[Õ. ApXÕ Gk§Wd LÚ®LÞdLô] ÑÚsLs CûNf úNûYLs. NhPj§tÏ ×\mTôL TûPl×Lû[ Uß RVô¬l× ùNnRp. AkR Sôh¥p AkR RVô¬l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU Utßm NkûR Jl×Rp ùTt±ÚdL úYiÓm. úR£V AkRvÕ Utßm ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ AkRvÕ A°dLlThÓs[ûY ®NVj§p UôtÈh¥tLô] LôX AYLôNm ¡ûPVôÕ. ùNôtùTô¯ÜLs ApXÕ Jl×®jRp GÝjÕl©W§Ls. JÚ A±ÜéoYUô] LûXlTûPlûT ®tßØ¥lTRtÏm. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ AØXôdÏYRtÏ Y[oØL SôÓLÞdÏ IkÕ BiÓLs LôX AYLôNm YZeLlThÓsÕ. Hû]V LûXlTûPl×Ls. CûYL°u A¥lTûP«p UhÓúU £\l× Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. EûZl× Utßm ØRÄhûP LQd¡p ùLôiÓ NhPm AØXôdLlTÓ¡\Õ. Eßd¡ AfùNÓjRp. ×ûLl TPùUÓjRp. A[ÅÓLs YZe¡Ùs[Õ. CXd¡Vm. Uôt±VûUjRp. úUÛm 1þ1þ1995Bm úR§«p ϱl©hP ùRô¯p ÖhTm NôokR RVô¬l×LÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTPôUp CÚdÏm SôÓLs AkR YûL RVô¬l× Lôl׬ûULs YZeÏYRtÏ 1þ1þ2005 YûW úUÛm IkÕ BiÓLs LôX AYLôNm GÓjÕd ùLôs[Xôm. ARu Y[eLû[ ®VôTôW ç«p TVuTÓj§d ùLôsYRtÏUô] £\l× E¬ûUûV T§l׬ûU YZeÏ¡\Õ. J-TWl×Ls ApXÕ TWYf ùNnRp úTôu\Yt±-ÚkÕ T§lTô[ÚûPV E¬ûUdÏ £\l× Lôl× YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. £\l× Lôl׬ûUVô]Õ IkÕ BiÓLÞdúLô ApXÕ NmUkRlThP RVô¬l×dÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓm ApXÕ ¨oQ«dÏm Sôs YûWúVô YZeLlTÓm.RhÓl T§Ü. AlT¥lThP TûPl×Ls NhPj§tÏ ×\mTôL UßLôl× E¬ûU YZeLlTPôU-ÚlRtLô] NhPd LôlûT CkR £\l× E¬ûULs YZeÏ¡u\]. CdLôXdLhPm 1þ1þ2000Cp Ø¥YûP¡\Õ. CXd¡Vl TûPl×Ls Utßm LûXlTûPl×Ls úTôu\Yt±u TûPlTô°L[ô] GÝjRô[oLs. AfÑ. JÚ TûPlûTÙm úUÛm £X ϱl©hP TûPl×Lû[Ùm Uß RVô¬l× ùNnYRtLô] HLúTôL E¬ûU Utßm ùTôÕ ¨Lrf£LÞdÏ YZeÏYRtLô] HLúTôL E¬ûU B¡V] T§lTô[ÚûPVRôÏm. Ck§VôûYl ùTôßjRYûW £X ¨TkRû]L°u A¥lTûP«p UhÓúU Cf£\l׬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. E¬ûU«u± R]Rôd¡d ùLôsRp. J. Ck§VôYô]Õ 1þ1þ2000 ØRp "¥¬lv"JlTkRf NWjÕdL°u A¥lTûP«p ¸rYÚm HÝYûL A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûULÞdÏ Lôl× A°dL ùTôßlTô¡\Õ.

TpúYß TϧL°p CÚkÕ YÚm ùTôÚsL°p NmUkRlThP ùTôÚû[ GkR®RUô] ÏZlTØm Cu± ùLôsØRXô[Wô] ÖLoYô[o NmUkRlThP ARu êXjúRôÓ úNojÕ A±kÕ ùLôs[ EjRWYôRm A°d¡\Õ. CR]ôp Lôl× NôokR E¬ûULÞdÏ 25 BiÓLs Lôl× YZeL AàU§dLlThPÕ. RûXl× Ï±fºhÓ. ARu êXm R]Õ ùTôÚsLs Utßm úNûYLs ®NVj§p R²lThP Øû\«p ETúVô¡lTRtLô] ùRôPof£Vô] E¬ûUûV AkR Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[o ùTß¡\ôo. YojRLoL[ôp ®VôTôW ç«p ETúVô¡dLlTÓYRôp YojRL Øj§ûW ®VôTôWf ùNôjRôL §Lr¡u\Õ. ARu Uô\ôR RWj§tÏ EjRWYôRm RÚ¡u\]. úUtùLôsYôNLUôLúYô. "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u TôLm 2Cu ©¬Ü 1 T§l׬ûU Utßm AÕ NmUkRlThP ®NVeLû[d ùLôiÓs[Õ. CfNhPm 1999 ¥NmT¬p §ÚjRlThPÕ. TûPlTô°Ls ReLs TûPl×LÞdÏ TûPl׬ûU úLôW Lôl׬ûU Y¯YÏd¡\Õ. ùTVo. J-TWl× AûUl×Ls ®NVj§p Ïû\kR ThNm 20 BiÓLs Lôl× YZeLlTPjRdLÕ. YôojûR. ùTôÚû[Ùm ARu êXjûRÙm AûPVô[eLôhÓ¡u\]. T§l׬ûULs. 'Øj§ûW' (ϱVûPVô[m) Gu\ YôojûRVô]Õ CkR CPj§p §\m. AûPVô[UôLúYô. AkR ùTôÚû[ ®[mTWlTÓjÕYRtÏ ERÜ¡u\]. CûN RhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u 9 þ 14 YûWVô] TϧL°p T§l׬ûU Ut\m AÕ NmUkRlThPûYLs Es[]. JúW Uô§¬Vô] CWiÓ ùYqúYß RVô¬l×Lû[ CWiÓ ùYqúYß ¨ßY]eLs ®tÏm úTôÕ AûYLû[ ©¬jR±V YojRL Øj§ûW TVuTÓ¡\Õ. EtTj§ ùNnVlThPùRôÚ ùTôÚs ApXÕ úNûYdLô] ©¬jR±VjRdL YojRL Øj§ûWVô]Õ ùTVWôLúYô. R]Õ Øj§ûWúVô AûRl úTôu\ûRúVô AÓjR JÚYo TVuTÓjÕm úTôÕ AûR NhPÁ\pL[ôL GÓjÕd ùLôiÓ ARu ÁÕ RûP ShPdLQdÏ ApXÕ AÓjR STo Dh¥Ùs[ XôTdLQdLôL GÓjÕd ùLôsYRtLô] £\l× E¬ûUûV ùTß¡\ôo. SUÕ NhPeLs AmUôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜL°u NWjÕLú[ôÓ ùTôßkRdá¥VûY. Ck§Vô HtL]úY ùTo² £\l× UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜL°p ûLùVÝj§hÓ Es[Õ. Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[o AûR T§Ü ùNn§ÚkRôÛm CpXô®hPôÛm ϱl©hP ùTôÚsLÞdÏ R²lThP Øû\«p AÕ ClúTôÕ T§Ü ùNnVlThÓs[Õ ApXÕ ETúVô¡dLlTÓ¡\Õ Gu\ A¥lTûP«p AÕ AqÜTúVôLj§tLô] ¿iP LôX E¬ûU ùTß¡\Õ. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p T§l׬ûU T§Ü AY£Vm CpXôUúXúV Rô]ôL AØÛdÏ YkÕ ®Ó¡\Õ. S¥l×. YojRL Øj§ûW ùNnVlTÓYRu êXm GkR CPj§p AûR T§Ü ùNnÕs[ôúWô ARtÏ EPuThÓ AkR Øj§ûWdÏ NmUkRlThP ùTôÚÞdÏ ETúVôLlTÓjÕm £\l× E¬ûUûV ùTß¡\ôo. AúR úSWj§p Lôl׬ûULs. L¦² ùNVp§hPeLs CXd¡V TûPl×Lû[l úTôXúY TôÕLôdLlTÓ¡u\]. Uôt± AûUlTRu êXØm ApXÕ úYß Y¯Ls êXØm TûPlTô°«u U¬VôûRdÏm SuU§l©tÏm úLÓ ®û[®d¡\ ùNVpLû[ RÓdLÜm RdL CZlÀÓ úLôWÜm T§l׬ûU AàU§V°d¡\Õ. JÚ TûPl©û] £ûRlTRu êXØm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 62 . YojRL Øj§ûWLs êuß®RUôL ùNVpTÓ¡u\]. GÝjÕ ApXÕ HRôYÕ JÚ áhÓY¥Ym úTôu\Ytû\ ϱl©ÓYRôL Es[Õ. YojRL Øj§ûWfNhPm: JÚ YojRLo NhPj§u ¸r R]Õ YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü ùNn§ÚdÏm ThNj§p AkR T§®u LôWQUôL U§lתdL E¬ûULû[l ùTß¡\ôo. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs Aû]jûRÙm úTôXúY T§l׬ûULs Lôl×m JÚ Sôh¥u EsSôhÓf NhPj§]¥lTûP«p AûUdLlTÓ¡\Õ. Ck§Vf NhPj§p T§l׬ûUdLô] Lôl× Øu× 60 YÚPeL[ôL CÚkRÕ. JÚ YûLVô] ùNôjRôL CÕ LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ. CûNjRhÓ RVô¬l× E¬ûULs B¡V] Ïû\kR ThNm 50 BiÓLs Lôl×ùT\jRdLûY. TôPLoLs. ùRô¯t£u]m. J-TWl× AûUl×Ls ®NVj§p "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u A¥lTûP«p úUtùLôs[lTÓm ®NôWûQLs ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u ùTÚmTôuûUVô] NWjÕLú[ôÓ ùTôßk§lúTôY]YôL Es[]. ApXÕ £u]UôLúYô CÚdÏm. ûLùVÝjÕ.CODISSIA CXd¡Vm Utßm LûXlTûPl×Lû[ TÚlùTôÚs Y¥Yj§p ©W§ GÓlTRtLô] E¬ûUûV LôdÏm ®NVj§p NhPj§u NôWUô]Õ AûYL°u ©W§ êXlT¥Yj (Negative)ûR NôokRRôL Es[Õ. Ck§Vô®u T§l׬ûUf NhPm £X Y¯L°p "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u úRûYLû[ Á± CÚkRRôp §ÚjRm ùNnVlThÓs[Õ. AR]¥lTûP«p Ck§Vô®p AØ-p Es[ ARu T§l׬ûUf NhPm 1957 T§l׬ûU NhPm 1999 B¡V] '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u NWjÕL[ôp úLôWlThÓs[ Ïû\kR ThNd LôlûT éoj§ ùNnY]YôL Es[]Yô Guß BnÜ ùNnV úYi¥Ùs[Õ. ϱl×f ºhÓ. YûWY¥YeLs Utßm YojRL Øj§ûWLs ®NVj§p AûYLû[ T§Ü ùNnYRu êXm UhÓúU Lôl׬ûU ¡ûPd¡\Õ. B) YojRL Øj§ûWLs: YojRL Øj§ûW GuTÕ AûPVô[eLÔYRtLôL ERÜm JÚ Ï±ÂÓ. T§l׬ûU Utßm AÕ NmUkRlThP S¥LoLs. TôPLoLs E¬ûULs. AûY ReLû[ ϱl©hP JÚ YojRLúWôÓ JÚ Ï±l©hP ®VôTôWj§u EPûUVô[WôL CÚkÕ RmûU ©uTt± YÚTYúWôÓ ùRôPo× TÓj§d LôhÓ¡u\].

AYt±tÏ E¬V Yônl×Ls AlúTôÕ LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[lTP®pûX. Cq®NVjûR Uôt±®PdáPôÕ. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u úSôdLØm CÕúYVôÏm. AkR YûL«p ùTôÚsLû[ YZeÏTYoLÞdÏ YojRL Øj§ûW ERÜ¡\Õ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 63 .CODISSIA EXL YojRL AûUl©u '¥¬lv' JlTkRm: "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u TôLm 2Cu ©¬Ü 2 YojRL Øj§ûWLs Tt±VRôÏm. CÕ ®NVj§p RtúTôÕ Ck§Vô®p Es[ NhPm "ùTôÚ°u ×®«p ϱVûPVô[f NhPm (T§Ü Utßm Lôl×) 1999 BÏm. ®VôTôWj§p DÓThÓs[ JÚYo Eßl× SôhÓ Ï¥UL]ôLúYô ApXÕ AÓjR JÚ Eßl× SôhÓ Ï¥UL]ôLúY CÚkRôÛm YojRL Øj§ûWLs NmUkRUô] £\l× UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs Utßm "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ©¬ÜLs 15 ØRp 21 Ø¥V Es[Yt±u A¥lTûP«p R]Õ YojRL Øj§ûWdÏ A§L ThNLôl× ùT\jRdLYWôYôo. RtúTôûRV קV YojRL Øj§ûWf NhPm 1999Cu ¸r úNûY Øj§ûW T§ÜdÏm CÕ ùTôÚkÕm. ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLû[ Ae¸LôWm ùT\ôR JÚYo Øû\ RY± TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓdL Lôl× YZeLlTP úYiÓm. C) ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs: ®VôTôWf NkûR«p ϱl©hP ×®«Vp CPlùTVoLÞdÏ ªÏkR Ød¡VjÕYm Es[]. CqYûL LôWQeLs Aû]j§u LôWQUôL SuÏ ¨ûX¨ßjRlThP ùTVÚs[ YojRL Øj§ûWVô]Õ ARu E¬ûUVô[ÚûPV U§l× ªdL ùNôjRôL B¡\Õ. ϱlTôL AkR ùTôÚ°u R²jRWUô]Õ AkR ùTôÚs EtTj§VôÏm CPj§u êXf£\l× LôWQUôL HtTÓm úTôÕ LhPôVm ¿iP ùS¥V ETúVôLj§tÏ ©\Ï AkR CPj§u ùTVWô]Õ EiûU«úXúV AojRm ùTß¡\Õ. ϱl©hP Tϧ«p ùRô¯-p DÓThÓs[ Aû]YWÕ RVô¬l×L°Ûm CPf£\l×lTi×Ls CVtûL«p AûUk§ÚlTRôp R²STo GYùWôÚYÚm CqܬûUûV úLôW Ø¥VôÕ. ûL®û]l ùTôÚhLs. úY[ôi ®û[ùTôÚsLs. 3 ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLû[ ûLVôs¡\Õ. T§ÜdÏ ®iQl©dL Es[ Øj§ûW«u ®NVj§Ûm CÕ ùTôÚkÕm. CVtûLl ùTôÚsLs. AûPdLlThP EQÜl ùTôÚsLs úTôu\ ùRô¯tNôûX ùTôÚsLs ®NVj§p ùTôÕYôL ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs ÖLoYô[oL°u LY]jûR LYo¡u\]. Lôg£×Wl ThÓ úTôu\Ytû\ ϱl©PXôm. JÚ ùTôÚ°tÏ ETúVôLlTÓjRlTÓm Øj§ûWVô]Õ LôXlúTôd¡p ARu RWjûR ÖLoYô[oLÞdÏ EQojÕYRôL Uôß¡\Õ. B]ôp AkRf NhPj§p úNûYÕû\ Øj§ûWdÏ Lôl× YZeLlTP®pûX. AlT¥lThP CPlùTVoLú[ôÓ NmUkRlTPôR NWdÏLs ApXÕ EtTj§l ùTôÚsLÞdÏ RY\ôL ùTôÚjÕYRtÏm ×®«Vp CPlùTVoLû[ Øû\úLPôL TVuTÓjÕYRtLô] Aû]jÕ Yônl×LÞm Es[]. ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYL°u êXjûR EQojÕYúR YojRL Øj§ûW«u úSôdLUôÏm. ARu A¥lTûP«p ¡ûPjR ùNpYôdûL ùLôiÓ Ï±l©hP LôXj§tÏ úUÛm ùRôPokÕ Yô¥dûLVô[oLs AkR ØLU§l× ùTt\ ùTôÚsLÞdÏ Øuà¬ûU A°dÏm ¨ûX EÚYô¡\Õ. YojRLm Utßm ®VôTôWf NhPm 1958Cu Ød¡VUô] NWjÕLs "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§tÏ ªLÜm ùTôÚk§«ßd¡u\].RVô¬lTô[oLs úYù\ôÚ CPj§-ÚkÕ CúR úTôu\ ùTôÚsLû[ ùLôiÓ YkÕ YojRLoL°Pm ùLôÓjÕ ùTôÕUdLû[ RY\ôL Y¯SPjÕYûR RÓdL úUtϱl©hP R² E¬ûU úRûYlTÓ¡\Õ. ùTôÚsL°u ®tTû]«p RtúTôÕ YojRL Øj§ûWLs TXUô] LôW¦VôL Es[Õ. ReL[Õ RVô¬l×L°u ®YWdϱl×L°u A¥lTûP«p AlT¥lThP ùTôÚsLû[ RVô¬dÏm JÚYo ¨V§«uT¥. T§Ü ùNnVlThP YojRL Øj§ûWLs ®NVj§p EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl× SôÓLs AmØj§ûWLÞdÏ ØÝ TôÕLôl× YZeL LPûUlThÓs[]. B]ôp YojRL Øj§ûWf NhPm 1999Cu êXm C§p Uôt\m ùNnVlThÓs[]. ϱlTôL AlT¥lThP CPlùTVoLÞPu R²lThP Øû\«p CûQkÕs[ ùTôÚsL°u ®NVj§p CÕ ùTôÚkÕ¡\Õ. RVô¬l×l ùTôÚhLs. ERôWQj§tÏ Pôow-e úR«ûX. G]úY NoYúRN NêLUô]Õ Yônl×L°u AûPVô[eLû[Ùm êXj§u ùTVûWÙm ARôYÕ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[j§tÏ Lôl× YZeLúYi¥VRu AY£VjûR LYj§p ùLôs[ úYiÓm. ÖLoYô[oLs Yg£dLlTÓY§-ÚkÕ TôÕLôdL CÕ ERÜ¡\Õ. CúR úTôu\ ®YWdϱl×Lû[d ùLôiÓ úTô. "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§p ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ Lôl× YZeLlThÓs[Õ. ϱlTôL NmUkRlThP ùTôÚsL°u êX CPjûR ϱl©Óm úTôÕ AkR CPj§u Yônl×Lû[ ùTôÕUdLs Ae¸L¬dÏm YûL«p LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[jRdL A[Ü U§lûT ®VôTô¬Ls AkR ùTôÚ°p úNodL úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP ùTôÚsLû[ EtTj§ ùNnúYô¬u ùTôÚ[ôRôW Y[ûUdÏm CÕ ERÜ¡\Õ. "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u TôLm 2 ©¬Ü JÚ ùTôÚ°u ùTVo ApXÕ A±ØLj§u GkR JÚ Y¥Yj§Xô] ETúVôLjûR AÓjRYo TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtLô] HtTôhûP ®ÚlTlTÓTYoLÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs NhPéoYUôL YZeL úYi¥VRô] ùTôÕYô]ùRôÚ ùTôßlûT JlTkRm Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. CRu êXm ClúTôÕ "¥¬lv"Cu ùTôßl×Lû[ ¨û\úYt\ ØÝûUVôL Sôm RVôoTÓj§d ùLôiPYoL[ôL Esú[ôm. AlT¥lThP ×®«Vp CPl ùTVo AûPVô[eLû[l TVuTÓjÕYRtLô] R² E¬ûU úLôWXôm.

AkR ùTôÚ°àsú[úV AÕ CÚlT§pûX.CODISSIA ùTVûWÙm A±ØLjûRÙm TVuTÓjÕmúTôÕ T«Wô]Õ úLs®dϱV ùTôÚ°u ×®«p êX CPjûR ϱl©Ó¡\Õ A±ØLUô]Õ ùTôÚ°u EiûUVô] êXCPjûRÙm ϱl©Ó¡\Õ. ØuUô§¬ ApXÕ ARu AXeLôWf £\l× B¡VYtû\ ϱlTRôL UhÓúU AojRlTÓ¡\Õ. CqYûLf £\l×Ls GkR JÚ ùRô¯p Õû\ RVô¬l× ¨ûXdÏm LÚ®LÞdÏm ùTôßkR úYiÓm. D) ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Ym: JÚ ùTôÚû[ úRoÜ ùNnY§p AlùTôÚ°u Y¥Ym ÖLoYô[o ÁÕ B§dLm ùNn¡\Õ. Sôm RtúTôÕ ¿§Uu\ BûQLs ApXÕ Nôußd ϱl×Ls ØXm ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ Lôl× YZe¡«Úd¡ú\ôm. ùRô¯pÕû\ ApXÕ RVô¬l× Y¥Yj§tÏ SôuÏ ùTôßjRUô] ÏQeLs Es[]. CûR úUÛm IkÕ BiÓLÞdÏ ¿h¥dLXôm. úSWØm. úUÛm T§ÜdÏ Øu]o AÕ ùY°«PlTh¥ÚdLd áPôÕ. YûWY¥Yf NhPm 1911Cu ¸r JÚ YûWY¥YjûR T§Ü ùNnYRtÏ AÕ ÑVRuûU EûPVRôLÜm קVRôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm. CqܬûU êXY¥YeLÞdÏm. NmUkRlThP ùTôÚ°u ùNVpRuûULû[ ûYjÕ Ø¥ùYÓdLf ùNnY§pûX. úRôt\m Utßm Y¥Y AûUl× GuT] JÚ ùTôÚ°u EÚYjûR ϱd¡u\]. T§ÜdLô] YûWY¥Ym Øuáh¥úV ùY°Yk§ÚdLddáPôÕ. úRôt\j§Ûm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 64 . 1) 2) TûZVTj§W. Utßm ARu LiLYÚm LYof£Vôp ùY°lTÓ¡\Õ. Utßm ùY°«PlThÓ Øu]úW ETúVô¡dLlThPÕ. AûY úRôt\m. CqܬûU HLúTôL E¬ûUVpX. CjRVô¬l× ¨ûXLs ûLúYûXlTôPôúYô. LhPPeLû[Ùm LhÓ AûUl×Lû[Ùm YûWY¥Ym Gu\ YûWVû\dÏs ùLôiÓYW Ø¥VôÕ. NôRôWQUôL AkRl ùTôÚ°u úUpUhPjûR ϱlTRô Es[ CdÏQeLs ThûPd¡ûPVô] úRôt\jûRV°lTûY. ùY°ÂÓLs. ®tTû]ûV A§L¬dÏm YûL«Xô] Yh¥dÏ YZeÏm T¦«p ªÏkR LôXjûRÙm ªÏkR £kRû]ûVÙm £X A±Yô°Ls DÓTÓjÕ¡u\]o. YûWY¥Ym GuTÕ JÚ ùTôÚ°p ùTôßkRjRdLÕ. LiÔdÏ LYof£VôL úRôt\U°dÏm Y¥Yj§tLôL UhÓm Liê¥jR]UôL ùTôÚsLû[ úRoÜ ùNnÙm ÏÚhPômúTôdÏ TX¬Pm Es[Õ. AkR YûWY¥YjûR ùTôßjRdá¥V ùTôÚ°u éoj§ ùNnVlThP Y¥YjûR YôeLd á¥VYÚdÏ AÕ HRôYÕ Juû\ LhPôVm ùY°lTÓjRúYiÓm. ØuUô§¬Vô] úRôt\m Utßm AXeLôWf £\l× B¡V] AXeLôW ÏQjûR ϱd¡u\]. ×ÕûU. 1999 EßYôdLlThÓs[ ¨ûX«p ClקV NhPj§u êXm úUÛm £\kR Øû\«p ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[ Lôl× YZeL Ø¥Ùm. AXeLôWf £\l©Ûm èR]Uô] GiQeLû[ Es[Pd¡VRôL Es[]. T§ÜdÏ YkÕs[ YûWY¥Ym קVRôL CÚkRôÛm ApXÕ êXjRuûU YônkRRôL CÚkRôÛm Øuáh¥úV ùY°«PlThPRôL CÚdLd áPôÕ. Y¥Y E¬ûU JÚ ùNôjÕ BÏm. B]ôp éoj§ ùNnVlThP Y¥Yj§p ®tLlTÓ¡\ çd¡f ùNpXjRdL ùTôÚsLû[ YûWY¥Y T§ÜdLô]ûYVôL GÓjÕd ùLôs[Xôm. ARtLÓjR IkÕ BiÓLs ¿¥dL ®iQlTRôWo LhPQm ùNÛjR úYiÓm. SpX XôTm RÚm YûWY¥YjûR AûR EÚYôd¡VYo T§Ü ùNnÕ ùLôsYRu úSôdLm. YojRL úSôdLj§tLôL JÚ YûWY¥YjûR EÚYôdÏmúTôÕ AkR Bn®tLôL ϱl©PjRdL TQØm. WNôVQd ¡¬ûVVôLúYô CÚdLXôm. CqYûL«p ùTôÚ°u Y¥Ym ÖLoYô[oLû[ LYWf ùNnYRu êXm XôTjûRd áhÓ¡\Õ. CkR ùY°ÂÓ CÚYûLlTÓm. éoj§ ùNnVlThP ùTôÚ°p áhPôLúYô R²VôLúYô úNokÕ LYok§ÝdLd á¥VRôLÜm LiL[ôp ùUÕYôL TôojÕ Ut\Yt±PªÚkÕ ©¬kR±kÕ TôodLdRdLRôLúYô AkR YûWY¥Ym §LZ úYiÓm. YûWY¥Yj§u úRôt\ÏQm LiL[ôp ARu Y¥YjûR ùUpX U§l©hP LiLû[d úLhÓd ùLôsYRôÏm. ùTôÕ CPeLû[ Jj§WôR úRôt\m ApXÕ AûUl× Y¥YeLÞdÏ ùTôßkÕm. LYof£LWUô] Y¥Ym ®tTû]ûV áhÓYRôp AlT¥lThP Y¥YeLû[ EtTj§Vô[oLs úR¥ AûX¡u\]o. YûWY¥Y êXjûR LhÓlTj§ ûYj§ÚlTYûW ARu E¬ûUVô[WôdL úLôÚYRtúL YûWY¥Y E¬ûU T§ÜdLô] GpXô ®iQlTeLÞm YÚ¡u\]. JÚ ùTôÚ°u LXôU§l×dLôL ARu Y¥Yj§p LYWlThÓ ùTôÚsLû[ UdLs YôeÏ¡u\]o. AYÚdÏ ¡ûPdL úYi¥V ùYÏU§ûV RôeLs LYokÕ ùLôsÞm YûL«p ©\o AkR Y¥YjûR ReLs ùTôÚsLÞdÏ AqY¥Yj§u E¬ûUVô[Wô] AY¬u AàU§ ùT\ôUp TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRôÏm. YûWY¥Y E¬ûUVô]Õ ×§V A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUVôÏm. £X ùTôÚhLs ®NVj§p AûYL°u ùUôjR CÚl× ®tßj¾Úm YûW«Xô] Ïß¡V LôXLhPj§tÏ UhÓúU AlùTôÚ°u Y¥YjRôp UdLs LYWlTÓ¡u\]o. úYù\kR ®VôTôW ùTôÚû[lúTôXúY CûR YôeLXôm. TûPl×j §\àm ©¥d¡\Õ. Gk§W úYûXlTôPôLúYô. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Gu\ YûL«Xô] JÚ YûWY¥Yj§u U§lTô]Õ ARu ÑVRuûU. èR]jRuûU ApXÕ êXjRuûU ϱjR BRôWeLû[ YojRL ¨×QoLû[d ùLôiÓ Ø¥Ü ùNnV AàU§dLlThÓs[Õ. YZdLUôL CÕ ØlT¬UôQ Y¥Yj§p CÚd¡\Õ. Y¥Y AûUl× ØuUô§¬ Utßm AXeLôWf £\l× B¡V]YôÏm. 'קV' ApXÕ 'êXjRuûU' Gu\ YôojûRLs ØuUô§¬jRuûU«Ûm. B]ôp ©W§GÓlTûRÙm RÓdLjRdLÕ. AûUl× Y¥Ym. Ck¨ûX«p RtúTôÕ "ùTôÚsLÞdLô] ×®«p ϱVûPVô[m (T§Ü Utßm Lôl×) NhPm. E¬Um ùLôÓdLXôm. ®tLXôm. YûWY¥Ym GuTÕ ARu úRôt\m.

ùLôsûLLs úVôNû]Ls úTôu\Yt±tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓY§pûX. £\l× E¬ûU Gu\ A¥lTûP«p LiÓ©¥lTô[oLs Rϧ ªdL R]Õ LiÓ©¥l©u NôWUôL Es[ ùTôÚû[ EtTj§ ùNnY§-ÚkÕm ETúVô¡lT§-ÚkÕ. úRûYVô] ùNVp®[dLm B¡ûY Uô\ôUp CÚkÕ YÚ¡u\]. AlT¥lThP קV ApXÕ êXY¥YeLs TôÕLôl× ùT\jRdLûY. LiÓ©¥lTô[o Utßm LiÓ©¥lTô[ô¬PªÚkÕ ReL[Õ E¬ûUL[ôp ùTtßs[YoLÞdÏ AWNôeLm RÚm NhPéoY NÛûL CÕ. ¥¬lv JlTkRj§u TôLm 2 ©¬Ü 5 B]Õ Lôl׬ûU NmUkRlThPÕ. Ïû\ ªu LPj§Ls. קV ùRô¯pÖhTjûRÙm ùRô¯pÕû\ûVÙm FdLlTÓj§ Y[olT§p Lôl׬ûUdÏ Ød¡V TeÏ EiÓ. Ck§Vô®p Lôl׬ûUf NhPm 1970Cp ùR°YôL EߧlTÓj§j RWlThÓs[ûYL°]Õm AqYlúTôÕ §ÚjRlTÓTûYL°]Õm A¥lTûP«p Lôl×d úLôÚúYôÚdÏ E¬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs ®NVj§p AûYL°u TûPl×dÏ ùRô¯pÖhT ApXÕ CVeÏ Øû\ LôW¦Ls çiÓúLôsL[ôL CÚk§ÚkRôp AqYûWY¥Yj§p Es[ Ae¸L¬dLjRdL AZÏf £\lûT LQd¡ùXÓdLôUp ARtÏ Lôl× A¯dL CVXôÕ G] ¨WôL¬jÕ®PXôm. E) Lôl׬ûULs: TVuTPjRdL JÚ ×ÕdLiÓ©¥l©u E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ Ï±l©hP LôXj§tÏ YZeLlTÓm NhPéoY HLúTôL E¬ûURôu Lôl׬ûU.CODISSIA ùY°Âh¥u ©W§ ùTôÕ èXLj§p ¡ûPdLdá¥VRôL CÚkRôp HtL]úY ùY°«PlThÓ®hPûR ¨ì©dL AÕúY úTôÕUô] Nôh£VôL Es[Õ. N¬LhPlThPRôLúYô. ùY°lTûPjRuûU«u RôrkR UhPm. JÚ Lôl׬ûUdÏ YZeLlThP NhPlT¥Vô] HLúTôR E¬ûUd LôXLhPm Ø¥kR ©u]o Ut\YoLs AûR ETúVô¡dLÜm A©®Új§ ùNnVÜm Ø¥Ùm. ϱlTôL Lôl׬ûU Gu\ LÚjÕ Utßm ARu AY£VUô] TϧL[ô] èR]m. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ Lôh£lTÓjR úYi¥V ùTôßl× CÚlTRu LôWQUôL AûYLs ÑRk§WUôL EÚYôdLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. Lôl׬ûULÞdÏ NoYúRN ÏQômNm CÚlTRôL LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ. EúXôLd LXûYL[ôY] TôLeLs) E¬ûU úLôWXôm. JÚ Sôh¥p Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[ JÚ LiÓ©¥l× AÓjR JÚ Sôh¥p T§Ü ùNnVlTh¥Wô®¥p AkR Sôh¥p ¨Xj§p AdLiÓ©¥l©tÏ LôlT°dL ¨oTk§dL Ø¥VôÕ. Lôl׬ûU SûPØû\«u ¸r A±®u TVuRWjRdL EPûULs ùTôÚs ç«p ùRôPokÕ SôÓL°u GpûXLû[jRôi¥ ùNpXjRdLÕ. £\l× E¬ûU LôX ¨oQ«lûT ùTôßjRYûW ¨ûXVô]RôLúYô. CfNhPj§tÏ 1999Bm BiÓ §ÚjRm ùLôiÓYWlTÓmYûW êXlùTôÚsLÞdLô] Lôl× ùTßYRtLô] ®§Øû\Ls ¸rdLiPYôß CÚkR]: A) EQÜ ApXÕ UÚkÕLs ¨YôW¦Ls Y¥®p TVuTÓjRRdL ApXÕ TVuTÓj§P EjúR£jÕs[ êXlùTôÚs LiÓ©¥l×dÏ úLôWXôm. B) WNôVQ ¡¬ûV êXm JÚ Ï±l©hP YûL êXlùTôÚû[ RVô¬lTÕ ApXÕ EtTj§ ùNnYRu ÁÕ (Lôl× EúXôLm. 1911Bm NhPj§p UÚkÕLs ¨YôW¦Ls Utßm ϱl©hP YûL WNôVQeLs B¡V]Yt±tÏ Lôl× ùTßYRtLô] Yônl×Ls CÚkRûR 1970BiÓf NhPm ùT¬V A[®tÏ Uôt±®hPÕ. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YfNhPj§tLô] §ÚjReLs 2001 Bm BiÓ ÕYdLj§p Ae¸L¬dLlThPÕ. 1970Bm BiÓf NhPj§u ©¬Ü 5 êXm CûYLÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] Yônl× ALt\lThPÕ. '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u TôLm 2 ©¬Üþ4 ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLû[ Es[Pd¡ CÚd¡\Õ. LiÓ©¥lTô[o R]Õ LiÓ©¥l× ÖhTeLû[ WL£VUôL LôlTRtLô] £\l× E¬ûU ùTtßs[ôo. ùRô¯p ÖhTj§u GkR JÚ Õû\ûVf úNokR LiÓ©¥l©tÏ E¬ûU úLôÚm úTôÕ AÕ ùTÚs Y¥Yj§û] NmUkRlTÓjÕYRôL CÚkRôÛm N¬ ApXÕ ùNVpØû\Lû[l Tt±VRôL CÚkRôÛm N¬ AdLiÓ©¥l©u èR]m. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 65 . ùRô¯pÕû\ ùNôjÕdLs TôÕLôl©tLô] NoYúRN £\l× UôSôÓ (Tô¬v £\l× UôSôÓ) Utßm EXL YojRL AûUl©u '¥¬lv' JlTkRm B¡V] ùRô¯pÕû\ Lôl׬ûU YZeÏ¡u\]. ®tT§-ÚkÕm Ut\YoLû[ ®Xd¡ ûYdLXôm. £XYtû\l ùTôßjRYûW Lôl׬ûU LôXUô]Õ 17 ØRp 20 BiÓL[ôL CÚd¡\Õ. LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£. LPkR Sôòß BiÓLôXUôL Ck¨ûX ¿¥lTRôL JÚ LÚjÕ Es[Õ. CkR Y¥®Ûs[ Ju±tLô] Lôl׬ûU GuTÕ AWNôeLeL°u GpûXLs YûW NmUkRlThPÕ. ×Õl©dLjRRôLúYô ApXÕ ùLÓ ®§dLlThPRôLúYô CÚdLXôm. קV LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£«p ùNÛjRlThP DÓTôÓ Utßm ùRô¯pÕû\ ETúVôLj§tÏ ùTôßk§lúTôÏm RuûU B¡VYtû\ úNôRû]dÏ EhTÓj§d ùLôs[ úYi¥V ùTôßl× Es[Õ. Lôl׬ûUVô]Õ ùRô¯pÕû\ NôokR ApXÕ A±Üf ùNôjÕ Y¥Yj§p CÚdÏm. J°d LiQô¥Ls. Ck§Vô®p 1856Bm BiÓ ØRúX Lôl׬ûU CÚkÕ YÚ¡\Õ. B]ôp £X LhÓûWLs ApXÕ úVôNû]Lû[ DÓTÓj§ LhÓûWûV RVô¬lTRtLô] SûPØû\dÏ E¬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûU Utßm 1911 Bm BiÓ YûWY¥Yf NhPm B¡V] RtúTôûRV 1970Bm BiÓ Lôl׬ûU NhPj§u êXm Uôt±VûUdLlThPÕ.

CRtLô] NhPØuûWÜ TôWôÞUu\ NûTL°u áhÓd ÏÝ®u Øu× Es[Õ. úR£V AÔÏØû\«u A¥lTûP«p CRtLô] TôÕLôl× EߧlTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ. TûPl©u CVp× GlT¥«ÚkRôÛm ARu ETúVôLm UtßU AÕ ùRôPoTô] ®NVeL[ôp AlTûPl× DhÓm U§l×Lû[l ùTôßjRYûW R² AÔÏØû\Ùm R²lThP NhPØm úRûY. E¬ûUdLô] LôXdùLÓ NhP Á\pLs GûY GuTRtLô] ®XdLeLs B¡V] CVt\lTÓm NhPj§p úNodLlTPúYiÓm. AûY Ïû\ªu LPj§ EúXôLeL°u úUp ùTôßjRlThÓs[]. ¥¬lv JlTkRj§u TôLm 2 Tϧ 6 (©¬Ü 25 ØRp 38) Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u AûUl× YûWTPjûR Es[Pd¡ Es[Õ. A±Üd áoûUªdL AkR RLYpLs ùY°«PlTPjRdLRôL CÚkRôp NmUkRlThPYWÕ úTôh¥Vô[oLÞdÏm AkR RLYpLû[ ûLVôPp ùNnÕ TVuTÓjÕTYoLÞdÏm NôRLUôL úTôn®Óm. EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u YôµePu JlTkRm Gu\ûZdLlTÓm NoúRN JlTkRj§p Ck§VôÜm ûLùVÝjÕ ChÓs[Õ. NmUkRlThP RLYpLs Utßm ETúVôLj§u ÁÕ HtßdùLôs[lThP ùS±Øû\Ls Utßm WL£Vm LôjRp B¡V] AkR RLYpLs ùY°«PlTPôUp TôÕLôd¡u\]. úUÛm JÚ LiÓ©¥lTô[o AYWÕ ùNkR A±Üd áoûUûV ùLôiÓ EßYôd¡V AûUl× YûWTPm AYWÕ ØVt£«u EiûUVô] TX]ôL CÚdÏmThNj§p AkR AûUl× YûWTPj§tÏ LôlT°dL úYi¥VûR ¥¬lv Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. EXL qjRL AûUl©u ¥¬lv JlTkRØm AûUl× YûWTPeLÞdÏ Lôl× A°jÕs[Õ. U²RoLs. ¥¬lv JlTkRl ùTôßl×Lû[ 1þ1þ2000 Bm úR§ ØRp AØpTÓjÕYRtLôL Lôl׬ûULs (CWiPôYÕ §ÚjRm) NhPØuYûWÜ 1999 B]Õ 1999Bm BiÓ ¥NmT¬p TôWôÞU]tj§u Øu ûYdLlThPÕ. CkR YûWTPeLû[ §ÚhÓjR]UôL TVuTÓjÕYÕ RiPû]dϬVÕ. CkR JlTkRj§tÏ U§lT°dÏm YûL«p Eßl×SôÓLs TXYt±p úRûYVô] NhPeLs EßYôdLlThÓ Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßLs Utßm ARu AûUl× YûWTPeLÞdÏ Lôl× YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§tÏ Yk§ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ úYß HRôYÕ ETúVôLj§u ¸r Yk§ÚkRôúXô AkR RLYp R]Õ SmTLjRuûUûVÙm ùY°«PlTPôR RuûUûVÙm CZkÕ ®Ó¡\Õ. ÑtßfãZûX úUôNUôL Tô§dLdá¥V]. CRtLô] YûWØû\Lû[ ¥¬lv JlTkRm YÏdL®pûX. 1957 Bm BiÓ T§l׬ûU«p Es[Yt±tÏ ùTôßj§YWdá¥VYûL«p TôÕLôl× úLôÚm ®NVj§u CVp× ÏQm CÚdL úYiÓm JlTkR ©¬Ü 2þ(C) Cp ϱl©hÓs[T¥ JÚ YûWTPm (ùTôÕYô] RuûUûV ϱdÏm TPm. A§p £XYtû\ áÓRXôL úNojÕs[]o. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 66 . YôµePu JlTkRj§u Ød¡V ùTôßl×Ls ¥¬lv JlTkRj§p úNodLlThÓs[]. F) Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u YûWTPeLs SÅ]ÙLm ªu]ÔÙLm SÅ] LÚ®Ls Aû]j§Ûm ªu]ÔUôt±Ls Utßm ªuÑtß T¥YeLs Es[]. AûPVô[ YûWTPm. ®XdÏLs Utßm T«tLs (Öi EPÛßl×Ls R®ojÕ) B¡VYt±u úSôn LiP±Rp. RdL TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRtÏ Ht\Õ Guß LÚ§V YûWVû\Lû[ AkRkR SôÓL°u AWNôeLeLú[ YÏjÕd ùLôs[Xôm Guß ®PlThÓs[Õ. T§ÜdLô] SûPØû\Ls Utßm AÕNmUkRUô] ¨TkRû]Ls. Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßL°u YûWTPeLÞdLô] Lôl× NoYúRN ç«p Ae¸L¬dLlThP Ju\ôÏm. E«¬Vp NôWôR Utßm Öi E«¬Vp SûPØû\Ls ApXôR T«tLs Utßm ®XdÏLs EtTj§dÏ AY£VUô] E«¬Vp SûPØû\dÏm Lôl׬ûU«-ÚkÕ ®XdL°dLXôm. G) ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLs ( SmTLUô] RLYpLs): ®VôTôWm. E¬ûU«u GpûXLs. ×®«Vp YûWTPm. CÕ NmUkRUô] NhP ØuYûWÜ 1999 ¥NmT¬p TôWôÞUu\j§p RôdLp ùNnVlThÓ ¨û\úYt\j§tLôL LôjÕs[Õ. ùY°«PlTPdáPôR RLYpLs HtL]úY ùR¬VYk§ÚkRôúXô. CkR Ïû\ ªu LPj§L[ô]Y ªu]ÔdLs ùNVXôt\d á¥VRôLÜm AûUdLlThÓs[]. SUÕ SôhûPl ùTôßjRYûW Ñn ù_]¬v Øû\ûVl Tt± SUÕ Sôh¥p A±kÕs[Ru A¥lTûP«p Lôl× YZeÏYRtÏ Ø¥Ü GÓdLlThÓs[Õ. úR£V AÔÏUû\«u A¥lTûP«p CqYûL E¬ûU ûYjÕs[ ùY°SôhPYWÕ E¬ûUdÏ 10 BiÓ LôX Lôl× A°dLúYiÓm. ùNVp§hPm B¡VYtû\ Es[Pd¡VRôL CÚjRp)" ApXÕ "ûL®û]O¬u LûXSVmªdL TûPl×" B¡V]Yt±u A¥lTûP«p JÚ TûPl×f ùNVp CÚkRôp ARtÏ Lôl× úLôWXôm. YojRLm Utßm EtTj§jÕû\«p DÓThÓs[YoLs ReL[Õ EtTj§«u §\u Utßm U§l×áhPÛdÏ A¥lTûPVôL AûUkR èR]Uô] ¨oYôL SûPØû\Ls AYoLÞûPV ¨§ úUXôiûU Tt±V RLYpLs ùY°«PlTPôRûYVôL TWôU¬dL ®Úmסu\]o. AÕ TôWôÞUu\ NûTL°u áhÓdÏÝ®u Øu Es[Õ. ¨YWôQ SûPØû\Ls Utßm AßûY £¡fûN Øû\Ls Tt±V LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏ Lôl× A°lT§-ÚkÕ ®XdL°dLXôm. Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß AûUl× YûWTPeLs NmUkRUôL ¥¬lv JlTkRj§u TpúYß TϧL°p ϱl©hÓs[ûYLÞdÏ HtT ØÝûUVôL EߧlTÓjÕYRtL] £\l× NWjÕL°u A¥lTûP«p E¬ûU«u ®[dLm.CODISSIA ¥¬lv JlTkRj§u Aû]jÕ ©¬ÜLÞdÏm ùTôßkRjRdL TôÕLôl× A¥lTûP«Xô] ùTôÕYô] ®XdÏLs úTôL Lôl× ùTßYRtLô] YônlûT ®XdÏYRtLô] ϱl©PjRdL LôWQeLs AàU§dLjRdLÕ. CRtLô] "Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßLs A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRm" 1989 úU 26Bm úR§ YôµePu SL¬p HtTÓjRlThPÕ. T«oWLeLû[l ùTôßjRYûW Lôl׬ûU Y¥Yj§úXô ApXÕ Nôj§VUô] Ñn ù_]¬v Øû\«u ¸úZô ApXÕ AÕ úTôu\ GkR JÚ Y¥Yj§Ûs[ Lôl׬ûU YZeLúYi¥V AY£VªpûX.

EXL YojRL AûUl©u "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§]Õ Tϧ 27. CkR UúNôRô®u ¸r TôÕLôlT°dLlThÓs[ T«tYûLûV EtTj§ ùNn¡\YoL[ô] E¬ûU EZYoL[Õ E¬ûU TôÕLôdLlTÓYûR EߧlTÓjÕYûR úSôdLUôL ùLôiÓ CmUúNôRô AûUdLlThÓs[Õ. CkR TôWô®tLô] NWjÕLû[ EXL YojRL AûUl× EÚYô] SôuÏ BiÓLs L¯jÕ ùTtßd ùLôs[Xôm.. ARôYÕ ùTôÕ SXu LÚ§ CXYN TVuTôhÓ ¨ûX ÁRô] E¬ûULs ϱjÕ RdL LY]m ùNÛjRlTÓm. B) Öi êXdá±Vp Utßm AY£VUô] E«¬Vp ùNVpØû\Ls R®ojR T«oLs Utßm ®XeÏLÞdÏ LôlT°lT§-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm... CkR ®`VjûR ûLVôsYRtÏ Ck§Vô R² NhPjûR RVôo ùNnÕ A±ØLlTÓj§Ùs[Õ... ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpL°u CVpTô] Utßm NhPéoY E¬ûUVô[oLs AkR RLYp ùY°«PlPôUÛm ©\Wôp ûLlTt\lTPôUÛm CYoL[Õ Jl×Rp CpXôUp SmTLUô] YojRL SûPØû\LÞdÏ ®úWRUôL CjRLYpLû[ ©\o TVuTÓjÕRp B¡VYt±-ÚkÕ NhPéoYUôL TôÕLôjÕ ReLs LhÓlTôh¥p ûYjÕdùLôsYRtLô] E¬ûULs ϱjÕ JlTkRj§u ClTϧ«p ®Y¬dLlThÓs[].3 (B) Lû[ G§o ùLôsYRtLôL AqûUl©u JÚ Eßl©]o Gu\ YûL«p Ck§Vô®u Uj§V AWÑ ClT¥ JÚ NhPjûR EßYôd¡P Øu UVt£ GÓjÕs[Õ... Uû\RY± ùY°«PlThPÕ ®NVUôL ×Lôo GÝkÕ Aq®£Vm ¨ì©dLlTÓmúTôÕ RdL ¨YôWQeLû[ ¿§Uu\m ¨oQ«d¡\Õ. CRu LôWQUôL CkR ®NVj§tÏ R² NhPm úRûY Guß LÚR úYi¥V AY£Vm HtTP®pûX.. AúR úSWj§p T«t YûLLÞdÏ Lôl׬ûULs ApXÕ ãnù_]¬v Y¥®p LôlT°dLXôm.. JÚYo RuàûPV ®VôTôWm YojRLm Utßm EtTj§ NmUkRlThP ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLû[ TôÕLôjÕ ûYj§ÚlTÕ ARu E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ Es[ CVpTô] E¬ûUVôÏm... ¥¬lv JlTkRj§u TôLm 2 ©¬Ü 7 ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpL[ Es[Pd¡«Úd¡\Õ.. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 67 . EXL YojRL AûUl©u ¥¬lv JlTkRm ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLû[ EXLm RÝ®V A[®p TôÕLôd¡\Õ. T«o YûL T§ÜL°u ÁRô] TôÕLôl× Utßm EZYoL[Õ E¬ûULs Tt±V UúNôRô þ 1999.. G]úY קV T«o YûLLû[ A©®Új§ ùNnYRtLôL EXL YojRL AûUl©u Eßl× SôÓL[ô]ûY T«t EtTj§Vô[oLs Utßm EZYoL°u E¬ûULû[ TôÕLôlTRtLô] SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. T«o EtTj§Vô[o Utßm EZYoL[Õ E¬ûU: T«o EtTj§Vô[o Utßm EZYoL[Õ E¬ûULÞdLô] TôÕLôl× TX SôÓL°p ùTôÕYôL HtLlThÓs[Õ. B]ôp Öi êXdát±VÛdÏ A©®Új§ ùNnV úYi¥V§pûX. "¥¬lv "JlTkRj§u ClTϧVô]Õ Eßl× SôÓLs Lôl׬ûU YZeÏYRu êXm ApXÕ Ñn ù_²¬v Øû\ ApXÕ Cq®WiÓm Ju±ûQkÕ JÚ Øû\«p T«tYûLLÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU A°jÕTôÕLôl× YZeL úYiÓm Guß "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u CfNWjÕ Eßl× SôÓLû[ úLhÓd ùLôiÓs[Õ.. CÕ NmUkRlThP ùTôÕNhPm T¥lT¥VôL TXlThÓ YÚ¡\Õ. CRu ÁRô] YûLLû[ Tt± ϱlTôL LY]m ùNÛjÕ¡u\]o.. EXL YojRL AûUl©u "¥¬lv"JlTkRØm T«tYûLLs EtTj§Vô[oLs Utßm EZYoL[Õ E¬ûULÞm.. Lôl׬ûU«u êXm T«o EtTj§Vô[oL°u E¬ûULû[ Ae¸L¬dÏm úTôÕ GÝ¡u\ R² ©WfNû]Ls ÁÕ AYoLs R² LY]m ùNÛjÕ¡u\]o. UÚkÕLs ApXÕ úY[ôi Õû\LÞdLô] WNôVQlùTôÚsLs NkûRdLô] Jl×Rp ùTßYRtÏ AûYLs NmUjlThP ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLs Utßm ©\ ®YWeLs YojRL ùS± ©WrkR Øû\«pTVuTÓjRlTPôUp TôÕLôdL úYiÓm GuTÕ ¨TkRû]VôÏm Ck§Vô®p SmªPm YojRL WL£VeLs NmUkRUôL R²lThP NhPm CpûX. ReL[Õ Wôw´V GpûX«p קV T«o YûLLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRtLôL Guß UhÓUpXôUp T«o EtTj§Vô[oL[Õ SXuLÞdÏm TôÕLôl× RWúYi¥VÕ AY£Vm GuTÕ SôÓLÞdÏ GÓjÕûWdLlThÓs[Õ..... 3) Eßl©]oLs LôlT°lT§²uß ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm A) . קV T«tYûLLs A©®Új§ ùNnYRtLôL TVuTÓjRlTÓm TôWmT¬V ApXÕ Esðo T«o WLeLû[ TVuTÓjÕm úTôÕ AYt±u E¬ûUVô[oL[ô] ¡WôUjRYoLÞdÏm EZYo NêLj§tÏm RdL CZlÀhÓj ùRôûL YZeLúYiÓm. ©úWô¡dLlThÓs[ CfNhP Y¥Yj§û] GpXôYûLVô] T«oYûLLÞdÏm ®¬Ü TÓj§P úYiÓm. úUtT¥ T«oL°u UW× Y[eLû[ TVuTÓjÕY§p UhÓm CpXôUp AlT«tLû[Ùm ®ûRLs Gu\ Y¥Yj§p T«¬ÓYRtLô] êXlùTôÚs Gu\ ¨ûX«p Es[ AkR TôÕLôdLlThP T«tYûLL°u ®tß ØRp YÚYôûVÙm N¬NUUôL T¡okÕ ùLôsYRtLô] NWjÕLs CmUúNôRô®p Es[].. CkR ®`VeL°u ÁÕ Eßl× SôÓLs BrkÕ LY]m ùNÛj§ JúW Uô§¬Vô] ùR°Yô] ùLôsûLLû[ EÚYôd¡ ARu êXm ReLÞdÏs[ô] ©WfNû]LÞdÏ RdL ¾oÜLÞm EÚYôd¡d ùLôs[ úYiÓm. NkûRlTÓjÕYRtLôL ®VôTôW úSôd¡p Uß EtTj§ ùNnYRtÏ UhÓm Gu±pXôUp úUÛm £X NWjÕLû[Ùm AÕ Ruàs ùLôiÓs[Õ.CODISSIA ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpL°p Es[ E¬ûU JÚ NêL E¬ûUVôÏm. "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u TôLm ©¬Ü 5 Tϧ þ 27 u TôWô 3 u ÕûQ TôWô (B) ¸rLiP LôWQeLÞdLôL T«o YûLLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× YZeL úYi¥VûR GÓjÕûWd¡\Õ.

קV Y¥YeLs ùRô¯p ÖhT TûPl×Ls B¡V]Yt±tÏ YZeLlTÓ¡u\]. T§l׬ûUÙm AÕ ùRôPoTô] E¬ûULÞm JÚ B£¬V¬u CXd¡Vm ApXÕ LûXl TûPl×Ls ( ×jRLeLs Utßm ©\ GÝjÕl TûPl×Ls. K®VeLs. ClT¥lThP £\l× AûPVô[eLÞdÏ Lôl× A°lTRu êXm úSoûUVô] úTôh¥dÏ Y¯YÏdLlTÓ¡\Õ. Utßm YojRL WL£VeLs B¡V] AkR YûL«u ¸r YÚ¡u\]. ùRô¯p Õû\«p YZeLlTÓm ©\ YûL ùNôjÕ¬ûU Lôl×Ls קV LiÓ©¥l×Ls. קV ùRô¯XLeLû[ A©®Új§ ùNnYRtÏ ùNX®PlTÓm ØRÄh¥u TXuLû[ ØRÄhPô[oLÞdÏ úTônfúNÚYRu êXm AYoLÞdLô] FdLjùRôûL úTônf úNÚYûR EjRWYôRlTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 68 . ϱl©hP AûPVô[d ϱLs. TôPLoLs úTôuß ùNVpTÓj§d LôhÓTYoLs J° T§Ü RVô¬lTô[oLs Utßm J-TWl× ¨ßY]eL[Õ E¬ûULÞm Lôl׬ûU«u ¸r TôÕLôdLlTÓ¡u\]. AúRúTôX LRôTôj§WeLû[ S¥jÕd LôhÓTYoLs. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p ©WfNû]dϬV AûPVô[j§u £\l× ¨ûX ùRôPokÕ CÚdLd á¥VRôÏm. £ûXLs. YojRL ϱLs (ϱl©hP JÚY¬u ùTôÚsLs. úNûYLû[ Utù\ôÚYW§-kÕ EP]¥VôL LiÓùLôs[ TVuTÓjRlTÓm AûPVô[eLs) Utßm ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLs (ϱl©hP CPj§-kÕ YWdá¥V ùTôÚÞdÏ Guß Es[ £\l× Ti× NôokR AûPVô]m AkR CPj§u RuûU LôWQUôL £\l©jÕd á\lTÓ¡\Õ). ii) ùRô¯pÕû\ ùNôjÕdLs ùTôÕYôL ùRô¯pÕû\ ùNôjÕdLs CWiÓ ©¬ÜL[ôL ©¬jÕd LôQlTÓ¡\Õ. ClT¥lThP NêL úSôdLúU CqYûL Lôl× YZeL LôWQUôL Es[Õ. CûN LÚ®Lû[ ûLVôÞTYoLs. ùRô¯pÕû\ NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûU ÁRô] Lôl× ùTôÕYôL ϱl©hP LôXdùLÓ®u A¥lTûP«p YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ ( Y¥YeLû[l ùTôßjRYûW 20 BiÓLs Lôl× ùT\ E¬ûU ùTtßYÚ¡u\]. CûNd úLôoûYLs.CODISSIA ¥¬lv Aj§VôVm 3 A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs GuT] GûY? JÚYo R]Õ êû[«u A±ûYd ùLôiÓ EÚYôd¡V LÚjÕ ApXÕ Y¥Ym úTôu\Ytû\ R]Õ ùNôkR EPûUVôL LÚÕYRtLô] E¬ûUV AYÚdÏ YZeÏYúR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU G]lTÓ¡\Õ. I). BWônkÕ Utßm A©®Új§ SPY¥dûLL°p ùRôPokÕ AYoLû[ DÓTÓjRfùNn¡\Õ. CkR Lôl× JÚ úYûX EߧlTPôUp úTôLXôm. úUÛm TpúYß ùTôÚsLs Utßm úNûY Øû\LÞdÏ FúP RUdÏ úRûYVô]Ytû\ úRokùRÓjÕd ùLôsYRtLô] TôÕLôlTô] HtTôPôLÜm CÕ ®[eÏ¡\Õ. L¦² ùNVp §hPeLs Utßm §ûWlTPeLs) AYWÕ C\l×dÏ ©u]ôp 50 BiÓLs YûW áP Lôl׬ûU«u ¸r TôÕLôdLlTÓ¡\Õ. (Y¥Yd Lôl×Ls êXm) ùRô¯pÕû\ Y¥YûUl×Ls. NmUkRlThPYoL[Õ EÚYôdLj§\àdÏ ùYÏU§ A°dÏm NêL LPûU«u A¥lTûP«pRôu Lôl׬ûU Utßm AÕ NôokR E¬ûULs YZeLlTÓ¡u\]. קV LiÓ©¥l×Ls. CkR E¬ûUVô]Õ JÚYÚdÏ (Bi/ùTi) £\l× E¬ûUVôL JÚ Ï±l©hP LôXLhP A[®tÏ YZeLlTÓYÕ ùTôÕYô] SûPØû\VôL CÚkÕ YÚ¡\Õ.

×jRLeLs L¦² ùUu ùTôÚsLs Utßm úNûYLs AûYLs EQojÕ¡\ ®`VeLs AûYL°p APe¡Ùs[ TûPl×j RuûULs. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUôL GeLôYÕ ©WfNû]Ls GÝUô]ôp AYtû\j ¾ojÕûYdL RtúTôÕ EXL YojRL AûUl©u RôY ¾oÜ Øû\Ls ER®dÏ RVôWôL Es[]. EXL YojRL AûUl©u YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRm û#kÕ ®¬Yô] ©WfNû]Lû[ ûLVôÞ¡\Õ. CÕ úTôuß Cuàm TX YûLL°p E¬ûU T§dLlTÓ¡\Õ. ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôÓ Utßm ùRô¯p ÖhT Øuú]t\m: ùTôÕfÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkRm Utßm ùTôÕ YojRL úNûY JlTkReLû[l úTôXúY EXL YojRL AûUl©u Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 69 . EúXôLj RLÓLÞm Lô¡ReLÞm Gu\ U§lûT UhÓúU ùTß¡u\]. TûPl×Ls TXúY\ô] Y¥YeL°p Es[]. CR]ôp EXL SôÓL°p TXYûLVôL AØXôdLlThÓYÚm CqYûL E¬ûU Lôl× SPY¥dûLLs NoYúRN YojRL E\ÜL°p TRhPUô] ¨ûXûULû[ HtTÓjÕ¡u\]. A¥lTûP«p Rôu NkûRdÏ YkÕ ®tTû]Vô¡u\]. GlT¥ RdL TôÕLôl× Øû\Lû[ EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl× SôÓL°ûPúV HtTÓm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUô] ©WfNû]Lû[ GlT¥ ¾ojÕ ûYlTÕ. AkRkR Y¥Yj§p Lôl׬ûU ùTß¡u\].CODISSIA A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU:. ReL[Õ LiÓ©¥l×Ls Y¥YeLs. EÚYôdLpLû[ Ut\YoLs ATL¬jÕd ùLôsY§-ÚkÕ RtLôjÕd ùLôsÞm E¬ûU TûPlTô°LÞdÏ Es[Õ. B]ôp AûYL°u AkR U§l©p קV LiÓ©¥l× Utßm Y¥YûUl× B¡VYt±u U§lúT A§LThNUôL CÚdÏm. §ûWlTPeLs. úRôt\m: YûWØû\dÏhThP YojRL Øû\ûV úSôd¡: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Lôl× SPY¥dûLLs EX¡u JqùYôÚ Tϧ«Ûm JqùYôÚ YûL«p ûLVô[lTÓ¡\Õ. RtúTôÕ NkûR«p Es[ TX ùTôÚsLs ÖLoùTôÚsLs Ïû\kR ùRô¯pÖhTjRôp EÚYôdLlThPûY BL CÚdLXôm. ùTôÕ YojRL NeLj ¾oûY JlTkR SôÓL°ûPúV 1986 ØRp 1994 Bm BiÓ Ø¥V EÚÏúY SL¬p SûPùTt\\ TX Ñtßl úTfÑYôojûRL°p CRtLô] קV Y¥Ym GhPlThPÕ. AûYVôY]. BnÜ Y¥YûUl× Utßm AYtû\ T¬úNô§jÕ úUmTÓjÕm S¥Y¥dûLL°u A¥lTûP«p AûUkÕs[Õ. þ þ þ þ þ YojRLj§u A¥lTûPd ùLôsûLLs Utßm Es[ NoYúRN A[®Xô] úYßTX A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkReLû[ GlT¥ AØXôdÏYÕ. ERôWQj§tÏ ØLU§l× ùTt\ BûP YûLLs Utßm ×ÕYûL T«o WLeLû[d ϱl©PXôm. CqYûL E¬ûULs "A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU" Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. קV Øû\dÏ UôßYRtÏ CûPlThP LôXLhPj§tLô] £\l× JlTkReLs A¥lTûPd ùLôsûLLs: úR£V AÔÏØû\. CûNT§l×Ls. ERôWQj§tÏ AûYLs ×jRLeL[ôLúYô. SôÓLû[ ùTôÕYô] NoYúRN YûWØû\L°u ¸r ùLôiÓYkÕs[Õ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUdÏ RdL TôÕLôl× YZeÏYÕ GlT¥? JqùYôÚ SôÓm ReLs AWNôh£ GpûXdÏs CqܬûULÞdÏ AØXôdL LPûUlThÓs[]. ClT¥lThP ãZ-p YojRL SPY¥dûLL°p A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU GuTÕ Ød¡V CPj§tÏ YkÕs[Õ. K®VeL[ôLúYô. ClT¥lThP TûPl×j RuûUûV ®Xd¡ûYjÕ ®hÓ TôojúRôm G²p AûYLs T§dLlThÓs[ûY ùYßUú] ©[ôv¥d RhÓLÞm. J°lTPeL[ôLúYô Es[]. ØL U§l×LÞm. קV UÚkÕLs Utßm ©\ YûLVô] ùRô¯p ÖÔdLm YônkR UÚjÕY RVô¬l×L°u U§lTô]Õ AûYLs NmUkRlThP LiÓ ©¥l× ØuØVt£. CRu Ø¥YôL EXL YojRL AûUl× HtTÓj§Ùs[ YojRLm NôokR úSôd¡Xô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRm CqYûL E¬ûULû[ EXL SôÓLs AØXôdÏY§p LôQlThP úYßTôÓLû[ ùYÏYôL Ïû\jÕs[Õ. LiÓ©¥l×Ls Aû]jÕm Y¥Y T§l©¬ûU ùT\jRdL].Lôl×m Lôl× Øû\LÞm Aj§VôVm 4 ùRô¯p Õû\«u SPY¥dûLL°p §hPªPp Utßm ARtLô] A±ÜdáoûU«u TeL°l©u Ød¡VjÕYm SôÞdÏ Sôs A§L¬jÕ YÚ¡u\]. Ck¨ûX«p A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUôL קRôL EÚYôdLlThÓs[ NoYúRN NhPeLs ¨ûXûU KÝeÏTÓjRÜm Øuáh¥úV AàUô²jÕf ùNVpTPÜm NmUkRlThPYoL°ûPúV GÝ¡u\ ©WfNû]Lû[ SuÏ Øû\lTÓjRlThP JÚ Y¯LôhÓR-u ¸r ®ûWkÕ ¾ojÕd ùLôs[Üm TôûW YÏjÕd ùLôÓjÕs[]. RVô¬lTô[¬u ùRô¯p £u]eLÞm (Logo) YojRL Øj§ûW Lôl׬ûU«u ¸r T§Ü ùT\jRϧVûPkRûY.

AlT¥f ùNnÙm úTôÕ AkR TPeL°u E¬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ úTônf úNW úYi¥V YÚUô]eLs RûPTÓ¡u\]. CmØû\«u ¸r JÚ Sôh¥u ùNôkR Ï¥Ù¬ûU ùTt\Yo úTôXúY ùY°SôhPYÚm NUUôL U§dLlThPôo. T§l׬ûU. EXL YojRL AûUl©tÏ ØuúT EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl× NoYúRN JlTkRjûR EÚYôd¡«ÚkRÕ. NoYúRN T§l׬ûUV YôPûLdÏ ®Óm YûL«p NWjÕLs ®¬ÜTÓjRlThÓs[]. AR]ôp E¬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ Ïû\kR ThN E¬ûULs EߧlTÓjRlTÓ¡u\]. úUÛm EtTj§Vô[oLÞm ETúVô¡lTô[oLÞm TV]ûP¡u\]o. EXL YojRL AûUl©û]l úTôX úYßTX A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NôokR JlTkRL°Ûm úR£V AÔÏØû\ GuTÕ A¥lTûPVô] ùLôsûLVôL Es[Õ. "vLôhf". YojRL ϱLs: GkR YûLVô] AûPVô[d ϱLs YojRL ϱ AûPVô[ Lôl׬ûU ùT\jRdLûY GuTûR JlTkRm YûWVû\jÕs[Õ. §ûWlTPl T§ÜLû[ YôPûLdÏ ®ÓmúTôÕ ªLlùT¬V A[®tÏ ©W§Ls GÓjÕ®Pdá¥V ATôVm Es[Õ. ùTôÚsLÞdÏ R®odÏm YojRL ϱ Lôl׬ûU úTôXúY úNûY ¨ßY] ϱLÞdÏm Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTP úYi¥VûR EߧlTÓjÕ¡\Õ.CODISSIA A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§u BWmTUôL ARu A¥lTûP ùLôsûLLs §Lr¡u\]. CûNlT§Ü RVô¬lTô[oL°u TûPl×LÞdÏ 50 YÚP LôX TôÕLôl× E¬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. "NômúTôu". L¦² §hPjùRôÏl×Ls GÝÕTYoLs Utßm CûN T§Ü RVô¬lTô[oLs ùTôÕUdLÞdÏ ReL[Õ TûPl×Lû[ YôPûLdÏ ®Óm E¬ûU YZeLlTPúYi¥VÕ AY£Vm. NêLjûRl ùTôßjRYûW ClT¥lThP קV ùRô¯p ÖhTeLs ApXÕ ×§V TûPl×Lû[ EÚYôd¡VYoLû[ FdLlTÓjÕm ®Rj§p CjRÏ RtLô-L A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Lôl× CÚd¡\Õ Guß LÚÕ¡\ AúR úSWj§p. AúR úTôX RtúTôÕm HtThÓs[Õ. Øu× Ï±l©hP CWiÓ JlTkReLs TôWThNUt\ AÔÏØû\Lû[ ùY°lTûPVôL ùLôi¥ÚkR]. ϱl©hP Sôh¥p ªLÜm ©WTXUô¡Ùs[ YojRLd ϱdÏ áÓRp TôÕLôl× E¬ûU YZeLlThÓs[Õ. CjRÏ TûPl×Ls GpúXôÚdÏm Ht\jRôr®u± ¡ûPdL úYiÓm Gußm G§oTôod¡\Õ. ClT¥lThP ¨ûXûV R®odLúY T§l׬ûU Lôl× YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. NhPj§tÏ ×WmTôL T§Ü ùNnRp. "¥¬lv"JlTkRm ClT¥lThP NUu¨ûX HtTÓj§P úYi¥VûR Ae¡L¬d¡\Õ. ×®«p ϱ AûPVô[eLs: JÚ ùTôÚû[ AûPVô[m LôQ £X úSWeL°p CPeL°u ùTVoLs ETúVôLlTTÓjRlTÓYÕ EiÓ. ùRô¯p ÖhT LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU TôÕLôl× A°d¡\Õ. '¥¬lv' JlTkRm L¦² §hPeLû[ CXd¡V TûPl×Lû[l úTôX TôÕLôdLjRdLÕ GuTûR EߧlTÓjÕ¡\Õ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU GqYôß TôÕLôdLlTÓ¡\Õ? ùTôÕYô] A¥lTûP þ NhPeLs: "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u CWiPôm Tϧ«p TpúYß YûLVô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs Tt±Ùm AYtû\ GpXôß TôÕLôlTÕ Gußm ®Y¬dLlThÓ Es[Õ. CmØû\«u ¸r EXL YojRL AûUl× SôhÓ úR£V Ï¥UdLs Aû]YûWÙm NUUôL Tô®dLlTÓ¡u\]o. ùRô¯p ÖhTjûR YojRL A¥lTûP«p T¬Uô¬d ùLôs[ Lôl× YZeÏ¡\Õ. ùTo² SL¬p SûPùTt\ £\l× UôSôh¥p ®YWj ùRôÏl×Lû[ TôÕLôlTRtLô] Y¯Øû\ YÏdLlThPÕ. ϱlTôLJnu Utßm úTôûR Tô] EtTj§Vô[oLs ReLs RVô¬l×Lû[ CPlùTVoLû[d ùLôiÓ AûPVô[eLôhÓ¡u\]o. "¥ÏXo". 50 YÚPeLÞdÏ Ïû\VôUp CqܬûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p CPlùTVoLû[ AûPVô[UôL ùLôiÓ ùY°YÚm RVô¬l×Ls AkR CPj§u £\l×j RuûUdúLt\ Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 70 . CkR Ïû\TôÓLû[ ¿dÏm YûL«p YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§p áÓRXô] Gi¦dûL«Xô] קV A©®Új§ ùNnVlThP NWjÕdLs úNodLlThÓs[]. AûYVôY]: úR£V AÔÏØû\. JÚ TûPlTô°dÏ Y¥Y E¬ûU YZeLlThÓ®hPôp ApXÕ T¥Y E¬ûU YZeLlThÓ®hPôp AYWÕ TûPl×Lû[ ©\o A§LôW éoYUt\ Øû\«p T¥Ym GÓdL ØVt£ûV RÓdÏm E¬ûU AYÚdÏ YkÕ ®Ó¡\Õ. Eßl× SôÓLs Aû]j§tÏm YûWØû\L°u A¥lTûP«p úTôÕUô] TôÕLôlûT EߧlTÓjÕYÕ CRu úSôdLUôÏm. "WôdúTôoh" TôXôûP úTôu\ ©WTX ERôWQeLû[ Ñh¥dLôhPXôm. Uß EtTj§ ùNnRp Utßm AYoL[Õ ¨Lrf£Lû[ úSW¥VôL J-TWl×Rp úTôu\Ytû\ RÓdÏm E¬ûU AûYLû[ EÚYôdÏTYoLÞdÏ CqùYôlTkRm YZe¡Ùs[Õ. ARu A¥lTûP«p CXd¡V TûPl×Ls TôÕLôdLlTÓ¡u\]. AúRúTôX ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôÓ Gu\ A¥lTûP«p AÔÏØû\. ùTôÚ[ôRôW Utßm NêL SXm EߧlTÓ¡\Õ Guß CqùYôlTkRm áß¡\Õ. CRu LôWQUôL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRlThP TX TϧLs úNodLlTP®pûX.

ERôWQj§tÏ JÚ Y¥Y Lôl× E¬ûUVô[o R]dÏs[ E¬ûUûVl TVuTÓj§ NkûR«p AqY¥Y E¬ûU NmUkRlThP ùTôÚÞdÏ ùNVtûLVôL ¡Wôd¡ HtTÓjÕm ®Rj§p EtTj§«p ØhÓdLhûP úTôP Ø¥VôÕ. AkR EtTj§ SPY¥dûL«]ôp úSW¥VôL RVôWôÏm ùTôÚÞdÏm úNokÕ Lôl׬ûUûV YZeL úYiÓm. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs: "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ¸r ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ Ïû\kR ThNm 10 BiÓ Lôl× A°dL úYiÓm. AúR úSWj§p Y¥Y Lôl× E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏm NhPéoYUô] TôÕLôl× A°dÏm A¥lTûP«Xô] £X ¨TkRû]LÞdÏ EhThúP CûRf ùNnV úYiÓm. AßûY £¡fûN Øû\Ls Lôl× A°dL UßdL AWNôeLj§tÏ E¬ûU EiÓ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 71 . CÕ ®NVj§p ùTôÕUdLs RY\ôL §ûN LôhPlThÓ®PdáPôÕ. CkR ®YWeLs ùTôÕ RLYXôL A±VjRdLûY. B]ôp CÕ £X ®XdÏLû[Ùm A°d¡\Õ. B]ôp T«oLs Utßm ®XeÏL°u Öi E«oêXdáßLs ®NVj§p LôlT°dL LPûUlThÓs[Õ. JlTkRm EVo A[®Xô] Lôl× YZeÏ¡\Õ. קV YûL T«oLs EtTj§ Lôl×dLô] NoYúRN Ju±Vj§u Lôl× UôSôÓL°p. EtTj§ SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ Y¥Y Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓúUVô]ôp. AlT¥lThP ¨ûXûUL°p AWNôeL[ô]ûY úUtLiP Y¥Y E¬ûUûV úTôh¥ EtTj§Vô[odÏ YZeLúYô ApXÕ E¬U Øû\«u ¸r EtTj§ ùNnVúYô JlTkRm NmURm ùR¬®d¡\Õ. Y¥Y Lôl× E¬ûUVô[o AàT®dLjRdL Ïû\kR ThN E¬ûULû[ JlTkRm ®Y¬d¡\Õ. ARôYÕ Ï±l©hP YûL TôXûPdLh¥ RVô¬lûT ϱl©P " ùNhPôo" Gu\ CPlùTVo TVuTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ. AûYLs JqùYôußm JqùYôÚ YûLVô]ûYVôL LÚRlTPXôm. JÚ YûWTPj§u E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ ùT\ôUp AYWÕ YûWTPjûR ®tTûRúVô ARu JÚ TϧûV GÓjÕd ùLôsYûRúVô ApXÕ AkR YûWTPjûR AlT¥úV Y¥jÕd ùLôsYûRúVô AqܬûUVô[o RÓdL Ø¥Ùm. AûYLs T§Ü ùNnVlTPúYiÓm Guß AY£VªpûX. ERôWQj§tÏ SPl©Ûs[ Lôl׬ûUL°u LôX ÁRØs[ LôX ¨oQVm JußdÏ Juß UôßTPdá¥VûY. BnYô[oL°u ¨ßY]eL°u ®XeÏLs Utßm T«oL°u E«¬Vp SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ LôlT°dL UßdLXôm. YûWTPm. YojRL ϱLs úTôu\ûYLs TpúYß YûLVô] TûPl×Ls ApXÕ LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏ úLôWlTPXôm. ùTôÕ JÝdLùS±. ERôWQj§tÏ JÚ CPlùTVo HtL]úY YojRL Øj§ûWVôL T§dLlTh¥ÚdLXôm ApXÕ CPlùTVo TWmTûWVôL TVuTÓjRlThÓ YÚYRôL CÚdLXôm. Y¥Y Lôl׬ûU: Y¥Y Lôl׬ûU Ïû\kR ThNm 20 BiÓLÞdÏ YZeLlTP úYiÓm Guß JlTkRj§p ϱl©PlThÓ Es[Õ.CODISSIA RWjÕPu ùY°YWô®hPôp AÕ ÖLoYô[oLû[ RY\ô] TôûRdÏ ChÓf ùNpYÕ B¡®Óm. T¥Y E¬ûU Utßm YojRL WL£VeLs AYt±u £\l× ¨ûXL°u A¥lTûP«p CVpTôLúY TôÕLôl×dÏ E¬VûY B¡u\]. Y¥YLôl׬ûULs. AûRlúTôu\ JÚ £\l× HtTôh¥u êXm T«oûYLLs T§Ü E¬ûU ùT\jRdûY. CÕ ®NVj§p £X ®XdÏLs A°dLlThÓs[]. Y¥YjûR EÚYôd¡VYÚdÏm AûR ûYjÕ ùTôÚû[ RVô¬lTYÚdÏm YZeLlTP úYiÓm. קV T«¬]l ùTÚdLm ùNnTYWÕ E¬ûULs TôÕLôdL E¬ûUVô°dLlThÓs[Õ. AkR T§®p Gu] JÚ RuûU ARôYÕ LiÓ©¥l×. úUÛm CÕ ¨VUt\ úTôh¥dÏ Y¯YÏjÕ®Óm. T«oLs ®XeÏL°u úSôn LiP±Rp. úSôndLô] £¡fûN Øû\Ls. Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß YûWY¥YeLs. ØLU§l×. B]ôp Öi E«¬Vp LiÓ ©¥l×LÞdÏ LôlT°dL úYiÓm. ùRô¯p £u] AûPVô[m úTôu\ GkR ¨ûXLs T§Ü ùNnVlThÓs[] GuTûR ®Y¬j§ÚdL úYiÓm. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs. B]ôp CÕNmUkRUô] úYßTX LhÓlTôÓLs UôßTPd á¥VûY. ×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[eLs Utßm YojRL ϱÂÓLs úTôu\ TX ®NVeL°p Y¥YLôl׬ûU T§®u êXm Lôl× ùT\jRdLûY. ApXÕ JÝdLØû\«u A¥lTûP«p ϱl©hP LiÓ©¥l©tÏ Y¥YE¬ûU YZeÏYRtÏ Ußl× ùR¬®dL AWNôeLj§tÏ E¬ûU EiÓ. Aú]LUôL ùRô¯p ÖhTjÕû\«u Aû]jÕl ©¬ÜLÞdÏm CÕ ùTôÚkÕm. CRu LôWQUôL JÚ SôÓ CPdϱÂhÓ AûPVô[j§-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ úLôÚmúTôÕ NmUkRlThP CPdϱÂh¥tÏ Lôl׬ûU ϱjÕ úLs® GÝl×m SôhÓPu úTfÑYôojûR SPj§ ¾oÜLôQ úYiÓm. E¬ûU Á±]ôp NmUkRlThPYoLs Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[R²u Lôl׬ûUûV RôeLs Á\®pûX Guß ¨ì©dL úYiÓm Guß Ï±l©hP ãr¨ûX«p ¿§ Uu\m BûQ«PdáÓm. úYßTôÓ GuTÕ Gu]? ùR°Yô] T§l׬ûULs. CÕ ®NVj§p ùNhPôo Gu\ CPjRp RtúTôÕ úUtT¥ TôXôûPLh¥ RVô¬dLlTP úYiÓm GuT§pûX. G]úY CPlùTVoLû[ RY\ôL TVuTÓjRlTÓYûR RÓdLúYiÓm Guß Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm ϱl©Ó¡\Õ Ï±lTôL Jnu Utßm úTôûR Tô]eLÞdÏ. JnudÏ ×®«Vp Rϧ AûPVô[eLs NmUkRUôL TuØû] ϱl× T§Ü Øû\ûV HtTÓjÕYRtÏ EXL YojRL AûUl©p úTfÑYôojûRLs úUtùLôs[ JlTkRj§p Y¯ ùNnVlThÓs[Õ.

ªLÜm ©uRe¡V SôÓLs 11 BiÓLÞdÏsÞm ReLs SôhÓf NhPeLû[ CRtúLtT RVôo ùNnÕ ùLôs[ úYiÓm. úTô-Vô] YojRL ϱ«ÓLs ApXÕ YojRL úSôd¡p AàU§«u± T§l׬ûUûV ûL«ùXÓjÕd ùLôsÞRp B¡VûY Ït\®Vp AjÕÁ\pL[ôL LÚRlTP úYiÓm. Uôt\eLû[ úUtùLôsÞm LôXLhPj§tLô] HtTôÓLs: Juß. Á\pLs ÁÕ NhPjûR AØXôdÏYÕ GlT¥ Guß JlTkRm £X ®YWeLû[ RÚ¡\Õ. Utßm £X ϱl©hP ¨XûUL°u A¥lTûP«p ùTôÚ[ôRôW ¨ûX Uôt\j§p CÚkÕ YÚ¡\ SôÓLs 5 BiÓLÞdÏsÞm. AØXôdL LhPôVlTÓjRd á¥V]YôL AûY CÚdL úYiÓm. úUÛm ®§Øû\Lû[ ÁßTYoLs ÁÕ AYoLs ÁiÓm AlT¥lThP RYßLû[ ùNnVôUp CÚdÏU[®tÏ LÓûUVô] RiPû]jùRôûL ®§dL JlTkRm Y¯YÏjÕs[Õ. ϱl©hP £X ãr¨ûXL°p A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUûV RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕm YûL«Xô] úTôh¥dÏ CPU°dLôR HLúTôL E¬ûUûV RûP ùNnV AWNôeLeLs E¬ûU ùTtßs[]. ®NôWûQ SPY¥dûLLs SÓ¨ûXúVôÓm úSoûUVôLÜm úRûYVt\ YûL«p £dLûX A§LlTÓjRôRRôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ 3 p CRtLô] HtTôÓLs úNodLlThÓs[]. AúR úSWj§p AlT¥lThP RLYpLû[ WL£VUôL TôÕLôdL RÏkR HtTôÓLs ùNnVlTP úYiÓm. ùY°lTÓjRdáPôR RLYpLs Utßm YojRL WL£VeLs: YojRL WL£VeLs Utßm ùY°lTÓjRdáPôR RLYpLÞdÏ ®VôTôW çVô] U§l× EiÓ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 72 . RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLs. RiPû]Ls B¡V] ϱjR ®YWeLs Es[]. AYWÕ LiÓ©¥l×Ls YûWTPeLs úTôu\Ytû\Ùm CkúSôd¡p AàU§dLXôm. AàU§ùT\ôR ApXÕ úTô. AlT¥ Lôl× ùTßYRu êXm ùS±Øû\dÏ ×\mTô] Y¯L°p Aq®YWeLû[ ®VôTôW ç«p TVuTÓjRlTÓYÕ RÓdLlTÓ¡\Õ. CZlÀÓLs (Injunction). CkR RûP SPY¥dûLûV úUtùLôsÞm Øu]o NmUkRlThPYoLÞPu AWNôeLm ®¬Yô] BúXôNû]Lû[ LhPôVm úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm.RVô¬l×Lû[ A¯jÕ®PúYô LûXjÕ®PúYô ϱl©hP ¨TkRû]L°u A¥lTûP«p ¿§Uu\eLs A§LôWm TûPjRûYVôL CÚdL úYiÓm Guß JlTkRm áß¡\Õ. "¥¬lv"JlTkR NWjÕdLû[ AkR úR§«-ÚkÕ KWôiÓdÏs AØpTÓjÕm YûL«p ReLs NhPeLû[ Y[of£VûPkR SôÓLs Uôt±VûUjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. ClT¥ ùNnÕ ùLôs[lTÓm E¬U A¥lTûP«p B] JlTkRj§u NWjÕdLs úTôh¥ûV UhÓlTÓjRd á¥VRôLÜm ùRô¯p ÖhT T¬Uôt\eL°p Es[ úRûYVt\ RûPLû[ LhÓlTÓjRdá¥VRôLÜm CÚdLXôm Guß EXL YojRL AûUl©u JlTkRm Ae¸L¬d¡\Õ. LÓûUVô] AúR úSWj§p úSoûUVô] AØXôdLm: RtúTôÕs[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRlThÓs[ NhPeLs úTôÕUô]ûYVôL CpûX. úTôh¥dÏ CPU°dLôR HLúTôL ÏjRûL E¬ûU«u ÁRô] LhÓlTôÓLs: T§l׬ûU. 1989Bm Bi¥úXúV CRtLô] JlTkRm GhPlThÓm CußYûW AØÛdÏ YW®pûX. YojRL ϱÂÓLû[ Ru²fûNVôL TVuTÓjÕRp. ®NôWûQdÏ ¨VôUt\ LôXdùLÓÜm ®§dLd áPôÕ. ERôWQj§tÏ CÕ NmUkRUô] Lôl׬ûU Ïû\kR ThNm 10 YÚPeLÞdÏ YZeLlTP úYiÓm GuTûRd ϱl©PXôm. G§oTôodL Ø¥VôR LôXj§tÏ CÝjR¥dLÜm áPôÕ. Sm©dûLVô] ®VôTôW SûPØû\Ls Utßm Eߧ ùUô¯ Ht×dÏ Uô\ôL AmU§lûT ºoÏûXlT§p CÚkÕ TôÕLôl× ùT\ AûYLs RϧVûPkÕs[]. U²RoLÞdLô] קV UÚkÕdúLô ApXÕ ®YNôVj§tLô] WNôVQd LXûYLÞdúLô NkûRdLô] Jl×Rp ùTßm úSôdúLôÓ AWNôeLj§tÏ RWlTÓm T¬úNôRû]dLô] ®YWeLs Lôl׬ûU ùT\jRdLûY. ®NôWûQ«p NmUkRlThPYoLs ¸r ¿§Uu\j§u ¾ol©u ÁÕ úUpØû\ÂÓ úLôWúYô ¨oYôL Ø¥ÜLû[ UßT¬ºXû] ùNnÙUôß úLôWúYô ¿§Uu\j§Pm úLhÓd ùLôs[Xôm.CODISSIA Jße¡ûQkÕ ªuÑtß YûWY¥YeLs: EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u YôµePu JlTkRj§p Es[§u A¥lTûP«p úPôúTô¡Wô©dv G]lTÓm JÚe¡ûQkR ªuÑtß YûWTPeLÞdLô] Lôl׬ûUûV "¥¬lv"JlTkRm YZeÏ¡\Õ. AWNôeLeLs ReLs NhPeLÞdÏ EhThÓ CûYLû[ LhPôVm AØpTÓjRl úYi¥VûR EߧlTÓjRlThÓs[RôL JlTkRm áß¡\Õ. IkÕ ApXÕ T§ú]ôÚ BiÓLÞdÏs Øû\lTÓjÕRp EXL YojRL AûUl©u JlTkRm 1995 _÷ûX 1 ØRp AØÛdÏ YkÕs[Õ. AàU§ùT\ôR úTô-fNWdÏLs C\dÏU§ ùNnVlTÓYûR ÑeL CXôLô A§Lô¬L°u ER®ÙPu RÓdÏm E¬ûUûV A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ YZeL AWNôeLeLs LPûUlThÓs[]. Y¥YLôl׬ûU ApXÕ úYßY¥®Xô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU ùTtßs[ JÚYo E¬U JlTkRj§u A¥lTûP«p úYù\ôÚYÚdÏ AûYLs EtTj§dÏ YZeLXôm ApXÕ TôÕLôdLlThP YojRL Øj§ûWûV ©W§ùVÓjÕ TVuTÓjR AàU§dLXôm. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§p áÓRXô] NWjÕdLs úNodLlThÓs[]. Nôh£Lû[ úNL¬lTÕ.

JÚ úYûX ClT¥lThP RVô¬l×LÞdÏ Cq®ûPlThP LôXj§p £X SôÓLs AàU§ YZeÏùU²p (£X ϱl©hP LhÓlTôÓL°u A¥lTûP«p) NkûR E¬ûUdLô] £\l× AàU§Vô]Õ 5 BiÓLÞdúLô ApXÕ RVô¬l× Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓm YûWúVô C§p GÕ Ïû\Yô] LôX AYLôNØûPVúRô ARtÏ YZeLlTPXôm. úUÛm £X ®§®XdLô] ¨XûUL°u ¸r YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§p Jl×d ùLôiÓs[ ùTôßl×L°u A¥lTûP«p. "¥¬lv"LiLô¦l×dÏÝYô]Õ JlTkRj§u SûPØû\Lû[Ùm CRu ÁRô] AWNôeLeL°u Øû\ÂÓLû[Ùm LiLô¦d¡\Õ.CODISSIA "¥¬lv"JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkÕs[ 1995 _÷ûX 1 Bm úR§«p GkRùYôÚ Y[Úm Sôh¥XôYÕ ùRô¯pÖhTj§u GkRùYôÚ Õû\«u Y¥YdLôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] HtTôÓLs ùNn§ÚdLô®¥p AjúR§«-ÚkÕ 10 BiÓLÞdÏ ARtLô] Lôl× Øû\Lû[ AØXôd¡P úYiÓm. Y[Úm SôÓLs Uôt\eLû[ úUtùLôsYRtLô] LôXLhPj§úXô AúRúTôX קV NhPeLs HtTÓjÕm YûW«úXô A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[ YZe¡P úYiÓm. AúR úSWj§p JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkÕs[ SôsØRp UÚjÕYm úY[ôiÕû\LÞdLô] WNôVQd LXûYLs NmUkRUôL éoj§ ùNnVlThÓYÚm ®iQlTeLû[ Htß Lôl× YZeL úYiÓm Uôt\eLû[ úUtùLôsYRtLô] Cߧ Sôs YûW CÝjR¥dL úYi¥V§pûX. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 73 .

Ïû\kR LôX A[®tÏ Lôl× A°dLÜm YûWVû\Ls ùNnVlThÓs[].1 Utßm 9. CXd¡Vm Utßm LûXlTûPl× E¬ûULs TôÕLôl©tLô] ùTo² £\l× UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs B¡VYt±u ªLf£±V ϱl×Ls B¡VYt±û] LhPôVm CûQjÕl TôojÕ Ø¥ÜLs GÓdLlTÓ¡u\]. úUÛm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUûV ûL«ùXÓlTRôÛm TôÕLôlTRôÛm JlTkRj§]ôp ¡ûPdLdá¥V £\kR TXuLs ûLSÝ®l úTôn®PôU-ÚlTRtLôL úR£V AÔÏØû\ Utßm ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôÓ Gu\ YûL«Xô] AÔÏØû\ úTôu\ A¥lTûP ùLôsûLLû[ JlTkRm EÚYôd¡«Úd¡\Õ.TWl× AûUl×Ls B¡úVôo ùRôPoTô]) úNûY ¨ßY] ϱVûPVô[PeLs Es°hP YojRL ϱ AûPVô[eLs êXUôL CÚkRR]ôp ¡ûPjR ùTVoLs Es°hP ×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[eLs. EiûUVô] E¬ûUVô[oLs ReLs E¬ûULû[ TôÕLôlTRtÏ úRûYVô] SPY¥dûLLs Utßm ¾oÜ Øû\Ls ϱjÕ Ï±l©PjRdL A[Ü ®¬Yôd¡ á\lThÓs[Õ. SôÓL°p úTôÕUô] A[ÜdÏ A©®Új§ ùNnVlTPôUÛm LiÓ ùLôs[lTPôUÛm CÚkR TX TϧLs RtúTôûRV JlTkRj§p ùT¬V A[®tÏ CûQdLlThÓs[]. Tô¬v Utßm ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓL°u JlTkR NWjÕdL°u RÏkR ©¬Ü YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§p ©¬ÜLs 2. JlTkRj§p ¨oQ«dLlThÓs[ ùTôßl×Ls GpXô Eßl× SôÓL[ôÛm NUUôL U§dLjRdLÕ. CdLôWQeL[ôp CqùYôlTkRm £X úSWeL°p ùTo². Utßm J. AR]ôp Y[Úm SôÓLû[l ùTôßjRYûW AYtû\ AØXôdL ¿iP LôX AYLôNm RWlThÓs[Õ. G]úY Eßl× SôÓLs ®ÚlTlThPôp A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûUdÏ áÓRp TôÕLôl× Y¯Øû\Lû[ HtTÓj§d ùLôs[Xôm. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs. ùRô¯tÕû\ ùNôjÕ Lôl×dLô] Tô¬v £\l× UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs. CqùYôlTkRj§tÏ êuß Ød¡V Ti×Ls Es[] YûWVû\Ls: CqùYôlTkRj§u ¸r YÚ¡\ GpXô Ød¡VUô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NôokR Tϧû[Ùm LÚj§p ùLôsÞm YûL«p Eßl× SôÓLs Aû]jÕm AûYLÞdÏ Ïû\kR ThN YûWVû\L°u ¸r TôÕLôdL Y¯YûLLs ùNnVlThÓs[Õ. ×ÕYûL T«oLû[ TôÕLôlTÕ Es°hP Lôl׬ûULs. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 74 . TôÕLôl× SûPØû\L°u Aû]jÕ Ød¡V TϧLÞm ®Y¬dLlThÓs[]. AkR E¬ûULÞdÏ AàU§dLjRdL £X ®XdÏLs A°dLÜm. CRuêXm CmUôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs CqùYôlTkR SôÓL°u ùTôßl×L[ôL B¡Ùs[].CODISSIA A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u YojRLm NôokR AmNeLs (¥¬lv) JlTkRm NmUkRUôL JÚ ®¬Yô] ®[dLm Aj§VôVm 5 "¥¬lv"JlTkRm 1995 _]Y¬ 1 ØRp AØÛdÏ YkÕs[Õ. ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥p GÓdLlThP ùS±NôokR E¬ûULs R®ojR CmUôSôÓL°u Aû]jÕ R²f£\l× YônkR TϧLÞm EXL YojRL AûUl©u YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§u ϱl×L[ôL CûQdLlThÓs[]. CûNlT§Yô[oLs. III. úUÛm (ùTôÕ) Utßm ¨oYôL SûPØû\Ls Utßm ¾oÜ Øû\Ls. UôtÈÓdLô] LôXLhPj§tLô] HtTôÓLs JÚ Sôh¥p AØ-p CÚdÏmúTôÕ AkSûPØû\Ls UÚjÕYjûR Lôl׬ûULÞdÏ ùTôßkRRôÕ. úNôRû] ®¬Yô] SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ úRûYVô] £\l× ©¬ÜLs Utßm Ït\®Vp úUp SPY¥dûLLs B¡V] ®¬YôL ϱl©PlThÓs[]. T§l׬ûU úLôÚm ®NVm ϱjÕ LXkÕ BúXô£dLÜm. GpXô YûLVô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NhPeLs AØXôdÏYRtLô] SûPØû\LÞdÏm ùTôÚjRUô] ϱl©hP £X ùTôÕYô] ùS±Øû\Lû[ CqùYôlTkRm YûWkÕs[Õ. RVô¬lTô[oLs. CqYûWVû\Ls ¸rLiPYt±u A¥lTûP«p úUtùLôs[lTÓ¡u\]. ®VôTôW WL£VeLs Utßm T¬úNôRû] ®YWeLs Es°hP T¡WeLlTÓjRlTPdáPôR ®YWeLs B¡V Lôl׬ûU«u ¸r YÚ¡u\].1Cp LôQlTÓ¡u\]. Au±-ÚkÕ AÕ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUô] ªLÜm ®¬Yô] TuØû] JlTkRUôL CÚkÕ YÚ¡\Õ. AØXôdLm: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRlThP EsSôhÓ SûPØû\Ls ©WfNû]LÞdLô] ¾oÜLs ϱjÕ CWiPôYÕ Tϧ ®Y¬d¡\Õ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u ¸rYÚm TϧL[ôY]: T§l׬ûU Utßm AÕ ùRôPoTô] E¬ûULs (ARôYÕ LûXOoLs). ©WfNû]LÞdÏ ¾oÜ: "¥¬lv"ùTôßl×Ls NmUkRUôL EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl©]oL°ûPúV GÝm ©WfNû]Ls ÁRô] Ït\fNôhÓLs EXL YojRL AûUl©u ©WfNû]LÞdLô] ¾oÜ SûPØû\ ®§LÞdÏ EhThÓ CÚdL úYiÓm. Tô¬v áhÓ JlTkRm Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. ØRXôYRôL EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl× ¨oQ«jÕs[ R²lùTôßl×Ls. "¥¬lv"JlTkRm Ïû\kRThN YûWVßl×Lû[ ùLôiP Ju\ôÏm. Jße¡ûQkR ªu Ñtßl TXûLL°u Y¥Y YûWTPeLs. II.

R²f£\l× YônkR YûWVßl×LÞdÏ UhÓm CkR ùTôßl×Ls Guß CpûX. úR£V AÔÏØû\dLô] JlTkRm ùNôkR SôhPYûWÙm. SmTLjRuûU DhÓRp. EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜL°p A±®dLlThP £\l× NÛûLLû[ YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkR SôÓLs AØXôdL úYi¥VûR úR£V AÔÏØû\ JlTkRm Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. NoYúRN YojRL SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ HtTÓ¡\ RûPLs Tô§l×Lû[ UhÓlTÓjRÜm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUdÏ úTôÕUô] A[Ü ùNVídLØs[ Lôl× HtTÓjRÜm úUÛm CRtLô] NhPeLû[ AØXôdÏm úTôÕ AûYúV YojRLj§tÏ ÏkRLm ®û[®dÏm LôW¦VôL B¡®PôUp TôojÕd ùLôsYÕm CRàûPV úSôdLUôÏm. CRtÏ A¥lTûPVôL CÚkRÕ 1986Bm BiÓ ùY°«PlThP @×uPôùPp GvúPh A±dûL Utßm 1988/84Cp úUtùLôs[lThP T¬ºXû] Ø¥ÜLs B¡V]YôÏm. AûYLÞdÏm AmUôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs ùTôßkÕm. ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u (1971) Ø¥ÜL[]Õ Tϧ 1 ØRp 21 Ø¥V Es TϧL°Ûm CûQl× Tϧ«Ûm CRtLô] ®YWeLs Es[]. "ùS±Øû\Ls" Gu\ RûXl©p Tϧ 8þp ùTôÕ ÑLôRôWm Utßm TX ùTôÕ SXu NôokR LôWQeLÞdLôL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕY§-ÚkÕ Øuù]fN¬dûLVôL SPY¥dûLLs GÓdLÜm B] NWjÕLs 1986 @×iùPp GvúPh ©úWWûQ«p CÚkR]. JlTkRj§p CûQdLlThÓs[ GpXô YûLVô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Tt±V ®NVeLÞdÏm úUtLiP AÔÏØû\ ùTôßkÕm. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUô] NÁTj§V Tô¬v NhPm 1971Cu Y¯LôhÓR-u ¸r ùTo² UôSôh¥p Ø¥ÜLs GhPlTh¥ÚkRÕm CRtÏ JÚ LôWQUôÏm. ¡ûPl×jRuûU B¡V SPY¥dûLLs Tô§dLôR YiQm CkR ùTôÚl×Ls TôojÕd ùLôs¡u\]. AúRúTôX TX Ød¡V NWjÕdLÞm RWlThÓs[]. ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ JlTkRj§u ùRôPof£VôL CÕ AûUkÕs[Õ. CÕ Ï±jÕ 9. CkR ®§®XdÏLs NWdÏLû[ T¬Uô±dùLôs[ AàU§d¡\Õ. ùRô¯p ÖhT A±ûY EÚYôd¡VYÚdÏm TVuTÓjÕTYoLÞdÏm SXu TVdL úYiÓm. JlTkRj§u 3. R²f £\lתdL Lôl× SPY¥dûLLs: T§l׬ûULû[ TôÕLôlTÕ NmUkRUôL ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥p YÏdLlThP RdL ©¬ÜLs EÚÏúY Ñtß úTfÑYôojûRL°uúTôÕ Ae¸L¬lThP]. CRtÏ EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u £\l× UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLs ùTôßkRjRdL]. B]ôp CYoLs CVtûLVôLúYô NhPlT¥úVô CûQjÕdùLôs[lThP SToLs AÓjR SToLÞPu ùSße¡V E\ÜùLôs[ CYoLs AkSToL[Õ úRNjRYWôL CÚdL úYiÓm GuT§pûX. EÚÏúY Ñtß úTfÑYôoûRL°u úSôdLeLs CqùYôlTkRj§p ¨ûX¨ßjRlThÓs[]. JlTkRj§u ©¬Ü 7Cu úNodûL«p "úSôdLeLs" Gu\ RûXl©u ¸r CkR ®YWeLs Es[]. ARu êXm ARu B£¬V¬u EVoÜdÏm SuU§l©tÏm úLÓ ®û[®d¡\ ùNVpLs ùLôsûL éoYUô] E¬ûULs TVuTÓjÕYÕ Ï±jÕm AR]¥lTûP«p CÕ Ï±jÕ ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥p LXkRôúXô£jÕ Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 75 . RtúTôÕ EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl©]WôL Es[ SôÓLs úUtá±V £\l× UôSôÓL°p TeùLÓdLôUp CÚk§ÚdLXôm. JlTkRj§p á\lThÓs[ NWjÕdLs TVuùT\jRdLYoLs CYoLs G] §hPYhPUô] Ø¥ùYÓdL JlTkRj§p Y¯YûLLs á\lThÓs[]. 4 Utßm 5 BYÕ ©¬ÜLs ùY°SôhÓ Ï¥UdLÞdÏ YZeLlTÓm úR£V Utßm ªLÜm ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ AÔÏØû\Ls ϱjR A¥lTûPVô] NhP®§Lû[Ùm Es[Pd¡«Úd¡\Õ. ϱl©PjRdL ùTôÕYô] NWjÕLs: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUô] UôSôÓL°p EÚYôdLlThPÕ úTôuú\ Eßl× SôÓLs ©\Yt±p AkSôÓL[Õ Ï¥UdLÞdÏ RWlTÓm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU úTôu\ LôlûT GpXô Eßl× SôÓLÞm Jl×dùLôiÓ AØXôdL úYi¥VÕ A¥lTûPVô] ùTôßlTôÏm. JlTkRj§p ϱlTôL GÓjÕû\dLlThÓs[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRlThP SûPØû\Lû[ Tô§dÏm ®NVeLû[Ùm LY²dL ùTôßlTôdÏ¡\Õ. AÓjR SôÓLû[f úNokR CYoLÞm R]Õ úRNjRYoLs Guß Ï±l©PjRdLYoLs. AR]¥lTûP«p ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u Tô¬v NhPm 1971Cu R²f£\l× YônkR TϧLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs Htßd ùLôs[ LPûUlThÓs[]. AûYL°u A¥lTûP«p TôodÏmúTôÕ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Lôl× Utßm Lôl× HtTôÓLs AØXôdLm B¡V] ùRô¯p ÖhT LiÓ©¥l×Lû[Ùm ùRô¯p ÖhT T¬Uôt\m Utßm AYtû\ TWYXôdL úYiÓm Gu\ úSôdLm ARàs ùTô§kÕs[ûR A±V Ø¥¡\Õ. (CmUôSôÓLs GûY Guß HtL]úY ϱl©hÓs[Õ.1 Cp ϱl©hÓs[Õ. NêL ùTôÚ[ôRôW SXàdÏ ERYdá¥VRôL §LZ úYiÓm. E¬ûULû[Ùm ùTôßl×Lû[Ùm N¬NUUôL Tô®dL úYiÓm.CODISSIA úUÛm ReLs ùNôkR NhPeLs SûPØû\LÞdÏ EhThÓ ùTôßjRUô] Øû\«p AØXôd¡d ùLôs[ Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ÑRk§Wm YZeLlThÓs[Õ. AûYLû[l úTôu\úRVô] NWjÕLs ¥¬lv"JlTkRj§p Es[].3 ùR°ÜTÓjÕ¡\Õ. (ERôWQj§tÏ T§l׬ûUdLô] Ïû\kRThN Lôl׬ûU úLôÚYRtLô] YojRLm NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u ®§Øû\Ls ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u Ø¥ÜL°u ©¬Ü 7(8)Cu A¥lTûP«p RVô¬dLlThÓ úNodLlThPûYVôÏm.). úYß JÚ TûPl©u TûPl× E¬ûUûV úLôÚYRuêXm ApXÕ BhúNTû] ùR¬®lTRu êXm AkR TûPl×lT¦«û] C¯ÜTÓjÕYÕm. Eßl× SôhûPf úNokR JÚYûWÙm TôWThNUôL SPjÕYûR RÓd¡\Õ. ClT¥lThP E¬ûU úLôÚYRtLô] SToLs GYo GuTûR Tϧ 1. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Lôl× SPY¥dûLLs AØXôdLm TWôU¬l×. JlTkRj§u Ød¡V ϱdúLôsLs ØLÜûW«p ùRôÏdLlThÓs[].

ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u Ø¥ÜL°u Tϧ 7(1)Cp Es[ ùTôÕ NhP NWjÕdL°u A¥lTûP«p Lôl×dLô] LôX ¨oQVj§tLô] ®NVeLs "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§p úNodLlThÓs[]. 4 B¡V Tj§L°p GÓjÕûWd¡u\]. ùTôßl×m ¨oQ«dLlTP®pûX.2: T§l× E¬ûU ùT\jRôLôR RLYpLû[ Es[Pd¡V RLYp ùRôÏl×LÞdÏm T§l׬ûU YZeLúYiÓm Guß CkR Tϧ ùR¬®d¡\Õ. ARôYÕ AjRLYpLs Gk§WeLû[d ùLôiÓ T¥jR¬VjRdLRôLúYô ApXÕ ©\ YûLVô]RôLúYô CÚkRôÛm N¬. CR]¥lTûP«p TûPlTô°«u BÙhLôXm Utßm AYWÕ C\l×dÏ ©kûRV 50 BiÓLs Ø¥V Lôl× A°dL Y¯ ùNnVlThÓs[Õ. CXd¡Vl TûPl×LÞdÏ Lôl× YZeÏYRtLô] A[ÅÓLs L¦² §hP YûWÜLÞdÏm ùTôÚkRjRdLRôL Es[Õ Gu\ A¥lTûP«p CqYôß á\lThÓs[Õ. B]ôp AjRÏ RLYpLs ReLÞdÏs EhT§k§ÚdÏm ®`VeLÞdÏ Lôl× YZeL úYi¥V§pûX. A§p ùLôsûL éoYUô] (Morel) E¬ûULs Eßl©]oLÞdÏ YZeLlTPܪpûX ùTôßlTôdLlTPÜm CpûX. Tϧþ11 Cp L¦² §hP YûWÜLs: RVô¬l×Ls AYt±u êXm ApXÕ ©W§ Y¥®p ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§tÏ YojRL ç«p YôPûLdÏ ®ÓYRtÏm RûPùNnYRtÏm TûPlTô°dÏ Es[ ùRôPo× EߧlTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ. 5p ϱl©hP YûLLÞdÏ Ïß¡V LôX ¨oQ«l× ùNnYûR ClTϧ«u 7(1). Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 76 . ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥p CXd¡V TûPl×LÞdÏ E¬ûUd Lôl× YZeLlTÓYRtÏ GÓdLlThP Ø¥ÜL°u A¥lTûP«p CÕ EÚYôdLlThÓs[]. 50 BiÓLÞdLô] Lôl× Gu\ ùTôÕ ùS± L¦² §hPYûWÜLÞdÏ ùTôßkÕm.CODISSIA GÓdLlThP Ø¥ÜLs ©¬Ü 6. JÚúYû[ YôPûLdÏ GÓjRYo B£¬VÚdÏ CÚkR UßT§l×dÏ TeLm ®û[®dÏm YûL«p JlTkRj§tÏ ×\mTôL ùTÚm Gi¦dûL«p ©W§Ls GÓdLlTPôUôp TôojÕdùLôs[ úYi¥V ùTôßl× Eßl× SôÓdÏ Es[Õ. JÚ TûPl©u êXlùTôÚs ARtLô] Lôl× LôX A[Ü ¨oQVm úT£ Ø¥ùYÓdLlThP E¬ûULs ARtLô] AàU§dLjRdL A[Ü E¬ûULs ûLVôsYRtLô] Øû\Ls ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u NWjÕdL°p Es[]. "¥¬lv"Tϧ 12Cu NWjÕLs CûR EߧlTÓjÕ¡u\]. G]úY AkR UôSôhÓ JlTkRjûR A¥ùVt± "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§p CúRúTôu\ NWjÕdLs HtTÓjRlThÓ Es[]. ARu RVô¬l× ¨ûX«p ApXÕ CXdÏ NeúLRùUô¯ B¡V]Yt±tÏ CXd¡V TûPl×dÏ Es[Õ úTôp Lôl× A°dLXôm.1Cp Es[]. ×ûLlTPeLs. 2. JlTkRj§u Tϧ 9.1Cp L¦² §hP YûWÜLs. ×ûLlTP Utßm LûXlTûPl×LÞdÏm ùTôßkÕm Nôj§VUô] Ïû\kR ThN ®§Øû\Ls CRtÏ ùTôßkRôÕ.2 T§l׬ûU LôlûT ùY°lTÓjÕm Øû\LÞdÏ UhÓm ¿h¥jÕd ùLôÓjRÕ. ùNVpØû\Ls AØXôdL Øû\Ls ApXÕ LQd¡Vp LÚÕúLôsLs úTôu\Yt±tÏ A§p Lôl× YZeLlTP®pûX. L¦² §hP YûWÜLû[l ùTôßjRYûW YôPûL SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ AYt±tÏ Ød¡VjÕYm CpûX GuTRôp CÕ ®NVj§p AYt±tÏ Eßl× SôÓLs ùTôßlúTodL úYi¥V§pûX. Tϧ 10. RLYp ùRôÏl×Ls GkR Y¥Yj§-ÚkRôÛm Lôl× ùT\jRdLûY. ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥p HtTÓjRlThP A¥lTûP ¨oQVeL°p úUÛm A©®Új§ ùNnV úYi¥«ÚkRûYLs "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§p ϱl©PjRdL £X ®NVeLs úNodLlThÓ ùR°ÜTÓjRlThP]. "¥¬lv"JlTkR NWjÕdLs L¦² §hP YûWÜLÞdÏ Lôl× YZeLlTPúYi¥VûR EߧlTÓjÕ¡\Õ. JÚ úYûX AÕ CXd¡tLô] NeúLR ùUô¯VôL CÚkRôÛm Lôl× ùT\jRdLÕ G] Eߧ ùNnVlThÓs[Õ. AúR úSWj§p EhùTô§kÕ Es[ ®NVeLs RLYpL°u WL£VjûR ØuAàUô²dL ERYôRûYVôL CÚdL úYiÓm. ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971)Cu CÕ A¥lTûP«p EÚYôdLlThÓs[Õ. G]úY Rôu "¥¬lv"JlTkRm CqܬûU YZeL®pûX. 3. £²Uô RVô¬l×Lû[l ùTôßjRYûW YôPûL E¬ûU Á\p GuTÕ AR]ôp HtTÓm úNR A[ÜL°u T¬úNôRû]«u A¥lTûP«p AûUkÕs[Õ. RLYp ùRôÏl×L°p RLY-u A¥lTûP«p AûY ùRôÏlThP ®Rj§Ûm RLYpLs úRoÜ ùNnÙm ®Rj§ÛØs[ A±ÜdáoûU ªdL TûPl×j §\àdLôL Lôl× ùT\jRdLûY B¡u\]. ϱl©hP LhÓTôÓL°u A¥lTûP«p Y[Úm SôÓLs ùUô¯ùTVol× ùNnVÜm UßùY°ÂÓ ùNnÙUô] £X LhÓlTôÓLs ϱjR NWjÕLs AmUôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜL°u CûQl× Tϧ«p Es[]. úVôNû]Ls. Tϧ 10. TûPlúTô®VeLs R®W ©\Yt±tLô] LôX ¨oQ«l× ùNnYRtÏ Øu× JÚ ST¬u CVtûLVô] YôrSôs úTôL ùY°«PlThP Sô°-ÚkÕ SôhLôh¥ YÚPeLs 50dÏ Ïû\VôUp ¨oQ«dLlTP úYiÓm ApXÕ ×jRLm RVô¬dLlThP§-ÚkÕ SôhLôh¥ YÚPeLs 50dÏ Ïû\VôUp Lôl× YZeL úYiÓm.

ReL[Õ úSW¥ CûN ¨Lrf£Lû[ ReLs AàU§«u± Yôu J. LhÓlTôÓLs. ARuT¥ Eßl× SôÓLs JqùYôußm RôeLs YôPûLdÏ TVuTÓjÕm AÓjR JÚYWÕ TûPl×dÏ NUUô] NuUô]eLs YZeL úYiÓm. (Tϧ 14. Tϧ 15 Cp CRtLô] A¥lTûP NhP YN§Ls Es[]. ETúVôLj§]¥lTûP«p SôÓLs T§Ü ùNn¡u\]. J-. CûNlT§Ü E¬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ 50 BiÓLÞm J-TWl× AûUl×LÞdÏ 20 BiÓLÞdÏm E¬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. L¦² §hP YûWÜLs NmUkRlThP YôPûL E¬ûULû[lúTôuú\ C§Ûm Sm©dûLV°dÏm AmNeLs Es[]. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 77 .6 YûL ùNn¡\Õ. YojRL Øj§ûWLs: JÚ ùTôÚû[ ApXÕ úNûYûV Utù\ôÚYW§-kÕ úYßTÓj§d LôhÓ¡\ AûPVô[m ApXÕ AûPVô[eL°u ùRôÏl× YojRL Øj§ûWVôL T§Ü ùT\ Rϧ TûPjRÕ. AúR úTôuß CkR JlTkRj§p YN§Ls ùNnVlThÓs[].3). GiLs. ERôWQj§tÏ CûNVûUlTô[¬u AàU§«u± AYWÕ úSW¥ ¨Lrf£ûV T§Ü ùNnVdáPôÕ. GÝjÕdLs. CqYûL ¨oQVm LôRôp úLhLlTÓm CûNdÏ UhÓúU ùTôßkÕm. AúR úSWj§p YojRL Øj§ûW«u EiûUVô] ETúVôLm JÚ ¨TkRû]VôL T§ÜdLô] ®iQlTj§uúTôÕ CÚdL úYi¥Vj§pûX.3 J-TWl× AûUl×LÞdÏ YZeÏ¡\Õ. CûNlT§Ü RVô¬lTô[oLÞdÏ ReLs RVô¬l×Lû[ YôPûLdLôYÕ ®ÓYRtLô] R²jRuûU YônkR E¬ûUûV Tϧ 14. B]ôp £²Uô TûPl×Ls ®NVj§p Tô§l×Lû[ A°®P Es[ûRl úTôu\ úNôRû] Øû\«u ¸r CÕ YÚY§pûX. B]ôp ClT¥lThP R²jRuûU YônkRûYLs AûYLû[ NôRôWQUôL TVuTÓjÕm Øû\ÙPu ØWiTPdáPôÕ. CûNlT§Ü RVô¬lTô[oLs Uß T§l×Ls ùY°«ÓYRtLô] R²jRuûU YônkR E¬ûULû[ Tϧ 14. ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥p NWjÕLs AàU§dLlThÓ Es[Yt±tÏ CûQVô]ûY "¥¬lv"EPuTôh¥p CûQdLlTh¥ÚkRôÛm E¬ûUVô[WÕ NhPéoY SXuLs Øu AàUô²lTûR RûPùNnYÕ Ï±jÕ AûR®P ùR°YôL ®[eÏ¡\Õ. CûN LûXOoLû[l ùTôßjRYûW Ïû\kR ThNm 50 BiÓLÞdÏm. ReL[Õ ùRôûXdLôh£ J-TWl×Lû[ Uß J-TWl× ùNnYûRÙm RÓd¡\Õ. ®iQl©jÕ êuß BiÓLs L¯kR ©u]o AR]Õ ETúVôLj§u úSôdLm ¨û\úY\ôR úTôÕ ®iQlTjûR ¨WôL¬lTRtLô] L[UôL UhÓúU CÕ ETúVôLlTÓ¡\Õ. úUÛm E¬ûUVô[oL°u NhPléoYSXuLû[ Øû\Vt\ YûL«p Tô§l× HtTÓjÕY§p CÚkÕ Lôl× A°dL Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ Es[ E¬ûUûV Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. J-lT§Ü. (Tϧ 14. YiQ AûPVô[eLs Utßm AÕ úTôu\ TX R² AûPVô[eLû[ ClT¥lThP AûPVô[eLs Es[Pd¡«ÚkRôÛm AûR YojRL Øj§ûW Lôl׬ûUdÏ T§Ü ùT\jRdLûYúV. TôPLoL°u. ®XdÏLs Utßm JÕd¸ÓLû[ ùTôßjÕYRtÏ Tϧ 14. CûNl TûPl×Ls úTôu\ûY AûR CûNjúRô Tô¥úVô ùY°lTÓjÕTYoLs AûU§«u± AYoL[Õ E¬ûUûV TVuTÓjÕYûR LhÓlTÓj§ AYoLÞdÏ E¬ûU A°d¡\Õ. G]úY CqܬûULû[ ÁiÓm J-TWl× AûUl×LÞdÏ YZeLlTP úYiÓm GuT§pûX. AlT¥lThP Øû\ûV ©uTtßYRu êXm Uß ùY°Âh¥tL £\l× E¬ûU ùTtßs[YoL°u E¬ûULs £ûRÜ\d áPôÕ.2 YZeÏ¡\Õ. Nôol× E¬ûULs: TôPLoLs. CûNlT§Ü ®NVj§p ARu RVô¬lTô[o úTôL AkR CûNlT§Ü NmUkRlThP Utù\ôÚYÚdÏm E¬ûUV°dÏm NWjÕdLs TX úRNeL°u NhPeL°p Es[].5) AúR úSWj§p CYoLÞdÏ CqܬûULû[ YZeÏmúTôÕ úWôm £\l× UôSôh¥p ¨TkRû]Ls. ùTo² Lôl× UôSôh¥u Ø¥ÜLÞdÏ HtT "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§Ûm CqYûL E¬ûULs T§l׬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ YZeLlThÓs[Õ. AúR úSWj§p ARtÏ ØkûRV TWmTûW T¬ÜL°u T¥ LhÓlTÓjRlTÓ¡u\]. Uß J-TWl× ùNnYÕ B¡VYtû\ RÓdLXôm. EÚY AûPVô[eLs. NmUkRlThP ùTôÚs ApXÕ úYûYûV Ut\Yt±-ÚkÕ ©¬jÕdLôhPd á¥V YûL«p AûPVô[eLs LôhPlTPôRúTôÕ ARu RuûUûV ETúVôLj§p ¨ì©jÕd LôhP úYiÓm Guß T§®u úTôÕ Eßl× SôÓLs úTôWXôm.4 YZeÏ¡\Õ. 1994 HlWp 15 Cp UWôd¡v SL¬p HtTÓjRlThP JlTkRm CRtÏ Y¯ YÏd¡\Õ. J° TûPl×dÏ ùTôßkRôÕ. S¥LoLs.TWl× YN§Ls úTôu\Yt±u FPôL ùTôÕ J-TWl× ùNnYûR LhÓjÕYRtLô] E¬ûUÙm A°dLlThÓs[Õ. TôoûYdÏ ©¬jR¬Vdá¥VRôL CÕ CÚdL úYiÓm. A§LôWéoYUt\ Øû\«p T§Ü ùNnVlTÓYûR RÓdÏm E¬ûUûV JlTkRj§u Tϧ 14.CODISSIA Tϧ þ 13 : ϱl©hP £X R²jRuûUVô]ûYL°u ®NVj§p ¨oQ«l×Ls ApXÕ ®XdÏLs A°dL úLôÚ¡\Õ. R²l ùTVoLs. AlT§ÜL°u êXm Uß T§ÜLs ùNnYÕ.ApXÕ ÖLoUQm) T§Ü ùNnV AàU§lTRô úYiPôùUuTûR Eßl× SôÓLs Ø¥Ü ùNnÕ ùLôs[Xôm. CûNVûUlTô[oL°u §\uLs AYoL[Õ Jl×Rp ùTtú\ Lôl× ùNnVlTPúYi¥VûR Tϧ 14 (1) Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. TôoûYdÏ ×X]ôLôR AûPVô[eLû[ ( ERôWQUôL J. RVô¬lTô[oLs Utßm J-TWl× AûUl×L°u E¬ûULÞdÏ Tϧ 14 Lôl× A°d¡\Õ.

CODISSIA

úNûY Øj§ûWLÞm CúR úTôX TôÕLôdLlTP úYiÓm. ( 2m : 15.1/ 16.2 Utßm 62.3) YojRL Øj§ûW E¬ûUùTtßs[Yo RUÕ Øj§ûWûV AàU§ ùT\ôUp úYù\ôÚYo RUÕ ùTôÚû[lúTôuú\ RVô¬d¡\ ApXÕ RUÕ úNûYûVl úTôuú\ úNûY«p DÓThÓs[úTôÕ TVuTÓj§ ÏZlTm ®û[®lTûR RÓdÏm E¬ûU ùTtßs[ôo. ÏZlTj§tÏ CPU°dÏm ®Rj§p Juû\ JjR ©¬jR¬VjRdL ϱÂhûP ©¬jR±VjRdL ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYdÏ TVuTÓjRlTh¥ÚlTûR EjúRNUôL YÚYÕ A±VlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm (Tϧþ16.1) Øu]o SuL±VlThP Øj§ûWLs ®NVj§p "¥¬lv"JlTkRm ϱl©PjRdL NWjÕdLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ. ( Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u Ø¥ÜL°u Tϧ 6 bis Cp CRtLô] áÓRp NWjÕLs Es[]. AÕ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ϱl×L[ôL úNodLlThÓs[]. CfNWjÕLs Eßl× SôÓLs NmUkRlThP T§ÜLû[ WjÕ ùNnVÜm RsÞT¥ ùNnVÜm AàU§V°d¡u\]. úNûYj Õû\dÏm ClT§«u NWjÕLs ùTôßkÕm. úUÛm NmUkRlThP Õû\«p ùTôÕUdLÞdÏ ¡ûPjÕs[ AàTYm GuTÕ AàU§lThP YojRL Øj§ûW AûPVô[jRôp UhÓªu± ARu Y[of£ûVÙm LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. úUÛm ×Lr ùTt\ YojRL Øj§ûWLs AûYLs GkR ùTôÚs ApXÕ úNûYûV LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôiÓ T§Ü ùNnVlThPúRô AûYLs ApXôR ©\ ùTôÚsLs úNûYLÞdÏm T§Ü ùNnVjRdLRôÏm. B]ôp HtL]úY T§Ü ùNnÕs[Yt±tÏ JjR YûLLÞdÏ ¿h¥dLd áPôÕ. ClT¥ ¿h¥dLlTÓmúTôÕ NmUkRlThP ùTôÚÞdÏm úNûYdÏm Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏm Es[ ùRôPoûT ùY°lTÓjÕ¡\Õ. AqYûL ETúVôLj§u úTôÕ E¬ûUVô[oL°u SXuLs Tô§dLlTÓ¡u\]. ( Tϧ 16.2 Utßm 3 ). YojRL Øj§ûW T§Yôp Eߧ ùNnVlThP E¬ûULs ®NVj§p YûWVßdLlThP ®XdÏLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs A°dLXôm. YojRL Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[o Utßm êu\ôm SToL°u NhPléoY ®ÚlTeLû[ LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôiÓ ClT¥lThP ®§®XdÏLû[ A°dLXôm. YoQû] YôojûRL°u ETúVôLjûRÙm CR]¥lTûP«p LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[Xôm. YojRL Øj§ûWdLô] ÕYdLlT§Üm JqùYôÚ UßT§Üm 7 BiÓLÞdÏ Ïû\VôUp Øj§ûW E¬ûU A°d¡\Õ. ¨oQ«dLlTPôR LôX A[®tÏm YojRL Øj§ûW Lôl׬ûU UßT§Ü ùNnVXôm. ( Tϧ þ 18 ), ETúVô¡dLlTPôUp CÚd¡\ LôWQj§tLôL JÚ Øj§ûW Lôl׬ûUûV WjÕ ùNnYRtÏ CûP«ûPúV ETúVô¡dLlTPôR êuß BiÓLs L¯kÕ CÚdL úYiÓm ApXÕ AlT¥lThP ETúVôLjRôp HtTÓ¡\ £WUeLs ϱjÕ Øj§ûW E¬ûUVô[o RÚm RLYpL°u ùNpÛT¥VôdLjRdL LôWQeL°u A¥lTûP«p WjÕ ùNnVXôm. C\dÏU§ LhÓlTôÓLs ApXÕ ©\ AWÑd LôhÓlTôÓLs LôWQUôL Ru²fûNVôL EÚYôÏm ãr¨XûUL°u LôWQUôL Øj§ûW E¬ûUVô[¬u ®ÚlTj§uT¥ ùR¬®dLlTÓm LôWQeLû[ ùNpÛT¥VôdLj RdL LôWQeL[ôL Htßd ùLôs[Xôm. JÚ YojRL Øj§ûW E¬ûUVô[¬u LhÓlTôh¥p CÚdÏmúTôÕ AûR Utù\ôÚYo ETúVô¡dÏm úTôÕ AûR YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü TWôU¬l©tLôL ETúVô¡dLlTÓYRôL Ae¸L¬dLlTP úYiÓm. ( Tϧ þ 19 ), YojRL Øj§ûWûV Utù\ôÚYÚdÏ YojRLj§tÏ RÚm úTôÕ úYß JÚ YojRL Øj§ûWûV úNojÕ ETúVô¡jRp, R²jRuûU Y¥®p ETúVô¡jRp, ùTôÚs ApXÕ úYûXûV ©¬jR¬dLRdL ®Rj§p CpXôUp ARtÏ úLÓ ®û[®dÏm ®Rj§p ETúVôLlTÓjÕRp B¡V LôWQeLÞdLôL BWôVôUp RûP ùNnV úYi¥V§pûX. ( Tϧ þ 20 )

×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[eLs:
JlTkR úSôdLj§tLô] ×®«Vp ϱAûPVô[eLs ®Y¬jÕ A±VjRdL] BÏm. ϱl©PjRdL CVp×L[ô] RWm, U§l×, ©\ StÏQeLs B¡V] ×®«Vp êXCPj§u CVp× ÏQeLú[ôÓ úNoj§¬V AY£VUô]ûY. (Tϧ 22.1). G]úY JÚ ùTôÚ°u RWm, SuU§l×, UtßØs[ StÏQeLs ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[j§tÏ Rϧ YônkRûY. Hù]²p AkR ÏQeLs ×®«p êX CPj§u ùTôÚ°u CVpTô] ÏQeLû[ Es[Pd¡«Úd¡u\]. ×®«p ϱVôûPVô[eLs ®NVj§p AqYûPVô[eLû[ TVuTÓjR ®ÚlTØs[YoLs NhPéoY Lôl× ùTßYÕ AY£Vm. Hù]²p ×®«Vp êX CPj§u ùTôÚû[l úTôu\Õ Gu\ ùTV¬p ùTôÕUdLû[ RY\ôL Y¯LôhÓYûR RÓdL ×®«Vp AûPVô[eLû[ AàU§«pXôUp TVuTÓjÕYûR RûPùNnV úYiÓm. CqYûL ETúVôLeLs LôWQUôL Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥p Øû\Vt\ úTôh¥ ϱjR NhPm ( Tϧ 10 Bis ) EÚYôdLlThPÕ. ( "¥¬lv"22.2). ×®«p ϱVûPVô[jûR YojRL Øj§ûWVôL T§Ü ùNnÕ ETúVô¡dÏm úTôÕ ùTôÕ UdLû[ RY\ôL Y¯LôhÓùU²p ®ÚlTØs[ JÚYo úLhÓd ùLôiPRu A¥lTûP«úXô, NhPm AàU§dÏm ThNj§úXô, T§ûY ¨WôL¬dL úYiÓm. ( Tϧ 22.3) ×®«p CPlùTVWôp AûPVô[eLôhPlTÓm Jnu Aq®Pj§p RVô¬dLlTPôR ThNj§p ARtÏ ×®«p ϱVôûPVô[ T§Ü RWlTÓYûR ®ÚlTlThPYoLs RÓlTRtLô] E¬ûUûV Tϧ 23 YZeÏ¡\Õ. ClT¥ CPlùTVûW TVuTÓjÕYRôp ùTôÕUdLs RY\ôL Y¯ SPj§j ùNpXô§ÚdûL«p, úSoûUVt\ úTôh¥ CpX§ÚkRôÛm, AkR ST¬u EiûUVô] EtTj§ CPm ϱl©PlTh¥ÚkRôÛm, ApXÕ ×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[Uô]Õ " úTôu\Õ ", "AlT¥lThPÕ", " A¥ùVt±VÕ", " YûLVô]Õ"

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

78

CODISSIA

Guß TX YûLL°p ϱl©PlTh¥ÚkRôÛm úUtá±V E¬ûU«]lTûP«p CqYûL ETúVôLj§u ÁÕ SPY¥dûL GÓdL Ø¥Ùm. Tϧ 24Cp ×®«Vp ϱVôûPVô[eLs Lôl× NmUkRUôL TpúYß ®§®XdÏLû[ ùLôi¥Úd¡\Õ. Jnu Utßm NôWôVm úTôu\ûY ®NVj§p ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs TVuTÓjRlTÓYûR RÓlTRtLô] áÓRp Lôl× SPY¥dûLLû[ ClTϧ«p ϱl©PlThÓs[ ®§®XdÏLs EߧlTÓjÕ¡u\]. ERôWQj§tÏ JÚ Eßl× SôÓ Ju±p ×®«p ϱ AûPVô[eLÞdÏ Lôl× A°dL úYi¥V ùTôßlúTodL úYi¥«pXôUp CÚdLXôm. AR]ôp AeúL ©WfNû]dϬV RVô¬l× UW×çVôLúY CPlùTVûWd ùLôi¥ÚdLXôm. ( TôWô þ 6 ) CkR NWjÕLû[ AØXôdÏm SPY¥dûLLs Su]m©dûLûV ùTtßs[ NWd¡u YojRL Øj§ûW E¬ûUdLô] LôXdùLÓûY Tô§dLôRYôß TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. (TôWô þ 5) ϱl©hP ãZ-p Jnu Utßm NôWôVj§tÏ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLs ùRôPokÕ TVuTÓjR AàU§dÏm úTôÕ ARtÏ Øu]o CÚkR Y¥®Ûm, A[®Ûm CÚlTûR Htßd ùLôs[Xôm. (TôWô þ 4). CjRÏ ®§®XdÏLû[ RôeL[ôLúY ùLôi¥ÚdÏm Eßl× SôÓLs ReL[Õ R²lThP ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLû[ ùRôPokÕ TVuTÓjÕYÕ Ï±jÕ úTfÑ YôojûRLs SPjR ØuYÚYÕ AY£Vm (TôWôþ1). AúR úSWj§p Cq®§®XdÏL[ô]ûY "¥¬lv"JlTkRm AØXôdL LôXj§p áPôÕ. (TôWô þ3). ×®«p ϱVûPVô[ Lôl©tLô] NWjÕL°u AØXôdLm ϱjÕ T¬ºXû] ùNnVúYi¥V ùTôßl©p "¥¬lv"ÏÝ Es[Õ. (TôWô þ2).

ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs:
R² SToLs EÚYôd¡Ùs[ קV ApXÕ êX ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs Lôl× YZeLúYi¥VûR "¥¬lv"JlTkRm Tϧ 25.1 ¨oQ«d¡\Õ. קV ApXÕ êXYûWTPj§tÏ Lôl× YZeÏ¡\ AúR úSWj§p HtL]úY Es[ YûWY¥Yj§túLô ApXÕ ARu TX]ôL EÚYô¡\ Tϧ«dúLô ùT¬V A[®tL UôßTPô®hPôÛm Lôl× YZeÏ¡u\]. B]ôp ùRô¯p ÖhT ç«Ûm ùNVpØû\ A¥lTûP«Ûm AkR YûWY¥Ym LhPôVUôL B§dLm ùNÛjRd á¥V]YôL CÚkRôp Jl׬ûU ¿h¥dLlTP UôhPôÕ. Tϧ 25.2 B]Õ Ïû\kR BÙs EûPVÕm ØÝûUVô] Gi¦dûL«p Es[ÕUô] _Ü°jÕû\ YûW Y¥YeLû[ LQd¡ùXÓdL R²f NWjÕLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ. AqYûL YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ Lôl× YZeÏYRtÏ Ï±lTôL ARu U§l×, úNôRû]dLô ApXÕ ùY°Âh¥tLô Guß TôodL úYi¥V§pûX. AlT¥l TôolTRu êXm AYt±tÏ ¡ûPdL úYi¥V Lôl©tLô] YônlûT úNRlTÓj§®PdáPôÕ. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Y NhPm ApXÕ T§l׬ûUf NhP ®§Lû[d ùLôiÓ Eßl× SôÓLs CRtLô] Lôl× E¬ûULû[ YZeLXôm. Tϧ 26.1Cp YojRL úSôd¡Xô] NhPeLû[ ûL«p GÓjÕd ùLôiÓ êu\ôm STo JÚYo ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Y E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§«u± AYWÕ YûWY¥YjûRl TVuTÓj§ ùTôÚsLû[ RVô¬dLÜm ®tLÜm ApXÕ NmUkRlThP YûWY¥Yj§tÏ NmUkRlThP TϧLû[ Es[Pd¡V ApXÕ AûRd ùLôiÓ Y¥dLlThP ùTôÚsLû[ RÓdLÜm YûWTP E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs AàU§VôdL úYiÓm. Tϧ: 26.2 B]Õ Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ùLôÓdLlThÓs[ YûWVßdLlThP ®§®XdLô] E¬ûULs, Lôl× ùTtßs[ ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Y E¬ûUVô[¬u NhP éoY SXuLû[ úRûYVt\ ®Rj§p Øuáh¥úV Tô§dLd á¥VRôL BdLúYô AkR YûWY¥YjûR NôRôWQUôL TVuTÓj§d ùLôsYRtÏ AàU§dLlThÓs[ E¬ûUdÏ Uô\ôL áÓRXôL TVuTÓj§ ùLôi¥ÚlTûRúVô AàU§dLd á¥VRôL CÚdLd áPôÕ. AqYûWY¥YjûR TVuTÓjÕm êu\ôm ST¬u NhPéoY ®ÚlTeLû[ UhÓúU LQd¡p ùLôiÓ Eßl× SôÓLs ùNVpTPd áPôÕ. Lôl× ùTßYRtLô] LôX A[Ü 10 YÚPeLÞdLôYÕ CÚdL úYiÓm ( Tϧ 26.3) Gu\ YôoûRVô]Õ Ï±jR LôXjûR ©¬jÕ EQojÕYRôL, ERôWQj§tÏ CWiÓ IkÕ BiÓLs Guß AojRlTÓjRÜm AàU§dL úYiÓm.

Lôl׬ûULs:
GkR JÚ LiÓ©¥l×dÏm AÕ ùTôÚsL[ôL CÚkRôÛm N¬ RVô¬l× Øû\VôL CÚkRôÛm N¬ ARtÏ Eßl× SôhÓ AWNôeLeLs Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYiÓm Guß "¥¬lv"JlTkRm úLhÓd ùLôs¡\Õ. ùRô¯p ÖhT Õû\«u GkR JÚ ©¬ûYf úNokRRôLÜm CÚdLXôm. AYt±tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeÏmúTôÕ TôWThNm LôhPd áPôÕ. AkR LiÓ©¥l×Ls AYt±àûPV ×ÕûU, AYt±p ùTô§kÕs[ LiÓ©¥l×jRuûU Utßm AYt±u ùRô¯tÕû\dÏl ùTôßk§l úTôÏm RuûU B¡V]Ytû\ A±YRtLô] NôRôWQ T¬úNôRû]LÞdÏ EhTÓTûYVôL CÚkRôp úTôÕm AYt±tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYiÓm. Lôl׬ûU ùTÚûU ùTßYRtLô] A¥lTûPf NhPj§p AàU§dLjRdL ®§®XdÏLs êuß Es[]. ùTôÕ BûQdúLô JÝdLØû\dúLô Uô\ôL CÚlTYt±tÏ ùTôßkRd á¥VÕ ØRXôYÕ BÏm. U²RoLs ApXÕ ®XeÏL°u E«¬dúLô EPp SXj§túLô Ñtßf ãZÛdÏ úLÓ ®û[®dLd á¥VRôL CÚkRôúXô AYt±tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTPôU-dL Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ Es[ E¬ûU ®§®XdLô]Õ ¨TkRû]dÏhThPÕ. NmUkRlThP

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

79

CODISSIA

LiÓ©¥l× YojRL çVôL TVuTÓjÕTYûWÙm RÓdLjRdLÕ. ùTôÕ BûQ Utßm JÝdL ùS±ûV TWôU¬dL CÕ ªLÜm AY£Vm. UÚjÕY Õû\«p Es[ U²RoLs Utßm ®XeÏLÞdÏ úSôV±Ùm Øû\, £¡fûN Øû\ Utßm AßûY £¡fûN Øû\Ls B¡VYt±tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYiÓm GuT§-ÚkÕ Eßl× SôÓLÞ[dÏ ®XdL°dLXôm GuTÕ CWiPôYRôÏm. êu\ôYRôL ÖiEP-Vp, E«¬Vp NôWôR Utßm Öi E«¬Vp SûPØû\Ls ApXôR ®XeÏLs ApXÕ T«oLs EÚYôdÏYRtÏ AY£VUô] E«¬Vp SûPØû\LÞdÏ EhTPôR T«oLs Utßm ®XeÏLÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYi¥V§-ÚkÕ Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ®XdL°dLXôm. T«o YûLLs Lôl׬ûU«-ÚkÕ ®X[dL°dLlThÓs[ GkR JÚ SôÓm ùNVXôdLªdL. Sui Generiss Øû\«u ¸r LhPôVm Lôl× YZe¡VôL úYiÓm. AúR úSWj§p CRtLô] NWjRô]Õ JlTkRm AØXôdLlThÓ SôuÏ BiÓLs L¯jÕ ØÝûUVôL T¬ºXû]dÏ EhTÓjRd RdLRôÏm (Tϧ 27.3(b)) RVô¬lTRtÏ, ETúVô¡lTRtÏ, ®tTû]dÏ RÚYRtÏ, ®tTû]dÏ Utßm CkR úSôdLeLÞdLôL C\dÏU§ ùNnYRtÏ G] CûYL°p Ju±tÏ ùTôÚs Lôl׬ûU £\l× E¬ûUVôL EߧlTÓjR úYiÓm. RVô¬l× Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôlT]Õ ùTôÚs RVô¬l× ¨ûX«p áÓRp ETúVô¡l× CpXôUp Lôl× ùNnYRtÏ UhÓªu± CkR RVô¬l× ¨ûX«p úSW¥VôL ùT\lThP áÓRp ùTôÚsLÞdÏm ùTôßkÕm. Lôl׬ûU«u E¬ûUVô[o TeÏm (assign) ùT\jRdLYo ApXÕ TeÏ Uôt\m ùNnYRu êXm E¬ûUdÏ YWÜmRdLYo. Lôl׬ûU Utßm Ø¥Ü ùNnVlThP E¬ûUV°dLlThP JlTkReLÞdÏm CÕ ùTôßkÕm. (Tϧ 28) Lôl׬ûU êXm A°dLlTÓm £\l׬ûU ®NVj§p Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ YûWVßdLlThP ®§®XdÏLs A°dLlThÓs[]. AúR úSWj§p AkR E¬ûUVô]Õ AkR Lôl׬ûUûV NôRôWQUôL TVuTÓjÕYÕPu úRûY«pXôUp ØWiTPdáPôÕ. úUÛm Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[Y¬u NhP éoY E¬ûULû[Ùm úRûY«pXôUp LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm (Tϧ þ 30) ®iQlTm éoj§ ùNnVlThP Sôs ØRp LôXôY§BLjRdL LôXUô] 20 BiÓLÞdÏ Øu]ôp Lôl× ¡ûPlTÕ Ø¥ÜdÏ YkÕ ®Pd áPôÕ. (Tϧþ33) Lôl׬ûU úLôÚm ®iQlTRôWo LiÓ©¥l× NmUkRUôL úTôÕUô] ®YWeLû[ RW úYiÓùU] Eßl× SôÓLs úLôWXôm. NmUkRlThP LiÓ©¥l× ®YWeLû[ AÕ NmUkRlThP Õû\ ¨×Qo JÚYo AûR LiÓ©¥lTYÚdÏ ªLÜm ùR¬kÕs[ Y¥Yj§p ùY°dùLôiÓ YÚUôß ®iQlTRôW¬Pm ®iQl©dÏm Sô°úXúV úLôWXôm ApXÕ NÛûL úLôWlTÓmúTôÕ ®iQl©j§p úLôWlThÓs[ NÛûL úR§«p úUtϱl©hP YûL«p ùY°dùLôQWd úLôWXôm. Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[ Ju±u Es[PdLm JÚ ùTôÚû[ EtTj§ ùNnYRtLô] ùNVpØû\ûVd ùLôiÓs[Õ. AúR úTôu\ ùTôÚû[ RVô¬dÏ ©W§Yô§ RuàûPV ùTôÚ°u EtTj§ Øû\dÏm HtL]úY T§Ü ùTtßs[ EtTj§ Øû\dÏm Es[ úYßTôhûP NmUkRlThP A§Lô¬Ls Øuú] ¨Ú©jÕdLôhP ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬dL úLôWXôm. Lôl× ùTtßs[ RVô¬l× Øû\ûV JjR Øû\ûV NmUkRlThP A§Lô¬Ls EQÚm úTôÕ úUtLiP SPY¥dûLûV úLôWXôm. Lôl׬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ ùT\ôUúXúV NmUkRlThP ®NVjûR AWNôeLm LhPôV E¬ûU«uúT¬p TVuTÓjR AàU§dLlThÓs[Õ. AúR úSWj§p E¬ûUVô[¬u NhPéoY ®ÚlTeLs LôlTt\lTÓYÕm ¨TkRû]«u A¥lTûP«p UhÓúU TVuTÓjR úYiÓm. CRtLô] ¨TkRû]Ls Tϧ 31Cp Es[]. ¨VôVUô] LôX A[®tÏ, ¨VôVUô] ¨TkRû]Ls, ®§Øû\LÞdÏ EhThÓ AlT¥lThP E¬ûUûV Rô]ôL ùT\Ø¥VôR ãr¨ûX HtTÓmúTôÕ ùTôÕ ®§ GuTRu A¥lTûP«p AlT¥lThP E¬ûUûV YZeLúYi¥VÕm Eßl×SôÓL°u ùTôßlTôÏm. AlT¥ E¬ûUûV ûL«ùXÓdÏm úTôÕ AkRkR E¬Uj§tLô] ùTôÚ[ôRôW U§lûT LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôiÓ AûYLÞdÏ úTôÕUô] F§Vm ùLôÓdL úYiÓm. CmØ¥Yô]Õ ¿§jÕû\ ApXÕ RdL R² EVo A§Lô¬Lû[d ùLôiÓ T¬ºXû] ùNnVjRdLRôÏm. CkR ¨TkRû]L°u EߧjRuûU R[ojRjRdLÕ. NhPéoYUôL G§oúTôh¥ SPY¥dûLLû[ EÚYôdÏYÕ Gu\YûL«p JÚ ©WfNû]dÏ ¾oÜ LôQ ØVt£dL CqܬûUûV TVuTÓjÕmúTôÕ CqYûL R[oÜ RWlTÓ¡\Õ. CkR ¨TkRû]Ls CûYLs NmUkR Tϧ 27.1Cp á\lThÓ Es[YtßPu úNokÕ A±VjRdLÕ. ùRô¯p ÖhTjÕû\ NmUkRlThP Lôl׬ûULs TôWThNUt\ Øû\«p AàT®dLjRdLûY GuTRtLôL úUtLiP SûPØû\Ls ©uTt\jRdLûY.

Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßdL°u §hP YûWTPeLs:
EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u ER®ÙPu 1989Bm BiÓ úTfÑYôojûR SPjRlThÓ EßYôdLlThP Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß YûWTPeLÞdLô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs JlTkR NWjÕLÞdÏ HtT Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßdL°u §hP YûWTPeLÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs Lôl× YZeL úYi¥VÕ Ï±jÕ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

80

ùY°«PlTPôR ®YWeLÞdLô] TôÕLôl×: YojRL WL£Vm ApXÕ ùNnØû\ A±Ü úTôu\ ùY°«PlTPôR ®YWeLÞdÏ Lôl× A°lTRu êXm TXu ¡ûPdLf ùNnV úYiÓm Guß "¥¬lv"JlTkRm úLôÚ¡\Õ. YûWVû\Ls AúRúTôX AYtû\ TVuTÓjÕYRtLô] A[ÜLs T§Ü Utßm ùNnØû\ B¡VYtû\ Es[Pd¡VûYVôÏm. ùRô¯p ÖhTjûR T¬Uô±d ùLôsYûR JÚ RûXNôoTô]RôL BdÏ¡u\] GuTûR AlTϧ (TôWô þ1) ϱl©Ó¡\Õ. ARu ØÝ Y¥Yj§p ùNVpTÓjRd á¥VRôL CÚdLXôm.2)Cu T¥ LhPôV ApXÕ Rô]ôL ØuYkRÕ E¬ûUV°dLô®¥àm §hPYûWTPm ApXÕ ARu ETúVôLj§u E¬UjûR EiûUVô] E¬ûUVô°u AàU§«u± AWNôeLm GÓjÕd ùLôsYRtÏ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ 31Cu ¨TkRû]Ls ùTôÚkÕm. G]úY AÕ WL£VUô]Õ úUÛm AÕ WL£VUôLúY CÚdL úRûYVô] HtTôÓLû[ ùNnÕ RÚUôß úLôW E¬ûU TûPjÕs[Õ. קV WNôVQ LiÓ©¥l×Lû[d ùLôiÓ RVô¬dLlTÓ¡\ UÚkÕLs ApXÕ ®YNôVjÕû\dLô] WNôVQ RVô¬l×LÞdÏ ®tTû]dÏ AàU§ YZeÏYRtÏ AûYLs NmUkRlThP ùY°«PlTPôR T¬úNôRû] ®YWeLs Utßm ©\ ®YWeLû[ AWNôeLj§Pm NUo©dL úYi¥VRu AY£Vm ϱjR NWjÕLs JlTkRj§p Es[]. E¬ûUd ÏjRûLL°p G§oþúTôh¥ SûPØû\Lû[ LhÓlTÓjÕRp: E¬U Øû\Ls Utßm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NôokR £X ¨TkRû]Ls úTôh¥ûV LhÓlTÓjÕ¡u\] GuTûR "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ Ae¸L¬d¡\Õ. ùTôÕ UdLs SXu LôdLlP úYi¥V AY£VUô] úSWeLs R®ojR Ut\ úSWeL°p AlT¥lThP ®YWeLs ùY°VôLôUp Eßl× SôÓLs TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ ApXÕ AlT¥«pXô®hPôp Aq®YWeLs ®VôTôW ùS±Øû\LÞdÏ ×\mUTôL ETúVô¡dlTÓY§-ÚkÕ RdL TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRtLô] HtTôÓLs ùNnV úYiÓm. R² E¬ûULs. Hû]VûY £XúYô Aû]jÕúUô Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑt±u ùRôPo×L[ôLúYô.2 úLôÚ¡\Õ. ®tTû] ApXÕ ®tTû]dÏ YZeÏYRtLô] E¬ûU B¡V] £\l× E¬ûUL°u ¸r YÚ¡u\]. EsT¥Uô]eL[ôLúYô. CqܬûULÞdÏ Ï±l©hP YûWVßl×LÞm A°dLlThÓ Es[]. Uß EtTj§dLô] E¬ûU.1) B¡V] úUtá±V SôuÏ ®NVeL°p APe¡Ùs[]. Sm©dûLûV RLojRp. ARôYÕ Lôl×dLôX LôX A[Ü (GhÓ BiÓLÞdÏ T§XôL TjÕ BiÓ Tϧ 38) Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßl TXûL«p APe¡Ùs[ ©\ TôLeLs E¬ûU ª±lTVuTÓjRlTh¥ÚkRôÛm AlTXûLdÏ Lôl× ( TôLm 36Cu LûP£ CûQl× ©¬Ü ) Utßm A±VôUp E¬ûU Á±VRôL LÚÕYRtLô] HtTôÓLs ( TôLm 37.CODISSIA 35Cp ϱl©PlThÓ Es[Õ. AlT¥lThP Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß YûWY¥YùUuTÕ ARu TûPlTô°«àûPV ùNôkR A±Üj§\û] ùY°lThPRôLÜm. G§o úTôh¥ûV HtTÓjÕ¡\ YûL«Ûm. ùY°lTPôR ®YWeLû[ ùNôjÕ Gu\ Y¥Yj§p ûLVô[ úYiÓm Guß JlTkRm úLôW®pûX. ClT¥ RûPLs ®VôTôWj§u ÁÕ LÓm RôdLjûR HtTÓjÕ¡u\]. ApXÕ ùUôjRj§p LY]dÏû\®]ôp AlT¥ A±kÕ ùLôsYÕ úTôu\ ûLlTtßm S¥Y¥dûLLs B¡V] ùS±Øû\Lû[ Á±V ùNVpL[ôÏm. B]ôp AlT¥lThP ®YWeLû[ NhPéoYUôL ûLVôÞYRtLô] E¬ûUÙs[Yo Aq®YWeLs ùY°VôLôUp TôojÕd ùLôs[jRdLYo. Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßLÞdLô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRm LhPôV E¬ûU NWjÕ (Tϧ 37. úSoûUVô] ®VôTôW ùS±Øû\LÞdÏ EhThÓ AYWÕ (Bi/ùTi) Jl×Rp ùTt\ ©u]úW AÓjRYo AûRl ùT\úYô TVuTÓjRúYô Ø¥Ùm. E¬ûUûV RY\ôL TVuTÓjRjRdL YûL«Ûm Es[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULÞdLô] E¬Um YZeÏm úTôÕ AqYûL SPY¥dûLLû[ RÓlTRtÏm LhÓlTÓjÕYRtÏUô] Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 81 . Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßdLô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkR NWjÕL°uT¥ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm ùY°TÓj§Ùs[ SôuÏ ®NVeL°u A¥lTûP«p Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß §hP YûWTPeLÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓL°Pm Lôl× úLôWXôm. CkR NWjÕdL[ô]ûY "Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßLs " Utßm " §hP YûWTPeLs (Topography)" AYt±tÏ Lôl×dÏ úYi¥VûYLs. JlTkR Á\p. JÚ ®YWm WL£VUô]Õ Guß LÚRlTÓm úTôÕ ARtÏ Lôl× LhPôVm A°dL úYiÓm Guß JlTkRj§p Tϧ 39. Aq®YWeLÞdÏ YojRL U§l× Es[Õ. Utßm JlTkR Á\ÛdÏ çiÓYÕ AúR úTôX ùY°«PlTPôR WL£VeLs Tt± A±k§Úd¡\ êu\ôYo AqY®WeLû[ ûLlTtßYÕ. Jße¡ûQkR ªu Ñtß JÚ ùTôÚ[ôÏm. " úSoûUVô] ®VôTôW ùS±Øû\LÞdÏ Uô\ô] SPY¥dûLLs" GuT] ¡rLiPYôß Es[]. §hPYûWTPm GuTÕ ØlT¬Uô] Ti× ùLôiPRôL YûWVßdLlThÓs[Õ. C\dÏU§dLô] E¬ûU. êXjRuûUÙûPVRôLÜm AlTûPl× ùY°YÚ¡\ úSWj§p Es[ ©\ TûPlTô°L°àûPV §hP YûWÜLs Utßm EtTj§Vô[oLÞûPV JÚe¡ûQkR ªuÑtß TXûLLs B¡VYt±-ÚkÕm úYßTÓj§lTôodLjRdLRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP úSWj§p NmUkRlThP Eßl× SôhÓ AWNôeLeLs NmUkRlThP WL£VeLs ®VôTôW ùS±Øû\LÞdÏ ×\mTôL ùY°VôLôUp TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. úUp T¥Uô]eL[ôLúYô CÚkÕ ªu AÔdLs Ju±-ÚkÕ Ut\Yt±tÏ TVQm ùNnYRtLô] Y¯VôL UhÓúU CÚdLXôm. AlT¥ ùNôpÛm úTôÕ ARu JÚ Tϧ ùNVpTPdá¥VRôLÜm Hû]V £XúWô Aû]jÕúUô Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑt±u CûQl×L[ôLúYô CÚdLXôm ApXÕ Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑt±tLôL AlT¥ JÚ ØlT¬UôQ Y¥Ym EÚYôdLlTÓYÕ GuTÕ AkR Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßl TXûLLû[ RVô¬lTRtLôLÜm CÚdLXôm.

B]ôp AfãZ-p AkR SôhÓPu LXkRôúXô£dL úYiÓm. AúRúTôX AlT¥lThP SPY¥dûLdÏ EsSôhÓ ¨ßY]eLû[d ùLôiP Eßl× SôÓm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 82 .CODISSIA ùTôÚjRUô] Y¯Øû\Lû[ AØXôdL úYiÓm (TôWô þ2) AÓjR JÚ Eßl× SôhûPf NôokR ¨ßY]eLs CqܬûUûV ÁßYRôL ùR¬kRôp AÕ Ï±jÕ NmUkRlThP SôÓ SPY¥dûL GÓlTRtLô] Y¯Øû\Ls JlTkRfNWjÕdL°p Es[]. Tô§l×dÏ Es[ô] ®YWeLû[Ùm AYtû\ JjRRôL LÚRlTÓm AkR SôÓL°p ùY°lTûPVôL ¡ûPd¡\ ®YWeLû[Ùm ûYjÕ Jl©hÓ TôodL úYiÓm. EsSôhÓ NhPeLÞdÏ EhThÓm Ø¥YôL TôÕLôdLlTP úYi¥V RUÕ ®NVeLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× A°dÏ ®Rj§Xô] TWvTWm §Úl©V°dÏm JlTkRjûR TôÕLôl× úLôÚm SôÓ GhP úYiÓm ( TôWô þ3). SPY¥dûL úUtùLôsÞm Eßl× SôhÓPu LXkRôúXô£dL úYiÓm. AúR úTôX AkR Eßl× Sôh¥Pm ¡ûPdÏm ©\ ®YWeLÞPu Jl©hÓ BWôV úYiÓm.

ùTôßlTô] AWÑ A§Lô¬L[ôp A±Üf ùNôjÕ T§Ü ùNnVlThP ©u]o AYÚdÏ AkR ùNôj§u úUp £\l× E¬ûU YÚ¡\Õ.CODISSIA JÚ LiÓ©¥lûT Lôl× T§Ü ùNnRp Aj§VôVm þ 6 1) A±ØLm Utù\pXô ùNôjÕdLû[l úTôXúY A±Üf ùNôjÕm JÚ R² STÚdÏ ùNôkRUô]Õ. CdLô¥LôWj§tLô] AùXdNôih ùTVudÏ YZeLlThP Lôl׬ûU Rôu LiÓ©¥l©tLôL ØRuØû\VôL YZeLlThP Lôl׬ûUVôÏm. ETúVôLm. JÚ LiÓ©¥lTô[o ApXÕ Juû\ ùY°dùLôQokÕs[ JÚY¬u קV Utßm TVàs[ ùNVpØû\ ApXÕ RVô¬l©tÏ AWNôeLjRôp EjRWYôRm ùLôÓdLlTÓm úTôÕ AYo ARu êXUô] EtTj§. ClT¥ NhPéoY AàU§ ùTtßs[ LiÓ©¥lûT ùTôÕYôL ARu E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ ùTtú\ TVuTÓjR úYiÓm. Lôl׬ûU úLôÚm JÚYo R]Õ LiÓ©¥l× Tt±V ®YWeLû[ ®iQlTjÕPu CûQdLlThP A¥lTûP«p JÚYÚdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. ETúVô¡dLÜm ®tLÜm B] HLúTôL E¬ûUûV ùTß¡\ôo. CkR L¥LôWjûR úUÛm A©®Új§ ùNnV úYiÓm Gu\ EsÞQo®u LôWQUôL U²R Nd§dÏ T§XôL L¥LôWj§u CVdLj§tÏ ªu Nd§ûV ETúVô¡dÏm Øû\ LiÓ©¥dLlThPÕ. ªu Nd§Vôp CVeÏm CdL¥LôWj§tLôL Lôl׬ûU YZeLlThPÕ. LiÓ©¥lTô[WÕ ØVt£dLô] DPôLÜm BnÜ Utßm úNôRû]LÞdÏm AYo ùNnR ùNXÜ B¡VYtû\ DÓùNnYRtLôL ùTôÚs çVô] TXuLs ùTßYûRÙm CqܬûU YZeÏ¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûU GuTÕ HLúTôL E¬ûUVô[oLÞûPVÕ Guß ùRôPokÕ Ï±l©PlTÓ¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûUVô[o R]Õ LiÓ©¥l©p DÓTÓj§Ùs[Yt±u TXû] AûPYRtLôL AYo AûR ùLôiÓ ùTôÚû[ RVô¬dLÜm. ARuêXm Ut\YoLs AûR TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓdÏm E¬ûU ùTß¡\ôo. AkR LiÓ©¥l©p APe¡Ùs[ ®gOô] Øuú]t\m Utßm ARu ÖhT TûPl× TVuTôÓ B¡VYt±tÏ RdL FdLU°dÏm ®Rj§p AWNôeLUô]Õ AYo AûR R²lThP Øû\«p ETúVô¡dLÜm XôTÁhPÜm CkR E¬ûULû[ YZeÏ¡\Õ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u úUp AWNôeL AÛYXLm RÚm Tj§WúU Lôl׬ûUVôL B¡\Õ. ®tTû] B¡VYt±tÏ Ï±l©hP LôXj§tÏ £\l× E¬ûU ùTß¡\ôo. CÕ Ï±jR ®YWeLs YÚUôß:- A). ETúVô¡dLúYô ®tTû] ùNnVúYô CpXôUp RÓlTRtLô] E¬ûU Guß CûR YZdLUôL áßYÕiÓ. Lôl׬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ùT\ôUp AYWÕ Lôl׬ûU ùTt\ ®NVjûR Sôh¥Ûs[ úYù\ôÚYÚm TVuTÓjRôUp CÚlTRtLô] LôlûT AdLiÓ©¥l©tLô] Lôl× YZeÏ¡\Õ. E¬Um ùTßYRu AY£VjûRÙm úRûYûVÙm CÕ EÚYôdÏ¡\Õ. A¥lTûPd L¥LôWjûR LiÓ©¥jRYo Lôl׬ûU ùTt±Úk§ÚlTôo G²p ©kûRV LiÓ©¥lTô[ÚPu CûQkÕ Ut\YoLs ReL[Õ LiÓ©¥lûTd ùLôiÓ L¥LôWm RVô¬lTûRúVô RVô¬l×l T¦LÞdÏ ETúVôLlTÓjÕYûRúVô ApXÕ ®tTûRúVô RÓdL Ø¥Ùm. Gk§W®Vp L¥LôWj§u A¥lTûP RjÕYj§û] êXUôLd ùLôiúP AÕ RVô¬dLlThPÕ. B]ôp ÕW§ÚxPYNUôL ARtLô] ®[dL ϱl×Ls Øtßl ùT\ôUp úTôn®hPÕ. CkR ¨ûX«p Gk§W®Vp Lô¥LôWjûRd LiÓ©¥jRYo Rôu ªu]Ô L¥LôWm ùNnYRtLô] E¬UjûR AùXdNôuPo ùTo²«PØm Uß×\m ªu]Ô L¥LôW Lôl׬ûU ùTt\Yo Gk§W®Vp L¥LôWj§u EiûUVô] Lôl׬ûUVô[¬Pm E¬ûU ùTt\ ©u]o Rôu AûR ETúVôLlTÓjRúYô ®tLúYô Ø¥Ùm. JÚ LiÓ©¥l©û] ARu E¬ûUVô[o TVuTÓjÕYRtLô] NhPéoY E¬ûU YZeLlTPôR ¨ûX«p Ut\YoLs AYÚûPV LiÓ©¥lûT Tn]TÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtLô] NhPéoY E¬ûU ùTt\YWôLÜm AYo Es[ôo. LiÓ©¥lûT ©\o RVô¬dLúYô. ®iQlTj§p LiÓ©¥l× Guß ®Y¬dLlThÓs[Ru A¥lTûP«p AWNôeLm ARtÏ Lôl× T§Ü YZeÏ¡\Õ. B]ôp GeúLÙm AlT¥«pûX. ùTßmTôXô] NhPeL°p Lôl׬ûU ùTt\ LiÓ©¥l©û] EÚYôd¡VYo ApXÕ E¬ûUVô[o úSW¥VôL EtTj§ ùNnVÜm ETúVô¡dLÜm ApXÕ ®tTû] ùNnVÜm E¬ûU YZeLlThÓ Es[Õ. Utù\ôÚYWÕ Lôl׬ûUûV A©®Új§ ùNnÙm ®NVj§p AkR Lôl׬ûUûV AÓjRY¬u Jl×Rp CpXôUp TVuTÓjRúYô ®tLúYô Ø¥VôÕ. CÕ @©úXôWuv SLûWf NôokR TúPôYô TpLûXdLZL úTWô£¬Vo úLôYu ú#ôk§ GuTYodÏ 1369Bm BiÓ Gk§Wd L¥LôWm LiÓ©¥dLÜm EtTj§ ùNnVÜm YônlT°jRÕ. Lôl׬ûU ùTt\ LiÓ©¥lûT ARu E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ ùT\ôUp Sôh¥Ûs[ Utù\ôÚYo TVuTÓjÕYRtÏ G§WôL SPY¥dûL úUtùLôsYRtLô] E¬ûU Lôl׬ûU ùTt\YÚdÏ Es[ Ød¡VUô] E¬ûUVôÏm. N¬Vô] úSWjûR ùR¬kÕùLôsYRtLô] LÚ®ûV LiÓ©¥lTRtLô] ØVt£Ls SPkÕ ùLôi¥ÚkR LôXm: 1327Bm BiÓ Yô®eúTôoÓ SLûWf NôokR ¬fNoÓ GuTYo Gk§Wd L¥LôWm LiÓ©¥jRÜPu ©WfNû] Ø¥ÜdÏ YkRÕ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 83 .

RtúTôûRV ¨XûULs CqYûL RtLô-L ®XdÏL°-ÚkÕ AlTôtThÓs[]. ARtÏl©\Ï GiLû[ ÑZt±lúTÑYRtLô] ùRôûXúT£ûV LiÓ©¥jÕ ARtÏ JÚYo ùTp-u ùRôûXúT£«p A©®Új§ ùNnVlThP Y¥Ym Gu\ ûYûL«p Lôl׬ûU ùTß¡\ôo Guß ûYjÕd ùLôs[Xôm. ERôWQj§tÏ UÚkÕLs. Cfãr¨ûX«p ÑZtß GiLs ùRôûXúT£ Lôl׬ûUVô[¬Pm ùTpÛm. ®tLúYô ùNnVôUp RÓdÏm E¬ûUûV ¡WLômùTp ùTß¡\ôo. 2) Lôl׬ûUdLô] ¨TkRû]Ls: JÚ LiÓ©¥l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôl× ùTßYRtÏ ¸rLiP ¨TkRû]Ls G§oùLôs[ úYiÓm GuTÕ Aú]LUôL EX¡u GpXô SôÓL°Ûm Es[ SûPØû\VôÏm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 84 . ApXÕ UQfùNVpTôÓLÞdÏ UhÓúUVô] RVô¬l×Ls ApXÕ ®û[VôhÓ úTôh¥Ls. ®tLÜUô] E¬UjûR ùTp-Pm ÑZtß GiLs ùRôûXúT£ Lôl׬ûUVô[Úm ùT\úYi¥VÕ AY£Vm. A) B) C) D) Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtÏ NmUkRlThP RϧLû[ קV LiÓ©¥l× ùTt±ÚdL úYiÓm. Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] ®YWj§tÏ AlTôtThP ¨TkRû]ÙUôÏm. E¬Um ùT\ úYi¥VRu AY£Vm Utßm Ød¡VjÕYjûR CÕ EQojÕ¡\Õ. úUtLiPûYL°u ÑßdLUô] ®¬YôdLm: A) JÚ LiÓ©¥l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeÏYRtLô] Rϧ YWúYiÓUô]ôp AÕ Lôl׬ûUdLô] A¥lTûP ¨ûXTôÓL°u G§oTôol×Lû[ ¨fNVm éoj§ùNnYRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. G]úY Lôl׬ûU E¬ûUVô[o RUdÏ RôúU LôYXWôL ùNVpTP úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]RôÏm. ùRô¯p Õû\«u Aû]jÕ Õû\Lû[f NôokR LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏm Lôl× YZeL úYiÓm. ®XeÏ YûLLs. Lôl׬ûUdLô] A¥lTûP ¨ûXTôÓL°]ôp EÚYôdLlThPÕ. CRu AojRm Gu]ùYu\ôp ×Õl×û]Ü GuTÕ Juû\ ¨ì©lTÕ ApXÕ ¨oUô²lTÕ GuTRôp CÕ ®NVj§p úYù\ôu±u TϧLs CpXô§ÚkRôp ¨ì©dLlTÓmúTôÕ UhÓúU CRu ×Õl×û]Ü EߧlTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ. ETúVôLlTÓjRúYô. Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] ®§®XdÏLs Gu\ A¥lTûP«p CÕ YZdLUôL EQWlTÓ¡\Õ. þ A±®Vp ùLôsûLLs ApXÕ LQd¸hÓ Øû\Ls. ®XeÏLû[ EtTj§ ùNnYRtÏ AY£VUô] E«¬Vp ùNVpØû\Ls þ §hPeLs. LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ ¨fNVm èR]Uô] קV Ju\ôL CÚdL úYiÓm. úY[ôiRû\dLô] WNôQeLs ApXÕ AÔ®Vp Õû\ LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏ CqYûL ®XdL°dLlTÓ¡\Õ. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p CkR CWiPôm STWô]Yo ùTp EsTP úYù\ôÚYÚm GiLû[f ÑZtßm ùRôûXúT£ûV EtTj§ ùNnVúYô. TVuTÓjRúYô ApXÕ ®tTû] ùNnVôUúXô RÓdÏm E¬ûU ùTtß CÚd¡\ôo. ®§Øû\Ls ApXÕ Øû\Ls. ùRô¯p ÖhT Õû\«p Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtÏs[ Yônl×dLô] A¥lTûP ¨ûXTôÓLÞdÏ AlTôtThP ùRô¯p ÖhTjÕû\LÞdLô] ERôWQeLs ¸rYÚUôß: þ CVtûL«p Es[ EúXôLeLs ApXÕ êXlùTôÚsLs NmUkRlThP LiÓ©¥l×Ls. CdLiÓ©¥lTô]Õ ùRô¯pÕû\dÏ ùTôßkRdá¥VRôLÜm ETúVôLlTPjRdLRôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm. Lôl׬ûU ûYjÕs[Yo RUÕ Lôl׬ûUûV úYù\ôÚYo RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓdÏm úSôd¡p ùTôÕf NhPeL°u A¥lTûP«p ARu ÁÕ SPY¥dûL úLôÚm úTôÕ UhÓúU AWÑ RûX«Ó¡\Õ. AûYLs úTôÕUô] A[Ü ¨oQVeLÞdÏ EhTPdá¥VRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥l©u LhPeLû[ úTôÕUô] A[Ü ùNnÕ LôhPdá¥VRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. 2) Lôl׬ûU úLôÚYRtLô] ®iQlTjÕPu LiÓ©¥l× ®YWeLû[ úTôÕUô] A[Ü CûQdL úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP T«tLs. T«tLs. Ck¨ûX«p Juû\ ׬kÕùLôs[ úYiÓm. AWNôeLm Lôl׬ûU YZe¡P UhÓúU ùNnÙm AÕ Rô]ôL AqܬûUûV AØXôdLôÕ. ARôYÕ ®VôTôWm. þ U²RoLs ApXÕ ®XdÏLÞdLô] £¡fûN Øû\Ls ApXÕ U²RoLs ApXÕ ®XeÏL°u úSônLiP±Ùm Øû\LÞdÏm (B]ôp CkR SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ úRûYlTÓm ùTôÚsLÞdÏ CÕ ùTôßkRôÕ) Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓY§pûX CÕ úTôL ùTôÕ SXuLû[d LY]j§p ùLôiÓ £XYûLl ùTôÚsLÞdÏm ùNVpØû\LÞdÏm RôtLô-LUôL Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôl©-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ A°dLlTÓ¡\Õ. ETúVôLlTÓjRÜm. ùTp-u A¥lTûP ùRôûXúT£ Lôl׬ûU«û] TVuTÓj§ ÑZtß GiLs ùRôûXúT£ ùNnVÜm.CODISSIA B) ùRôûXúT£dLô] Lôl׬ûUûV AùXdNôiPo ¡WLômùTp ùTt±ÚdÏmúTôÕ Ut\YoLs AYWÕ Lôl׬ûUûV ùLôiÓ AR]ôp EtTj§ ùNnVúYô. B) ×Õl×û]Ü GkR JÚ T¬úNôRû]«Ûm ×Õl×û]ûY ¨ì©dL úYi¥VÕ A¥lTûPVô]RôÏm.

SPY¥dûL úLôÚm LiÓ©¥l©u GpXô RuûULû[Ùm ùY°ÂÓ Ruàs ùLôi¥ÚdÏm ThNj§p ARôYÕ AkR ùY°ÂPô]Õ SPY¥dûL úLôÚm LiÓ©¥l©u êXjRuûUûV Tô§dLjRdLRôL CÚkRôÛm ARu ùY°«PlThP LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ ×Õl×û]Üj RuûU Ïû\TôÓûPVÕ Guß LiÓ©¥dLlTÓ¡\Õ. AÕ GÝjÕ Y¥Yj§úXô úLhLdá¥V Y¥Yj§úXô CÚdLXôm. CÕ ©\ SôÓL°-ÚkRô] A±Üj §\àdÏ AlTôtThPÕ. T§Ü ùNnVlTPôR ùRôûXdLôh£ J°TWl×Ls Y¥®Xô] Lôh£dÏ E¬V ®YWdϱl×Ls CVpTô] ùTôÕ Y¥®Xô] Lôh£dÏ E¬V ®YWdϱl×Ls Guß CVpTô] ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§p CÚdL úYiÓm. AkR Tj§Wm ùY°«PlTPjRdLRôL CÚdL úYiÓm.CODISSIA JÚ LiÓ©¥l× ×§VRôL CÚdÏm úTôÕ AÕ ¨LrjRlThP LûX (Prior art) Vôp G§oTôodLlTPôRRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. ùNVp®[dLm. RhPfÑ Y¥Yj§úXô ApXÕ AfÑ Y¥Yj§úXô CÚdL úYiÓm ) ×ûLlTPeLs. ¨LrjRlThP LûX G] NôRôWQUôL ϱl©ÓYÕ GuTÕ Lôl׬ûU úLôÚYRtLô] ®iQlTj§p ¨WlTlThÓs[ ApXÕ LôXdùLÓÜdÏ EhThP LôXj§u JhÓ ùUôjR A±Ü BÏm. þ ùTôÕ UdL°ûPúV úTfÑ YZd¡p LiÓ©¥l©u ®YWdϱl×Ls CÚkRôp AlT¥lThP ®YWdϱl×Ls YônùUô¯ ®YWd ϱl×L[ôL LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ ùTôÕ UdLs GYùWôÚYÚm ûLVô[d á¥V YûL«p LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§-ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p ùTôÕUdLû[ ùLôiÓ úTôn ¨ßjÕYÕ. ®tTû].J-TWlTôLÜm CÚdL úYi¥V§pûX. AlT¥lThP ùNVp®YWdϱl×Ls "ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§p" Es[ ®YWd ϱl×Ls Gu\ô¡ ®hPÕ" Tj§Wm GuTRu AojRj§tÏ Ht\ôtúTôX AkR ®YWeL°u ùY°ÂPô]Õ HRôYÕ JÚ ùTü¾L Y¥®p CÚdL úYiÓm. J®VeLs ApXÕ YhÓLLs ApXÕ SôPdL°p T§Ü ùNnVlThP úTfÑ ùUô¯«Xô] ApXÕ NeúLR ùUô¯«Xô] J-lT§ÜLs Utßm §ûWlTPeLs B¡V]Ytû\ Es[Pd¡«ßdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥l©û] ϱjÕ NôRôWQ §\u ùLôiPYo áP Ø¥Ü ùNnÙm YûL«p ùY°lTûPVôL CÚdL úYi¥VÕ AY£Vm. ϱl©hP CkR LûX«p NôRôWQ §\u TûPjRYo GuTYo CjÕû\dLô] úTôÕUô] ùRô¯pÖsPT T«t£Ùm ùNnØû\ AàTYØm ùTt\Yo. ùNnÕ LôhÓRp. AúR úTôX ®¬ÜûWLs Utßm Yôù]ô. BLúY. GÝjÕûWLs (AûYLs ûLVôp GÝRlThPRôLúYô. ùNôpXlThP SôÞdÏ Øu]úW AkR A±Üj §\u ùY°Sôh¥p ¡ûPdLdá¥VRôL CÚkRôÛm CÕ ùTôßkÕm. LiÓ©¥l× Tt±V ®YWeLs ClT¥ CÚdûL«p AÕ ¨LrjRlThP LûX«u TϧVôL YÚmúTôÕ AûR ¸rLiP êuß ùTVoL°Xô] Y¯L°p ¨oUô¦dLlTP úYiÓm. þ GÝjÕ Y¥Yj§Xô] ùY°ÂPôLúYô. NmUkRlThP Sôh¥p Es[ NmUkRlThP Õû\«p NWôN¬ A[Ü Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 85 . AlT¥lThP SPY¥dûL«u TôXô] ®iQj§û] JqùYôÚ ùY°Âh¥u AojRjÕPàm ûYjÕ JqùYôÚ TϧVôL Jl©hÓ TôodL úYiÓm. ùLôÓdLlThP LôXLhPj§p ARtÏ ùLôÓdLlThP AojRj§p ¨LrjRlThP LûX CpXô®hPôp AûR ¨ì©d¡\ A¥lTûP«p ØuYÚ¡\ úLs®úV ©WfNû]«u A¥lTûPVôL LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûUf NhPj§p ClT¥lThP úRûY Tt± CûQdLlThÓs[ûY ¸rYÚm BRôWj§p A¥lTûP«Xô]ûY. LôlT°dÏm Sôh¥p Gu] A±VlThÓs[úRô AkR ©u]¦dÏ G§WôL UhÓúU ¨LrjRlThP LûXVô]Õ ¨ì©dLlTh úYiÓm. C) LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£: LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£ûVl (CûR "ùR°Yt\Õ" Gußm ϱl©PlTÓ¡\Õ) ùTôßjRYûW LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ AjÕû\«p NôRôWQ §\u ùLôiPYÚm AûR ùR°YôL ׬kÕ ùLôs[ Ø¥¡\Rô CpûX JÚúYûX ARu NôWjûR úNôRû]«hÓ Ø¥ÜùNnYRtÏ L¥]UôL CÚd¡\Rô CpûXVô GuTúR úLs®. Tj§WeL°u êX®YWeLs JÚ LiÓ©¥l©u ×Õl×û]ûY SôNlTÓjRdá¥VYûL«p CÚlTÕ ùR°ÜTÓjRdá¥VRôL CÚkRôp UhÓúU ARuúUp SPY¥dûL úLôW Ø¥Ùm. "¨LrkRlThP LûX" Gu\ YûL«p HtL]úY Gu] A±VlThÓ Es[úRô ARtÏ Lôl× YZeLlThÓ®PdáPôÕ. Tj§Wj§úXô. Utù\ôÚ TôoûYVô]Õ AfN¥dLlThP ®YWdϱl×Ls ùY°ÂÓLÞdÏm úTfÑ Utßm ETúVôL ®YWeLÞdÏm CûPúV Es[ úYßTôÓL°u A¥lTûP«Xô]RôÏm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p AÕ LiÓ©¥lTRtÏ Øu]ôp AkSôh¥tÏs C\dÏU§ ùNnVlThÓ CÚdLd áPôÕ. ®YWdϱl×Lû[ ùTôÕYôL ETúVôLlTÓj§«ÚdL úYi¥VÕ AY£Vm. úTfÑ YZd¡Xô] ®YWdϱl×Ls GuTÕ ARu AojRj§p ûYjÕlTôodÏm úTôÕ AkR ®YWd ϱl×L°u YôojûRLs ApXÕ Y¥Ym GuTÕ T§Ü ùNnVlTPjRdL]YôL CÚdL úYi¥V§pûX. CeúL "NôRôWQ §\u" Gu\ ùNôp CûQdLlThÓs[Ru úSôdLm 'ªÏkR §\u ùLôiP ¨×QoLû[ ALt±ûYlTRtÏm BÏm. Lôl׬ûUdLô] Af£PlThP ®iQlTeLs. AkR ùY°ÂÓL°p Lôl׬ûULs. ARôYÕ Aq®YWeLû[ ùTôÕ UdLs ®ûX ùLôÓjÕ YôeLúYô ApXÕ ùTôÕ èXLj§p GÓjÕl TôodLjRdLRôLúYô HtTôÓ ùNnÕ RW úYiÓm. CúRôÓ ùRôPo×ûPV ©\ Y¥Yj§úXô LiÓ©¥l©u ®YWdϱl×Ls CÚlTÕ.

CWiPôYRôL. úUÛm AkR ¾o®u êXm Ø¥Ü EߧlTÓjRlTP úYiÓm. ERôWQj§tÏ ùTiL°u BûPLÞdLô] YûWY¥Y Lôl׬ûUûV GÓjÕd ùLôsúYôm. úYß YôojûRL°p áßYùRu\ôp AkR LiÓ©¥l× ùYßm RjÕYUôL CÚkÕ®PdáPôÕ. G]úY ×ÕûUl×û]ûY LQd¡hÓ úYßTÓj§ TôolTRtÏ T¬úNôRû]«u ¸Zs[ E¬ûUúLôÚm Ju±u êX ®NVjûR JqùYôÚ ùY°ÂhÓPú]ô ApXÕ R²jR² ®YWdϱl×LÞPú]ô Jl©hÓlTôodL úYi¥V§pûX. ERôWQj§tÏ ×§V Y¥Yj§Ûs[ NXûY Gk§Wj§u ϱl©hPYûL«Xô] úUôhPo ϱl©hP YûLVô] CûQdLlTh¥ÚdLXôm. ùTôÕYôL LiÓ©¥lûT SûPØû\«p DÓTÓjÕYÕ L¥]Uô]RôL CÚlTRôp ϱlTôL CeúL RWUô]Õ Õs°VUt\RôL CÚlTÕ R®odL Ø¥VôRRô¡®Ó¡\Õ. "¨LrjRlThP LûX"«àPu Jl©hÓd LôQjRdL A[®tÏ AYt±t¡ûPúV úYßTôhûP LiÓ EQok§ÚdL úYiÓm. èR]Øm LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£Ùm ùYqúY\ô]ûY GuTÕ Ï±l©PjRdLÕ. HtL]úY Es[ Y¥Yj§tÏ E¬ûU úLôÚm LiÓ©¥l©tϪûPúV ùR°YôL EQWjRdL úYßTôÓ CÚdL úYiÓm. D) ùRô¯p TVuTôhÓ ¨ûX/TVuTôÓ: Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ SûPØû\«p TVuTPdá¥VYûL«p ùTôßkRjRdLRôL ¨fNVm CÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£û] ¨ûX GuTûR RLtTRtÏ LXûY UhÓm Ød¡VUpX. CkR Øuú]t\Uô]Õ ARtϬV Ød¡VjÕYm EûPVRôL CÚdL úYiÓm.CODISSIA §\u ùLôiP JÚYo UhÓúU RϧVô]Yo Guß CfùNôp A[Ü ¨oQVm ùNn¡\Õ. NmUkRlThP LûX«p NôRôWQ A±Üs[YoLú[ ©WfNû]ûV ùY°dùLôQWjRdLYWôL CÚkRúXô úLôWlTÓm Tôe¡p AûR ¾ojÕ ûYdL Ø¥kRôúXô Ø¥ûY Øu AàUô²dLdRdLRôLúYô CìSRôp LiÓ©¥l× T¥¨ûX ØVt£ Ïû\TôÓûPVRô¡\Õ. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p ØuYÚm úLs® "AeúL LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£ CÚd¡\Rô" GuTRôÏm. קV TϧLs JqùYôu±tÏ CûPúV ùRô¯p ÖhT ùRôPo× HÕm CpXô¨ûX«p AûYLs JqùYôuû\Ùm R²jR²VôL Jl©hÓ TôodL úYi¥V§pûX. ùR°Yô] LûXdÏm LiÓ©¥l©tÏm úYßTôÓ CÚdϪPj§p èR]m ùY°lTÓ¡\Õ. CVpTô] LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£«u ÁÕ NôokÕs[ûR ¨ìT]m ùNnYRtÏ AûYLÞdÏ CûPúVVô] CVtûLVô] úYßTôÓLû[ A±YRtÏ "¨LrjRlThP LûX"ûV JhÓùUôjRUôL LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[lTP úYiÓm. AkR LiP©¥l©tÏ AY£VUô]RôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm. AkR ©WfNû]dÏ JÚ ¾oÜ CÚdL úYiÓm. LXûY êXeLÞdÏ Es[ Yônl×m Ød¡VUô]RôÏm. Cߧ ¾o®p LiÓ©¥l× T¥¨ûX ØVt£ CpûX Guß BÏm ThNj§p Ø¥Ü ùY°lTûPVô]Rô ApXôRRô ApXÕ ARu CVp×jRuûU«]ôp CÕ BfN¬VjûRV°d¡\Rô ApXÕ ARu ®¬YôdLm Rôu LôWQUô Guß úLs® GÝ¡\Õ. ARtÏ Lôl׬ûU Utßm YojRL Øj§ûW AÛYXLm LôlT°jÕ®Óm ThNj§p SpX ûRVpLôWo JÚY¬u §\ûUdÏ úUp AkR EûPL°p Jußm DÓTÓjRlTP®pûX Gu\ BRôWj§u A¥lTûP«p ¿§Uu\eLs êXm AkR Lôl׬ûU U§lTt\RôL BdLlTÓ¡\Õ. YûWY¥Y Lôl׬ûUÙm LhPôVm R]Õ RtTiûT LôhP úYiÓm LiÓ©¥l×j §\û] T¬úNô§jÕd LôhP úYiÓm. AeúL èR]m CÚdÏm úTôÕ UhÓúU CdúLs® GÝ¡\Õ. CÕ SûPØû\dÏ ùLôiÓYWjRdLRôLÜm U²R ÏXj§tÏ TVuRWjRdLRôL §LZdá¥VRôLÜm CÚdL úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ. CkR LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ JÚ ùTôÚû[ EtTj§ ùNnY§úXô ApXÕ AkRlùTôÚ°u TϧVôL §LrYûRûRúVô úSôdLUôL ùLôi¥ÚkRôÛm AlT¥ LÚRlTÓ¡\ ùTôÚs EtTj§ ùNnVjRdLRôL CÚdL úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ. LiÓ©¥l×L°u ØuUô§¬L°u ¸rYÚm êuß RuûULû[ ¨WôL¬jÕ®hÓ úYßTôÓLû[ U§l©PØ¥VôÕ. NôRôWQUô]ûR ®P. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 86 . B]ôp AYt±p CûQkÕs[YtßPu Jl©P úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p R²lThP Øû\«p A±VlThÓs[ êX®NVeL°u ùRôÏl× ÁÕ E¬ûU úLôWXôm. HtL]úY ¨LrjRlThP LiÓ©¥l©-ÚkÕ ØuàdÏl úTôRp ApXÕ Øuú]t\m LôQ úYiÓm GuTRtLôL CÕ úLôWlTÓ¡\Õ. AR]ôp CkR ®j§VôNeLs CWiÓ ÏQeLû[d ùLôi¥ÚdL úYiÓm. ARôYÕ HtL]úY Es[ Y¥Yj§-ÚkÕ úTôÕUô] A[Ü UôßTh¥ÚdL®pûX GuTRôÏm. LôlT°dLdRdL Juß G²p ARu YûWY¥YUô]Õ LXlTPUt\ קVRô]RôL CÚdL úYiÓm. CkR LXûY ¨ûXVô]Õ EXÏ RÝ®VRôL áP CÚdLXôm. LiÓ©¥l× ×§VÕ Guß JÚYo úLôÚm úTôÕ "LiÓ©¥l× ØVt£" Gu\ ùNôtù\ôPWô]Õ ×§V LiÓ©¥l× G]lTÓY§p DÓTÓjRlThÓs[ GiQm úTôÕUô]Õ ApX GuTRôÏm. ©WfNû] A±k§ÚdLd á¥VRôLúYô ùY°lTûPVô]RôLúYô CÚdÏmúTôÕ ¾oÜ úLôÚYRu RtTi©u úUp AûUkRRôLÜm T¬úNôRû] AûUk§ÚdL úYiÓm. ùY°«PjRdLRô] ¨ûXVôL CÚdL úYiÓm. Ntú\ úUXô]Õ GuTÕ úTôÕUô]RpX Utßm ÖLoYô[oLû[ U¡r®jÕ YojRLjûR LYoYRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. A) B) C) ©WfNû] ¾oÜLôQlTPd RdLRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. ØRuûUVôL CÕ TûPl× GiQj§]ôp ùY°YkÕs[ LiÓ©¥lTôL CÚdL úYiÓm. CWiÓdϪûP«Xô] úYßTôÓLs AkR Õû\«p NôRôWQ §\u ùLôiP JÚYWôp ùR°YôL A±VjRdLRôÏm.

CODISSIA JÚúYû[ CkR LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ RVô¬l× Øû\ûVl Tt±VRôLúYô ApXÕ ARu JÚ Tϧ SPY¥dûLûV Tt±VRôLúYô CÚdÏm ThNj§p AÕ ùNôpXlThÓs[ YûL«p ETúVô¡dLjRdLRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. 2) LiÓ©¥l©u ®[dLdϱl×Ls: LiÓ©¥l©u Lôl׬ûU úLôÚm úTôÕ ®iQlTjÕPu áÓRXôL JÚ ®YWm úNodLlTPúYi¥Ùs[Õ. AúR úSWj§p £X SôhÓf NhPeLs R²jRuûUûV ϱl©P £X úRûYL°u ÁÕ UhÓúU EPuTPRô RuûU«p Es[Õ Gu\ A¥lTûP«p G§ol× AàU§dLlTÓ¡\Õ. AÕ ¸rdLiPYôß SûPØû\lTÓjÕYRôL CÚdL úYiÓm: NmUkRlThP ®iQlTm ùTôÕUdLs BnÜ ùNnYRtdÏ §\kÕ ûYdL úYiÓm. AdLiÓ©¥lûTd ùLôiÓ ùTôÚû[j RVô¬dLúYô. úUÛm YZd¡-kR Lôl׬ûUVô[o AùU¬dLô®u EfN ¿§Uu\j§p Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 87 . ®iQlTRôWodÏ Lôl׬ûU úLôW E¬ûU CpûX GuTRu A¥lTûP«p JÚ G§olûT T§Ü ùNnV £X SôÓLs YûL ùNnÕ ùLôÓjÕs[]. AúR úSWj§p JÚ LiÓ©¥l©u ùRô¯p TVuTôÓ GuTûRl ùTôßjRYûW ARu ϱl©hP ùRô¯pÖhT A[®Xô] AojRjûR ϱdÏm YûL«p TVuTÓjÕRp GuTûR ϱl©Ó¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓYRtÏ êu\ôm SToLs G§olûT ØuûYlTRtÏ ùR°YôL AàU§dLlThÓs[Õ. ARuêXm E¬ûU YZeLlTÓYRtÏ Øu]úWô ApXÕ ©u]úWô G§olûT GÝlTXôm. 3). ®iQlTeLs HtßdùLôs[lTÓmúTôÕ. úTôÕUô] ×Õl×û]®uûU. ϱl©hP JÚ Lôl׬ûU«u ùNpXjRdL RuûU«u ÁÕ JÚ ØWiTôÓ GÝkRRtLô] ERôWQm YÚUôß. G§ol×: êXdLÚjÕdÏ HtT T¬úNôRû] CÚkRRô CpûXVô Gu\ ¨ûX«p G§ol× SûPØû\dÏ Ï±l©hP ¿§Uu\ SPY¥dûL GpûXLs YZeLlThÓs[]. Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLUô]Õ CûR R]Õ AÛYXL CR¯úXô ApXÕ AWÑ A±dûL ùY°Âh¥úXô ùY°«PúYiÓm. R²jRuûUûV ¨ßÜYRtLô] A¥lTûPLs GûY Ju±u EPuTPôRuûUûV A¥lTûPVôLd ùLôiÓ G§ol× ùR¬®dLXôm Guß ùTôÕYôLl úTNlTÓ¡\Õ. CkR AojRj§p ùRô¯p Gu\ YôojûRdÏm Lôl׬ûUf NhPeL°u ϱl©hP Õû\NôokR ùNôpXLWô§«p ªLl©WjúVLUô] AojRm EiÓ ùTôÕ ùUô¯«p ùRô¯p SPY¥dûL GuTRtÏ Ï±l©hP A[®Xô] ùRô¯p ÖhT SPY¥dûL Guß JÚ AojRm EiÓ. LiÓ©¥l©û]f NmUkRlThP Õû\«p §\ûU TûPjR JÚYo AdLiÓ©¥lûTd ùLôiÓ ùTôÚû[j RVô¬dLúYô. ®iQlTj§u EhùTôÚs ùTôÕ UdLÞdÏ A±®dLlTPúYi¥VÕ AY£Vm. LiÓ©¥lûT RVô¬d¡\ T¦L°p DÓTÓjRúYô á¥V A[®tÏ Aq®[dLd ϱl×L°u Õp-VUô] A[Ü ®¡ReLÞm ùRô¯p ÖhTeLÞm CûQdLlThÓ CÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥lûT RVô¬l× T¦L°p DÓTÓjRúYô á¥V A[®tÏ Aq®[dLÏ Ï±l×L°u Õp-VUô] A[Ü ®¡ReLÞm ùRô¯pÖhTeLÞm CûQdLlThÓ CÚdL úYiÓm. Lô¬u JhÓ]o CßdûLdÏ Øu Es[ PôvúTôo¥p Es[ £LoûXhÓdÏ YZeLlTh¥ÚkR Lôl׬ûU«u ÁÕ JÚ ©WfNû] ¡[m©VÕ. LiÓ©¥l× T¥ ¨ûX. A§p CÚdÏm AlT¥lThP ϱl×Ls Utßm ®YWeLû[d ùLôiÓ AkR LiÓ©¥l× NôokR Õû\«p §\ûU TûPjR JÚYo AkR ®iQlTm éoj§ ùNnVlThP Sô°p ùTôÚû[ RVô¬dLúYô ùNV-p DÓTPúYô CVpT]ûYVôLúYô CÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥l©u NôWm B¡V] ®¬YôL ®[dLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥lûT Tt±V úTôÕUô] A[®tÏ ®[dLd ϱl×Ls CpXôûU. ùRô¯pTVuTôhÓ ¨ûX. LiÓ©¥l×L°u TôojÕû\dL Ti×ÚY Y¥®Xô] ùNVp®[dLeLs ApXÕ GÓjÕdLôhÓLs ®[dLdϱl×L°p úNodLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. HtL]úY T§Ü ùNnVlThP ®iQlTj§p Es[ êX ®[dLdϱl×dÏ T§XôL ùLôÓdLlThP §ÚjReLs êXj§tÏ Uô\ôL Es[Õ GuTÕ EiûU Guß EQWlTÓmúTôÕ UhÓúU AkSôÓL°p G§ol× T§Ü ùNnV Ø¥Ùm. AkR ®iQlTj§u ÁÕ Lôl׬ûU YZe¡«Úk§ÚdLXôm. RVôo ùNnYRtLô] Nôj§Vm ApXÕ EtTj§«p SûPØû\ ùY°dùLôQoYRtLô] CkR Yônl×Ls ApXÕ SûPØû\«p ETúVôLj§p CÚlTÕ GuTûY TVuTôÓ Gu\ ùNôp-p ©W§T°d¡\Õ. G§ol×Lû[ T§Ü ùNnVTÓYRtLô] BRôWeLÞdÏ RdL NhPeLs êXm GpûXLs YûWVßdLlThÓs[]. ϱlTôL. ®YWeLs úTôÕUô] A[Ü úNodLlThÓs[]Yô CpûXVô GuTúR AÕYôÏm. JÚ ®iQlTjÕPu CûQdLlThÓs[ ®[dLdϱl×Ls ØÝûUVô]RôL CÚdL úYiÓm. GÓjÕdLôhÓLÞm ®YWdϱl×L°u TôWôdLÞm úSôdLeLû[ úTôÕUô] A[Ü GÓjÕû\dLjRdLRôLÜm E¬ûU úLôWlTÓYRu úSôdLeLú[ôÓ Jl©PlTPjRdLRôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm. ¨LrjRlThP LûX«u ®YWeLs ùTôÕYô] ®§L°u A¥lTûP«p ®[dLdϱl×L°p á\lTh¥ÚdÏm ThNj§p E¬ûUúLôÚm LiÓ©¥l©u ×Õl×û]Ü. ARu A¥lTûP«p Rôu "ùRô¯p TVuTôÓ" Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. þ YûWVßdLlThP LôXj§p G§ol× T§Ü ùNnVlTPô§ÚdÏmúTôÕ Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLUô]Õ Lôl׬ûUûV YZe¡®PXôm.

ÖÔdLUô] £\lTmNeLû[Ùm ARàûPV RôdLeLû[Ùm A±kÕ ùLôs[ CVÛm úTôÕ AlT¥lThP £\l×RuûU GlT¥ GhPlThPÕ Gu\ úLs®dÏ ®ûP A±kÕ ùLôsYÕ AY£VUô]Õ. CkR SûPØû\«u êXm. CûYL°p GkR JÚ AmNm ApXÕ GkR AmNeLs ÖÔdLUô]Õ. LiÓ©¥l©u NôWm ØÝûUVôL ׬kÕùLôs[lTÓ¡\Õ. LiÓ©¥l©u AûPVô[m CÚdL úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ. B]ôp LiÓ©¥l©u ®[dLd ϱl×L°p Uôtß HtTôÓLs Utßm ÕûQ HtTôÓLû[l Tt±V ®YWeLs CÚkRôp UhÓúU ARu ER®ûVd ùLôiÓ ®¬Yô] E¬ûUûV ùT\ CVÛm. ϱlTôL AYo ¾oÜ Li¥P úYi¥V ϱl©PjRdL ©WfNû] Tt± AYÚdÏ úTôÕUô] A[Ü ùR¬k§ÚdL®pûX. JÚ LiÓ©¥lTô[o R]Õ LiÓ©¥l× T¦«p úSW¥VôL DÓThÓs[Rôp AYo R]Õ ùNôkR Ø¥ÜL°p ªLÜm DÓTôhúPôÓ CÚlTôo. þ ϱl©hP ùRô¯p ÖhT ©WfNû]ûV ¾odLdá¥V YûL«p קV LiÓ©¥l©p Es[ûUkÕs[ R²j£\l×Lû[ ùRôÏjÕjRW úYiÓm. Ïû\Yô] A[Ü £\l× AmNeLs UhÓúU CÚlTÕ ®¬kR A[®Xô] E¬ûU úLôÚYûR LhÓlTÓjÕ¡\Õ. C§p ¸rLiPûY Es[Pe¡ CÚd¡u\]. CR]ôp ¸rdLiP ®û[ÜLs HtTÓ¡u\]. A) B) A) LiÓ©¥l©u AûPVô[m Lôl׬ûU. NmUkRlThP ®iQlTUô]Õ JúW JÚ LiÓ©¥lûTlTt±VRôL UhÓúU CÚdL úYi¥VÕ. Ck¨ûX«p Lôl׬ûUdLô] ®iQlT SLp RVô¬l©p ØuUô§¬V]ô êuß A¥lTûP úRûYLs úNodLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. AúRúTôX LiÓ©¥lûTd ϱjÕ ®[dLeLs RVô¬dLÜm E¬ûULû[ YûLlTÓjRÜm Ø¥¡\Õ. AYodÏ AYWÕ LiÓ©¥l× Tt± ϱl©PjRdL A[Ü UhÓúU ùR¬k§Úd¡\Õ. ùYlTkRôdLRôR ªuÑtßf ùRôP¬u EûWdÏ ØR-p ®iQl©jRYo Gu\ôp LôÚdÏ ùY°úV ÑÚhÓ £LùWh Utßm ©\Ytû\ Tt\ûYlTRtLô] ùRô¯p ÖhTjûR Lôo JhÓm úTôÕ LôÚdÏsú[úV Tt\ûYjRtLô] YûL«p AYo A©®Új§ ùNn§ÚkRôo. CÕ A¥lTûP Ød¡VjÕYUô]Õ LiÓ©¥lT©u ®[dLd ϱl×L°p Es[ JÚ ®NVm קV ùRô¯p ÖhTjûR êu\ôYÕ STo JÚYÚdÏ ùR¬®dLdá¥VRôL CÚdÏm ThNj§p CÕ úUtϱl©hPYôß CÚdL úYi¥VÕ A¥lTûP«p AY£VUô]RôL Es[Õ. GuTûR AûPVô[e LôQúYi¥VÕm ©WfNû]LÞdÏ AûY Lô¬VNôj§VUô] ¾oÜLû[ GlT¥ YZeLlúTô¡u\] Guß LôQ úYi¥VÕm AY£Vm. G]úY Lôl׬ûUdLô] SLp RVô¬l×lT¦ CWiÓ YûLVôL ©¬dLlTÓ¡\Õ. ØRXôYRôL E¬ûU úLôWpLs Nôj§VUô] A[®tÏ ®¬YôL CÚdL úYiÓm. 4) Lôl׬ûUdLô] ®iQlT SLp RVô¬jRÛm éoj§ ùNnRÛm: Lôl׬ûU ®iQlTj§tLô] êX SLp RVô¬lTRtÏ Øu]o. úUÛm LiÓ©¥l©u £\lTmNeLs ϱjÕm ªLÜm Lô¬VNôj§VUô] ¾oÜLs LôQ úYi¥V ¨ûXdÏ AYûW Rs°VÕ. þ Lôl׬ûUÙm ϱlTôL LiÓ©¥l× T¥¨ûXûVÙm ϱjR ®YWeLû[Ùm ®iQlTj§p éoj§ ùNnYRtÏ JÚYo R]Õ ùNôkR LÚj§u A¥lTûP«p CûYLs NmUkRUô] Es[ôokR úLs®LÞdÏ ®ûPLôQjRdL T¬úNôRû] ®YWeLs Es[Pd¡«ÚdL úYiÓm. "CkR LûX«p NôRôWQ §\u TûPjR JÚYo" Gu\ ùNôtù\ôPo CÕ ®NVj§p TVuTÓjRlTÓYRtÏ JÚ Ød¡VjÕYm Es[Õ. CÕ Ï±lTôL E¬ûULû[ YÏlTRtLô] SLp RVô¬lTRtÏ ªLÜm AY£VUô]Õ. ®iQlTj§u SLp RVô¬lTRtLô] SûPØû\Ls LiÓ©¥l©u AûPVô[m. B]ôp AÕ LiÓ©¥l× Guß RϧÙûPVRôLôÕ Guß ùR¬®dLlThPÕ. E¬ûULû[ YÏlTRtÏ UhÓm ApXÕ ClT¥lThP Uôtß HtTôÓLû[Ùm ÕûQ HtTôÓLû[Ùm ùNnYRtÏm AYN«Uô]RôL Es[Õ. AR]ôp AmØ¥ÜLs ØÝûUVûPVôR]YôL CÚdÏm Guß ùTôÕYôLd á\lTÓ¡\Õ. ®[dLdϱl×Lû[ T¥lTYo AÕNmUkRUô] RLYpLs. B) Lôl׬ûU ®iQlT SLp RVô¬l©u SûPØû\ AmNeLs: SLp RVô¬l× Øû\Ls Utßm ARtÏ úRûYlTÓm AmNeLs B¡V] SôhÓdÏ SôÓ úYßTÓ¡u\]. TX úSWeL°p LiÓ©¥l×L°p TX R²f£\lTô] AmNeLs APe¡«ÚlTÕ EiÓ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 88 .CODISSIA ùLôiÓYkÕ ¨ßjRlThPôo. LiÓ©¥l× ¨LrjRlThPRtLô] úSôdLm ØÝûUVôL ùR¬®dLlTP úYiÓm. CRtÏ CWiÓ Ød¡V LôWQeLs Es[]. CWiPôYRôL. CÕ "Jße¡ûQkR LiÓ©¥l×" Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. ®[dLdϱl×L°p LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt±V ®YWeLs úTôÕUô] A[Ü ùR°YôL ϱlT¥lThÓ CÚdL úYiÓm. Lôl׬ûU ®iQlT§u SLp RVô¬lTRtLô] ØRp SPY¥dûLVôL AkR LiÓ©¥lûT AûPVô[eLôhÓYÕ BÏm. CWiPôYRôL. NmUkRlThP Õû\«p NôRôWQ §\u ùLôiP JÚYo Aq®YWeLû[ ûLVô[d á¥VYûL«p AÕ AûUk§ÚdL úYiÓm. ØRXôYÕ úRûYVôÏm ApXÕ ùTôÕYô] JÚ LiÓ©¥l× NmUkRlThP LiÓ©¥l×L°u ùRôÏlTôLÜm AÕ CÚdLXôm.

ERôWQj§tÏ LiÓ©¥dLlThP ùTôÚ[ô]Õ Gk§WUôLúYô ApXÕ JÚ ªu CûQl×f Ñt\ôLúYô CÚdLXôm. Õs°VUô] YûWTPeL°u ®¬Yô] ®[dLm. AúRúTôX RVô¬l× Øû\ NôokR LiÓ©¥l×Lû[ ApXÕ ùRôPo SPY¥dûLLû[ ϱl©ÓYRtLô] YûWTPjûRúVô GÓjÕd LôhÓYRôL Es[Õ. ®[dLdϱl©u ØRp Tϧ ØuUô§¬Vô] CWiÓ ®NVeLû[d ùLôiÓs[Õ. êu\ôYRôL.. ØLl×j úRôt\m TdLjúRôt\m B¡VYtû\ LôhPdá¥VRôLÜm CÚdÏm. CWiPôYÕ Tϧ«p LiÓ©¥l©u ©u]¦ ®Y¬dLlTh¥ÚdÏm. ùTôÕ Y¥Yj§Xô] CkR ®YWeLs Y¬ûNVô] TôWôdLs Y¥Yj§p YZeÏYÕRôu YZdLm. Juß. Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôl©tÏm E¬ûU úLôWÛdϪûPúV B] ®[dLUôL CÕ §LrkÕ YÚYRôp CkR êu\ôYÕ A¥lTûP úRûY Ød¡VjÕYm ùTß¡\Õ. YZdLUôL CkR A±dûL«p ÑÚdLUô] A±ØL Tj§ CÚdÏm CkR Tj§Vô]Õ "CkR LiÓ©¥l× NmUkRlThP Õû\Vô] . ARôYÕ GûR GhÓYRtÏ LiÓ©¥l× ¨LrjRlThPÕ Guß Ï±l©PlTh¥ÚdÏm.. G]úY ªuCûQl×f Ñtû\l Tt±VRô] GkR JÚ YûWTPj§Ûm ERôWQj§tÏ ¨ûXVô] TôLeLs ùTh¥L[ôL YûWVlThÓ AûPVô[UôL LôhPlTÓ¡u\]. LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ ªuNôW CûQl×f Ñtß Tt±VRôL CÚdÏmúTôÕ AkR Ñt±u TpúYß TôLeLs ApXÕ TϧLû[ Ñh¥dLôhP YûWTPeLs TVàs[ YûL«p ETúVôLUô¡u\]. LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt±V ®YWeLû[ Lôl׬ûU ØLYo ØR-p ùTôÕYô] Y¥Yj§p Rôu RÚYôo. LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt± SuÏ A±kÕ ùLôsYRtÏ CWiPôYÕ Tϧ«p ®Y¬dLlThÓs[ ®NVeLs ERÜ¡u\]. CkRl Tϧ«p LiÓ©¥l©u úSôdLm ϱl©PlTÓ¡\Õ. ÑXTUôL ϱlTRtLôL CkR TôLeLs Utßm TϧLÞdÏ ÁiÓm Gi AûPVô[m CPlTÓ¡u\]. úLôWlTÓm E¬ûULs ϱl©PjRdL A[®tÏ ®¬YôLúYô ApXÕ HtL]úY AÕ ®Y¬dLlTh¥ÚlTh¥ÚlTRtÏ Uô\ôLúYô CÚdLd áPôÕ. Utù\ôuß LiÓ©¥l× NôokÕs[Õ ùRô¯p ÖhT Õû\ûV Tt±V ®¬Yô] A±dûLVôÏm..CODISSIA ©u]¦ B¡V]Ytû\ ÑXTUôL ׬kÕùLôsÞm YûL«p SLp RVô¬dLlTP úYiÓm GuTRtLôL CkR ùNôtù\ôPo ϱl©PlTÓ¡\Õ. "¨LrjRlThP LûX"dÏ Uôt\ô] Ju±àsÞm Cq®YWeLs ûYdLlTÓ¡\Õ. LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt± ®[dLlTÓYt±tÏm E¬ûUúLôW-p ®Y¬dLlThÓs[]Yt±tÏm CûPúV ©WfNû] GZôU-ÚlTRtÏ AYo CkR Ùd§ûV ûLVôs¡\ôo. AlT¥«pXô®hPôp LiÓ©¥l©u A¥lTûP ®YWeLs JqùYôuû\Ùm úRûY«pXôUp ®¬YôL á\ úYi¥«ÚdÏm. TôÕLôl©tLô] Yônl×Lû[ Ø¥Ü ùNnVjRdL YûL«Xô] E¬ûULû[ ®iQlTm Es[Pd¡«ÚdL úYiÓm. YûWTPj§u úLôÓLû[ Uû\dLôR YûL«Xô] R²fùNôp ®Y¬l× YôojûRLs ETúVô¡lTRtÏ ®XdÏ Es[Õ." Guß ÕYeÏm. ARu ER®ÙPu קV LiÓ©¥l©tÏm TûZV ¾oÜLÞdϪûPúV CÚkR úYßTôÓLû[ ùR°YôL EQW Ø¥¡\Õ. A§Ûm ϱlTôL EúXôL®Vp CVp×àûPV LiÓ©¥l× G²p TPUô]Õ Y[of£ ¨ûXLû[d ϱd¡\ Y¬Y¥UôL CÚdLXôm. LiÓ©¥l©û]l Tt± ®Y¬dÏm ®[dLeLû[ A±V YûWTPm ùT¬V A[®tÏ ERÜ¡\Õ. AÕ GkR ®Rj§p CVeÏ¡\Õ Guß LôhÓYÕ LiÓ©¥lûT Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 89 . E¬ûULs ùR°YôLÜm ÑßdLUôLÜm ®[dLϱl×L°u êXm ØÝûUVôL A±kÕ ùLôs[jRdL]YôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥l©u RûXl×. ®[dLdϱl×L°u SôuLôYÕ Tϧ«p CWiÓ ®NVeLs Es[]. AkR ©WfNû]Ls ApXÕ CPoTôÓLÞdÏ HtL]úY CÚkR ¾oÜLs ®Y¬dLlTh¥ÚdÏm.. úUÛm ARàs AûUkR TϧLs ApXÕ ùTh¥Ls ùTôßjRUô] LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ WNôVQjÕû\ NôokRRôL CÚdÏmúTôÕ £j§WUô] ÏjÕdúLôhÓ YûWTPUôL CÚd¡\Õ. LiÓ©¥l©u £\lTmNeL°u YûLLû[ ©¬jR¬V CÕ ERÜ¡\Õ. LiÓQWjRdL Ti×ßY¥Yj§u ®[dLdϱl×Lû[ LiÓ©¥l©u EiûUVô] CVeÏØû\Lû[ ®¬YôL ®Y¬d¡\ Y¬LÞdÏs CûQlTÕ YZdLUô]RôÏm. HtL]úY Es[ ©WfNû]Ls ApXÕ CPoTôÓLs CYtû\ קV LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ GlT¥ ùYuß YkÕs[Õ GuTÕ Tt± CkR Tϧ«p ϱl©ÓYÕ Lôl׬ûU ØLYoL°u TZdLUôÏm. êu\ôm SToLs E¬ûULs ®NVj§p RôeLs Gu] ùNnV CVÛm ApXÕ Gu] ùNnV CVXôÕ GuTûR A±kÕ ùLôsYRtÏ CkR HtTôÓ ERÜYRôp úUtLiP YûL«p Ød¡VjÕYm EûPVRô¡\Õ.. JÚúYû[ LiÓ©¥lTô]Õ Gk§W Y¥®p LôQjRdLRôL CÚdÏùU²p ERôWQj§tÏ YûWTPeL[ô]ûY §hPjûR GÓjÕûWlTRôLÜU. Utßm Jußm ARtÏm úUtThP Gi¦dûL«Ûs[ LiÓûWjRdL Y¥YeL°û]l Tt±V ®[dLm B¡V] BÏm. YûWTPj§u ®Y¬dLlThP TϧLs GiL[ôp YûWTPj§p ϱ«PlTh¥ÚdÏm CkR GiLs LiÓ]WjRdL Y¥YeL°Ûm ϱl©PlTh¥ÚdÏm. NôWQUôL YûWTPeL°p ùNôtù\ôPo ®NVeLs CÚlT§pûX. ®¬Yô] E¬ûU«u A¥lTûP«p CÕ YÚ¡\Õ. LiÓ©¥l©û]lTt±V ®YWeL°u EP]¥VôL ׬kÕùLôs[dá¥V YûL«p êu\ôYÕ Tϧ AûYLû[ ùRôÏjÕd áß¡\Õ. CkR TôWôdLLs Nôok§ÚlTY¬u E¬ûUL°u A¥lTûP«-ÚlTÕ YZdLm. ClTϧ«p á\lThP ®YWeLû[ A¥lTûPVôLd ùLôiÓRôu ©WRô]Uô] E¬ûU úLôWpLs GÝ¡u\] Guß G§oTôolTRôpRôu AYo CqYôß RÚ¡\ôo.

JÚ úSWj§p ®iQlTm éoj§ ùNnVlThP úR§Vô]Õ Øuáh¥úV Juß GuTRtÏ CÕ EßÕûQVôL CÚd¡\Õ. AúR úSWj§p ùY°SôÓ¡[Ûm NUol©dLXôm. áÓRXô] LiÓ©¥l× Tt±V £X ®YWeLs ùRôPo E¬ûULs Aû]j§Ûm AÝjRUôL ϱl©P úYi¥VÕ AkR ùRôPo LiÓ©¥lûT TXlTÓjÕm. Lôl׬ûU«u LôXm. A¥lTûP úNôRû]«u úTôÕ ®iQlT éoj§ Sôs ϱl©PlTP®pûX Guß ¨ßYlThPôp ®iQlTm NUol©dLlTP®pûX Guß LÚ§ ARu úT¬p úYß SPY¥dûLLû[ ûL®hÓ ®PXôm. GeúL AÕ ùTôßkÕ¡\Õ GuT] úTôu\ ϱl©hP SPY¥dûLLs GkR úR§«-ÚkÕ LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[lTP¡\Õ GuTûR ¨ßÜ¡\Õ. Nôo× E¬ûUL°p A±ØLlTÓjRlTÓm £\lTmNeLû[lTt±V ®YWeLs HRôYÕ JÚ Y¥Yj§p A±kÕ ùLôs[jRdLRôL ®[dLdϱl×L°p LôQlTP úYiÓm. Tô¬v £\l× UôSôhÓ ©W§¨§ SôÓLû[l ùTôÚjRYûW NmUkRlThP E¬ûU ApXÕ Øuà¬ûUVô]Õ CkSôÓLÞdÏ UhÓúU ¡ûPdÏm GuTûR ϱl©P úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ. Lôl׬ûU ØLYo ùT¬V E¬ûUûV ùRôPokÕ E¬ûULû[ ÑßdLUôLÜm Sm©dûL A°dÏm YûL«Ûm RVô¬lTRôp YÛYô] E¬ûUVô]Õ Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p ®iQlTjúRôÓ úNojÕ NUol©dLlTÓm GkR JÚ ªLÜm ùTôÚjRUô] ¨LrjRlThP LûX«]Õ G§ol©tÏ CûPúVÙm Rôe¡ ¨td¡\Õ ApXÕ êu\ôYÕ SToL°PªÚkÕ YÚm G§ol× ApXÕ U§l©ZdLf ùNnÙm SPY¥dûLLû[ ùYt± ùLôs[jRdLRôLÜm ®[eÏ¡\Õ. ©WRô]Uô] ùT¬V E¬ûULdÏ ©u]o YÚm ÑÚdLUô] E¬ûUL[ô]ûY Øu]o á\lThP Juß ApXÕ TX E¬ûULû[ ÁiÓm §Úl©l TôodLRdLûYVôL CÚlTÕ YZdLm. B]ôp CûY Nôo× E¬ûULs Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. R]Õ ®iQlTeLs Aû]jûRÙm ®iQlTRôWo R]Õ Sôh¥p UhÓm NUol©dL úYiÓùUuT§pûX. LiÓ©¥l©u ×Õl×û]Ü Utßm LiÓ©¥l× T¥¨ûXûV ¨LrjRlThP LûXúVôÓ Jl©hÓ U§l©P ERÜ¡\Õ Gu\ YûL«p ϱl©PjRdL Ød¡VjÕYm ùTß¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûUVôp YZeLlThÓs[ £\l׬ûUdÏs[ YônlûT Lôl׬ûU«u TVuTôPô] TôÕLôlûT YûWVßd¡\Õ. G]úY ùY°«PjRdL ÑÚdLUô] ®[dLUô]Õ AàU§dLlThP 50 ØRp 150 YôojûRLs Gu\ A[®tÏs APeLjRdLRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. GkR JÚ Sôh¥p R]Õ LiÓ©¥l©tÏ TôÕLôl× úRûYúVô AeúL AYÚdÏ 12 UôR AYLôNªÚdÏmúTôÕ ®iQl©dLXôm. ùTôÕj §hPj§u ¸rYÚm ùTôÚsL°u ®NVj§p Øuà¬ûU úR§ JuTÕm Ød¡VUô]Õ. JúW úSWj§p TX SôÓL°p TôÕLôlûT G§oúSôdÏm ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ Øuà¬ûU úLôÚYRtÏ Es[ E¬ûU SûPØû\«p ªLlùT¬V NôRLUôL Es[Õ. LiÓ©¥l©u úUmThP ùRô¯p ÖhT Y¥YjûR CûY YZeÏ¡u\]. ®iQlTm RVô¬dLlTÓm úTôÕ A±VlTh¥ÚkR ¨LrjRlThP LûXûV R®olTRtLôL ùT¬V E¬ûUVô]Õ ClT¥ RVô¬dLlTÓ¡\Õ. 5) קV ®iQlTm RVô¬jRp: Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p ®iQlTm NUo©dLlThP EPú]úV ®iQlTm éoj§ ùNnVlThP Sô°tÏ úRûYVô] GpXô ®YWeLû[Ùm AÕ Es[Pd¡ CÚd¡\Rô Guß N¬TôodLlTÓ¡\Õ. E¬ûU úLôWp NmUkRlThP YôojûRLû[ AûUdÏmúTôÕ AÕ AkR LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt±V ùRô¯pÖhT £\lTmNeLs Tt±V ¨TkRû]Ls ®[dLdϱl©p ùR¬®dLlTÓYúRôÓ A§p YojRL çVôL GkR®RUô] NôRLjûRÙm RkÕ®PôR A[®tÏ ®iQlTjûR RVôo ùNnV úYi¥VÕ Lôl׬ûU ØLYÚdÏ Øuàs[ úYûXVôÏm. CkR LôXLhPjûR LY]UôL Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 90 . Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[ JußdÏ E¬ûU úLôWpLs GuT] ûUVUô] Juß ApXÕ CRVjûRlúTôu\Õ. ÑÚdLUô] ®[dLUô]Õ úUtLiPYûL«p CÚdL úYiÓm GuTÕ Y¯LôhÓd ùLôsûLVôÏm. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU TôÕLôl× NmUkRUô] Tô¬v £\l× UôSôhÓ NWjÕL°u A¥lTûP«p úYù\ôÚ Sôh¥p NUol©dLlThÓs[ CúR úTôu\ ®iQlTeL°u úR§Lú[ôÓ Jl©hÓ Øuà¬ûUûV ¨oQ«dL CÕ ERÜ¡\Õ.CODISSIA ׬kÕ ùLôs[ ªLÜm ER®LWUôL Es[Õ. úRNm ApXÕ UiPXm ApXÕ NoYúRN A¥lTûP«p 12 UôReLÞdÏ Ïû\VôR A[®p Øuáh¥úV NUo©dLlThP ®iQlTj§tÏ Øuà¬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\R. Lôl׬ûU ØLYWôp RVô¬dLlTÓm E¬ûUL°u ùRôPoLs ùTôÕYôL Ød¡VUô] ùT¬V E¬ûUúVôÓ ùRôPe¡ ÑßdLUô] Y¥®Xô] HWô[Uô] E¬ûULs APe¡«ÚdÏm. AlT¥ RVô¬dLlThP ÑÚdLUô] ®[dLUô]Õ Ï±l©hP LûX«òúP ùNuß BWônf£ ùNnYRtLô] LÚ®VôL §LZúYiÓm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p CûY ®ÚmTjRdL £\lTmNeL[ôL LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ. ùTôÕ §hPj§u ¸r YÚm ùTôÚsLÞdÏ ®iQlT éoj§ úR§ AY£VUô]RôÏm. AúR úSWj§p Tô¬v £\l× UôSôhÓ ©W§¨§L[pXôR B]ôp TWvTWm SpÛ\Ü ùLôiÓs[ CÚ SôÓLs ReLs úR£V NhPeLs £XYt±u A¥lTûP«p Øuà¬ûUdLô] E¬ûULû[ YZe¡dùLôs[Xôm.

AÕ R²VôLÜm SûPùT\Xôm ApXÕ Øuà¬ûU«u A¥lTûP«Ûm SûPlùT\Xôm ApXÕ AúR úSWj§p ®NVj§u Ød¡VjÕYj§u A¥lTûP«Ûm SûPùT\Xôm. A) B) C) ®iQlTj§u AûUlûT BWônRp úRÓRp ®iQlTj§u NôWjûR BWônRp CkSPY¥dûLL°uúTôÕ.Lôl׬ûUAÛYXLj§tÏm®iQlTRôWÚdϪûPúV NôRôWQUôL GÝjÕ Y¥®p LÚjRl T¬Uôt\m SûPùTß¡\Õ.CODISSIA TVuTÓjÕYRu êXm R]dÏ ®ÚlTUô] TpúYß SôÓL°Ûm TôÕLôlûT ùTßYRtLô] S¥Y¥dûLL°p DÓTP Ø¥Ùm. CkR Tj§WeL°u ùRôÏl× "úRÓRÛdLô] úLôoûY" Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. úUÛm þ ®iQlTj§p úLôWlThP E¬ûULû[ HtL]úY Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p Es[ Tj§WeL°p ϱl©hÓs[ûYLú[ôÓ Jl©P úYiÓm. B) úRÓRp: RdL NhPj§p RWlThÓs[ SûPØû\L°u ¸r úRÓRp SûPùT\úYiÓm. A) ®iQlTj§u AûUlûT BWônRp: ®iQlTm Htßd ùLôs[lThP Sô°p CÚkÕ GqY[Ü ®ûWYôL CVÛúUô AqY[Ü ®ûWYôL ARu AûUl× BWôVlTÓ¡\Õ. úYiÓúLô°u ÑÚdLUô] ®[dLm. G]úY AûYLs ØR-p ùRô¯p ÖhTj§u ϱl©hP TϧL°u A¥lTûP«p JÝeÏTÓjRlTÓ¡u\] CkR Lôl׬ûU Tj§WeLÞdÏ EßÕûQVôL ùRô¯pÖhT Tj§¬dûLL°u LhÓûWLs Utßm AÕúTôu\ ®YWeLû[d ùLôiÓs[ Lôl׬ûU ùT\ôR Tj§WeLû[Ùm TVuTÓjRlTÓ¡\Õ. CÕ ®NVj§p ùY°«PlThP RLYpLs ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§tÏ ®PlThÓs[Rô Guß TôodL úYi¥V§pûX ùY°«PlThP ClT¥lThP RLYpLs GÕYô]ôÛm AYt±u R²j RuûUûV LÚj§p ùLôiÓ UhÓúU BnÜ ùNnVlTP úYiÓm. GqYûLVô] Tj§WeLs úRÓR-p DÓTÓjRlThP] GuTûRÙm AÛYXLm Aàl©ûYdÏm. ùY°«PlThPûYL°p ùY°ÂÓLû[ (Publications)j R®W úYù\RtÏm úRÓRp SPY¥dûLLû[ ¿¥dLlTÓY§pûX. ®iQlTRôW¬u Y¯LôhÓRpLû[ ùTtßd ùLôiÓ AûR Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§tÏ Ht\ Y¥Yj§p AqYÛYXLj§tÏ NUol©d¡\ôo. CqYôn®p ¸rdLiP ®NVeLs BWôVlTÓ¡u\]: ©W§¨§jÕYlTÓjÕm Õû\.. ϱl©hP LôXj§p AdÏû\TôÓ §odLlTPô®hPôp Aq®iQlTm RsÞT¥ ùNnVlThÓ®Óm. ®iQlTm NUol©dLlThP úR§«p Øuà¬ûU úR§Ùm Ø¥Yô]ÜPu Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLUô]Õ AûR T¬º-dLj ÕYeÏ¡\Õ. A±dûL«p ùR¬®dL úYiÓm. E¬ûU úLôWpLs. Ød¡VjÕYjûRd LÚj§p ùLôiÓ R²lThP úRÓRp SPY¥dûL úUtùLôsÞmúTôÕ. YûWTPeLs Utßm ®iQlTjÕPu CûQdLlThÓs[ NôWm B¡V]YôÏm. úRPÛdLô] úLôoûY«p Es[ Tj§WeL°p UhÓúU Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm úRÓRp SPjR úYiÓm. Ck¨ûX«p Lôl׬ûU ØLYWô]Yo Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p ùR¬®dLlTÓm LÚjÕLû[ ùTtßd ùLôiÓ ®iQlTRôWûW A à¡ úRûYVô] SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôsÞUôß A±ÜßjÕ¡\ôo. AÕÜm SPY¥dûL úLôÚm êu\ôm SToLs AûR Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§u LY]j§tÏ ùLôiÓYÚmúTôÕ UhÓm AqYôß BnÜ ùNnVlTÓ¡\Õ úRÓRp SPY¥dûLVô]Õ LiÓ©¥l×Pu úSW¥VôL NmUkRlThP ùRô¯p ÖhTjÕû\«p UhÓúU ØR-p Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 91 . þ úRÓRp SPY¥dûL«u úTôÕ ®iQlT©dLlThP LiÓ©¥lûT ªLÜm JjRRôLúYô ApXÕ êX ®NVjûR ùY°lTÓjRdLRôLúYô Es[ Tj§WeLs ùRuTPdáÓm. Guù]u] Yônl×L°u A¥lTûP«p úRÓRpLs SPjRlThPÕ GuTûRÙm NmUkRlThP ùRô¯p ÖhTj§u GkR ϱl©hP TϧLs. LiÓ©¥lTô[ûWf NôokR A±dûL. GdLôXLhPj§tÏ EhThP TϧLs. ©uYÚm ®NVeLs ϱjÕ AqYÛYXLm áÓRp LY]m ùNÛjÕ¡\Õ. úRÓRp SPY¥dûL«uúTôÕ NUol©dLlhP ®iQlTj§p ®Y¬dLlThÓs[ ¾oûYlúTôu\ ¾oÜLs Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p HtL]úY Es[ úYßTX Tj§WeL°p Es[]Yô Guß úR¥lTôojÕ EߧlTÓjÕL ùLôs[Xôm. Utù\ôÚ ®NVj§p LiÓ©¥l× NmUkRlThP JÚ Ï±l©hP Õû\«p "¨LrjRlThP LûX" CÚd¡\RôGuTûR ¨ßY úRÓRp SPjRlTÓ¡\Õ. ®[dLdϱl×Lû[ LhÓlTÓjÕm TÚlùTôÚs çVô] úRûYLs. Lôl׬ûU Tj§WeL°u ùRôÏl©p úRÓRp SPjRlTÓYRôp CÕ Tj§WeL°]¥lTûP«Xô] úRÓRXôL Es[Õ. úRÓRp NmUkRlThP A±dûLûVÙm ®iQlTjúRôÓ úNojÕ §Úl© AàlT úYiÓm. ®iQlTj§u AûUl× Øû\dÏ HtT AûUVôR Ïû\TôÓLs Bn®uúTôÕ ùR¬V YkRôp AûR N¬ùNnYRtÏ ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ Yônl× YZeLlTÓm.

þ NhPj§u ϱl©hP NWjÕdL°u êXm NmUkRlThP LiÓ©¥l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓYûR RÓlTÕ. Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôl©tLô] Õs°VUôL ®[dLUôLÜm AÕ §LÝm. JlTûPl×Ls Tt±V ®YWeLÞm T§Ü ùNnVlTÓm.CODISSIA ØÝûUVôL SûPùTßm. AkR YônlûT TVuTÓj§ LiÓ©¥l©u NôWj§tÏ HtT N¬TÓj§d ùLôs[ úYiÓm. 6) AàU§Ùm ùY°ÂÓm: ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ NôRLUôL BnÜ SûPØû\Ls Ø¥ÜßmúTôÕ ARôYÕ ®iQlTj§u AûUl× úTôÕUô] ®YWeLû[ Es[Pd¡VRôLÜm. ®YWeLû[ YûL©¬dÏm úTôÕm. R]dÏ NôRLUôL ¾odLlTPúYi¥VÕ Ï±jÕ. LiÓ©¥l× T¥¨ûXdÏ EhTô§ÚjRp Gu\ ¨ûXL°p Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTPd áPôÕ. Cfãr¨ûX HtTP úYß LôWQeLÞm Es[]. £X SôÓL°p ¿§ Uu\eL°p NmUkRlThP Lôl׬ûU«u ÁÕ YZdÏLs SûPùTßmúTôÕ Nôu\¯dLlThP T§úYhÓl ©W§ ®NôWûQdLô] BRôWUôL GÓjÕd ùLôs[lTÓm. RLYpLû[ ºoùNnÙm Øû\«Ûm R®odL CVXôÕ HtTÓm Ïû\TôÓLú[ CRtÏ LôWQm. Lôl׬ûUVô[¬u úTôh¥Vô[oLs Es°hP êu\ôm SToLÞdÏ T§úYÓ ªLÜm TVuTÓm. Lôl׬ûU YZeLlThPÜPu AkR Lôl׬ûU«û]l Tt±V ®YWeLs Lôl׬ûU T§úYh¥p U§dLlTÓ¡\Õ. JÚúYû[ úRÓRp Ø¥®p úSWm ÅQô]Õ Rôu ªfNm Gu\ ¨ûX HtTÓm. ®iQlTj§u ϱl©PjRdL Øuà¬ûU Tt±V ®YWeLs. Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§u ϱl©PjRdL A[Ü SPY¥dûLÙm C§p DÓTÓjRlThÓs[Õ. Lôl׬ûU úLôÚYRtLô] êX®iQlTj§u ®[dLd ϱl×LÞdÏ AlTôtThP ùTôÚ°p Es[ §ÚjReLÞm AàU§dLjRdLûYVpX GuTÕ ùTôÕ ®§VôÏm. NôWm ØÝûUVûPkRôÛm CÚdÏm úTôÕ. G§ol×Ls Hßm T§Ü ùNnVlTPôR ¨ûX«p. Lôl׬ûUf NhPj§u úSôdLm LiÓ©¥l×Lû[ TôÕLôlTRtLô]Õ GuTûR U]§p ùLôiÓ ùNVpTÓmúTôÕ NmUkRlThP ®iQlTj§u ÁRô] Bn®u Ø¥ÜLs ùR°Yô] ©u]úW AlT¥lThP Ïû\TôÓûPV ®iQlTeLû[ Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm RsÞT¥ ùNnVúYiÓm. B]ôp AlT¥lThP JqùYôÚ ®NVj§Ûm úRÓRp SPjR úYiÓUô GuTûR BnYô[oRôu Ø¥Ü ùNnYôo. Lôl׬ûUûV SûPØû\lTÓjR Eßl× SôÓL°p BiÓdÏ LhPQeLs ùNÛjR úYiÓm. Hù]²p CÕ Lôl׬ûU«u EiûUVô] ¨ûXVôhûP ©W§T°d¡\Õ. þ NôWj§u A¥lTûP«p BWônRp NôWj§u A¥lTûP«p BWôÙm SûPØû\Vô]Õ Lôl׬ûUdLô] ϱl©hP ¨ûXLû[ §Úl§TÓjRdá¥V YûL«p ®iQlTm CÚd¡\Rô GuTûR EߧlTÓjÕYRtLôÏm. GpXô §ÚjReLÞm AàU§dLj RdLûYVpX. ÑÚdLUôL áßYùR²p ¸rLiPYt±u A¥lTûP«p Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓYûR RÓdLlTÓ¡\Õ. ®iQlTm NUol©dLlThP úR§. AlT¥lThP úRÓR-p ¡ûPjR ®YWeLû[ úSW¥VôL NmUkRlThP ùRô¯pÖhT Õû\«p úUtùLôs[lTÓm úRÓRp Ø¥ÜLÞPu CûQdL úYiÓm. ØRXôYRôL. ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ YÚUô]ôp ARu U§l× ApXÕ Lôl׬ûU B¡VYtû\ ¿§Uu\ ¾ol×Ls Yô«XôL ùTßYÕ YZdLm. ®iQlTRôWo/Lôl׬ûUVô[¬u ùTVo ØLY¬. Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLUô]Õ ®iQlTj§u úUp Lôl׬ûU YZeLXôm. Lôl׬ûU Gi. ®iQlTj§u AûUl©u A¥lTûP«p úUtùLôs[lTÓm Bn®uúTôÕ GÝm BhúNTû]Lû[ ALt\ ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ YônlT°dLlTÓm. LiÓ©¥l©u RûXl× B¡V ®NVeLû[ Es[Pd¡V ØLl×lTh¥Vp T§úYh¥p CÚlTÕ YZdLm. LiÓ©¥lTô[¬u ùTVo. þ LiÓ©¥l× ×§VRôL CpXô§ÚkRp. úRÓRp S¥Y¥dûLLÞdLô] ùNXÜLû[ ϱl©hP A[®tÏ ûYjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm Guß ùTôÚ[ôRôW ç«Ûm LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYi¥V§pûX. ®iQlTRôWo Utßm ùTôÕUdLÞdÏ SuûUV°dÏm úSôd¡p AkR ®iQlTjûR §ÚjÕYRtÏ Yônl× Es[Õ. AkR LhPQeLû[ GlúTôÕ LhPúYiÓm Gu\ ®YWeL[m E¬UeLû[l Tt±V ®YWeLÞm. ARtÏl ©\Ï AûR JjR Õû\LÞdÏ ¿h¥dLlTÓm. êX ®iQlTj§u Gi. Ïû\TôÓLû[ ALt\YÕPu Øu]§Ûm úUXô] Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. ®[dLdϱl×Lû[ ùR°YôdÏYRtLô] §ÚjReLs ùNnYRu êXm LiÓ©¥lûT Tt±V SpX ®[dLeLû[ RWØ¥Ùm. CWiPôYôRôL. þ ®iQlTj§tÏ úRûYVô] CVt©Vp çVô] HtTôÓLs ùNnVlTPô§ÚkRôp ®iQlTm ¨WôL¬dLlTPXôm. AÛYXL A±dûL«p Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm ùY°«ÓYRu êXm NmUkRlThP Lôl׬ûU«u Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 92 . ApXÕ GÝlTlThP G§ol×Ls úRôp®VûPkR ¨ûX«p. B]ôp ARtÏ AYÚdÏ ùLôÓdLlThP LôXj§tÏs N¬ ùNnVô®hPôp Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm AYÚdÏ Lôl׬ûU UßdLXôm.

úR§: NoYúRN ùY°ÂhÓ YûLlTÓjRp ©W§¨§jÕlTÓjÕTYo ùTVo Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 93 . 7. Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] §hPYhPUô] U§lÀÓLú[ôÓ á¥V ERôWQeLû[ TôolTÕ úUÛm BoYêhPdá¥V Ju\ôÏm. AYoLs SToLû[l ùTôßjRYûW LhPQ A¥lTûP«p êu\ôm SToLÞdÏ RLYpLû[ ùT\d á¥VRôLÜm CÚdL úYiÓm.£.1: A) B) C) D) E) F) G) AùU¬dL Lôl׬ûU: AùU¬d Lôl׬ûU Gi. JqùYôÚ SôÓm ReLÞdÏ T¬kÕûWdLlThP Y¥YeL°p AûR ùY°«Ó¡u\]. AYÚûPV NhPléoYUô] Lôl׬ûUûV ¨ßÜYRôL §LÝ¡\Õ. AùU¬dL Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm IúWôl©V Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm ©. YûWTPeLÞdLô] ®¬Yô] ®YWeLÞm ùLôÓdLlTh¥ÚjRp ØLl× TdLm ¸rdLiP ®YWeLû[ ùLôiÓs[Õ. ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ Lôl׬ûU AàU§f Nôu±Rr YZeLlTÓm AÕ. AlT¥lThP ®YW A¥lTûPL°u ØLl×l TdLm ªLÜm U§lתdL RLYpLû[ RÚ¡u\Õ. ªLÜm ùR°Y°dLdá¥V YûWTPeLû[Ùm ùLôi¥ÚdLXôm. êu\ôYRôL. IúWôl©V Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLØm CûRl ©uTtß¡\Õ. ®iQlT Gi. úR§ NoYúRN ®iQlT Gi NoYúRN ç«p ®iQl©dLlThP úR§: Øuà¬ûUj úR§ ®iQlTRôWoLs Utßm LiÓ©¥lTô[oL°u ùTVoLs A§LôWéoY SôÓ NoYúRN úRPp A±dûL þ ϱl× 2 R®dLôL UhÓm Lôl׬ûU«u ùTVo YûWTPjÕPu ÑÚdLUô] ®[dLeLÞm. Ø¥YôL.¥. LiÓ©¥lTô[o ùTVo YZeLlThP úR§ Lôl׬ûU«u ùTVo LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt±V ÑÚdLUô] þ Utßm ®¬Yô] ®[dLeLs LiÓ©¥lTô[o ùTVo. (PCT) NoYúRN Lôl׬ûU YûLlTÓjÕRp.£. 7. EPu T¦Vôt±VYo.3: A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) IúWôl©V Lôl׬ûU ØLl×l TdLm: Lôl׬ûU«u ùTVo Lôl׬ûU Gi ùY°ÂhÓ úR§ LiÓ©¥lTô[o ùTVo ®iQlTRôWo ùTVo ®iQlTj§u Gi Øuà¬ûU Gi. CkR AÛYXL A±dûLVô]Õ Lôl׬ûU«u ÑÚdLUô] ®[dLm ApXÕ Ød¡VUôL úLôWlTÓm E¬ûU Utßm YûWTPeLs CÚkRôp AYtû\Ùm. (PCT) B¡V]Yt±u ØuUô§Vô] TdLeLs RLYpLÞdLôL ¸úZ RWlTÓ¡u\]. JÚ LiÓ©¥l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU ùTßYRtLô] TpúYß ®NVeLs úUtLiPYôß ®Yô§dLlThÓs[]. AàU§dLl Lôl׬ûU«u SLÛm AYÚdÏ YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. Ru²PØs[ Lôl׬ûU Tj§WjûR Af£hP Y¥Yj§p Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLm ùY°«Ó¡\Õ. 7. ®iQlT©dLlThP úR§ NmUkRlThP AùU¬dL ®iQlT ®WeLs úUtùLôs ϱl×Ls AùU¬dL úR£V YûLlTÓjÕRp AúR úTôX NoYúRN Lôl׬ûU YûLlTÓjRp ØLl×l TdLm (TdLm þ1) ¸rLiP RLYpLû[d ùLôiÓs[Õ.2: A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) ©. úUtùNôu] YûL«p Lôl׬ûUûV ùRôPokÕ AØpTÓjR AàU§dLlThP LôXm ØÝYÕm JqùYôÚ BiÓm ×Õl©jRp ApXÕ TWôU¬jRÛdLô] LhPQjûR T¬kÕû\dLlThP A[®p ùNÛjR úYiÓm. CRu ©W§Ls Lôl׬ûU èXLeL°p ¡ûPdLf ùNnV úYiÓm.¥. AúR úTôX EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl×m ReL[Õ Bn®u Ø¥®p CúRúTôX ùY°«Ó¡u\]. AlT¥lThP CÚ ERôWQeLs CûQl× I Utßm II Cp RWlThÓs[]. 7) Lôl׬ûUl Tj§Wj§u ØRp TdLm JqùYôÚ Sôh¥p Es[ Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLeLÞm RôeLs YZe¡Ùs[ Lôl׬ûU«u ®YWeLû[ AúR Y¥Yj§p RLYpL[ôL ùY°«Ó¡u\]. Lôl׬ûUdLô] ϱl©hP ®YW A¥lTûPLs ARtùLu\ ØuUô§¬Vô] Y¥YeL°p AûUjÕj RWlTÓ¡u\]. ùY°ÂhÓ Gi.CODISSIA ùTôÚ[PdLjúRôÓ á¥V ϱl×Ls ¡ûPlTRtÏ HÕYô¡\Õ.

ϱl©hP LôXLhPj§tÏ CkR YûWY¥YeLû[ BnÜ ùNnVd áPôÕ Guß ClTϧ ϱl©Ó¡\Õ. Ck§V YûLlTÓjRp Utßm NoYúRN YûLlTÓjÕR-u Øû\L°u ¸r úUtLiPûY CÚdL úYiÓm. LiÓ©¥l× Lôl׬ûUL°u ©WfNû]LÞm AYt±tLô] ¾oÜLÞm Gu\ YûL«p CÕ RWlThÓs[Õ Guß A§p ϱl©PlThÓs[Õ. AàU§ YZeLlThP CWiÓ BiÓLÞdÏ CÕ ùTôÚkÕm GuTÕ ùTôÕYô]Õ. B) Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p RôdLp ùNnYRtLô] Lôl׬ûU ®iQlTm RûXûU Utßm ¡û[ AÛYXLeL°p ®iQlTm RôdLp ùNnYRtLô] ®YWeLs C§p Es[].4: _lTôu: _lTôu Lôl׬ûUdLô] ÑÚdLl TdLØm (TdLm þ22) RWlThÓs[Õ. I) ¨WôL¬lTRtLô] SûPØû\Ls: Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§p BnÜLû[ NUol©dLlThÓs[ ®iQTTeLû[ ¨WôL¬lTRtLô] ®YWeLs C§p á\lThÓs[].£. AWÑ A±dûL ùY°Âh¥u ØRp TdLj§u ©W§ TdLm 23Cp RWlThÓs[Õ. Lôl׬ûU YZeLlThPRu ÁÕ G§ol× CÚkRôp NmUkRlhPYoLs AWÑ A±dûL«p Lôl׬ûU YZeLlThP ®YWm ùY°Vô] SôuÏ UôReLÞdÏs ReLs G§olûT ùR¬®jÕ®P úYiÓm Gußm CÕ Ï±l©Ó¡\Õ. ØmûT Utßm ùPp-«p¡û[ C§p Ød¡VUôL LpLjRô®p RûXûU AÛYXLm ùNVpTÓ¡\Õ.CODISSIA J) K) Jü) JlTkRj§p ¨VªdLlThP SôÓLs ®¬YôLdj§p ¨VªdLlThP SôÓLs Lôl׬ûU Utßm YûWTPjûRl Tt±V ®¬Yô] ®[dLeLs[ 7. E) F) Lôl׬ûULs ¨ßjRm: ¨ûX¨ßjÕYRtLô] SûPØû\Ls: LhPQm ùNÛjRôRRôp Lôl׬ûULû[ ¨ßj§ ûYlTÕ Ï±jR ®YWeLs C§p Es[]. Lôl׬ûUûV Øj§ûW«ÓRp/AàU§jRp: Htßd ùLôs[lThÓ Øj§ûW CPlThÓs[ Lôl׬ûUL°u Gi¦dûLûV CÕ RÚ¡\Õ. ©.«u ¸r úR£V ¨ûX«]¥lTûP«p ®iQl©lTRtLô] ®YWeLÞm Es[]. 7.¥. G) §ÚjRj§tLô] SûPØû\Ls: Lôl׬ûU úLôÚTYWôp NUo©dLlTÓm Lôl׬ûU ®iQlTj§u ÁÕ §ÚjReLs úUtùLôsYRtLô] ®YWeLs C§p Es[]. C) ØÝûUVôdLlThP ®[dLdϱl×Ls HtLlTÓ¡\Õ JqùYôÚ ®[dLd ϱl©]Õm YûLlTÓjÕR-u ®YWeLû[ Cl©¬Ü RÚ¡\Õ. AÛYXLeLs ùNVpTÓ¡u\]. D) G§ol× SûPØû\Ls: HtL]úY Lôl׬ûU YZeLlThÓs[RtÏ Lôl׬ûU úLô¬ JÚYo ®iQl©jRôp ARtÏ G§ol× RôdLp ùNnYRtLô] ®YWeLs C§p Es[]. H) YûWY¥YeLs T§Ü: T§Ü ùNnVlThP YûWY¥YeLû[lTt±V ®YWeLû[ CÕ RÚ¡\Õ. ¨ûX ¨ßjR SPY¥dûL«p DÓTÓYRtÏ G§ol× ùR¬®lTRtLô] ϱl×LÞm Es[]. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 94 .5: Ck§Vô®p AWÑ A±dûL ùY°ÂÓ: Ck§V AWÑ A±dûL ùY°Âh¥u Tϧ III ©¬Ü 2Cp Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLj§u Lôl׬ûULs Utßm YûWY¥YeLs ϱjR RLYpLÞm A±dûLLÞm ùY°Vô¡u\]. ϱl©hP LôXj§p ×Õl©dL LhPQm ùNÛjRRôRôp ¨ßj§ ûYdLlThÓs[ Lôl׬ûUûV ÁiÓm ¨ûX ¨ßjÕYRtLô] ®YWeLs C§p á\lThÓs[]. AúR úTôX §ÚjReLû[ BnÜ ùNnÕ R]Õ G§olûTúV Cu] ©\ ®YWeLû[úVô ùR¬®dL GYùWôÚYÚdÏm E¬ûU EiÓ GuTÕ ClTϧ«p ®[dLlThÓs[Õ. ùTôÕYôL A§p ¸rYÚm RLYpLs Es[]. A) Lôl׬ûU AÛYXLeL°u A§LôW GpûXLÞm ØLY¬LÞm: ùNuû]. YûWY¥Yf NhPm NWjÕL°u ¸r £\l× AàU§ ùTtßs[Yt±tÏ CÕ ùTôÚkRôÕ.

A±dûL«u ©u ùRôPof£VôL CÕ Es[Õ.316. 257. YôolTP Ui.6: ØLl×l TdLj§u ØuUô§¬Vô] GÓjÕd LôhÓLs: U-17: AùU¬dL Lôl׬ûU Gi 6. U-18: 2000 BiÓ HlWp 26 IúWôl©V Lôl׬ûU Gi (EP) 09955522 ØRp TdLj§p Lôl׬ûUU«u RûXl× "Yôol× êXlùTôÚû[ CÚdÏYRtLô] Øû\Ùm TVuTôÓm" 2-m. U-19: 2000 BiÓ ©lWY¬ 10 PCT ùY°ÂhÓ ùTôÚ[PdLl TdLj§p ϱl©PlThÓs[ Gi W0006313Cu RûXl× " קV RVô¬l× Øû\Ùm YôolTP 磫u ETúVôLØm" GuTRôÏm. U-20: 2000BiÓ ©lTWY¬ 10 PCT ùY°ÂhÓ Gi: WO 00/06313Cu RûXl×: " קV RVô¬l×LÞm YôolTP RVô¬l×Ls ETúVôLlTÓjÕm Øû\LÞm" U-21: PCT ®iQlT Gi PCT/AU99/00617Cu ÁÕ úUtùLôs[lThP NoY úRPp A±dûLûV RÚ¡\Õ.CODISSIA 7. U-22 2001 BiÓ Uôof 6 _lTô²VoL[Õ Lôl׬ûULs Gi: 2001þ058252Cu ØRp TdLj§p Lôl׬ûU«u RûXl× " ùU-kR Utßm R¥jR TôLeLû[d ùLôiPYtû\ RVô¬lTRtLô] EÚdÏ Øû\Ls" GuTRôÏm Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 95 . úR§ _÷ûX 10 2001 ØLl×l TdLj§p Lôl׬ûU«u RûXl×: "EÚd¡ YôolTRtLô] ØRÄÓm EtTj§ Øû\Ùm" Guß RWlThÓs[Õ.

CODISSIA

'¥¬lv' Tt±V úLs®Ùm þ T§Ûm
Aj§VôVm þ 7
þ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs GuT] GûY?
ReL[Õ êû[«p EÚYôÏm TûPl×L°u ÁÕ UdLÞdÏ Es[ E¬ûULú[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs Guß LÚRlTÓ¡\Õ. JÚ TûPlTô° R]Õ (Bi/ùTi) TûPl×L°u ÁÕ Ï±l©hP LôXj§tÏ CqܬûUûV ùNÛjR Ø¥Ùm. þ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUVô]Õ CWiÓ Ød¡V ©¬ÜL[ôL ©¬lTÕ YZdLUôÏm:

T§l׬ûULÞm AúRôÓ ùRôPo×ûPV E¬ûULÞm:
LûX CXd¡Vl TûPl×L°u B£¬VoLÞdÏ YZeLlTÓm E¬ûULs LûXOoL[Õ E¬ûULs, CûNjRhÓLs Utßm J-TWl× AûUl×L°u E¬ûULs TûPl× §\àdÏ FdLU°dÏm Ød¡V úSôdLj§úXúV T§l׬ûU Utßm AÕúTôu\ E¬ûULs YZeLlTÓ¡u\].

ùRô¯p Õû\ ùNôjÕdLs:
C§p (1) YojRL Øj§ûWLs, ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs úTôu\ R²jRuûU YônkR ϱÂÓLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ, úUÛm (2) ×Õl×û]ûY çiÓm ®Rj§p ùRô¯p Õû\ ùNôjÕdL[ô] YûWY¥YeLs Utßm ùRô¯pÖhT EÚYôdLeLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. CkR YûL«u ¸r LiÓ©¥l×Ls (Lôl׬ûUL[ôp TôÕLôdLlTÓYÕ) ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs Utßm YojRL WL£VeLs YÚ¡u\]. "¥¬lv' JlTkRjûRl ùTôÚjRYûW " A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU" GuTÕ: ..... JlTkRj§u (Tϧ 1:2) TôLm 2 ©¬Ü 1 ØRp 7 Ø¥V Es[Yt±p ϱl©PlThÓs[ AÕ NôokR E¬ûULs, YojRL Øj§ûWLs, ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs, ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs, Lôl׬ûULs, Jße¡QkR ªuÑtß YûWTPeLs Utßm ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLÞdLô] TôÕLôl× GuT] APeÏm. þ EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl× SôÓLs Aû]j§tÏm '¥¬lv' JlTkRm ùTôßkÕUô? EXL YojRL AûUl©u GpXô JlTkReLÞm ( JÚ £X TuØû] JlTkReLs R®W) AqYûUl©u Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ùTôßkÕm (ùTÚmTôXô]ûY Ju±u ¸r YÚ¡u\]). B]ôp CRu NWjÕLû[ SôÓLs ùYqúYß LôXLhPj§p AØpTÓjR JlTkRm AàU§d¡\Õ. JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR Sô[ô] 1995 _÷ûX 5 1 ØRp Eßl× SôÓLs AØXôdLúYi¥V LôXm YûW CkR LôX RôURm LQd¡PlTÓ¡\Õ. Ød¡VUô] UôtÈÓd LôXLhPm ¸r YÚUôß: EXL YojRL AûUl× AØÛdÏYÚm úR§«-ÚkÕ JÚ BiÓdÏs ARôYÕ 1996 _÷ûX 1 YûW Y[of£VûPkR SôÓLÞdÏ UôtÈhÓ LôXm

Ød¡VUô] UôtÈÓd LôXLhPm ¸r YÚUôß:
EXL YojRL AûUl× AØÛdÏYÚm úR§«-ÚkÕ JÚ BiÓdÏs ARôYÕ 1996 _÷ûX 1 YûW Y[of£VûPkR SôÓLÞdÏ UôtÈhÓ LôXm AàU§dLlTÓ¡\Õ. Y[Úm SôÓLû[l ùTôßjRYûW JlTkR NWjÕLû[ AØXôdL úUÛm SôuÏ BiÓLs (2000 _]Y¬ 1 YûW) AYLôNm RWlThÓs[Õ. ARtÏs TôWThNUt\ SûPØû\ úTôu\ ùLôsûLLû[ Es[Pd¡V JlTkRj§u Tϧ 3, 4 Utßm 5I AØXôdL úYiÓm. þ ùTôÚ[ôRôW Uôtßd LhPj§p Es[ SôÓLs ARôYÕ Uj§VlTÓjRlThP ùTôÚ[ôRôW ùLôsûLL°u ¸r ùNVpTeÓ NkûRl ùTôÚ[ôRôWj§tÏ Uô±YÚm SôÓLÞdÏm CúR úTôu\ LôX AYLôNm RWlThÓs[Õ. (2000 _]Y¬ 1 YûW). CdLôXLhPj§p CkSôÓLs ϱl©PjRdL ¨XûULû[ JÚúYû[ áÓRXôL Nk§j§ÚdLXôm. þ ªLÜm ©uRe¡V ùTôÚ[ôRôW SôÓLÞdÏ ¿iP UôtÈPÓ LôX LhPm T§ú]ôß BiÓLs (2006 _]Y¬ 1) RWlThÓs[]. úUÛm LôX ¿h¥l× ùNnVÜm Yônl×s[Õ. þ ùTôÕ UôtÈhÓ LôX LhPeLû[ GkR SôÓLs ETúVôLlTÓ¡u\]?

1)

Y[Úm SôÓLs

EXL YojRL AûUl©u ϱlT±®l× CpXôUúXúV ùTôÕ UôtÈhÓ LôX LhPjûR Eßl× SôÓLs ©uTt±d ùLôs[Xôm. CdLôX LhPm Ø¥kRÜPu Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeLû[ '¥¬lv' ÏÝ T¬º-d¡\Õ. 2000 Utßm 2001Cp ¸rYÚm Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeLs T¬º-dLlTÓm 2000Bm BiÓ 31Bm úR§ LôXd ùLÓ Ø¥YûP¡\Õ. BiÓdÏ Tôo×Pô, Ao_i¥]ô, TdûWu, TôoTúPôv, ©úW£p, ùTô--Vô, úTôvhYô]ô, ©úW£p, ×ú], ù_ÚNXôm, úLUìu, £², ùLôXm©Vô, LôeúLô, úLôvPô¬Lô, úLôh¥¥ _Y¬, ¡ëTô, ûNTWv, ùPôU²Lô, ùUô²dL Ï¥VWÑ,

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

96

CODISSIA

G¡lÕ, GpNpYPôo, GvúRô²Vô, ©´, LúTôu, Lô]ô, ¡Wô]Pô, Ï®§UôXô, LVô]ô, úaôiÓWôn, aôeLôe, º]ô, Ck§Vô, CkúRôú]£Vô, CvúWp,. _UôvLô, ùLuVô, ùLô¬Vô, ÏûYj, UdÏYô, UúX£Vô, ùUô¬ºVv, ùUd£úLô, ùUôWôdLô, Sm©Vô, ¨LWôÏYô, ûSˬVô, Tô¡vRôu, Tô×Yô ¨ëϲVô, ©WôÏúY, ùTÚ, ©-lûTuv, úTôXkÕ (96'þ98'Cp T¬º-dLlTPôR TϧLs, LhPôo, ùN«u í£Vô, £eLléo, CXeûL, ùN«u ¡hv Ó®v, ùN«uh ®iùNuh Utßm ¡¬]ôûPuv, ã¬]ôm, Ñ®hNoXôkÕ, RônXôkÕ, ¥¬²PôhÓTôúLô, Ó²£Vô, Id¡V AW× úTWWÑ, EÚÏúY, ùY²ÑYXô, ´mTôlúT. úUtLiP Eßl× SôÓL°p JÚ £XYtû\j R®W ùTÚmTôXô] SôÓLs "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§tÏ Ht\ úR£V NhPeLû[ 2000 _]Y¬ 1dÏs EßYôd¡Ùs[].

2) ªLÜm ©uRe¡V SôÓLs:
Id¡V SôÓLs NûTVôp ªLÜm ©uRe¡V SôÓLs Guß YûLlTÓjRlThÓs[ SôÓLs EXL YojRL AûUl©u ªLÜm ©uRe¡V Eßl× SôÓL[ôL LÚRlTÓ¡u\]. AlT¥lThP SôÓL°u Th¥Vp CeúL RWlTÓ¡\Õ. Cû]V TdLj§p CÕ Ï±jÕ RtúTôÕ Es[ TdLm YÚUôß: Id¡V SôÓLs NûT 48 SôÓLû[ ªLÜm ©uRe¡VûY Guß Th¥V-PlThÓs[Õ. AYt±p 29 SôÓLs UhÓúU RtúTôÕ EXL YojRL AûUl©u Eßl©]oL[ôL Es[]. AeúLôXô, TeL[ôúRv, ©²u, ×o]ô, TôúNô, ×ìi¥, Uj§V Bl¬dL Ï¥VWÑ, LôeúLô _]SôVL Ï¥VWÑ, ¥´úTôj§, Lôm©Vô, ϲVô, ϲVô ©NôÜ, ùan§, ®NôjúRô, UPLôeLo, UôX®, UôXj¾ÜLs, Uô-, UܬRô²Vô, ùUôm©d, ªVôuUo, ûS_o, WYôiPô, ùN]Lp, £VWô ®úVô², NôXUu ¾ÜLs, RôuNô²Vô, PôúLô, ELôiPô, _ôm©Vô. ªLÜm ©uRe¡V SôÓLs TXYt±u ùTVoLs EXL YojRL AûUl©p úNolTRtLô] SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[lThÓ YÚ¡u\]. ®YWeLs YÚUôß:

3) ×Õ Eßl©]oLs:
1995 _]Y¬ 1Bm úR§ EXL YojRL AûUl©p Eßl× SôÓL[ôL CÚkRYt±u AWÑLÞdÏ ùTôÕYô] UôtÈhÓ LôXLhPeLs ùTôÚkÕm. AkR úR§«p EXL YojRL AûUl× EÚYô] ©u]ôp úUÛm TX SôÓLs Eßl©]oL[ôL CûQkÕs[]. AkSôÓLs EXL YojRL AûUl©u A§LôWéoY Eßl©]oL[ôL Ae¸L¬dLlThP SôsØRp '¥¬lv' JlTkRjûR AØXôdL ùTôÕYôL Jl×d ùLôiÓ ReLs Eßl©]o Rϧ ùTßYRtLô] JlTkRj§p Jl×d ùLôiÓs[]o. CYoLÞdÏ UôtÈhÓ LôX TXuLs HÕm CÚdLôÕ. EXL YojRL AûUl©u SôÓLs Eßl©]oL[ôL úNokR úR§«u A¥lTûP«p ùY°«PlThÓs[ Th¥VûXd ùLôiÓ ×§RôL úNokÕs[ SôÓL°u Th¥Vp LôQd¡Ó¡\Õ. þ UôtÈhÓd LôX LhPj§p Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ùTôßl×Ls HRôYÕ ¨oQ«dLl ThÓs[]Yô? ¿iP AYLôNjÕPu á¥V UôtÈhÓd LôX LhPjûR ùLôiÓs[ SôÓLs EhTP GpXô Eßl× SôÓLÞm úR£V AÔÏØû\ EsSôhÓ ùY°SôhÓ ¨ßY]eLs R²SToLû[ NUUôL SPjÕYÕm (Tϧþ3) Utßm ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ AÔÏØû\ (ùY°SôhÓ ¨ßY]eLs R²SToLû[ TôWThNªu± SPjÕRp, Tϧþ4) B¡V]Ytû\ 1996 _]Y¬ 1 ØRp AØXôdLd LPûUlThÓs[]. ùRô¯p ÖhTj§u ϱl©hP TϧdÏ RVô¬l× Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôl× HtTÓj§WôR Y[Úm SôÓL°p úRûYlTÓmúTôÕ UôtÈhÓ £\l× NhP ®§Lû[ AØXôdLXôm. ªLÜm ϱlTôL, Y[Úm SôÓ Ju±p RVô¬l× Lôl׬ûU TôÕLôl× HtTôÓLû[ ùRô¯pÖhTj§u ϱl©hP TϧdÏ HtTÓj§jRWôUp CÚdÏm úTôÕ ( "¥¬lv"JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YÚ¡\ 1995 _]Y¬, 1) AkSôÓ TôÕLôlûT A±ØLlTÓj§V 10 BiÓLs (2005 _]Y¬ 1 YûW) AYLôNm RWlThÓs[Õ. B]ôp UÚkÕLs Utßm úY[ôi WNôVQ RVô¬l×Lû[l ùTôßjRYûW AkR SôPô]Õ UôtÈhÓd LôX LhPj§u ÕYdL Sô°-ÚkÕ úUtϱl©hPYt±tLô] Lôl׬ûU úLôÚm ®iQlTeLû[ HtßdùLôs[ úYiÓm. CdLôXLhPm Ø¥®tÏs GkR JÚ Lôl׬ûUdÏm TôÕLôl× YZeLXôUô úYi¥V§pûXVô Guß Ø¥ùYÓdLlTPôU-ÚkRôÛm ®iQlTm Htßd ùLôs[lTP úYiÓm (70.8). CûR 'RTôp ùTh¥' NWjÕ Gußm á\lTÓYÕiÓ UôtÈÓLôX LhPj§p Sm©dûLVô] UÚkÕLs ApXÕ úY[ôi WNôVQl ùTôÚsLû[ ®tTû] ùNnV AàU§dÏmúTôÕ Ï±l©hP ¨TkRû]L°u A¥lTûP«p AkR RVô¬l©p ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ 5 BiÓLs ®tTû] £\l× E¬ûU YZeL úYiÓm ApXÕ AjRVô¬l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeÏm Sôs YûW £\l׬ûU YZeL úYiÓm. C§p GÕ Ïû\Yô] LôX LhPúUô ARtÏ CÕ ùTôßkÕm (Tϧ 70.8) UôtÈhÓd LôX LhPj§p Sm©dûLVô] UÚkÕLs ApXÕ úY[ôi WNôVQl ùTôÚsLû[ ®tTû] ùNnV AàU§dÏm úTôÕ Ï±lThP ¨TkRû]L°u A¥lTûP«p AkR RVô¬l©tÏ ®iQlRôWÚdÏ 5 BiÓLs ®tTû] £\l× E¬ûU YZeL úYiÓm ApXÕ AjRVô¬l©tÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeÏm SôsYûW £\l׬ûU YZeL

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

97

CODISSIA

úYiÓm. C§p GÕ Ïû\Yô] LôX LhPúUô ARtÏ CÕ ùTôßkÕm (Tϧ 70.9). UôtÈhÓd LôX LhPjûR RûX¸ZôL TVuTÓj§®PdáPôÕ GuTûR "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ 65.5 áß¡\Õ. Uôt±hÓd LôX LhPjûR ùLôiÓs[ SôÓLs (Tϧ 65Cu 1,2,3, ApXÕ 4YÕ TôWôdL°pá\lThÓs[Yt±uT¥) ReL[Õ NhPeL°Ûm SûPØû\L°Ûm ,JÝeÏ Øû\L°Ûm GRôYÕ Uôt\eLû[ ùNnÙm úTôÕ AÕ JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ ®P Ïû\Yô] A[®p CÚkÕ®PôUp TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ. þ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YÚØu]o ùTôÕ ÑeLj¾oûY JlTkRm (GATT 19(77)) ¾oûY JlTkRj§u TuØû] YojRL JlTkRj§p A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[l Tt± ϱlTôL HÕm ùNôpXlTh¥ÚdL®pûX AúR úSWj§p ùTôÕf ÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkRj§p CÚkR £X ùLôsûLL°u A¥lTûP«p C\dÏU§Ls HtßU§Ls ÁÕ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU A[ÅÓLs ©WúVô¡dLlThP]. ùTôÕf ÑeLj¾oûY JlkRm 1947Cu Tϧ xx(d) Utßm 1994Cu xx(f) B¡V] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[l Tt± ϱl©hP YûL«p GÓjÕûWd¡\Õ. ùTôÕ JlTkR§tÏ JjÕlúTôLRûY (ϱl©hP ¨XûULÞdÏ EhThPÕ) A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u NhPeLs JÝeÏØû\Ls Hû]V ®§Øû\LÞdÏ Hû]V ®§û\LÞdÏ EhTÓjÕm SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôs[ CkR NWjÕ AàU§d¡\Õ. þ TuØû] YojRL Øû\«p "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u TeÏ Gu]? EXL YojRL AûUl©p ùY°lTÓjRlThÓs[ûRlúTôuß TuØû] YojRL Øû\«u Jße¡ûQkR TϧVôL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[ ¨ûX¨ßjÕYÕ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u A¥lTûP ÏQeL°p Ju\ôÏm. EXL YojRL AûUl©u êuß BRôWd çiL°u Ju\ôL "¥¬lv"JlTkRm Yo¦dLlTÓ¡\Õ. Ut\ CWiÓ ùTôÚsL°u YojRLm ( ùTôÕf ÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkRj§u TôWmT¬V A§LôW GpûX«p CÚkRÕ úTôuß) Utßm úNûYL°u YojRLm B¡V]YôÏm.2. "¥¬lv' GuTÕ EÚÏúY Ñtßl úTfÑ YôojûRL°u Ø¥®p EßYô] Jtû\ JlTkRm. ARu LôWQUôL EXL YojRL AûUl©u Eßl× SôÓLs Aû]j§tÏm '¥¬lv' JlTkRm ùTôßkÕ¡\Õ. JlTkRj§u NWjÕLs Aû]jÕm EXL YojRL AûUl©u RôYô ¾oÜ Øû\LÞdÏ CûVkRÕ GuTûRÙm CÕ Ï±l©Ó¡\Õ. CkR RôYô ¾oÜ Øû\Ls RôYô ¾oÜ EPuT¥dûL«p Es[]. (RYôdLû] ¾olTRtLô] ®§LÞm SûPØû\LÞm Tt±V EPuT¥dûL) þ"¥¬lv' JlTkRj§tÏm Øuáh¥úV SPk§Úd¡\ NoYúRN UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜLÞdϪûPúV Es[ E\Ü Gu]? EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u ùRô¯pÕû\ ùNôjÕdLs ÁRô] Tô¬v1 £\l× UôSôÓ T§l׬ûU (CYt±u ªLf NÁTj§V Y¥Yj§p) Tt±V ùTo² £\l× UôSôhÓ Ø¥ÜL°u EߧlTÓjRlThP ùTôßl×LÞdÏ EXL YojRL AûUl©u Eßl× SôÓLs CQe¡ SPdL úYiÓm Guß ¥¬lv JlTkRm Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. Hû]V Eߧ ªdL LÚjÕdLs Aû]jûRÙm ϱl×L[ôL úNodLlThÓs[]. G]úY CdLôWQjRôp "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u ¸r EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl× SôÓL°u ùTôßl×L[ô¡Ùs[]. AkSôÓLs CkR ©WRô]Uô] NWjÕLû[ NL Eßl× SôÓL°u R²SToLs Utßm ¨ßY]eLÞdÏ ùTôßjR úYiÓm. CkR £\l× UôSôÓL°p ØuùUô¬VlTPôR TϧLs '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§p áÓRp ùTôßl×L[ôL CûQdLlThÓs[]. £\l× UôSôh¥p úTôÕUô] A[®tÏ GÓjÕûWdLlTPôR ®NVeLÞm '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§p JÝeÏ TÓjRlThÓs[]. G]úY Rôu '¥¬lv' JlTkRm £X úSWeL°p 'ùTo²+Tô¬v' JlTkRm Guß AûZdLlTÓ¡\Õ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs NmUkRlhP úYß £X NoYúRN JlTkReL°u NWjÕLÞm '¥¬lv' JlTkR ®[dLj§p úNodLlThÓs[]. þ Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßLÞdLô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§u NWjÕLú[ôÓ á¥V ϱl©PjRdL áÓRp ùTôßl×Lû[ Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßLs AûUl× YûWTPeLs TôÕLôl× ®NVj§p AØXôdL úYiÓm Guß R]Õ Eßl× SôÓLû[ EXL YojRL AûUl× úLhÓd ùLôiÓs[Õ. þ LûXOoLs, CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs Utßm J-TWl× AûUl×L°u E¬ûULs TôÕLôl× NmUkRUô] NoYúRN £\l× UôSôhÓ (úWôm £\l× UôSôÓ) NWjÕdLs TXYtû\ '¥¬lv' JlTkRm Ñh¥dLôhÓ¡\Õ. £\l× UôSôh¥u EߧVô] NWjÕLÞdÏ CQeLÜm AYt±tLô] ùTôÕ úRûYLû[ ®Xd¡PôRYûL«Ûm GÓjÕûWdLlThÓs[Õ. Tô¬v, ùTo², úWôm £\l× UôSôÓLs, Utßm Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßLs ÁRô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRm B¡V]Yt±u ùRôPokÕ CÚdÏm ùTôßl×Ls Eßl× SôÓLs ReL°ûPúV Tn]TÓj§d ùLôs[jRdL]YôL CÚdûL«p AkR ùTôßl×L°u U§lûTd Ïû\d¡\ YûL«p "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u TôLm I ØRp IV Es[ TϧL°p ùNnYRtÏ Jußm CpûX Guß AqùYôlTkRj§u Tϧ 2Cp GÓjÕûWdLlThÓs[Õ.

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

98

G]úY Rôu Eßl× SôÓL°u úYßThP NhP Y¥YeLû[ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôiÓs[Õ. AúR úSWj§p "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ ÁßYRôL áÓRp TôÕLôl× úTôn®Pd áPôÕ. Lôl׬ûULs. ERôWQj§tÏ: (AYNW ¨ûX CpXôR úTôÕ) E¬ûU úLôÚm NmUkRlThP STo ApXÕ ¨ßY]m LhPVôm ØRp Øû\VôL úLôÚTYWôL CÚdL úYiÓm. (ùTôÕf NhPj§tÏm NêL NhP TôWmT¬Vj§tÏm CûPlThP ¨ûXûV GÓjÕdLôhPôL á\Xôm) þ Lôl׬ûULÞdÏ LhPôV E¬Um YZeÏYûR "¥¬lv"JlTkRm AàU§d¡\Rô? E¬ûUVô[¬u Jl×Rp Cu± AYWÕ Lôl׬ûUûV AWÑ ETúVô¡dLÜm LhPôV E¬Um Y[eLÜm ©¬Ü 31 AàU§d¡\Õ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 99 . Tô¬v Utßm ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓLs C§p APeÏm. "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ ReLs ReLs ùNôkR NhP §hPeLÞdÏ EhThÓ ùTôßjRUô] Øû\«p AØXôdÏYRtLô] Ø¥ÜLû[ GÓdÏm ÑRk§WjûRÙm Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm áÓRXôL YZe¡Ùs[Õ. Tô¬v Utßm ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓL[ôp EßYôdLlThÓs[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl×Ls Tô¬v AûUl©u Eßl©]oL[ôp EßYôdLlThÓs[] ÕûQ JlTkReL°ûPúV JußThP ùNVpTôhûP EߧlTÓjÕYÕm EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u úSôdLUôÏm. NoYNUUô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NhPj§u ¸r ùNVpTÓUôß Eßl× SôÓLû[ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm úLhÓd ùLôs¡\Rô? CpûX. EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u úSôdLeLs EXLm ØÝYÕm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULÞdÏ TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRôÏm. wipo. êuß Ød¡V TϧLÞdLô] JjÕûZlTûT JlTkRm Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. YojRL Øj§ûWLs. TpúYß £\l× UôSôÓL°u ¸r EßYôdLlThP ¨oYôLeLs ûUVlTÓjRlhÓ EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u 'NoYúRN ùNVXLj§u' ¸r ûUVlTÓjRlThÓs[Õ. Y[Úm SôÓLÞdÏ ®iQlTeLs BúXôNû]Ls YZeÏYÕ. ùUô¯ ùTVo×Ls úR£V £u]eLs TôÕLôl©tLô] SPY¥dûL ùS±Øû\Ls ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl× EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u ØLY¬ WIPO/ 34 Chemin des Colombetters. T«of£V°lTÕ. úRûYVô] CûQl×l Tj§WeLs Tt± GÓjÕûWlTÕ úTôu\ Y[of£dLô] JjÕûZlûT EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl× ùNnÕ YÚ¡\Õ. 1974 ØRp Id¡V SôÓLs NûT«u £\l× ©¬YôL ùNVpTPjÕYe¡VÕ. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs TôÕLôl©tLô] R]Õ NWjÕL°p Es[Yt±u ¸r ϱl©PjRdL YûWØû\LÞdÏ EPuThÓ ùNVpTÓUô\ Rôu '¥¬lv' JlTkRm úLhÓd ùLôs¡\Õ. CR]ôp Rôu "¥¬lv"JlTkRUô]Õ 'Ïû\kR ThN A[ÜLû[ ' ùLôiPÕ Guß £X úSWeL°p Yo¦dLlTÓ¡\Õ. Hû]V NoYúRN AûUl×LÞPu CûQkÕ NmUkRlThP SôÓL°u JjÕûZlúTôÓ ùTôÚjRUô] Øû\«p CûY AØXôdLlTÓm.int. LhPôV E¬U Øû\«u ¸r Nôu\¯jÕ AàU§dLlTÓm E¬UeLÞm ϱl©hP úRûYLû[ G§oùLôs[ úYiÓm. Geneva ùRôûXúT£ Gi. ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs Utßm êXj§tLô] úUp Øû\ÂÓ úTôu\ NoYúRN ç«Xô] ϱjÕ T§ÜLû[ CqYÛYXLm úUtùLôs¡\Õ. EsSôhÓ NkûRdÏ ùTôÚhLû[ YZeÏYtLô] RûXVôV úSôdLj§u A¥lTûP«p ùTôÕf NhPj§u êXm AàU§dLlThPRôL CÚdL úYi¥VÕ AYN«Uô]Õ. ϱl©PjRdL Gi¦dûL«Xô] NoYúRN A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl×Ls ApXÕ JlTkReLû[ LiLô¦d¡\Õ.CODISSIA EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl× Gu\ôp Gu]? 1967 _÷ûX 14 Bm úR§ SûPùTt\ £\l× UôSôÓ Ju±p EXL A±Üf EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl× EÚYôdLlThPÕ. EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl× Utßm EXL YojRL AûUl× B¡V]Yt±tÏ CûPúV JjÕûZl×dLô] JlTkRm HtThÓ 1996 _]Y¬ 1 ØRp AØ-p CÚkÕ YÚ¡\Õ. þ þ þ úR£V NhPeLs Utßm AYt±u SûPØû\Ls ϱjR A±®l×. B]ôp "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§p úLhÓd ùLôiÓs[ûR®P ªLÜm ®¬Yô] A[®tÏ TôÕLôl× A°dLjRdL NhPeLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs úRokùRÓjÕd ùLôs[Xôm. B]ôp E¬ûUVô[¬u NhP éoY ®ÚlTeLû[ TôÕLôdÏm úSôd¡Xô] TX LhÓlTôÓL°u ¸r Rôu úUtá±Ytû\ ùNnVØ¥Ùm. ARu Ø¥ÜLs 1970 ØRp AØÛdÏ YkRÕ. ϱlTôL CÕ R² E¬ûU ùTt\RôL CÚdLdáPôÕ. (41 22) 3389111ùRôûX SLp (Fax) Gi: (41 22) 7335428 CûQV R[m Gi: (Web site): www. E¬ûUVô[¬u ¨VôVUô] YojRL ¨TkRû]Lû[ éoj§ ùNnÕ Rô]ôL E¬ûU ùT\ Ø¥VôR ¨ûX«p E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ úTôÕUô] ¨YôWQj ùRôûLûV YZe¡VôL úYiÓm.

CqùYôlTkRj§u ¸Zô] ùTôßl×Lû[ Eßl©]oLs GqYôß LûPl©¥d¡u\]o G]lûRÙm LiLô¦d¡\Õ. Tϧ 27. þ "¥¬lv"ÏÝYu TeL°l× Gu]? "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®p EXL YojRL AûUl©u Eßl× SôÓLs Aû]jÕm ©W§¨§jÕYm ùTtßs[]. úUÛm. JlTkRj§p ϱl©hÓs[ LôX LhPj§tÏs ùNnÕ Ø¥dL úYiÓm. 1) LiLô¦jRp: Eßl©]oLs JÚYo Utù\ôÚYÚûPV NhPeLû[ T¬ºXû] ùNnRp. ϱlTôL. Eßl× SôÓL°u NhP HtTôÓLû[ A±dûL ùNnV úYi¥VRu AY£VjûR "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ 63. CûYL°u ÁRô] ùRôPo úLs®Lû[ áhPj§p YônY¯VôL GÝl© AúR úTôuß T§Ûm ùT\Xôm. T¬ºXû] áhPeLÞdÏ Øu× Eßl× SôÓLs JÚYo Utù\ôÚYo NhPj§u ÁÕ GÝl×m úLs®Lû[ GÝjÕ Y¥Yj§p '¥¬lv' ÏÝ®Pm NUo©dL úYiÓm. 2) BúXôNû]Ls: "¥¬lv' ©WfNû]Lû[l Tt± '¥¬lv' JlTkRm AØpTÓjÕmúTôÕ GÝ¡u\ ©WfNû]Ls NmUkRUôL Eßl× SôÓLÞd¡ûPúV BúXôNû] SÓjÕYRtLô] AûUlTôLÜm "¥¬lv"ÏÝ §Lr¡\Õ.2 Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. ÖiEßl× BnÜLÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYiÓm. "¥¬lv"JlTkRm AØXôdLjûR LiLô¦dÏm ùTôßl× CdÏÝ®tÏ Es[Õ. ' ¥¬lv' ÏÝ CkR T¬ºXû]ûV úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl©u ªRô] Y[of£VûPkR SôÓL°u ùTôßl×Lû[ ClTϧ GÓjÕûWd¡\Õ. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ AØXôdLjRdL YûL«Xô] ReLs SôhÓ NhPeLs YkÕ AYt±u SûPØû\Ls Tt±V Tj§WeL°u SLpLû[ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®Pm NUo©dL úYiÓm. JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ ùR°ÜTÓjR CdÏÝ ERÜ¡\Õ. CRu êXm A±Üf ùNôjÕdLs TôÕLôl×d ùLôsûLLs ùY°lTûPVô]RôL EVojRlTÓ¡\Õ. ClT¥ NUo©dLlTÓm A±dûLL°u A¥lTûP«p Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeLû[ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ T¬º-d¡\Õ. JÚYo Utù\ôÚYWÕ NhPeLû[ T¬ºXû] ùNnV AàU§d¡\Õ. Lôl׬ûULs ApXÕ ùNVídLm ªdL Ñnù_]Ãv Øû\ (CkR Lôl׬ûU úSôdLj§tLôLúY CmØû\ EÚYôdLlThÓs[Õ) ApXÕ Cq®WiÓm úNokR ¨ûXdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs TôÕLôl× YZeL úYiÓm Guß "¥¬lv"JlTkRm áß¡\Õ. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u Tϧ 67Cu ¸Zô] ReLs ùTôßl×Lû[ Y[of£VûPkR SôÓLs GlT¥ ¨û\úYt± YÚ¡u\] Guß Cj§hPj§u ¸r LiLô¦dLlTÓ¡\Õ. Y[Úm SôÓL[Õ úRûYLs éoj§ ùNnVlTPô§ÚkRôp AYtû\ LiÓ©¥jÕ SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[ úYi¥V ùTôßlûTÙm Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. JlTkRj§u ¸r Gu] SûPùTtßd ùLôi¥Úd¡\Õ GuTÕ Tt±V T¬ºûXûV "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®u LiLô¦l× Øû\ûV ûUVlTÓj§ SPjR úYiÓm. E«¬Vp NôWôR Utßm ÖiÔ«¬Vp SûPØû\LÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYiÓm.3 (B)«u NWjÕLû[ JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR SôuÏ BiÓLs L¯jÕ (ARôYÕ 1998Am Bi¥p) UßT¬ºXû] ùNnV úYiÓm Guß "¥¬lv"JlTkRm úLhÓd ùLôiÓs[Õ. JqùYôÚ SôÓm "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ùTôßl×LÞdÏ CûNYô] EsSôh¥p NhPjûR YÏdL úYiÓm. ùTÚmTôXô] SôÓLs CRtÏ Ht\ôt úTôu\ NhPeLû[ ùLôiÓs[]. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 100 . ®XeÏLs Utßm RôYWeLs EßYôdÏYRtLô] E«¬Vp SûPØû\LÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYi¥V§pûX. 3) ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl×: JÚ ùNnX §hPm: ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl× NmUkRUôL "¥¬lv"ÏÝ JÚ ùNVp§hPjûR AØXôd¡ YÚ¡\Õ.CODISSIA þ T«o YûLLÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeLlTP úYiÓm Guß Eßl× SôÓLû[ ùLôs¡\Õ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm úLhÓd £X YûL T«oLs Utßm ®XeÏLs LiÓ©¥lTRtLô] Lôl׬ûU YZeÏY§-ÚkÕ ReLs SôÓLÞdÏ ®XdL°dÏm E¬ûU Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ YZeLlThÓs[Õ. CRtLô] T§pLÞm GÝjÕ Y¥Yj§p YZeL úYiÓm. AúR úTôX ©WNfû]dϬVoYoL°ûPúV LÚjÕLû[ T¬Uô\ ERÜm AûUlTôLÜm Es[Õ. Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeLs "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®tÏ ùR¬VlTÓjRlTP úYiÓm. ªLÜm ϱlTôL T«tLs Utßm ®XeÏLs RVô¬l×dLô] LiÓ©¥lTRtÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeL úYi¥V§pûX. AúR úSWj§p. Y[Úm SôÓLs úLhÓd ùLôsÞm ThNj§p AYoLÞdÏ úRûYlTÓm RLYpLs ¡ûPdLf ùNnV úYiÓm Guß ùNVp§hPm Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. ARtÏ úUÛm ùRôPo SPY¥dûLLs úRûY Gu\ôp AÓjR áhPeL°p ùT\Xôm.

CODISSIA 4) ϱl©hP ®NVeL°u úUp T¬ºXû]Ùm úTfÑ YôojûRLÞm: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Tt±V TϧÙPu CûQkÕs[ ùTôßl×Lû[l TtS± úUtùLôiÓ úTfÑYôojûRLs SPjÕYRtLô] AûUlTôLÜm EXL YojRL AûUl©u "¥¬lv"ÏÝ Es[Õ.2 Cu ¸Zô] úR£V NhPeLs SûPØû\Ls Tt± A±dûL ùNnYRtLô] SûPØû\Ls Tj§Wm Gi IP/C/2Cp á\lThÓs[]. Tϧ 1. A±dûLV°dLlThÓs[Ru A¥lTûP«Xô] ùTôßl×Lû[ AØXôdÏYRtLô] Y¯LôhÓRpLû[Ùm SûPØû\Lû[Ùm "¥¬lv"ÏÝ Y¥YûUjÕj RÚ¡\Õ. þ 'Jnu'dÏ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[ E¬ûU T§Ü Utßm A±dûL A°jRp NmUkRUô] TuØû] ùNVpØû\ûVd ϱjÕ úTfÑ YôojûR SPjR úYiÓm (Tϧ 23. AØXôdLm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[ RY\ôÕ TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtLô] SPY¥dûLLs ®NVj§p CûRl©uTt\ úYiÓm). JlTkRm AàU§jÕs[§u ¸r Eßl× SôÓLs ϱl©hP Yônl×Lû[ RôeL[ôLúY A±®dÏm ThNj§p AÕ Ï±jÕ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®tÏ A±dûL NUolÀdL úYiÓm. RôY ¾oÜ SPY¥dûL«u ¸r YÚ¡\ E¬ûU Á\p CpûX Gu\ ×LôoLû[ '¥¬lv' JlTkR NWjÕLÞdÏ HtT BnÜ ùNnYRtLô] HtTôÓLÞm ùNnV úYi¥Ùs[Õ.4).3 Utßm 3. NÛûL. Eßl©]oLs JÚYo Ut\YWÕ NhPjûR T¬ºXû] ùNnYRtÏ CqY±dûL AàU§V°d¡\Õ.3(B)). 5) "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u ÁRô] T¬ºXû]: JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR IkÕ BiÓLs L¯jÕ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ AqùYôlTkRj§u ÁÕ ùTôÕYô] T¬ºXû] SPjR úYiÓm R®odL CVXôR קV ãr¨ûXLs HtTÓmúTôÕ AR]¥lTûP«p JlTkRjûR Uôt±VûUlTÕ Ï±jÕm §ÚjReLs ùNnYÕ Ï±jÕm EP]¥VoL T¬º-dLÜm CdÏÝ®tÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ (Tϧþ71) þ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ¸r Eßl©]oLs A±dûL A°dL úYi¥V Ød¡V ùTôßl×Ls GûY? "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®tÏ Ï±l©hP A±dûLLû[ A°dL úYiÓm Guß EXL YojRL AûUl©u Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ "¥¬lv"JlTkRm ùTôßl×Ls ¨oQ«jÕs[Õ. DhPjRdL ®NVeLs. C§p úUtùLôiÓm CÚd¡\ ©u]²jRLYpLs IP/C/W/5 Tj§Wj§p LôQd ¡ûPdL úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP TϧLs £X YÚUôß. Yônl×Ls. þ ϱl©hP T«o ApXÕ ®XeÏLs Tt±V LiÓ©¥l©tÏ LôlT°lTR-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ A°dLlhÓs[Ru ÁÕ SôuÏ BiÓLs L¯jÕ T¬ºXû] ( Tϧ 27.1Cu ¸r RVô¬dLlTÓ¡\ A±dûLLs IP/N/2 Tj§WeL°u ùRôPWôL ®²úVô¡dLlTP úYiÓm. EXL YojRL AûUl©u Hû]V TϧLÞdÏm CqYN§ Es[Õ. "¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u Tϧ 4(D)dÏ HtT JÚ Eßl× SôÓ ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ ùTôßl©-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ ùT\ úSÚm úTôÕ A±ÜfùNôjÕ¬ûU TôÕLôl× NmUkRlThP NoYúRN JlTkReLs êXm HRôYÕ AàáXm. þ ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[ TôÕLôl× Ï±jR NWjÕLû[ AØXôdÏYÕ ÁRô] T¬ºXû] (Tϧ 24. ϱl©hP TϧL°p úUtùLôiÓm A©®Új§l T¦Ls ùNnV úYi¥Ùs[Õ Guß '¥¬lv' JlTkRm úLhÓd ùLôiÓs[Õ.3 Utßm 3. ApXÕ RtLôl× úTôu\Ytû\ ùTtß AûR EXL YojRL AûUl©às ÖûZdL Øû]ÙUô]ôp AlT¥lThP JlTkReLs ϱjÕ '¥¬lv' ÏÝ®tÏ A±dûL ùNnV úYiÓm. AlT¥ YZeLlTÓm YûWVû\Ls ϱjÕ '¥¬lv' ÏÝ®tÏ A±dûL NUo©dL úYiÓm. (NhPeLs SûPØû\Ls ¡ûPdLf ùNnYRtLô] ¨XûULs.RVô¬l×Lû[ ALtßYRtLôL Eßl× SôÓLs JÚYo Ut\YÚdÏ ER® ùNnYRtÏ HÕYôL Eßl× SôÓLs ùRôPo× ûUVeLû[ ¨ß® AYtû\l Tt±V ®YWeLû[ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®Pm NUol©dL úYiÓm GuTûR Tϧ þ 69 Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 101 .2). ¿§dÏ ×\mTô] TôWThNm LôhPd áPôÕ. JlTkRl Tϧ 63. '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u 1.1 TϧL[ô]ûY úR£V AÔÏØû\Ls Utßm TVu ùTßTYoLs NmUkRUô] YûWVû\Lû[ RôeL[ôLúY ¨oQ«jÕd ùLôsYRtÏ AàU§«d¡u\].2 ùR¬®d¡\Õ. Ut\ Eßl× SôÓL°u Ï¥UdLÞdÏ A¨VôVm CûZdLd áPôÕ. úTô. úUÛm Eßl©]oL[Õ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU TôÕLôl× ùLôsûLLû[ ùY°lTûPjRuûU YônkRRôL BdÏ¡\Õ. "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u êX ®NVj§u ÁRô] NhPeLs SûPØû\Ls NmUkRUôL Eßl× SôÓLs A±dûL ùNnV úYiÓm Guß '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u Tϧ 63. AkR YûL«p CÕ ÏÝ®u Ød¡V T¦VôL §Lr¡\Õ. NôRLm.

CûYLs ϱjR TtúNodûL. CÕ ®NVUôL RÏkR RLYpLs ùTßYRtLô] Y¯YûLLû[ EߧlTÓjR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRlThP Õû\L°p ReL[Õ ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl× Ï±jR ®NVeLû[ Y[of£VûPkR SôÓLs BiÓdÏ JÚ Øû\ '¥¬lv' ÏÝ®Pm A°dL Jl×d ùLôiÓs[]. ùRôPof£Vô] T¬ºXû] B¡V]Ytû\ úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. CjRLYpLs IP/C/W Tj§Wj ùRôP¬p YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ. ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl× NmUkRUô] ®YWeLû[ Y[of£VûPkR SôÓL°PªÚkÕ Sôm GlT¥ ùTßYÕ? Y[Úm SôÓLs Utßm ©uRe¡V SôÓLs úLhÓd ùLôsÞm úTôÕ TWvTWm Jl×d ùLôsÞm NhP§hPeL°u A¥lTûP«p Y[of£VûPkR SôÓLs ùRô¯p ÖhTm Utßm ¨§ JjÕûZlûT YZeL úYiÓm Guß '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u Tϧ 67 áß¡\Õ. Eßl× SôÓLs HtL]úY ùTo². B]ôp AYt±u êXj§p Es[ A[®tÏ "¥¬lv"ϱl×L°p AûY AûUdLlTP ®pûX. CqY±dûL ÁRô] ©u]² RLYpLs IP/C/W/15 Tj§WeL°p ¡ûPdL úYiÓm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 102 .CODISSIA AkR ùRôPo× ûUVeLs ϱjÕ RLYpLs Tj§Wm IP/N/3 êXm ®²úVô¡dL úYiÓm. (CûQV R[j§u ClTϧ«p áÓRp ®YWeLs ¡ûPd¡u\]) GqYûL ùRô¯p ÖhT JjÕûZl× NmUkRlThP RLYpLû[ GqùYkR ØLY¬L°p ùT\Xôm Gu\ ¨oYôL ûUVeLû[l Tt±V ®YWeLû[ A±dûL ùNnV úYiÓm. CûYLs ÁRô] ©túNodûL. "¥¬lv' ØRp áhPm 1996 ©lWY¬«p á¥V úTôÕ ClT¥lThP A±dûLLû[ YZeÏUôß Eßl× SôÓLs Aû]j§tÏm úYiÓúLôs ®ÓjRÕ. §ÚjReLs ùRôPof£Vô] T¬ºXû] B¡VYtû\ úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. §ÚjReLs. CkR ùRôPo× ûUVeLû[d ϱjR ®YWeLs Tj§Wm IP/N/4 Cp CûQdL úYiPm. JlTkRj§p R²lThP Øû\«p RWlThÓs[ A±dûL A°dL úYi¥V ùTôßl×Ls TX ùTo² Utßm úWôm £\l× UôSôhÓ NWjÕL°p CÚkÕ ùT\lThÓ '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§p ϱl×L[ôL úNodLlThÓs[]. CqYûL A±dûLLs IP/N/5Tj§Wj ùRôPoLs êXm ®²úVô¡dLlTÓ¡u\]. A±dûL ùNnYRtLô] Øû\Ls ϱjR ùRô¯pÖhT ûLl©W§ (Tj§Wm WT/TC/NOTIF/TRIPS/1)«p A±dûL ùNnYÕ Ï±jR ®¬Yô] RLYpLs Es[]. úWôm £\l× UôSôÓL°u A¥lTûP«p A±dûLLs ùLôÓj§ÚkRôÛm "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®Pm ÁiÓm RW úLhÓd ùLôs[lThP]o.

C§p ®§®XdLô] ¨XûULs ϱjÕ Tô¬v £\l× UôSôÓ (1967) ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971). CkR ùTôßl©-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ ùTßYRu êXm HRôYÕ AàáXm. JlTkRj§u NWjÕLÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs E«W°dL úYiÓm. (1) AúR úSWj§p Tô¬v £\l× UôSôÓ (1967) ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971) úWôm £\l× UôSôÓ Utßm Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßLs ÁRô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRm CYt±p TeúLtßs[ EXL YojRL AûUl× Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ Lôl× ùTßYRtÏ A°dLlThÓs[ RϧLû[ ©\ Eßl× SôhÓ SToLs. £\l׬ûU ApXÕ ®§ ®XdÏ B¡V]Ytû\ Eßl× SôÓ Juß AàU§dLXôm. "¥¬lv" þ JlTkRj§p Eßl× SôÓLs ©\Yt±u Ï¥UdLs ®NVj§p ©uTt\ úYi¥V AàÏØû\Ls Tt± á±Ùs[]Yt±tÏ Eßl× SôÓLs CûNkÕ SPdL úYiÓm. J-TWl× AûUl×Ls ®NVj§p CkRl ùTôßl×L[ô]ûY CqùYôlTkRj§p YZeLlThÓs[ E¬ûUL°u A¥lTûP«p UhÓúU ùTôßkRRdLûY. úSWm £\l× UôSôh¥u Tϧ þ 5Cu 3YÕ TôWô ApXÕ Tϧ 6Cu 2YÕ TôWô®p YZeLlThÓs[ Nôj§VdáßLs Eßl× SôÓ GÕ Jußm ùTt±ÚdÏUô]ôp AYt±p Es[T¥Vô] NWjÕLû[ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®tÏ A±dûL ùNnV úYiÓm. ¿§jÕû\ Utßm ¨oYôLjÕû\ SPY¥dûLLs NmUkRUô] Eßl× SôÓLs ReLÞdÏ RôeLú[ ®§®XdÏLs AàU§jÕd ùLôs[jRdLYtû\ TôWôþ1 Y-ÙßjÕ¡\Õ. (2). úNûYdLô] ùRôPo× ØLY¬ûV ùR°YôL ϱl©ÓYÕ ApXÕ Eßl©]¬u NhP GpûXLÞdÏ EhThP "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLÞdÏ ùTôßkRjRdLRôLÜm ARàûPV NhP §hPeLÞdÏ EPuTPdá¥V]YôLÜm CÚkRôp UhÓúU AlT¥lThP ®XdÏLû[ A°dL Ø¥Ùm. JlTkRj§p úLhÓd ùLôiÓs[ûR®P áÓRp TôÕLôl× RWjRdLYûL«p Eßl©]oLs ReLs NhPeLû[ SûPØû\ TÓjRXôm. Tϧ:2: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU £\l× UôSôÓLs (1). 3. Utßm IVdÏ U§lT°dÏm YûL«p Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u (1967) 1 ØRp 12 Ø¥VÜm Utßm 19YÕ TϧLÞm CûQkÕ ùNVpTPXôm. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUdÏ LôlT°dÏm ®NVj§p R]Õ ùNôkR Ï¥UdLÞdÏ YZeLdá¥VRtÏ GkR YûL«Ûm Ïû\VôR LôlûT Eßl× SôÓLs ©\Yt±u Ï¥UdLÞdÏm YZeLúYiÓm. ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ. Tô¬v £\l× UôSôÓ. ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971)Cu Tϧþ6 ApXÕ úWôm £\l× UôSôh¥u Tϧ 16. BRWÜ. Tϧ: 3: úR£V AÔÏØû\: (1). AúR úSWj§p CqúYtTôÓL[ô]ûY UôßúYPj§p YkÕ YojRLjûR RûPlTÓjÕYRôL CÚdLd áPôÕ. BRWÜm. CkR JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ ReLs ùNôkR NhP SûPØû\LÞdÏ EhThÓ ùTôßjRUô] Øû\«p AØXôdÏYÕ Ï±jÕ Ø¥Ü GÓdL Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ÑRk§Wm YZeLlThÓs[Õ. III. úWôm £\l× UôSôÓ Utßm Jße¡ûQkR ªu ÑtßLs ÁRô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkReL°p Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ùTôßl×Ls GÕÜm "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u TôLeLs 1 ØRp IV Ø¥V Es[]Yt±tÏ CÝdÏ HtTÓj§®PdáPôÕ. Tϧ:4: ªLÜm úYiPlThP SôhÓ AÔÏØû\: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU TôÕLôl× ®NVj§p GkR JÚ NôRLØm. LûXOoLs CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs. (2). £\l׬ûUÙm ®§®XdÏm Eßl× SôÓ HRôYÕ Juß R]Õ Ï¥UdLÞdÏ YZeÏúUVô]ôp AqܬûULs EP]¥VôL GkR®RôUô] ¨TkRû]Ùªu± ©\ Eßl× SôÓL°u Ï¥UdLÞdÏm YZeLlTP úYiÓm. ùTt±ÚkRôúX A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU ùT\ Ø¥Ùm GuTûRÙm ׬kÕ ùLôs[ úYiÓm. Eßl× SôÓLs ReLs ®ÚlTlT¥ áÓRXôL YZeÏm TôÕLôl× Øû\Ls "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLÞdÏ ØWQôLl úTôn®Pd áPôÕ. B]ôp AlT¥®¬Yô] Øû\«p Rôu AØXôdL úYiÓm Guß LPûUlThPYoL[ôL CÚdL úYi¥V§pûX.CODISSIA TôLm þ1: ùTôÕf NWjÕLÞm A¥lTûP ùLôsûLLÞm Aj§VôVm þ 8 Tϧ þ 1: ùTôßl×L°u CVp×m Yônl×LÞm 1. úWôm £\l× UôSôÓ ApXÕ Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßLs NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs JlTkRm B¡V]Yt±p á\lThÓs[]. (2). CkR JlTkRj§tLôL TVuTÓjÕm " A±Üf ùNôjÕ " Gu\ Yôd¡VUô]Õ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u TôLm IICu 1 ØRp 7 ØRp Es[ ©¬ÜLÞdÏ NmUkRlThP GpXôYûLVô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[Ùm ϱdÏm. 1(b)Cu A¥lTûP«p ClT¥lThP Nôj§VdáßLû[ Eßl×SôÓLs HRô¡Ûm ùLôiÓ CÚdÏUô]ôp Aq®TWeLû[ AûYL°p Es[T¥úV '¥¬lv' ÏÝ®tÏ A±dûLVôL A°dL úYiÓm. 2. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 103 . '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§u TôLeLs II.

Tϧ:7: úSôdLeLs: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULÞdÏ TôÕLôl× A°lTRu êXØm AûR SûPØû\lTÓjÕYRu êXØm ùRô¯pÖhT ×Õl×û]ÜLû[ Y[ojùRÓlTûR FdLlTÓjR Ø¥¡\Õ.CODISSIA A). Tϧ þ 8: ùLôsûLLs: 1) Eßl× SôÓLs ReLs NhP§hPeLû[ AûUlTRtÏm §ÚjÕYRtÏUô] SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôsÞm úTôÕ ùTôÕ ÑLôRôWjûRÙm FhPfNjÕm ¡ûPdLf ùNnYRu ÁRô] ®NVeLû[Ùm TôÕLôdÏm SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôsYÕ AY£VUô]Õ. NoYúRN ùRô¯pÖhT T¬Uôt\eLû[ LÓûUVôL Tô§dLdá¥VÕm. D) EXL YojRL JlTkRj§u ùNVpTôÓLÞdÏ Øu]úW ùNVÛdÏ YkÕ®hP A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU TôÕLôl× NôokR NoYúRN JlTkReL°u êXj§-ÚkÕ ùT\lThPRôL CÚkRôÛm AlT¥lThP JlTkReLs ϱjÕ '¥¬lv' JlTkRj§tÏ A±dûL ùNnV úYiÓm. Ød¡V úSôdLUôÏm. Tϧ þ 5: Lôl× ùTßRp LôlûT TWôU¬jRp NmUkRUô] TuØû] JlTkReLs: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU TWôU¬l× ApXÕ Lôl× ùTßRp NmUkRUô] ®NVj§p EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©u ùY°fNj§u ¸r EßYôdLlThP TuØû] JlTkRj§p YZeLlThÓs[ SûPØû\L°u Tôp Tϧ 3 Utßm 4Cu ¸Zô] ùTôßl×Lû[ ETúVô¡dLd áPôÕ. YojRLjûR úRûY«pXôUp LhÓlTÓjRdá¥VÕm B] ùNVpLÞdÏ AûPdLXm A°lTûR RÓjÕ ¨ßjRdá¥VRôLÜm CÚlTRtLô] RdL SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. ùRô¯pÖhTjûR Utù\ôÚ CPj§tÏ Uôt\Üm TWYÜm ùNnV Ø¥¡\Õ. CRu êXm ùRô¯p ÖhT A±ûY EtTj§Vô[oLÞm ETúVô¡lTô[oLÞm TWvTWm SuûU ùTtL á¥V YûL«p TVuTÓjR Ø¥¡\Õ. C) LûXOoLs. CûNRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs Utßm J-TWl× AûUl×Ls B¡V]Yt±tÏ CqùYôlTkRj§u ¸r ùLôiÓYWlTP®pûX. 2) JlTkRj§u NWjÕLÞPu ClT¥ ùTôßk§YWdá¥VûY A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[ ARu E¬ûUVô[oL[ôp RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓjÕ ¨ßjÕYRôLÜm. úUÛm E¬ûULÞdÏm ùTôßl×LÞdÏ CûPúV NU¨ûX HtTÓjÕm LÚ®VôLÜm TVuTÓjR Ø¥¡\Õ. CRtLôL úUtùLôs[lTÓm §ÚjReLÞm NhP EßYôdLeLÞm CqùYôlTkRj§u NWjÕLÞdÏ ùTôßk§«ÚdL úYiÓm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 104 . Tϧ þ 6: TXaÉm Tϧ 3 Utßm 4Cu NWjÕL°u ¸r YWdá¥V RôYôdLû[ CqùYôlTkRj§u NWjÕL°u ¸r ¾ojÕûYdÏm úSôdLj§tLôL TVuTÓjÕmúTôÕ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[ TXaÉlTÓjÕm ©WfNû]ûV GÓjÕû\dL CqùYôlTkRj§p Es[ GÕ Juû\Ùm TVuTÓjRdáPôÕ. ùTôÕYô] CVp©]¥lTûP«Xô] NhP AØXôdLm ApXÕ ¿§jÕû\ ER®dLô] NoYúRN JlTkRj§u êXj§-ÚkÕ ùTtßYÚYRôL CqYÔÏ Øû\ CÚdL úYiÓm. B) ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971) ApXÕ úWôm £\l× UôSh¥u NWjÕL°u ¸r NmURm ùTtß AàU§dLlTÓm úTôÕ AkR AàÏØû\Vô]Õ úR£V AÔÏØû\«p ùNVpTP Jl×dùLôs[lThPRôL CÚdLôUp NmUkRlThP Utù\ôÚ Sôh¥u AÔÏØû\dÏ Jl×d ùLôs[dá¥VRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. úUÛm Utù\ôÚ Eßl× Sôh¥u Ï¥UdLÞdÏ G§WôL ¨fNVUt\ ãr¨ûXûVúVô G§oTôWôR ¨ûXûUûVúVô ¨ßYd áPôÕ. ReLs NêL ùTôÚ[ôRôW ùRô¯p ÖhT Y[of£dLô] A§Ød¡VjÕYm Es[ Õû\Ls ÁÕ ùTôÕ UdLÞdÏ Es[ AdLûWûV áhÓYÕm.

AúR úSWj§p CkR £\l× UôSôh¥u Tϧ : 6 bisCu ¸r EߧlTÓjlThP ApXÕ AûR êXUôLd ùLôiÓ ùT\lThP E¬ûULs B¡VY]Yt±u A¥lTûP«p "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ¸r E¬ûULû[úVô. £²Uô¡Wô©d T¦LÞdÏ YôPûL LôlT°dL úYi¥V ùTôßl©-ÚkÕ JÚ Eßl× SôÓ ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm. ùTôßl×Lû[úVô ùTt±ÚdL Ø¥VôÕ. T§l׬ûULû[l ùTôßjRYûW. Aj§VôVm þ 9 ©¬Ü þ1 Lôl׬ûUÙm AÕ NôokR E¬ûULÞm: Tϧ þ 9 ùTo² £\l× UôSôhÓP]ô] E\Ü ¨ûX: 1). ϱl©PjRdL R² YûL ùNVpTôÓLÞdÏ R² E¬ûULs YZeÏYRtLô] ùTôßl×L°-ÚkÕ Eßl× SôÓLs ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm ApXÕ YûWVû\ ¨oQ«jÕ ùNVpTPXôm.CODISSIA TôLm þ 2: A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u úSôdLm. GiQeLs. AúR úSWj§p AjùRôÏl©às Es[ R²jR² ®YWeLs Utßm TϧLÞdÏ TôÕLôlûT ®¬ÜTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ. AkR TûPl× EÚYô] SôhLôh¥ Bi¥u Ø¥®-ÚkÕ 50 BiÓLs LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[lTÓm. Tϧ þ 10: L¦² §hP YûWÜLs Utßm úRokùRÓdLlThP ®YWjùRôÏl×Ls: 1). NmUkRlThP TûPl©u B£¬Vo Utßm RûXl©u ¡r YÚ¡\ ùRôPo E¬ûUVô[o B¡úVô¬u R²f£\lTô] E¬ûUûV úNRlTÓjÕ¡\ YûL«p AYoLÞdÏ Uß RVô¬l× SPlTûR RÓlTRtÏ Eßl×SôÓ AYoLÞdÏ EߧlTÓj§d ùLôÓjÕs[RtÏ Uô\ôL ùT¬V A[®tÏ ©W§ùVÓdÏm ùNVp SûPùT\ôU-ÚkRôp UhÓúU CkR ®XdÏ ùT\Ø¥Ùm. ùNVpØû\Ls CVdÏYRtLô] JÝeÏØû\Ls ApXÕ L¦R®Vp ãj§WeLs úTôu\Yt±tÏ TôÕLôl× YZeL úYi¥V§pûX. Tϧ:14: LûXOoLs. Tϧ: II: YôPûL E¬ûU: Eßl× SôÓL[ô]ûY Ïû\kRThNm L¦² §hP YûWÜLs Utßm £²Uô ¡Wô©dv T¦LÞdÏ AYt±u TûPlTô°Ls Utßm AYoL[Õ ùRôPo E¬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ ReL[Õ TûPl×Lû[ YojRL ç«p ùTôÕ UdLÞdÏ êXY¥®úXô ©W§ùVÓlTRtLô] T§l׬ûU Y¥®úXô YôPûLdÏ ®ÓYRtÏm ApXÕ AàU§«u± Ut\YoLs RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtÏm HtTôÓLs ùNnV úYiÓm. CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs (J-lT§ÜLs) Utßm J-TWl× AûUl×LÞdLô] TôÕLôl×: 1). CûNdLûXOoL°u Ae¸LôWjûRl ùT\ôUp AYoL[Õ CûN ÁhPpLû[úVô ÏWp J-Lû[úVô Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 105 . Tϧ:12: TôÕLôl©u LôXm: JÚ TûPl©u TôÕLôl× LôXjûR GlúTôÕ LQd¡P úYi¥YÚ¡\úRô. L¦² §hP YûWÜLû[l ùTôßjRYûW YôPûL ®NVj§p L¦²«u §hP YûW®u Esú[ CÚdÏm ®NVeLs YôPûLdÏ ®ÓYRtLô] AY£VUô] ®NVeLû[ Es[PdLôRRôL CÚdûL«p CjRÏ ùTôßlûT Htßd ùLôs[ úYi¥V§pûX. 2). Eßl× SôÓL[ô]ûY ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u (1971) 1 ØRp 21 Ø¥V Es[ TϧLÞdÏm ©túNodûLdÏm ùTôßk§ ùLôs[jRdLûY. NmUkRlThP ®NVjûR ùY°lTÓjÕm §\àdÏjRôu TôÕLôl× YZeL úYiÓm. 2) úRokùRÓdLlThP ®YWj ùRôÏl×Ls ApXÕ ©\ ®YWeLs AûYLs Gk§WeL[ôp T¥jR±VjRdL Y¥®úXô ApXÕ úYß Y¥®úXô CÚkRôÛm AYt±u úRoÜf£\l× ¨ûX LôWQUôL ApXÕ AYt±u NôWm AûUdLlThÓs[ ®Rm LôWQUôL A±ÜéoYUô] TûPlTôLd LÚRlThÓ TôÕLôl× ùT\jRdLRô¡\Õ. AkR ®YWeLs ApXÕ ùTôÚsLÞdÏ CÚd¡\ T§l׬ûUûV Tô§dLôUÛm TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. Lôl× NmUkRUô] A§LôWéoY ùY°ÂÓ YkR SôhLôh¥ Bi¥u Ø¥®-ÚkÕ 50 BiÓLÞdÏ Ïû\VôUp AkR LôX LhPm CÚdLdáÓm ApXÕ AlT¥lThP TûPl× EßYô]§-ÚkÕ 50 BiÓLÞdÏs A§LôWéoY ùY°ÂÓ YWô®hPôp. AlúTôÕ ARu TûPlTô°«u CVtûLVô] E«oYôÝm LôXm LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. ¡ûPl× ¨ûX Utßm TVuNôokR RW ¨oQ«l×Ls. ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971) ¸r CXd¡V TûPl×LÞdÏ YZeLlTÓ¡\Õ úTôu\ TôÕLôlûT L¦² §hP YûWÜLÞdÏ AûYLs êXY¥®-ÚkRôÛm úSôdLj§u ϱY¥®-kRôÛm YZeL úYiÓm. Tϧ: 13: CXÏTÓjÕYÕm ®XdL°lTÕm: E¬ûU ûYjÕs[Y¬u NhPéoY ®ÚlTeLû[ úRûY«pXôR YûL«p Tô§dLôR Utßm NôRôWQUô] TVuTôhÓPu ØWiTPôR.

YiQd LXûYL[ôLÜm CÚdLXôm. A§p á\lThÓs[ûY Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u NWjÕLÞdÏ CÝdÏ HtTÓj§®Pd áPôÕ. Tϧ þ11 Cu L¦² §hPYûWÜLÞdÏ A°dLlThÓs[ NWjÕLû[ CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLÞdÏm AY£VUô] §ÚjReLs ùNnÕ ùTôßjRXôm. ®XdÏLs Utßm JÕd¸ÓLû[ ¨oQ«dÏmúTôÕ úWôm £\l× UôSôÓ AàU§jÕs[ A[®tÏs CÚdL úYiÓm. ARôYÕ J-TWl× úUtùLôs[lThP SôhLôh¥ YÚPj§u LûP£«-ÚkÕ 20 BiÓLs. CqûYûL«p ¸rLiP E¬ûU ÁWpLs SûPùT\ Yônl×s[Õ. TôWô 3Cu ùRôPof£VôL YZeLlTÓm TôÕLôlTô]Õ Ïû\kR ThNm 20 BiÓLÞdÏ CÚdLjRdLÕ. 6. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 106 . T§Ü ùNnRûR UßT¥Ùm ùY°«ÓRp. AlT¥lThP ϱLs. ùNôkRl ùTVoLs Es°hP ϱl©hP YôojûRL[ôLÜm. AúR úSWj§p T§ÜdLô] ®iQlTm éoj§ ùNnYRtÏ YojRL Øj§ûW«u SûPØû\ ETúVôLm GuTûR JÚ ¨TkRû]VôL ØuûYdL úYi¥V§pûX. AkR HtTôh¥p Uß EtTj§dÏ B] R² E¬ûUûV ûYj§ÚdÏm E¬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ ùTôÚs ç«p úNRm HtTÓjÕYRtÏm Y¯úVtTÓjRôUp TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. 3). A§LôW éoYUôL AàU§dLÜm E¬ûU TûPjRYoLs. Yôù]ô. JÚ YojRL Øj§ûW ETúVô¡dLlTÓ¡\ ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLs ùTh¥dÏs AûPdLlTh¥Úd¡\ CVpúTôÓ CÚlTRu êXm AÕúY YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü ùTßYRtÏ RûPVôLl úTôn®PdáPôÕ. 3. A[ÜLs. LûXOoL°u T§Ü ùNnVlTPôR LûXY¥YeLû[ A§LôWéoYUt\ Øû\«p T§Ü ùNnYÕm Uß EtTj§ ùNnYÕm E¬ûUÁWpL[ôÏm. 2). GÝjÕL[ôLÜm. Uû\ØLUôLúYô Ut\YoLs Uß EtTj§ ùNnYûR RÓdLÜm E¬ûUTûPjRYoLs. LûXOoLs Utßm CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLÞdÏ Ïû\kR ThNm AkR TûPl× EߧlTÓjRlThP ApXÕ TûPl× ¨LrjRlThP SôhLôh¥ Bi¥p CÚkÕ 50 BiÓLÞdLôYÕ LQd¡hÓ CqùYôlTkRj§u ¸r TôÕLôl©tLô] LôX ¨oQVm ùNnVlTP úYiÓm. ReL[Õ AàU§«u± SûPùTßm ¸rLiP YûL«Xô] ùNVpLû[ RÓjÕ ¨ßjÕYR\Lo] E¬ûU LûXOoLÞdÏ Es[Õ: LûXOoL[Õ ¨Lrf£Lû[ Yôù]ôùRô¯p ÖhTj§u êXm J-TWl×YûRÙm ùTôÕUdLÞdÏ GÓjÕf ùNpYûRÙm RÓdÏm E¬ûU LûXOoLÞdÏ Es[Õ. 1994 HlWp 15Bm úR§Vuß GkR JÚ Eßl×SôPôYÕ CûNjRhÓ YôPûL NmUkRUôL ARu ÁÕ E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYoLÞdÏ NUUô] ùYÏU§ ¡ûPlTRtLô] Øû\ûV AØpTÓj§«ÚdÏúUùV²p CûNjRhÓLû[ YojRL ç«p YôPûLdÏ ®Óm AlT¥lThP Øû\ûV AúR úTôX ùRôPWXôm. 4). EÚYeL[ôLÜm. 2. JÚ Eßl× SôÓ YojRL Øj§ûW T§ûY úYß A¥jR[eL°-ÚkÕ UßlTûR RÓlTRtÏ TôWô þ 1 Es[Õ Guß RY\ôL ׬kÕ ùLôs[dáPôÕ.CODISSIA CûNjRh¥p T§lTûR RÓjÕ ¨ßjÕYRtLô] E¬ûULû[ Eßl× SôÓLs YZeL úYiÓm. TôWôdLs 1.ùRô¯pÖhTm úTôu\Yt±u êXm AYtû\ UßJ-TWl× ùNnV ØVt£jRp B¡V]Ytû\ RÓdL E¬ûU Es[Õ. 4. Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPj§u ¸r CûNjRhÓ E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYoLÞdÏm ùTôßjRXôm. AlT¥lThP E¬ûULû[ J-TWl× AûUl×LÞdÏ Eßl×SôÓLs YZeLôR ¨ûX«p ùTo² £\l× UôSôÓ (1971)Cu NWjÕLÞdÏ EhThÓ T§l׬ûU NWjÕL°u A¥lTûP«p AlT¥lThP J-TWl×Lû[ RÓjÕ ¨ßYjÕYRtLô] HtTôÓLs ùNnVXôm. Utßm 3Cu ¸r T§Ü ùNnVlThP E¬ûULs ®NVj§p GkR JÚ Eßl× SôÓm ¨TkRû]Ls. ©¬Ü þ 2: YojRL Øj§ûWLs Tϧ þ 15: TôÕLôdLjRdL êX ®NVeLs JÚ ¨ßY]j§u ùTôÚs ApXÕ úNûYûV Cuù]ôÚ ¨ßYj§àûPV§-ÚkÕ úYßTÓj§d LôhPdá¥VRôL CÚd¡\ GkR JÚ Ï± ApXÕ Ï±L°u LXûYVô]Õ ARu RuûU JÚ YojRL Øj§ûWVôL ¨ûX¨ßj§u ùLôsÞm §\uTûPjRRôÏm. ReL[Õ AàU§«pXôUp úUtùLôs[lTÓm ¸rLiP SPY¥dûLLû[ RÓjÕ ¨ßjÕm E¬ûU TûPjRûY J-TWl× AûUl×Ls: T§Ü ùNnRp. ®iQl©dLlThÓ êuß BiÓLs L¯kÕ LôXôY§Vô] ©u]ôÛm ETúVôL Y¥®Xô] ùNVp úSôdLm ¨û\úYt\lTP®pûX GuTRtLôL UhÓúU JÚ ®iQlTm ¨WôL¬dLlThÓ ®PXôLÕ. ùRôûXdLôh£ J°TWl×Lû[Ùm CúR úTôX SûPØû\lTÓjR E¬ûU Es[Õ. GiL[ôLÜm. 2). ϱL[ô]ûY Lôh£ Y¥Yj§p ©¬jÕlTôojR±VjRdLRôL CÚdL úYiÓm GuTûR T§ÜdLô] ¨TkRû]LVôL Eßl× SôÓLs úLôWXôm. CûNjRhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLs ReL[Õ CûNjRhÓLû[ úSW¥VôLúYô. ϱL°u LXûYLû[l ùTôßjRYûW«Ûm úUtLiPYûL«p EQojRjRdL Rϧ GkR ϱÂÓLÞdÏ CVpTôLúY CpXô§Úd¡\úRô AlúTôÕ AYt±û] ETúVôLj§p ®hP ©u]ôp AûY ©¬jÕû\jRdL §\û] GkR A[®tÏ ùY°lTÓjÕ¡\Õ GuTRu A¥lTûP«p Eßl× SôÓLs T§Ü ùNnVXôm. Eßl× SôÓLs TVuTôh¥]¥lTûP«p T§ûX YZeLXôm. 5. AúR úSWj§p CûNjRhÓL°p LûXOoLÞdÏm CûNjÕhÓ RVô¬lTô[oLÞdÏ E¬ûULs YZeÏm ®NVj§p ùTo² N±l× UôSôh¥u (1971) Tϧ 18 Cu NWjÕLû[Ùm ùTôßj§PXôm.

YojRL Øj§ûWûV GÓjÕs[ ¨ßY]m ùTôÚsLû[Ùm úNûYLû[Ùm ©¬jÕ AûPVô[m LôhÓ¡\ YojRL Øj§ûW«u úUp úLs® GÝkÕs[ ¨ûX«p ARú]ôÓ ùRôPo× CpXô®hPôÛm Ak¨ßY]m EtTj§ ùNn¡\ ùTôÚsLs úNûYLÞdÏ TVuTÓjÕmúTôÕ AjRûLV YojRL Øj§ûWûV TVuTÓjÕYRtLôL YZeLlThÓs[ Y¯YûLLû[ ®Xd¡ ®ÓYRt¡pûX. YoQû] Yôd¡VeLû[ Øû\VôLl TVuTÓjÕYÕ ®NVj§p ®§®XdÏLs YZeÏYRtLô] HtTôÓLs ùNnÙm úTôÕ YojRL Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[o Utßm NmUkRlThP êu\ôYÕ STo B¡úVô¬u NhPéoY SXuLû[ LÚj§p ùLôs[ úYiÓm.CODISSIA 5). ©WjúVLUô] Y¥®p TVuTÓjÕYÕ Utßm JÚ ¨ßY]j§u ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏ YZeLlThÓs[ YojRL Øj§ûW Utù\ôÚ ¨ßY]j§u ùTôÚsLs úNûYLû[ úYßTÓj§d LôhPd á¥V Y-ûUdÏ úLÓ ®û[®dLd á¥V YûL«Xô] SPY¥dûLLs B¡V] úUtLiPYûL«p RûPùNnV áPôÕ. G]úY AlT¥ ETúVôLlTÓjÕYRtÏ AàU§lTô]Õ E¬ûUVô[Wôp AkR YojRL Øj§ûW GkR ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏ T§Ü ùNnVlThÓs[úRô ARtÏm AkR YojRL Øj§ûWûV TVuTÓj§ AàU§dLThÓs[ ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏm CûPúV Es[ ùRôPoûT GÓjÕûWlTRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p AûR ETúVôLj§p CpXôU-ÚlTRtLô] HtLjRdL LôWQUôL ùLôs[Xôm. Tϧ:18: TôÕLôl©tLô] LôXm: ÕYdL T§®u úTôÕm JqùYôÚ ×Õl©l× T§®u úTôÕm YojRL Øj§ûWdÏ Ïû\kR ThNm HÝ BiÓ Lôl× YZeLXôm. úUtLiPYûL«p ®Y¬dLlThÓs[ E¬ûUL[ô]ûY Øuà¬ûU ùTt±ÚdÏm E¬ûULs GYtû\Ùm Tô§jÕ®PdáPôÕ. Tϧ:19: TVuTôh¥u úRûY: 1). G]úY AàU§ ùT\ôR AlT¥lThP ETúVôjûR RÓjÕ ¨ßjÕYRtLô] R²f£\l× E¬ûUûV T§Ü ùNnVlThÓs[ YojRL Øj§ûW E¬ûUVô[o ùT\Xôm. 2) Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u (1967) Tϧ 6bis úNûYLÞdÏ ùTôßkRjRdLÕ (AYN«Uô] §ÚjReLs ùNnÕ) JÚ YojRL Øj§ûW ªLÜm ©WTXôUô¡Ùs[Õ GuTûR ϱjÕ JÚ Ø¥ÜdÏ YÚYRtÏ ùTôÕUdL°u ùTôßjRUô] Tϧ«p NmUkRlTh YojRL Øj§ûWdÏ Es[ T¬f£VjûRd LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. AlT¥úV CpXô®hPôÛm GkR®RUô] RûPLÞm CpXôUp êuß BiÓ LôXm TVuTÓjRlTPôU-dÏmúTôÕ UhÓúU ARtÏ A°dLlThP T§ûY WjÕ ùNnV Ø¥Ùm. AlT¥lThP ETúVôLj§tÏ Es[ £WUeLû[l Tt±V N¬Vô] LôWQeLû[ NmUkRlThP YojRL Øj§ûW E¬ûUVô[o LôhP úYiÓm. YojRL Øj§ûWLs ©\YtßPu úNokÕ TVuTÓjÕYÕ. 3) GkR ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏ YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü ùNnVlThÓs[úRô AûYLû[l úTôXpXôR]Yt±tÏ Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u (1967) Tϧ 6 bis Cû] AY£VUô] §ÚjReLs ùNnÕ TVuTÓjR Ø¥Ùm. Tϧ:17: ®§®XdÏLs: YojRL Øj§ûW T§®u êXm EߧlThÓs[ E¬ûULÞdÏ YûWVßdLlhP ®§®XdÏLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs YZeLXôm. YojRL Øj§ûWûV AlT¥ ùNnÙm úTôÕ T§Ü ùNnVlThP YojRL Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[oLÞdÏ A°dLlThÓs[ SXuLs Tô§dLlTP Yônl× Es[Õ. ETúVôLj§u A¥lTûP«p Eßl× SôÓLs E¬ûULs HtTÓjÕYRtLô] Yônl×Lû[Ùm Tô§jÕ®PdáPôÕ. 2). YojRL Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[¬u ®ÚlT§tÏ HtT Ru²fûNVô] ãr¨ûX EÚYôd¡ ARôYÕ C\dÏU§ LhÓlTôÓLs AkR Øj§ûWLs ETúVô¡dLlTÓm ùTôÚsLs úNûYLs úUp ®§dLlTPXôm ApXÕ AWÑúRûYLÞdLôL AûYLs ÁÕ LhÓlTôÓ ®§dLlTPXôm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 107 . NmUkRlhP YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü ùNnYRtÏ Øu]úWô ApXÕ E¬VLôXj§p T§Ü B¡«ÚkR ©u]úWô AYtû\ Eßl× SôÓLs ùY°«P úYiÓm. Tϧ:16: 1) E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ùT\ôUp êu\ôYÕ STo JÚYo AkR E¬ûUVô[¬u YojRL ϱ AûPVô[jûR ARàûPV Y¥Yj§úXô ApXÕ AkR YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü ùNnVlThÓs[Yt±tÏ JjR ApXÕ ØÝYÕ JjR ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏ TVuTÓjÕYÕ JúW Uô§¬VôL CÚd¡u\] Gu\ ÏZlTjûR HtTÓjÕm. T§ûY TWôU¬lTRtLôL UhÓúU TVuTôh¥p CÚd¡\Õ G²p. Tϧ þ 20 : ©\ úRûYLs £\l× LôWQeL°u ùTV¬p YojRLj§p ETúVôLj§Ûs[ YojRL Øj§ûWûV BWôVUp RûP ùNnVdáPôÕ. AúR úTôX NmTkRlThP Eßl× Sôh¥p úUtT¥ YojRL Øj§ûWûV ®Új§ ùNnÙm SPY¥dûL«p AÕ Dh¥Ùs[ T¬fNVjûRÙm LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. YojRL Øj§ûW T§Yô]Õ LôXYûWVt\ YûL«p ×Õl©dLjRdLÕ. ARu êXm úUtT¥ T§ûY WjÕ ùNnVdúLôÚm ®iQlTeLs ùNnYRtÏ ¨VôVUô] YônlûT YZeL úYiÓm. E¬ûUVô[¬u LhÓlTôh¥tÏ EhThP YûL«p AYWÕ YojRL Øj§ûWûV úYù\ôÚYo TVuTÓjÕYûR YojRL Øj§ûW ùRôPokÕ SûPØû\lTÓ¡\Õ Guß LÚRjRdLRôLd ùLôs[Xôm.

AúR úSWj§p YojRL Øj§ûW«u E¬ûUVô[o AkR YojRL Øj§ûWûV JÚYÚdÏ AkR YojRL Øj§ûWÙPu NmUkRlThÓs[ûY Aû]jÕPú]ô ApXÕ R²VôLúYô JlTûPdL E¬ûU ùT\jRdLYWôYôo. 2). Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 108 . 3) JÚ ùTôÚÞdÏ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[jûR YojRL Øj§ûWVôL T§dÏm úTôÕ NmUkRlThP ×®«Vp Tϧ NmUkRlThP ùTôÚÞdÏ êX CPUôL CpXôR úTôÕ AkRl ùTôÚÞdLô] ×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[m NôokR YojRL Øj§ûW T§ûY JÚ Eßl× SôÓ ¨WôL¬dLúYô ApXÕ WjúRô ùNnVXôm. Tϧ: 23: Jnu Utßm NôWôVj§tLô] ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ Es[ áÓRp TôÕLôl×: 1) ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[lTÓjRlThÓs[ CPjûR êX CPUôL ùLôs[ôR Jnu ApXÕ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[lTÓjRlThÓs[ CPjûR êX CPUôL ùLôs[ôR NôWôVj§tÏ AûPVô[lTÓjRlThÓs[ ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[jûR TVuTÓjÕYRtLô] E¬ûUûV ReLÞdÏ JÕd¡j RÚUôß úLôÚTYoLÞdÏ úTôÕUô] NhP HtTôÓLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs ùNnÕ RW úYiÓm. ×®«p ϱVûPVô[j§u ®NVj§p ARtLô] LôlûT G§oúSôdÏm SToL°u NhPéoY ®ÚlTeLû[ éoj§ ùNnYRtLô] Y¯YûLLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs YÏdLXôm: A) NmUkRlThP JÚ ùTôÚ°u A±ØLm ApXÕ ¨VUjûR GkR JÚ Y¥Yj§XôYÕ TVuTÓjÕYÕ £dLûX HtTÓjÕm. YûLVô]. YojRL Øj§ûWdÏ LhPôV E¬Um YZeÏYÕ AàU§dLlTPUôhPÕ GuTûR Eßl× SôÓ ×¬kÕ ùLôs[ úYiÓm. ©¬Ü:3: ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLs: Tϧ:22: ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× 1) CkR JlTkRj§u úSôdLj§tLô] ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLs Eßl× SôÓ Ju±u úR£V GpûXdÏhThP êX CPUôL CÚlTûR GÓjÕdLôhÓm ϱVûPVô[UôL CÚd¡u\]. CkR CPjûR êXUôL ùLôi¥WôR Jnu ApXÕ NôWôV YûLLû[ Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeL°u ¸r ApXÕ CÕ ®NVj§p ®ÚlTØs[ STo úLhÓd ùLôsYRu A¥lTûP«p úUtLiPYôß WjÕ ApXÕ ¨WôL¬dLf ùNnVXôm. SuU§l× ApXÕ ©\ ÏQeLs ×®«Vp êX CPj§u £\lûT ùY°lTÓjRdá¥V YûL«p Ruàs ùLôi¥ÚdL úYi¥VÕ AY£VUô]Õ. 2) ×®«p ϱÂÓLû[ AûPVô[lTÓjÕYRôL BLlTh¥Úd¡\ ApXÕ AqYûPVô[jûR ùLôi¥Úd¡\ Jnu YûLLs ×®«p ϱÂÓLû[ AûPVô[lTÓjÕYRôL BLlTh¥Úd¡\ ApXÕ ùLôi¥Úd¡\ NôWôV YûLLs B¡V]Yt±tLô] T§ûY AÛYXLm NôoTô]YoL[ôp WjÕ ùNnVlTPXôm ApXÕ ¨WôL¬dLXôm. JÚúYû[ ùTôÚ°u EiûUVô] êX CPjûR AûPVô[lTÓjRlThÓm ApXÕ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[m ùUô¯ùTVodLlThP ¨ûX«p ETúVôLlTÓjRlThÓm ApXÕ "úTôu\" "Y¥Yô]". 2 Utßm 3YÕ TôWôdL°p Es[ TôÕLôl× HtTôÓLû[ ùTôßjRXôm. JjRÕ Gu\ Y¥®p ùY°lTÓjRlTh¥ÚkRôÛm úUtT¥ HtTôÓLû[ ùNnÕ RW úYiÓm. úLs®dϱV ùTôÚs ϱl©Ó¡\ ApXÕ ØuûYd¡\ ×®«Vp Tϧ JÚúYû[ EiûUVô] êXlTϧdÏ AlTôtThPRôL CÚdLXôm. AkR Sôh¥u ϱl©hP UiPXm ApXÕ TϧûV AûPVô[m EQojÕYRôL CÚdLXôm. AkR Eßl× Sôh¥p AlT¥lThP ϱVûPVô[jûR GlT¥lThP JÚ ùTôÚsLÞdLôYÕ Ï±VûPVô[UôL ETúVô¡dÏm úTôÕ Ï±VûPVô[j§u CVtûL êXCPm AÕRôu Guß SmTf ùNnÕ®Óm. 4) úYù\ôÚ Bh£ GpûXdÏhThP CPjûR êXCPUôL ùLôiÓ Es[ ùTôÚÞdÏ Es[ E¬ûUûV (Utù\ôÚYo R]Õ) ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[UôL RYWôL ©W§¨§jÕYlTÓjÕYRtÏ G§WôL 1. AlúTôÕ ùTôÕUdLû[ EiûUVô] ùTôÚ°u ×®«Vp êXjR]jûRl úTôuß LÚRm T¥ RY\ôL AÕ Y¯LôhÓm YûL«p AûUkÕ ®Óm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p AkR ùTôÚ°u RWm.CODISSIA Tϧ þ 2: E¬ûUdÏ CûNÜm JlTûPl×m: YojRL Øj§ûWLs ÁRô] E¬ûULs Utßm JlTûPl×Ls NmUkRUô] ¨TkRû]Lû[ Eßl× SôÓLs EÚYôdLXôm. B) Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u Tϧ 10bisCu AojRj§tÏ EhThÓ TôodÏmúTôÕ GkR JÚ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[UôYÕ Øû\Vt\ úTôh¥ûV EßYôdÏm YûL«p TVuTÓjRlTÓYÕ ¨ì©dLlTÓm úTôÕ NmUkRlThPYoL[Õ NhP E¬ûULû[ Eßl× SôÓLs TôÕLôdL LPûUlThÓs[].

CÕ ®NVUôL Eßl× SôÓ Juß Utù\ôuÓPú]ô Ut\ûYLÞPú]ô úTfÑYôojûRLs SPj§PXôm. 4) J«uLÞdÏ B] ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLÞdÏ Es[ TôÕLôl× Øû\Lû[ G°RôdÏYRtLô] ®NVj§p ARtLô] úTfÑYôojûRLû[ '¥¬lv' ÏÝ®u ¸r SPj§PXôm. EtTj§ ÖLoYô[oLÞdÏ RY\ôL Y¯Lôh¥®PdáPôÕ. 2). ApXÕ (B) ¨oQ«dLlThP SôÞdÏ ØkûRV úR§ YûW SuSm©dûL«u A¥lTûP«p úUtT¥ ×®«p ϱVûPVô[ TVuTôÓ ùRôPWXôm. CkR ùY°ÂhÓ úR§Vô]Õ. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p: A) NmUkRlThP Eßl× Sôh¥p CkRf NWjÕLs AØpTÓjRlTÓYRtÏ ØkûRV Sôs YûWVô] SPY¥dûLLs TôLm IVCp Es[Õ T¥. YojRL Øj§ûWdLô] E¬ûULs ùRôPo ETúVôLm êXm Su]m©dûL«u A¥lTûP«p ùT\lThÓ CÚdLXôm. ARôYÕ AkR ϱVô]Õ ©W§Yô§VôL Es[ Sôh¥p úUtT¥ YojRL Øj§ûW T§Ü ùNnVlThÓ AkR YojRL Øj§ûW ùY°«PlThP Sô°-ÚkÕ 5 BiÓLÞdÏs T§p A°dLúY LPûUlThÓs[]. AkR Sôh¥p G§oUû\ TVuTôÓ ùTôÕYôL A±VlTÓYRtÏ Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 109 . Tϧ 22Cu 4YÕ TôWô®p CRtLô] NWjÕLs Es[]. ARuêXm AkR úTfÑYôojûRL°p TeúLt\ SôÓL°p Jnu YûLLÞdÏ ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLs T§Ü ùNnYRtÏm A±dûL ùNnYRtÏm B] TuØû] JlTkRjûR HtTÓjRXôm Tϧ: 24: NoYúRN úTfÑ YôojûRLs: ®§®XdÏLs: 1) Tϧ 23Cu ¸r R²lThP ×®«p ϱVûPVô[eLû[ TôÕLôlTRtLô] áÓRp HtTôÓLû[ ùNnÙm úSôdLj§Xô] úTfÑ YôojûRL°u ¸r YW Eßl× SôÓLs Jl×d ùLôs[ úYiÓm. úTôX CkR ©¬ÜdÏ Es[Pd¡Ùs[ SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôsÞmúTôÕ YojRL Øj§ûW T§ÜdLô] RϧLû[ ºoÏûZlTRôLúYô ApXÕ AkR T§®u ùNpÛT¥jRuûUûV ºoÏûZlTRôLúYô CÚkÕ ®PXôLôÕ. Eßl× SôÓLÞPu TWvTWm ApXÕ TuØû] BúXôNû]Lû[ SPj§Ùm §Úl§Vô] ¾oÜ LôQ Ø¥VôR ¨ûX«p úUtϱl©hPYôß "¥¬lv"ÏÝYô]Õ SPY¥dûL GÓdLXôm. úTfÑ YôojûRLs SPj§ ARu Ø¥YôL TWvTW ApXÕ TuØû] JlTkRm HtTÓYûR RÓdL TôWôdLs 4 ØRp 8 Ø¥V Es[Yt±u NWjÕLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs TVuTÓjRdáPôÕ. NmUkRTlhP Utù\ôÚ SôhÓ GpûXdÏhThP Tϧ«p 'Jnu' RVô¬l×LÞdÏ CûQjÕl TVuTÓjRlTÓm ×®«Vp ϱAûPVô[eLs AkR Eßl× Sôh¥u GpûXdÏhThP YûLL°u ùTVoLú[ôÓ úNojÕ EXL YojRL AûUl©u JlTkRm AØXôÏm úR§«p A±k§ÚlTÕ ùR°YôL ùY°lTÓm úTôÕ úUtùLôs[ úYi¥V S¥Y¥dûLLs ϱjÕ C§p Jußm ϱl©P®pûX. R²lThP ×®«Vp ϱ AûPVô[eLû[ TVuTÓjÕYÕ NmUkRUôL SûPùTßm CkRl úTfÑ YôojûRL°p úUtϱl©hP NWjÕLû[ R²lThP ×®«p ϱ AûPVô[eLÞdÏ ùRôPokÕ TVuTÓjÕYÕ Ï±jÕ BúXô£dL Eßl× SôÓLs ØuYW úYiÓm. ARu êXm CkRl ©¬®u úSôdLeLs A©®Új§ ùNnVlTÓYRtÏm SûPØû\ûV G°RôdÏYRtÏUô] Jl×RûX HtTÓjRXôm.CODISSIA 3) ×®V«p ϱVûPVô[jûR ùLôiÓs[ JnuLs ®NVj§p JqùYôÚ Ï±dÏm TôÕLôl× YZeLjRdLÕ. 3) CkRl ©¬ûY AØXôdÏmúTôÕ EXL YojRL AûUl©u JlTkRm AØXôdLm ÕYeÏmúTôÕ AkR Sôh¥p AØ-p CÚkR ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[j§tLô] TôÕLôlûT Jnu YûLLÞdÏm NôWôV YûLLÞdÏm TVuTÓjRlTÓm ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[eLû[ NmUkRlThP Eßl× Sôh¥u Ï¥ UdLú[ô ApXÕ AkR Sôh¥p ùRôPokÕ YôÝm JÚYúWô ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏ NmUkRlThP Jnu YûLLÞdLô] ϱVûPVô[j§û]l úTôuú\ ùRôPokÕ TVuTÓjÕYûR Eßl× SôÓLs RÓdL úYi¥VûRl Tt± CkRl ©¬®p GÕÜm úLhÓd ùLôs[lTP®pûX. AúR úSWj§p (A) 1994 HlWp 15-ÚkÕ Ïû\kR ThNm 10 BiÓLs. CkR NWjÕL°u ¸Zô] ùTôßl×Lú[ôÓ CQe¡lúTôYûR Tô§dLdá¥V ®NVeLs "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®u LY]j§tÏ ùLôiÓ ùNpXjRdLÕ. JÚ YojRL Øj§ûW«u ETúVôLm ApXÕ T§Ü NmUkRUôL CkR ©¬®u A¥lTûP«p ØuûYdLlTÓm úYiÓúLôs ÁRô] T§ûX TôÕLôdLlThP AkR ϱ«u G§oUû\Vô] TVuTôh¥tÏ YkR Sô°-ÚkÕ IkÕ BiÓLÞdÏs YZeL LPûUlThÓs[]. CkR ©¬®u NWjÕLû[ AØXôdÏYûR R]Õ T¬ºXû]«u ¸r '¥¬lv' ÏÝ ûYjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. 6) NmUkRlThP Utù\ôÚ SôhÓ GpûXdÏhThP Tϧ«p AlT¥lThP ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLÞdÏ ùTôÕùUô¯«p ùTôÕlùTV¬u A¥lTûP«p AûPVô[Uô]Õ ùTôÚsLÞdÏm úNûYLÞdÏm CûQjÕl TVuTÓjÕYÕ ùR°YôL ùY°lTÓm úTôÕ JÚ Eßl× SôÓ CkRl©¬®u NWjÕLû[ ùTôßjÕYÕ Ï±jÕ CkRl©¬®p GÕÜm ϱl©PlTP®pûX. úLs®dϬV ×®«pϱVûPVô[jûRl ùTôßjRYûW Eßl× SôÓLs JqùYôußm ReLÞdÏs[ô] úYßTôÓLû[ GÓjÕûWdÏm YûL«p ùNnpØû\ Y¥YeLû[ EÚYôdL úYiÓm. EXL YojRL AûUl× JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR CWiÓ BiÓLÞdÏs ClT¥lThP ØRp T¬ºXû] SûPùT\jRdLÕ. ApXÕ B) NmUkRlThP ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[j§u êX Sôh¥p TôÕLôdLlTh¥ÚlTÕ úUtϱl©hÓs[T¥Vô] ØkûRV Sôs YûW SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. 5) Su]m©dûL«u A¥lTûP«p JÚ YojRL Øj§ûW T§ÜdLôL ®iQl©dLlTh¥ÚdLXôm ApXÕ T§Ü ùNnVlTh¥ÚdLXôm.

úUtT¥ Lôl׬ûU«u E¬ûULû[ GkR®RUô] TôWThNØm Cu± AàT®dLXôm. EtTj§ ùNnYÕ. AúR úSWj§p AlT¥ RWlThÓs[ ®§®XdÏL[ô]ûY TôÕLôdLlThP ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Yj§û] NôRôWQ¨ûX«p ETúVô¡lTÕPu úRûYVt\ ®Rj§p ØWiTPd áPôÕ.CODISSIA 8) YojRLjûRl ùTôßjRYûW JÚ STÚûPV ùTVo ApXÕ ®VôTôWj§p AYÚdÏ Øu× DÓTh¥ÚkRY¬u ùTVûW ETúVôLlTÓjÕYRtÏ AkR STÚdÏ Es[ E¬ûUûV Tô§dLf ùNnYRtLô] GkR Y¯Ùm CkRl T¬®u NWjÕL°p CpûX. 2) _Ü°jÕû\ YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× ùTßm ®NVj§p ARtÏ úRûYlTÓm ®NVeLs AlT¥lThP TôÕLôl× ùTßYRtLô] Yônl×Lû[ LôWQUt\ YûL«p úNRlTÓjRdáPôÕ Eßl× SôÓ CûR EߧlTÓjÕm ®Rj§p RdL HtTôÓLs ùNnV úYiÓm. Tϧ 70Cu 8YÕ TôWô CkR TϧVô] 27Cu 3YÕ TôWô B¡V]Yt±u ¸rYÚm ®NVeLû[l ùTôßjRYûW Lôl׬ûULs ùT\ Yônl×Ls Es[]. ùTôÕUdLû[ RY\ô] §ûNdÏ AûZjÕf ùNpÛm ®Rj§p AkRl ùTVo TVuTÓjÕYRu ÁÕ UhÓúU Cl©¬®u NWjÕL°u êXm SPY¥dûL úUtùLôs[ Ø¥Ùm 9) JÚ ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[m ARu êX Sôh¥p TôÕLôdLlTPôUp CÚk§ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ Ø¥ÜdÏ ùLôiÓYWlT¥ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ êX Sôh¥p TVuTÓjRlTPôR ¨ûXdÏ ùNu±ÚkRôúXô AkR ×®«Vp ϱVûPVô[j§tÏ TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRtÏ CkR JlTkRj§p GkR®R ùTôßl×LÞm ¨oQ«dLlTP®pûX. AúR úTôX U²RoLs. AkR Sôh¥u ùTôÕ JÝeÏ ApXÕ JÝdL ùS±ûV TôÕLôl©tÏ AY£VUô] YojRL ç«p ÑWiÓYûR RÓlTRtLô] ReL[Õ RÓl× SûPØû\Lû[ ûLVô[Xôm. CkR ùTôßlûT Eßl× SôÓLs ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Y NhPm ApXÕ T§l׬ûU NhPm êXm ÑRk§WUôL G§o ùLôs[Xôm. ©¬Ü:4: ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLs: Tϧ:25: TôÕLôl×dLô] úRûYLs: 1) ÑRk§WUôL EßYôdLlThP קV ApXÕ êX Y¥®p Es[ ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Yj§tÏ Eßl× SôÓLs TôÕLôl× YZeL LPûUlThÓs[]. AlT¥lThP¨ûX«p ùRô¯pÖhTç«Ûm CVeÏRuûU A¥lTûP«Ûm ªLÜm Ød¡VjÕYm YônkR úUtϱl©hP YûL«Xô] YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ Eßl×SôÓLs Lôl× YZeLd áPôÕ. HtL]úY A±VlThÓs[ YûWY¥YeLú[ôÓ ùT¬V A[®tÏ úYßTPôRRôLÜm. LiÓ©¥l× ¨LrjRlThP CPj§p Es[Õ úTôu\ E¬ûULû[ AàT®dLXôm. êXY¥Yj§tLô] RuûUVt\RôLÜm CÚkRôÛm AYt±tÏ Eßl× SôÓLs Lôl× YZeLd áÓm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 110 . Tϧ:26: TôÕLôl×: 1) TôÕLôdLlThP ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥Yj§u E¬ûUVô[WÕ AàU§«pXôUp êu\ôYÕ SToLs AkR YûWY¥Yj§u EßYjûR AlT¥úV SLp ApXÕ SLûX úTôu\ Y¥Yj§u êXm GÓjÕl TVuTÓjÕYÕ. A±VlThÓs[ YûWY¥YeL°u £\lTmNeL[Õ LXûYVôLÜm. AlT¥lThP ®§®XdÏLû[ AlT¥úV ùYßU]ôL TVuTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ. ®tTû] ùNnYÕ. קV]Yt±tLô] RuûUVt\RôLÜm. TôÕLôdLlThP AkR YûWY¥Yj§u êu\ôYÕ SToL°u NhPéoY E¬ûULû[Ùm LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. Ñtßf ãZÛdÏ UôÑ HtTÓjÕYûR RÓdLÜm R]dÏs[ ®§®XdÏLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs TVuTÓjRXôm. Eßl× SôÓLs LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏ Lôl׬ûU YZeÏY§-ÚkÕ ®§®XdÏ ùT\jRdLûY. ϱlTôL BnÜ ApXÕ ùY°Âh¥tÏ úRûYlTÓm ®NVeLs úTôu\ GkR JÚ Y¥Yj§Ûm Tô§l× HtTÓj§ ®PdáPôÕ. ®XeÏLs Utßm T«tL°u EPp SXu TôÕLôdLÜm. 2) ùRô¯pÕû\ YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× YZeÏm ®NVj§p Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ªLÜm YûWVßdLlThP ®§®XdÏLs UhÓúU RWlThÓs[]. AkR Sôh¥]Õ NhPj§u êXmRôu AlT¥lThP ÑWiPûX RÓdL Ø¥Ùm. AkR YûWY¥Yj§p Es[ TϧLû[ GÓjÕd ûLVôsYÕ B¡V YojRL úSôd¡Xô] TVuTôÓLû[ RÓlTRtLô] E¬ûU TôÕLôdLlThP AkR YûWY¥Y E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ Es[Õ. ùRô¯pÖhTj§u GkR JÚ Õû\ NôokR ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ RVô¬l× Øû\L[ôL CÚkRôÛm N¬ NmUkRlThP LiÓ©¥l×L[ô]ûY קVRôLÜm LiÓ©¥l×l T¥ ¨ûXLÞdÏ Es[ô]RôLÜm ùRô¯pÕû\ TVuTôh¥tÏ ELkRRôLÜm CÚkRôÛm N¬ Lôl× ùT\jRdLÕ. AûY ùRô¯pÖhTjÕû\«u A¥lTûP«p B]ôÛm N¬ ApXÕ ùTôÚsL[ôL CÚdÏm ThNj§p AÕ Esð¬àûPVRô«àm C\dÏU§ ùNnVlThPRô«àm N¬. Tϧ 65Cu 4YÕ TôWô. 3) CÕ ®NVj§p TôÕLôl× ¡ûPl×d LôXUô]Õ Ïû\kR ThNm 10 BiÓL[ôYÕ CÚdLXôm ©¬Ü 5: Lôl׬ûULs : Tϧ:27: Lôl× ùT\jRdL êX ®NVm 1) ®NVUô]Õ TôWôdLs 2 Utßm 3Cu NWjÕLÞdÏ EhThPRôL CÚdÏmúTôÕ AÕ GjRûLV LiÓ©¥lTôL CÚkRôÛm Lôl× ùT\jRdLÕ.

®tTûRúVô ApXÕ CkR úSôdLj§tLôL AkR RVô¬lûT C\dÏU§ ùNnYûRúVô RÓlTRtLô] £\l׬ûU. AúR úSWj§p T«o YûLLÞdúLô ApXÕ ùNVídLm ªdL Ñnù_]¬Vv Øû\ êXúUô. êu\ôYÕ SToL°u NhPéoY ®ÚlTeLû[Ùm LQd¡p ùLôs[ úYiÓm. E«¬Vp NôWôR Utßm Öi E«¬Vp ùNnØû\Ls R®ojÕ T«tLs Utßm ®XeÏLs EtTj§ ùNnYRtÏ AY£VUô] E«¬Vp ùNVpØû\ LiÓ©¥l×LÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm. Tϧ :29: Lôl׬ûU ®iQlTeLs ÁRô] ¨TkRû]Ls: 1) Lôl׬ûU úLôÚm ®iQlTRôWo R]Õ ®iQlTjÕPu LiÓ©¥lûTl Tt±V ®YWeLû[ CdLiÓ©¥l× NmUkRlThP Õû\«p §\às[ JÚYWôp. 2) JÚ ®iQlTRôW¬Pm AYWÕ Lôl׬ûU NmUkRUôL AkR ®iQlTRôWÕ ùY°SôhÓ ®iQlT ®YWeLs ARu ÁRô] E¬ûU YZeLpLs ϱjR ®YWeLû[ RÚUôß Eßl× SôÓLs úLôWXôm. ARôXÕ AWÑ Rôú] ETúVô¡jRp ApXÕ AWNôeLUô]Õ êu\ôYÕ SToLÞdÏ AàU§V°jRp Gu\ YûL«p CkSPY¥dûLLs AûUk§ÚdLXôm.CODISSIA 3) Eßl× SôÓLÞm Lôl׬ûU YZeÏY§-ÚkÕ ®XdÏ ùT\jRdLûY. Lôl׬ûU«u E¬ûUVô[WÕ NhPéoY E¬ûULû[ úRûYVt\ ®Rj§p Tô§lTûPVf ùNnVdáPôÕ. ®iQlTm ¨û\Ü ùNnVlThP Sô°p LiÓ©¥lTô[o LiÓ©¥l× NmUkRUôL R]dÏ ùR¬kÕs[ ®NVeLû[ Ru]ôp CVu\ A[Ü £\lTôL ùRôÏjÕd ùLôÓj§ÚdL úYiÓm ApXÕ Øuà¬ûU ©WfNû] GÝkÕs[ ¨ûX«p ®iQlTj§u Øuà¬ûUj úR§«p R]Õ LiÓ©¥l× Tt±V ®YWeLû[ úUtùNôu] A¥lTûP«p ùRôÏjÕd ùLôÓj§ÚdL úYiÓm. ׬kÕùLôs[ úRûYlTÓm A[®tÏ ùR°YôLÜm ØÝûUVôLÜm ùRôÏjÕd ùLôÓdLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. ®tTûRúVô ApXÕ AkR ùNVpØû\ûV úSW¥VôL ùTtßs[ ùTôÚû[ CkR ùNVpØû\dLôL C\dÏU§ ùNnYûRúVô RÓlTRtLô] £\l׬ûU. £dfûNV°jRp Utßm AßûY £¡fûN Øû\LÞdÏ LôlT°dÏm ®NVj§p ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm. AúR úSWj§p AlT¥lThP ®§®XdÏL[ô]ûY AkR E¬ûU«u ¨VôVUô] TVuTôhÓPu úRûYVt\ ®Rj§p ØWiTPdáPôÕ. ®tTû]dÏ ØuûYlTûRúVô. B) Lôl׬ûU«u êX®NVm ùNVpØû\ûVl Tt±VRôL CÚdÏm úTôÕ êu\ôYÕ SToLs Lôl× E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ ùT\ôUp AkR ùNVpØû\ûV TVuTÓjÕYûRúVô. Tϧ :28: EߧlTÓjRlThP E¬ûULs: 1) JÚ Lôl׬ûU ARu E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ ¡rLiP £\l× E¬ûULû[ EߧlTÓjRXôm. ApXÕ AÕ úTôu\ LXl× Øû\«p EßYôdLThPYt±túLô Eßl× SôÓLs Lôl× YZeL LPûUlThÓs[]. Tϧ:30: Eߧ ùNnVlThP E¬ûULÞdLô] ®§®XdÏLs: Lôl׬ûU EߧlTÓj§Ùs[ £\l× E¬ûULÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs YûWVßdLlThP ®§®XdÏLû[ ¨oQ«dLXôm. 2) Lôl׬ûU«u E¬ûUVô[o R]Õ E¬ûUV TeÏ©¬jÕjRW E¬ûUÙs[Yo. Yô¬ÑLÞdÏ Uôt± GݧjRW E¬ûUÙs[Yo. A) Lôl׬ûU«u êX®NVm RVô¬l×l ùTôÚû[l Tt±VRôL CÚdÏmúTôÕ êu\ôYÕ SToLs Lôl׬ûUVô[¬u AàU§«pXôUp AYWÕ LiÓ©¥lûTd ùLôiÓ RVô¬lTûRúVô. Lôl׬ûU UhÓUpXôÕ E¬U ÏjRûLLû[Ùm TeÏ ©¬jÕ RW E¬ûUÙs[Yo. A) U²RoLs Utßm ®XeÏLÞdÏ B] úSôV¬Rp. B) Öi Eßl©Vp LiÓ©¥l×Ls R®ojÕ T«oLs Utßm ®XeÏLs LiÓ©¥l©tÏ Eßl× SôÓLs ®XdÏ ùT\Xôm. CkR ÕûQ TôWô(B)®u NWjÕLs EXL YojRL AûUl©u JlTkRm AØXôLjÕYe¡ SôuÏ YÚPeLs L¯jÕ T¬º-dLjRdLÕ. AlT¥lThP úSWj§p ¸rLiP NWjÕLÞdÏ U§lT°dL úYiÓm. ETúVô¡lTûRúVô. ETúVô¡lTûRúVô. Tϧ:31: E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTY¬u AàU§«u±úV ©\YûL«p ETúVô¡jRp: Eßl× SôÓ Ju±u NhPj§p Lôl׬ûU«u êX®NVjûR ARu E¬ûUûV ûL«p ûYjÕs[Y¬u AàU§«u±úV TVuTÓjÕYRtÏ CPU°dLlTh¥ÚdLXôm. A) Lôl׬ûU«u R²lThP SuU§l©û] LÚj§p ùLôiúP AlT¥lThP ETúVôLj§tÏ AWÑ AàU§V°dL[ôm. ®tTû]dÏ ØuûYlTûRúVô. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 111 .

G]úY Eßl× SôÓLs ¸rYÚm HRôYÕ JÚ ãr¨ûXûV ARôYÕ AûPVô[eLôQlThP HRôYÕ JÚ RVô¬l©p Lôl׬ûUVô[¬u AàU§ ùT\ôUp TVuTÓjRlThÓs[Õm AûR ©W§Yô§ UßdLØ¥VôRÕUô] ¨ûX«p AkR RVô¬l©p Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[ RVô¬l× ùNVpØû\ DÓTÓjRlThÓs[RôL Ø¥Ü ùNnVXôm: A) NmUkRlThP ùTôÚ°p ETúVôLlTÓjRlThÓs[ Lôl׬ûU קRôL CÚdÏm ¨ûX«p. Øu]o A°jR AàU§ûV ®Xd¡d ùLôiP ©\Ïm AûR AàU§dLXôm Guß ãr¨ûXLs EQojÕm úTôÕ ®NôWûQ ùNnÙm RdL A§Lô¬Ls AlT¥lThP ®XdL°dL Ø¥VôÕ Guß ®XdÏ úLôÚm ®iQlTjûR ¨WôL¬dLXôm. CûR Eߧ ùNnYRtÏ ¸rYÚm áÓRXô] ¨TkRû]Lû[ ùTôßjR úYiÓm: (i) ØRXôYRôL Lôl׬ûU ùTt\§p Es[ LiÓ©¥l©u £\l×jRuûUûV ®P CWiPôYRôL Lôl׬ûU ùTtßs[§u LiÓ©¥l×jRuûU«p Ød¡VUô] ùRô¯pÖhT Øuú]t\m LôQlTh¥ÚdLjRdLÕ. Ïû\ ªu LPj§ ùRô¯p ÖhTjûR ùTôßjRYûW YojRLm NôWôR ùTôÕ ETúVôLj§tÏ UhÓúU AlT¥ AàU§V°dLjRdLÕ. Tϧ: 34: RVô¬l× ùNVpØû\ Lôl׬ûU: ¨ì©lT§p Es[ £WUm: 1) RVô¬l× ùNVpØû\ Lôl׬ûU ÁÕ NhP Á\p SPkÕs[RôL ARu E¬ûUVô[o Tϧ 28-u TôWô 1(B)®u ¸r ®NôWûQ úLôÚmúTôÕ ARu ÁÕ ùTôÕ ¿§ ®NôWûQLs SPjRlTÓ¡u\]. G) AlT¥lThP ETúVôLjûR ¨ßj§ ûYlTRtϬV ãr¨ûXdÏf ùNuß ÁiÓm úUtT¥ ¨ûXûU ºWûPVôÕ Guß A±VlTÓmúTôÕ AlT¥lThP AàU§ §ÚmTlùT\jRdLÕ úLhÓdùLôs[lTÓYRu A¥lTûP«p RdL A§Lô¬ûVd ùLôiÓ ãr¨ûXûUL°u ùRôPof£ûV T¬º-dL úYiÓm. Tϧ :32: WjÕ ùNnRp/T±ØRp ùNnRp: JÚ Lôl׬ûU WjÕ ùNnYÕ T±ØRp ùNnYÕ NmUkRUô] GkR JÚ Ø¥Üm ¿§jÕû\ T¬ºXû]dÏ EhTÓjR YônlT°dLlThÓs[Õ. E) CqYûL ETúVôLm TeÏúTôPjRdLRpX. I) AlT¥lThP ETúVôLj§tLô] Ø¥®u ÁRô] NhPléoY U§l× Ï±jÕ NhPéoY T¬ºXû] ùNnVjRdLÕ ApXÕ Eßl× Sôh¥u RdL EVo A§Lô¬ûVd ùLôiÓ ÑRk§WUôL T¬ºXû] ùNnVjRdLÕ. B]ôp CqÜTúVôLjRôp ARàPu NmUkRlThP ¨ßY]m ApXÕ SuU§l× B¡V] TeÏ ©¬dLjRdLÕ. AlT¥ ETúVô¡dLlTÓm ØRXôYÕ Lôl׬ûU TeÏ ©¬lTùRuTÕ CWiPôYÕ Lôl׬ûU TeÏ ©¬dLlThÓ ®hP ¨ûX«p Nôj§VªpûX. H) AàU§V°dLlThÓs[Ru JqùYôu±u R²jR² ùTôÚ[ôRôW U§lûT LQd¡p GÓjÕdùLôiÓ ãr¨ûXdúLtT RdL ùYÏU§ A°dLlTP úYiÓm. (iii). úTôh¥jRûP SPY¥dûL Guß ¿§jÕû\ ApXÕ ¨oYôLjÕû\ Ø¥Ü ùNnVlThP ©u]o T¬LôW SPY¥dûLVôL UhÓm úUtT¥ ÕûQ TVuTÓjRXôm. Tϧ:33: TôÕLôl©u LôXLhPm: ®iQlTm RôdLp ùNnVlThP Sôs ØRp ùLôiÓ CÚTÕ BiÓLÞdÏ ØuThP úR§«p LôXôY§VôLôR LôXLhP A[®tÏ Lôl×d LôXm YZeLjRdLÕ. B) NmUkRlThP RVô¬l× ùNVpØû\VôYÕ JjR¨ûX«Ûs[ ùTôÚ°p DÓTÓjRlThÓs[Õ EߧVôdLlThÓs[ ¨ûX«p Lôl׬ûU«u E¬ûUVô[o AkR ùNVpØû\ ETúVôLlTÓjRlThÓs[ûR RdL Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 112 . (ii) CWiPôYÕ Lôl׬ûU«p ETúVô¡lTÓm R]Õ LiÓ©¥l©u TϧLÞdÏ ØRXôYÕ LiÓ©¥l©u E¬ûUVô[o R]Õ E¬ûUûVÙm ùT\ úYiÓm Guß úLôWXôm. ApXÕ ¿§jÕû\ Ø¥ÜLÞdÏ ©kûRV SûPØû\Ls ApXÕ úTôh¥ R®ol×dLô] ¨oYôL SûPØû\Ls êXm UhÓúU ûLVô[jRdLÕ. K) ÕûQ TôWôdLs (B) Utßm (F)Cu ¸r YÚ¡\ LPûULû[ ©uTt\ Eßl× SôÓLs LPûUlTh¥ÚdL®pûX. ETúVô¡l× LôX LhPm B¡VûY GkR LôWQj§tLôL AàU§lThPúRô ARtÏ UhÓúU ETúVô¡dLlTP úYiÓm. AlúTôÕ R]Õ ¨ûXûV ¨ì©dÏm YûL«p NmUkRlThP YZd¡p ϱl©PlThÓs[ RVô¬l× ùNVpØû\dÏm AúRúTôu\ ùTôÚû[ RVô¬lTRtÏ Rôu TVuTÓj§Ùs[ ùNVpØû\dÏm NmUkRªpûX GuTûR ©W§Yô§ ¨ì©dLd LPûUlThPYo.CODISSIA C) AlT¥lThP ETúVôLj§u úSôdLm. F) Eßl× SôPô]Õ AlT¥lThP ETúVôLj§tÏ AàU§V°lTRô]Õ ARu EsSôhÓ NkûRdÏ ùTôÚsLû[ ®²úVô¡lTRtÏ Gu\ ®NVj§p R]d¡Úd¡\ ØÝ A§LôWjúRôÓ AàU§ YZeLXôm. D) CqYûL ETúVôLm R²f£\l× NÛûL ùT\jRdLRpX. Jü) JÚ Lôl׬ûU AlT¥ TVuTÓjÕYRtÏ AàU§dLlThÓ ETúVô¡dLlTÓmúTôÕ ("CWiPôYÕ Lôl׬ûU") AÕ úYù\ôÚ Lôl׬ûUûV ("ØRXôYÕ Lôl׬ûU") E±g£l TVuTÓjRôRYôß SûPùT\ úYiÓm.

2) Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ NmUkRlThP ©WfNû]ûV TôWô þ1Cu ¸r ¨ì©dL úYi¥V ùTôßl©-ÚkÕ ®ÓTP ¸rdLiP ¨XûU CÚdL úYiÓm. CûY AÓjÕYÚm NWjÕLÞdÏm ùTôßk§ ¨tLRdLûY. Utßm Tϧ 16Cu TôWô 3dÏm HtT Lôl× YZeL Jl×d ùLôiÓs[]. NhP Á\p ùNnVlThP ¨ûXVô]Õ Juß ÕûQ TôWô (A)Cp ϱl©PlThÓs[ûR ¨û\Ü ùNnYRôL CÚdL úYiÓm ApXÕ ÕûQ TôWô (B)Cp ϱl©PlThÓs[ûR ¨û\Ü ùNnYRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. AR]¥lTûP«p ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs TôÕLôl× YZeÏmúTôÕ ClTϧ«u 2YÕ TôWôÜdÏ HtTÜm. 2) TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRtÏ T§Ü AY£VUôL CpXôR Eßl× SôÓL°p §hP YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ AqYûWY¥YeLs EX¡u GkR JÚ Tϧ«XôYÕ ØRuØRXôL TVuTÓjRlThP Sô°-ÚkÕ 10 YÚPeLÞdÏ LôX ¨oQVm ùNnÕ TôÕLôl× YZeL úYiÓm. ©¬Ü:6: Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u §hP YûWY¥YeLs Tϧ:35: Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NôokR JlTkRm §hPYûWY¥YeLs Guß CkR JlTkRj§p ϱl©PlTÓm Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßL°u §hP YûWY¥YeLÞdÏ Tϧ 2 ØRp 7 Ø¥V Es[ NWjÕLÞdÏ HtT (Tϧ 6Cu TôWô 3 R®W) TôÕLôl× YZeL Eßl× SôÓLs Jl×d ùLôiÓs[]. 2) §hPYûWY¥Yj§tLô] LhPôV E¬Um ApXÕ AûR ARu E¬ûUVô[¬u AàU§«u± AWNôeLm TVuTÓjÕYÕ B¡V]Yt±tÏ Tϧþ31Cu ÕûQ TôWôdLs (A) ØRp (B)YûW Es[ûR RdL §ÚjReLs ùNnÕ TVuTÓjRXôm. 3) TôWôdLs 1 Utßm 2 B¡V]YtßPu CûQkÕ ¨oLôR]Yt±u ®NVj§p AkR §hP YûWY¥Ü EßYôdLlThP Sôs ØRp 15 BiÓ LôX LhPj§tÏ ©\Ï LôXôY§VôÏUôß TôÕLôl× LôXjûR Eßl× SôÓ ¨oQ«dLXôm. Tϧ : 38 : TôÕLôl× LôX LhPm: 1) TôÕLôl× YZeÏYRtÏ T§Ü AY£VUôL Es[ ¨ûX«p TôÕLôl× LôX LhPjûR Eßl× SôÓLs ¨oQ«dLúYiÓm. AWÑ Utßm AWÑ Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 113 . TôÕLôdLlThP §hPYûW Y¥YjûR Ruàs ùLôiÓs[ Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß ApXÕ ARu JÚ TϧûV Ruàs ùLôi¥ÚlTÕ GuTÕ úTôu\ HRôYÕ Juß ©WfNû]dÏs[ §hPYûW Y¥Yj§p ùRôPokÕ CÚkÕ YÚm LôXLhPm YûW AÕ §hPYûWY¥YjûR NhPj§tÏ ×\TmTôL Uß EtTj§ ùNnYRôL LÚRlTÓm. AlT¥ A±kÕùLôs[úYi¥VRtLô] ¨VôVUô] LôWQeLs AYÚdÏ ùR¬k§ÚdLôR ThNj§úXô Uß EtTj§ ùNnVlThP §hPYûWY¥Yj§p NhPj§tÏ ×\mTôL Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß Es[PdLlTh¥ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ AkR Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtú\ JÚ TôLUôL CûQdLlTh¥ÚkRôúXô úUtLiPYôß NhP ®úWôRUô]RôL LÚR úYi¥V§pûX. ©¬Ü :7:ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLÞdLô] TôÕLôl×: Tϧ:39: 1) ùS±Øû\Vt\ úTôh¥dÏ G§WôL ùNVídLm ªdL TôÕLôl× HtTôÓLû[ EߧlTÓjÕYÕ NmUkRUôL Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u (1967) Tϧ 10 bisCp á\lThÓs[Õ. Tϧ:37: E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTY¬u Jl×RûX G§oTôodLôR NhPeLs 1) NhPj§tÏ ×\mTôL RVô¬dLlThP §hP YûWY¥Yj§p Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß Ju±u YûWY¥Ym ApXÕ AkR Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtß JÚ TôLUôL Es[Pe¡ CÚkRôÛm AjRÏ SPY¥dûL Tϧþ36Cu ¸r YWôRThNj§p GkR JÚ Eßl× SôÓm AlT¥lThP S¥Y¥dûLûV NhP ®úWôRUôL LÚR úYi¥V§pûX. AlT¥ JÚ STo TVuTÓjÕmúTôÕ AÕ AlT¥ TVuTÓjRdáPôRÕ GuTÕ AYÚdÏ ùR¬VôU-kRôúXô. Jße¡ûQkR ªuÑtßLs NôokR A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU JlTkRj§u Tϧ 12.3) ©WfNû]dÏs[ô¡Ùs[ûR ¨ì©dÏm AúR úYû[«p ©W§Yô§L°u EtTj§ Utßm YojRL SXuLû[ TôÕLôlTRtLô] NhPéoY ®ÚlTeLû[ LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm.CODISSIA Øû\«p EߧlTÓjR CVXôR ¨ûX«p Eßl× SôÓ ARu TVuTôhûP ϱjÕ Ø¥ÜdÏ YWXôm. §hP YûWY¥Y TôÕLôl×dLô] LôX LhPm ARtLô] T§ÜdLô] ®iQlTm RôdLp ùNnVlThP Sô°-ÚkÕ 10 BiÓLs ApXÕ AkR YûWY¥Ym YojRL úSôd¡p EX¡u GkR Tϧ«p ØRuØRXôL TVuTÓjRlThP Sô°-ÚkÕ TjÕ YÚPeLÞdÏ Ïû\VôR LôXLhPj§tÏ TôÕLôl× LôXm YZeLXôm. Tϧ:36: TôÕLôl©tLô] Yônl×: E¬ûUVô[¬u Jl×R-pXôm ¸rYÚm ùNVpLû[ ùNnYÕ NhPj§tÏ ×\mTô]Õ Guß Tϧ þ37Cu ØRXôYÕ TôWô®u NWjÕLÞdÏ EhThÓ Eßl× SôÓ LÚRXôm: (A) TôÕLôdLlThP §hP YûWY¥YjûR C\dÏU§ ùNnRp. ®tTû] ùNnRp ApXÕ YojRL úSôdLj§tLôL ®²úVô¡jRp.

CODISSIA NôoTô] ¨ßY]eLÞdÏ NUo©dLlTÓm RLYpLs ®NVj§p ClTϧ«u 3YÕ TôWôÜdÏ HtTÜm LôlT°dLjRdLYoLs. ClT¥lThP úNôRû] ϱl×Ls ApXÕ ®YWeLs B¡V]Yt±u TVuTôh¥-ÚkÕ ùTôÕUdLû[ TôÕLôj§P úYi¥Ùs[Õ Gu\ ¨ûX«p UhÓm ùY°«PlTÓYûR RÓdL úYi¥V§pûX. 2) Eßl× SôÓLs ReLs NhPeL°p Es[T¥ JlTkR E¬U YZeLp Øû\Lû[ ûLVôsYûR RÓdLÜm. 4) CkR Tϧ«u (Tϧ þ 40) êX ®NVj§u A¥lTûP«p Utù\ôÚ Eßl× Sôh¥u NhPeLs Utßm ®§Øû\Lû[ Á±VRôL LÚÕm AkR Eßl× Sôh¥u ®NôWûQdÏ EhThÓs[ JÚ Eßl× Sôh¥u Ï¥UdLs ApXÕ AkSôh¥p ùRôPokÕ Ï¥«ÚkÕ YÚTYoL°u ®NVj§p AYoL[Õ SôÓ B]Õ Ït\gNôhÓm Sôh¥Pm ClTϧ«u (Tϧ 40) 3YÕ TôWô®p Es[T¥ BúXôNû] úUtùLôs[ úLhÏm úTôÕ ARtÏ YônlT°dLXôm.ùS±Vt\ ®VôTôW SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ ETúVôLlTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtLô] SPY¥dûLLs GÓdLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. B) AR²Pm ®VôTôW U§l× CÚlTRu LôWQUôL AÕ WL£VjRuûU EûPVRô¡\Õ. CߧVôL TWvTWm §Úl§lTPdá¥V YûL«Xô] JlTkRm GhPlTPjRdLÕ. Utßm C) RLYûX NhPlT¥ R]Õ LôhÓlTôh¥tÏs ûYjÕs[ STWôp RdL LôWQeL°u A¥lTûP«p HtTÓm ãr¨ûXL[ôp AÕ WL£VjRuûU EûPVRôL LôdLlTP úYi¥Ùs[Õ. úTôÕUô] Yônl×Lû[Ùm BúXôNû]ûV úLhÓd ùLôsÞm Sôh¥tÏ YZeLXôm. CkRl Tϧ«u (Tϧ 40) êX®NVj§u A¥lTûP«Xô] R]Õ NhPeLs Utßm ®§Øû\Lû[ ÁßYRôL SPY¥dûLLs CÚlTRôL LÚ§ BúXôNû]ûV úLôWXôm. JÚ Sôh¥u Ï¥ULu ApXÕ AkSôh¥p ùRôPokÕ Ï¥«ÚkÕ YÚm JÚYÚûPV A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU NmUkRUôL úUtLiPYôß BúXôNû] SPjRXôm. úUtT¥ E¬ûUVô[oL°u AàU§ ùT\ôUp úSoûUVô] YojRL SûPØû\LÞdÏ (10) Uô\ôL RLYpLs ùY°YWf ùNnYûRúVô. BúXôNû]dÏ AûZdLlThÓs[ SôÓm R]Õ Te¡tÏ ªLÜm AàRôTUô] Ø¥ÜdÏ ùNpXjRdLÕ. úLs®dϱV ®NVm NmUkRUô] WL£VjRuûUVt\ ùTôÕYôL ¡ûPd¡\ RLYpLû[ YZeLXôm. 3) úLhÓd ùLôsYRu A¥lTûP«p Eßl× SôÓLs Juß Utù\ôußPu BúXôNû]Lû[ SPjRXôm. ûLdùLôs[lTÓYûRúVô. 3) UÚkÕLs ApXÕ úY[ôi WNôVQl ùTôÚsLs B¡VûY קV WNôVQl ùTôÚsLû[ ùLôiÓ RVô¬dLlTÓmúTôÕ AYt±tLô] ®tTû] AàU§ûV RôeL[ôp YZeÏYRtÏ úLôWlTÓm ùY°«PlTPôR úNôRû] ®YWeLs ApXÕ Ï±l×Ls ùS±Vt\ ®VôTôW ETúVôLj§tÏ Tn]TÓjRlTPôUp TôojÕdL úYi¥VÕ Eßl× SôÓL°u LPûUVôÏm. úUtϱl©hP YûL«p TôodÏm úTôÕ ClT¥lThP SPY¥dûLLû[ RÓlTRtÏ ApXÕ LhÓlTÓjÕYRtÏ B] SPY¥dûLLû[ GÓdÏmúTôÕ JlTkRj§u ©WNWjÕdÏ ØWiTPôRYôß TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. Uô²V ER® (Grant) §ÚmTl ùTßYRtLô] £\l× ®§Øû\Ls ùNpÛT¥dLôXj§tÏ NYôp ®Pdá¥VRôL ùNVpTÓYÕ Utßm TXYkRUôL E¬ûU«u ¸r APdÏYÕ B¡V SPY¥dûLLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs ReL[Õ RÏkR NhPeLs Utßm ®§Øû\LÞdÏ EhThÓ úUtùLôsYûR RÓlTRtLô] YûL«p úUtϱl©hP HtTôÓLs ùNnVjRdLÕ. ϱl©hP £XYt±p A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûULs Á\lThÓs[Õ GuTûR ¨ßÜYRtÏ Eßl× SôÓLs ¨oQ«jÕs[ £X ®§Øû\Ls NmUkRlThP RVô¬l©u NkûRûV LÓûUVôL Tô§dLf ùNnYûR RÓdLÜm CkR JlTkRj§p Y¯YûLs HÕªpûX. AkR YûL NhPj§u SPY¥dûL«u ÁÕ RôdLm Tô§l× HtTÓjRdá¥VRôLÜm BúXôNû]«p LXkÕ ùLôsÞm AÓjR Eßl× SôÓ Ru²fûNVôLÜm ÑRk§WUôLÜm Ø¥Ü GÓdL RdLRôLÜm CÚdLjRdLÕ. AûZdLlThP Sôh¥u SmTLjRuûUûV TôÕLôdLdá¥V YûL«p AûZdÏm Sôh¥u SPY¥dûLLs AqùYôlTkRj§u úTôÕ AûUk§ÚdLjRdLÕ. ©¬Ü :8: JlTkR E¬U SPY¥dûLL°p úTôh¥ R®o× ØVt£Lû[ LhÓlTÓjÕRp: Tϧ: 40: 1) úTôh¥ûV LhÓlTÓj§ûYlTÕúTôu\ YûL«Xô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs NôokR ReL[Õ £X E¬U YZeLp SûPØû\Ls YojRLj§u ÁÕ LÓm Tô§lûT HtTÓjÕYúRôÓ E¬ûU Uôt\jûRÙm ùRô¯p ÖhT TWûYûXÙm RÓdLd á¥VRôL Es[Õ GuTûR Eßl× SôÓLs Jl×l ùLôs¡u\]. ApXÕ úLs®dϱV RLYp úTôu\YtßPu ùRôPokÕ DÓTÓm JÚYWôp EP]¥VôL A±kÕ ùLôs[ CVXôR RLYp B¡V] WL£VeLs BÏm. 2) ReLs NhPéoY LhÓlTôh¥p ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLû[ ûYjÕs[ CVtûLVô] Utßm NhPéoY E¬ûUVô[oLs ReL[Õ CkR RLYpLÞdÏ TôÕLôl× ùT\jRdLYoLs. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 114 . CqYôúXôNû]Ls GkR YûL«Xô] NhPeLÞdÏm ùTôßkRdá¥VYûL«Ûm. úUÛm AlT¥lThP ®YWeLs ùY°«PlTÓYR²ußm AûY Eßl× SôÓL[ôp TôÕLôdLjRdLRôÏm. ©\Wôp ETúVô¡dLlTÓYûRúVô RÓjÕ AYoL[Õ E¬ûUdÏ TôÕLôl× ùT\Üm RdLRôÏm: A) WL£Vm GuTÕ ARu AojRj§p. ARôYÕ ARu AûUl× ApXÕ ARu Õp-V Utßm ARu TôLeL°u úNoûLY¥Ym B¡VYt±u A¥lTûP«p B] WL£Vm ARû]lúTôu\ ùTôÕYô] ©\Ytû\ úTôXpXôR BÏm.

SmTLjRuûU YônkR RLYpLû[ AûPVô[eLiÓ TôÕLôdLdá¥V YûL«p YZdÏ SPY¥dûLLs AûUk§ÚdL úYiÓm. úRûYVt\ YûL«Xô] £dLp ªdLRôLÜm ùNXÜ ©¥lTRôLÜm CpXôU-ÚdLXôm. YZd¡p NmUkRlThÓs[ SToLÞdLôYÕ LôXRôURªpXôUp AkR ®YWeLs úTônf úNÚYRôL CÚdL úYiÓm. R²lThP YûL«Xô] EjRWÜLs Tt±V ®YWeLû[ úLôÚmúTôÕ YZdÏ SPY¥dûLLs RôeL Ø¥VôR ÑûUVôLl úTôn®PdáPôÕ. CYtû\ ùTtßs[ ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬Ls CúR úTôu\ Nôh£ûV G§o RWl©]Úm NUo©j§ÚdÏm úTôÕ CYt±p GR]Õ WL£VUô] RLYpLs ¨TkRû]LÞdÏ EhThÓ TôÕLôl× ùT\jRdLÕ GuTûR EߧlTÓjR úYiÓm. AlT¥ CpXô®hPôp HtL]úY Es[ AûUl×f NhP úYiÓúLôsLÞdÏ ØWiThPRôL Uô±®Óm. ÑRk§WUô] NhPd ÏÝ®û] ¨VªjÕd ùLôs[ YZd¡p NmUkRlThPYoLÞdÏ AàU§ RWXôm. Tϧ þ 43 Nôh£Ls 1) RUÕ E¬ûU úLôWpLÞdÏ BRWYôL CÚdLjRdLRôL Ru²PØs[ Nôh£VeLû[ JÚYo ¨VôVUô] Øû\«p NUl©dÏm úTôÕ AûY AYWÕ E¬ûULs G§o RWl©]¬Pm ETúVôLj§p Es[] GuTûR ¨ì©dÏm YûL«Xô] ϱl©PjRdL Nôh£VeL[ôLÜm CÚd¡u\]. AúR úSWj§p CÕ ®`Vj§p Ït\®Vp YZdÏdÏ ®`Vj§p T¬ºXû] ùNnYRtLô] Yônl× Ï±jR GkR ®RUô] ùTôßl×m ¨oQ«dLlTP®pûX. 3) YZd¡u RϧLs NmUkRlThP Ø¥ÜLs GÝjÕ Y¥Yj§Ûm. YZd¡u RϧLs NmUkRlThP Ø¥ÜLs AÕ NmUkRlThPYoLs NhP éoYUôL A±kÕ ùLôs[jRdL Lôh£Lû[ Es[¥d¡V Y¥®p ¡ûPdLjRdLôL CÚdLXôm. 2) YZdÏ SûPØû\«p Rô]ôL CûQÙm JÚ STûWl ùTôßjRYûW GkR®RUô] RdL LôWQØm CpXôUp YÚmúTôÕ Yônl× ¨WôL¬dLXôm ApXÕ ¨VôVUô] LôX LhPj§tÏs úRûYVô] RLYpLû[ RWô®hPôúXô AYoL[Õ Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 115 . NmUkRlThP E¬ûUL°u A¥lTûP«Xô] ®YWeLû[Ùm AYoLs A°dLXôm. ARu êXm CkR JlTTkRj§u ¸r ùLôiÓYWlThÓs[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûULs ÁRô] NhP Á\pLÞdÏ G§WôL Lô¬V Nôj§VUô] SPY¥dûL GÓdL Ø¥Ùm. úTôÕUô] ®YWeLÞPu á¥V GÝjÕ éoYUô] A±dûLûV RdL úSWj§p YZe¡P ©W§Yô§LÞdÏ YônlT°dLXôm. 2) A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs AØXôdL SûPØû\Ls úSoûUVô]RôLÜm NUYônl× A°lTRôLÜm CÚdLúYiÓm. AúRúTôX HtL CVXôR LôX ¨oQ«l×Ls Utßm G§oTôWôR LôX RôUReLs B¡V] HtTPôUp TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. AûYLû[ RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTRtLô] TôÕLôl× HtTôPôLÜm AÕ CÚdÏm. ùTôÕYô] NhP AØXôdL Øû\LÞdÏm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs AØXôdL Øû\LÞdÏm CûPúV JÚe¡ûQkÕs[ Yônl×Ls ÁÕm CkR TôLj§u (TôLmþIII ) GkR JÚ TϧÙm ùTôßl× ¨oQ«dL®pûX. YZdÏ SPY¥dûL«p NmUkRlThP Aû]jÕ RWl©]ÚdÏm AYoLÞdÏ Es[ E¬ûULû[ ¨ì©dL YônlûT YZeLXôm. NhP ÁWpLû[ RÓlTRtLô] úYLUô] ¾oÜLs LôiTRu êXm úUtùLôiÓm NhP ÁWpLs SûPùT\ôUp RÓlTRtLô] HtTôÓL[ôL AÕ CÚdL úYiÓm. RdL LôWQ A¥lTûP«Ûm AûUk§ÚlTÕ YWúYtLj RdLÕ. AúRúTôX Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ReL[Õ ùTôÕYô] NhPjûR AØXôdL Es[ TXjûRÙm Tô§jÕ®Pd áPôÕ. YZd¡u RϧLs ÁRô] BWmT ¨ûX«Xô] ¿§jÕû\ Ø¥ÜLû[ GÓdL ERYdá¥V YûL«XôYÕ CÚdL úYiÓm. ClT¥lThP SûPØû\Ls AØXôdÏYRu êXm NhP éoY YojRLj§tÏ RûPLs HtTÓYûR RÓdL Ø¥Ùm. ©¬Ü þ 2 ùTôÕ Utßm ¨oYôL SûPØû\LÞm AûYLÞdLô] ¾oÜLÞm Tϧ þ 42 ùY°lTûPVô] NUYônlT°dÏm SûPØû\Ls CkR JlTkRj§u ¸r YÚ¡\ A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûULs AØXôdLm ÁRô] ùTôÕ ¿§ SûPØû\Ls NmUkRlThP ®YWeLs E¬ûURôWÚdÏ ¡ûPj§P Eßl× SôÓLs ØVt£Ls úUtùLôs[Xôm. 4) CߧVô] ¨oYôL Ø¥Y°dLd á¥V ¿§jÕû\ AûUlûTd ùLôiÓ T¬º-dLjRdL YônlûT YZd¡p NmUkRlThP SToLÞdÏ YZeLXôm. ùTôÕYô] NhP AØXôdL Øû\dÏ Uô\ôL Es[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs AØXôdLj§tLô] NhP Øû\L°u CPj§p GkR JÚ ùTôßlûTÙm CkR TôLm (TôLm þ III ) ùLôiÓ YkÕ ¨ßjR®pûX GuTûR ׬kÕ ùLôs[ úYiÓm.CODISSIA TôLm þ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs AØXôdLm Aj§VôVm þ 10 ©¬Ü þ 1 ùTôÕl ùTôßl×Ls Tϧ þ 41 1) CkRlTϧ (Tϧ 41) Cp ϱl©PlThÓs[ T¥Vô] AØXôdL SûPØû\Lû[ Eßl×SôÓLs ReLs NhPj§u ¸r ùLôiÓ YWXôm. YZd¡u Ød¡VUô] Tϧ NmUkRUô] NWjÕLs Eßl× Sôh¥àûPV A§LôW YWm×dÏ EhThPRôL CÚdL úYiÓm.

ReLs ¿§ GpûXdÏhThP TϧdÏs C\dÏU§ ùNnVlThP ùTôÚsL°u YojRLj§p A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Á\pLs CÚk§ÚdÏúUVô]ôp AlT¥lThP Øû\«p ÖûZYûR ÑeL CXôdLô AàU§ ùTtß NWdÏs Esú[ YÚm ¨ûX«p EP]¥VôL RÓdLXôm. EߧVô] ¾ol×Ls êXm úTôÕUô] DhÓjùRôûL ùT\Xôm. AlT¥ CpXô®hPôp CÕ HtL]úY CÚkÕ YÚm AûUl×f NhPj§u úLôWpLÞdÏ Uô\ôL AûUkÕ®Óm. ApXÕ E¬ûU ûYjÕs[Y¬u AàU§úVôÓ CûQkÕ Gu\ YûL«p ApXôR YûL«p AWNôeLjRôp êu\ôm SToLÞdÏ AàU§ YZeLlThÓs[Õ Gu\ ¨ûXTôÓLÞPu Eßl× SôÓLs EߧVôL ¨tL úYi¥V§pûX. AúR úTôX E¬ûU ÁWp ùTV¬p DÓThÓs[Yo ùNVXôp Øuáh¥úV HtTÓjRlThÓs[ Tô§l×LÞdÏ B] CZlÀhÓ ùRôûL ApXÕ XôT ùRôûLûV N¬Vô] YZdÏL°u ®`Vj§p ¨oQ«dÏUôß ¿§jÕû\dÏ Eßl× SôÓLs AàU§V°dLXôm. AlT¥ BûQ«Óm STo ApXÕ TôÕLôdLlThP êX ®`VjûR ùTtßs[ SToLs Aq®YWeLû[ ûLVôÞTYoLs Gu\ YûL«p AkR êX ®`VjûR A±kRYWôL CÚlTRtÏ Yônl×Ls Es[]. Tϧ þ 44 YZdÏ SPY¥dûLLs ¨ßj§ ûYl× E¬ûU ÁWpLû[ R®odÏUôß JÚ STÚdÏ ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬Ls BûQ ©\l©dL A§LôWm TûPjRYoLs BYôoLs. ÁWÛdÏ Es[ô¡ Es[Y¬u A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u ®`Vj§p AlT¥lThP ÁW-p DÓThÓs[Yo R]dÏj ùR¬kúR CkR E¬ûU ÁW-p DÓTh¥ÚkRôÛm ApXÕ AYÚdÏ E¬ûU ÁWp SPd¡\Õ GuTÕ ùR¬k§ÚlTRtLô] RdL BRôWeLs CÚdÏm úTôÕm RdL CZlÀÓ YZeÏUôß ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬Ls úLôWXôm. Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPj§tÏ ùTôÚkRôR YûL«p CkR ¾oÜ Øû\Ls CpXôR ThNj§p. ®§®XdLô] £XYtû\j R®ojÕ úTô-Vô] YojRL Øj§ûWLs ùLôiP ©\ ùTôÚsLs ®`Vj§p NhPj§tÏ ×\mTôL ùTôßjRlThÓs[ AkR YojRL Øj§ûWLû[ ALtßYÕ UhÓúU ùTôÚsLû[ ®VôTôW SûPØû\LÞdÏ §\kÕ ®ÓYRtÏ úTôÕUô]ûY ApX. 2) YZdÏ ®`Vj§p E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYÚdÏ HtTÓm ùNXÜj ùRôûLûVÙm E¬ûU ÁW-p DÓTÓTYo YZeÏUôß BûQ«ÓYRtLô] A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. Tϧ þ 45 Tô§l×Ls 1) E¬ûU ÁWp ùNnÕs[Yo R]Õ ùNVXôp AqܬûU ûYjÕs[YÚdL CZlÀÓ ùRôûL YZeL BûQ«ÓYRtLô] A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. AlT¥lThP úLhÓd ùLôs[pLû[ LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôsÞm úTôÕ E¬ûU ÁW-u ATôVjûRÙm ARtLô] ¾oÜLû[Ùm LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôs¡\ AúR úSWj§p êu\ôm SToL°u ®ÚlTeLû[Ùm LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. YZd¡tÏ ùTôßjRUô] YZdL±O¬u LhPQØm C§p APeÏm. CkSPY¥dûLLû[ YojRL SûPØû\LÞdÏ AlTôtThP ¨ûX«-ÚkÕ GkR ®RUô] CZlÀÓLÞm ¨oQ«dLôUp ûLVôsYRu êXm E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYÚdÏ HtTÓm LÓm Tô§l×Lû[ R®odLXôm. AlT¥lThP ETúVôLj§tÏ DPô] ùRôûL YZeÏm ®`Vj§p Tϧ þ 31 Cu ÕûQ TôWô (H) ®u ¸Zô] ¨oQ«l×Lû[ Eßl× SôÓLs LhÓlTÓjRXôm. AYoL°Pm NUo©dLlTÓm ×LôoLs ApXÕ YZdÏ SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ YônlT°dLôRRôp LÓûUVôL Tô§l×dÏ Es[ôÏm Gu\ YûL«Xô] AkR ST¬u Ït\fNôhÓLs B¡V]Yt±u A¥lûP«p NôRLUôLúYô TôRLUôLúYô ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬Ls Ø¥Ü GÓdLXôm. 2) CkR Tϧ (Tϧ 44) «u ©\ NWjÕLs Utßm. CR]¥lTûP«p ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬Ls CÕ Ï±jÕ ÕYdL ¨ûX Utßm Cߧ ¨ûX Ø¥ÜLÞdÏ YÚ¡u\]o. Tϧ þ 46 ©\ ¾oÜLs JÚ ùTôÚ°u RVô¬l× SPY¥dûL«p E¬ûU Á\p CÚd¡\Õ Guß A±VlTÓm úTôÕ AûR RÓlTRtLô] RdL SûPØû\Lû[ ûLVôÞm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. AúR úSWj§p YZd¡p NmUkRlThPYoLÞdÏ AkR YZd¡u úUXô] Ït\fNôhÓLs ApXÕ Nôh£Lû[ A°lTRtLô] ®`Vj§u ÁÕ Ø¥ùYÓlTRtÏ ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞPu Eßl× SôÓLs CûQkÕ ùNVpTP úYiÓm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p NmUkRlThP êX ®`Vm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUûV Á\dá¥VRôL CÚdÏm ThNj§p Eßl× SôÓLs AlT¥lThP A§Lô¬LÞdÏ CûNkÕ SPdL LPûUlTP úYi¥V§pûX. ϱlTôL TôLm IICp AWNôeLeL°u ETúVôLj§tÏ Guß Ï±lTPlThÓs[ NWjÕLs. NhP Á\-p RVô¬dLlThÓs[ ùTôÚ°p ®g£«Úd¡\ êXl ùTôÚsLs Utßm ùNVpØû\Ls GkR ®RUô] CZlÀÓm JÕdLôUp YojRL SûPØû\LÞdÏ ùY°«p ¨uß ùNnÕ Ø¥dLlTÓYRu êXm úUtùLôiÓm E¬ûU ÁWpLs SPlTûR UhÓlTÓjÕm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. Tϧ þ 47 RLYpL°u E¬ûU E¬ûU ÁWp ùNnVlThP ùTôÚsLs ApXÕ úNûYLs RVô¬l× Utßm ®²úVôLj§p DÓThÓs[ êu\ôm SToLs Utßm AYoLs AlùTôÚsLû[ ®²úVô¡jÕs[ Y¯Lû[Ùm Tt± E¬ûU ÁWp ùNnÕs[YWô]Yo AkR E¬ûU«u ùNôkRdLôWÚdÏ ùR¬®dÏUôß BûQ«Óm A§LôWjûR ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 116 .CODISSIA Y¬ûN AØXôdL SûPØû\Ls NmUkRlThP YZdÏ SûPØû\LÞdÏ ùT¬V A[®tÏ RûP HtTÓjRd á¥VRôL CÚkRôúXô Yônl× ¨WôL¬dLXôm. Hû] YZdÏLs ®`Vj§p CkRlTϧ (Tϧ þ 44) Cu ¸Zô] ¾oÜ Øû\Lû[ AØXôdLXôm.

CODISSIA

YZeLXôm. AlT¥ E¬ûU YZeLô®hPôp E¬ûU ÁWpL°u ATôVjûRl Tt± N¬VôL LQd¡P Ø¥VôR ¨ûXdÏf ùNuß®Óm.

Tϧ þ 48 ©W§Yô§dÏ SxP DÓ ¨oQ«jRp
GkR JÚ ST¬u úYiÓúLôÞdÏ HtT SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[lThP]úYô AkR STúW AØXôdL SûPØû\Lû[ RY\ôL ETúVô¡j§ÚdÏm úTôÕ AR]ôp Utù\ôÚ ST¬u úUp RY\ôL Ït\m ÑUjRlThÓ AYWÕ ùNVpLs LhÓlTÓjRlTÓm úTôÕ AYÚdÏ HtTÓm Tô§l×Lû[ DÓLhÓYRtLô] RdL CZlÀhûP YZeL úYiÓm Guß AkR STÚdÏ BûQ«Óm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. ©W§Yô§dÏ HtTÓm ùNXÜLû[ YZeÏUôß ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ BûQ«Óm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. ùTôßjRUô] YZdÏû\O¬u LhPQØm C§p APeÏm. 2) A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûULs AØXôdLm ApXÕ TôÕLôl× NmUkRUô] NhP ¨oYôL SûPØû\Lû[l ùTôßjRYûW RdL ¾oÜ Øû\Lû[ AØXôdÏm ùTôßl©-ÚdÏm. ApXÕ AkR NhP ¨oYôL SPY¥dûL«u ÁRô] Su]m©dûL«u A¥lûP«p EjúR£dLlThÓs[ ùTôßl×L°p CÚkÕm ùTôÕ ¨oYôLeLs Utßm ARu AÛYXoLÞdÏ UhÓm Eßl× SôÓLs ®XdL°dLXôm.

Tϧ þ 49 ¨oYôL SûPØû\Ls
YZd¡u RϧLs ÁRô] ¨oYôL SPY¥dûLL°u Ø¥®p HRôYÕ ùTôÕ ¾oÜ BûQVô¡«ÚdÏm ThNj§p AlT¥lThP ¨oYôL SPY¥dûLL[ô]ûY CkRl ©¬®p (©¬Ü þ 2) Øu]úW ¨ì©dLlThÓs[ ¨TkRû]LÞdÏ JjÕlúTôY]YôL CÚdLjRdLûY.

Tϧ þ 3 RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLs Tϧ þ 50
1) SpX TX]°dÏmT¥Vô] EP]¥ RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLÞdÏ BûQ«Óm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. A) A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU ÁWûX Es[ ùTôÚsLs ùY°«p ùRuTÓYûR RÓdL úYiÓm. ùTôÚsL°u YojRLj§p ClT¥lThP ùTôÚsLû[ RÓdL úYiÓm. C\dÏU§ ùNnVlThÓs[ ClT¥lThP ùTôÚsLû[ ÑeL CXôLô AÛYXLj§-ÚúR NkûRdÏ YWôUp RÓdLXôm. B) NmUkRlThP E¬ûU ÁWÛdLô] RdL BRôWUôL CûR TôÕLôjÕ ûYj§ÚdL úYiÓm. 2) GeúL ùR°YôL LiÓ EQW CVXôR YûL«p Juû\j §Új§ TVuTÓj§ CÚd¡\ôoLú[ô AeúL ARu ÁÕ RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôsYRtLô] A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. LôXRôURm ùNnYRôp E¬ûU ûYjÕs[YÚdÏ DÓ ùNnV Ø¥VôR Tô§l× Gu±ÚdÏm úTôÕ RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLs GÓdLXôm. ÁWp SPkÕs[Õ Tt± úSW¥VôL LôhPjRdL Nôh£Ls CpXôRYt±u ®`Vj§Ûm RtLô-L S¥Y¥dûLs úUtùLôs[Üm ¿§jÕû\dÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ. 3) E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYoLs R]Õ E¬ûUûV úYù\ôÚYo Á±«ÚlTRôL LÚ§ ARu ÁÕ SPY¥dûL úLô¬ ®iQl©dÏm úTôÕ AlT¥lThP ÁWpLs ϱjR ®YWeLû[ RÚUôß ®iQlTRôW¬Pm úLôÚm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. E¬ûU ÁWp DÓTÓjRlThP RVô¬l©p AkR E¬ûU ÁWp TVuTÓjRlThPRtLô] RdL úLôQj§Xô] JjR RuûU Es[Rô Guß ¿§jÕû\«]o BWôV CÕ TVuTÓm. AúR úTôX ©W§Yô§«u SXû] TôÕLôdLÜm RY\ôL ETúVô¡dLlTÓYûR R®odLÜm úTôÕUô] Eߧ ùUô¯ûV YZeÏUôß ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ BûQ«PXôm. 4) ùR°YôL LiÓ EQW CVXôR YûL«p Juû\§Új§l TVuTÓj§«ÚlTRu ÁÕ CߧVôL ¡ûPj§Úd¡\ ®YWeL°u ¸r RtLô-L SPY¥dûLL°u A¥lTûP«p ¨oQ«dLlThÓs[ RiPû]ûV EP]¥VôL AØpTÓjR úYiÓm. E¬ûUÁWp ®`Vj§p Tô§dLlThP SToLÞdÏ A±dûL YZeLXôm. NhP éoYUôL úLôWlTÓYRu ÁÕm Utßm Ø¥Ü GÓdÏm úSôd¡p ©W§Yô§ úLhÓd ùLôsYRu ÁÕm JÚ T¬ºXû] úUtùLôs[lTP úYiÓm. CkR RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLs ϱjÕ RLYp ùR¬®dLlThÓ ¨VôVUô] LôX AYLôNm A°jR ©\Ï CkR RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLû[ Uôt±VûUdLXôm. ®Xd¡d ùLôs[Xôm ApXÕ EߧlTÓjRXôm. 5) RtLô-L SPY¥dûLs AØXôdÏYRtÏ, NmUkRlThP ùTôÚû[ JjRRôL Es[ ùTôÚû[lTt±V AY£VUô] ©\ ®YWeLû[ YZeÏUôß ®iQlTRôWo úLhÓd ùLôs[Xôm. 6) RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLs ClTϧ«u (Tϧ þ 50) TôWôdLs 1 Utßm 2 u A¥lTûP«p úUtùLôs[lTÓ¡u\]. AlT¥lThP S¥Y¥dûLLs TôWô þ 4I Tô§jÕ®PdáPôÕ. ©W§Yô§ úLhÓd ùLôsYRu A¥lTûP«p SPY¥dûLûV Uôt± AûUjÕd ùLôs[Xôm. ApXÕ AØXôdLj§-ÚkÕ ¨ßj§ ûYdLXôm. YZd¡u Rϧ«u

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

117

CODISSIA

A¥lTûP«p Ø¥Ü GÓlTRtLô] SûPØû\Ls RdL LôXj§tÏs Ø¥YûPVô®¥p Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeLs AàU§dÏm YûWVûWL°u ¸r ¿§jÕû\ AûUl× Ø¥ùYÓdLXôm. AlT¥ Ø¥ÜdÏ YWôR ¨ûX«p GdLôWQjûRd ùLôiÓm Ø¥ùYÓlTRtLô] LôpùLÓûY 20 úYûX SôhLs ApXÕ 31 SôhLôh¥ SôhLs C§p GÕ A§LThNUôL Es[úRô ARtÏ úUp ¿h¥dLd áPôÕ. 7) RtLô-L SPY¥dûLs Uôt± AûUdLlTh¥ÚkRôúXô ApXÕ ®iQlTRôW¬u HRôYÕ ùNVp ApXÕ ®ÓRp úTôu\Yt\ôp ùNV-ZkÕ ®hPôúXô A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU ÁWp SûPùTßm Gu\ AfÑßjRp ApXÕ ÁWp GuTÕ ¨ì©dLlTPô®hPôúXô, ©W§Yô§ úLhÓd ùLôsYRu A¥lTûP«p ©W§Yô§dÏ HtThÓs[ Tô§l×Lû[ DÓLhÓYRtÏ úTôÕUô] A[Ü CZlÀhÓj ùRôûLûV YZeÏUôß ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ BûQ«Óm A§LôWm ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. 8) ¨oYôL SûPØû\L°u Ø¥YôL RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLs HRôYÕ BûQ BL úYiÓùU²p AkR SPY¥dûLLs CkRl Tϧ«u (Tϧ 50) ØtTϧ«p ¨ßYlThÓ Es[Yt±p EߧlTÓjRlThÓ Es[Yt±tÏ CûQVô] ùS±Øû\L°u ¸r EߧlTÓjRlTPXôm.

©¬Ü þ 4 YWm©PlThP SPY¥dûLLÞdLô] R²júRûYLs Tϧ þ 51 ùTôÚsLs ùY°«ÓYûR ÑeL CXôLô A§Lô¬Ls RtLô-LUôL ¨ßj§ ûYjRp
úTô-Vô] YojRL Øj§ûW ApXÕ §ÚhÓ ©W§ùVÓjRp A¥lûP«Xô] ùTôÚsLs C\dÏU§Vô¡u\] Gu¡u\ NkúRLj§tÏ NmTkRlThP YojRL Øj§ûW ApXÕ T§l׬ûU E¬ûUVô[o YÚmThNj§p ¨oYôL ApXÕ ¿§jÕû\ NôokR RdL A§Lô¬L°Pm AYo úUtT¥ ùTôÚsLs RôWô[UôL ùY°«PlTÓYûR ÑeL CXôLô®]o RtLô-LUôL RûPùNnÕ ûYdÏUôß Eßl× SôÓL°Pm ®iQl©dÏm úTôÕ Eßl× SôÓLs ARu ÁÕ ¸rLiPYôß Y¥YûUdLlThÓs[ NWjÕL°u A¥lTûP«p úUp SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[ úYiÓm. CkRl©¬Ü (©¬Ü þ 3) G§oùLôs[d á¥V TpúYß Es[PdLeLÞdÏ EhThP TXYûL«Xô], A±Üf ùNôjÕ ¨ûXLs ÁWpLs DÓTÓjRlThÓs[ ùTôÚsLs ÁÕ SPY¥dûL úLô¬ ®iQl©dL Eßl× SôÓLs HtTôÓLs ùNnÕ RWXôm. ReLs Sôh¥-ÚkÕ HtßU§ ùNnV §hPªPlThÓs[ ùTôÚsL°p E¬ûU ÁWpLs CÚkÕ ARû] ùY°«ÓYRtÏ ÑeL CXôLô®]ôp RtLô-L RûP ®§dLlThÓs[ ¨ûX«p AYt±u ®`Vj§Ûm úUtLiP YûL«p SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[ Eßl× SôÓLs AàU§ RWXôm.

Tϧ þ 52 ®iQlTm
GkR JÚ E¬ûUVô[ÚûPV A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU E¬ûU Á±l TVuTÓjRlThÓs[Õ Guß ®NôWûQ«u ÕYdLj§p ùR¬V YÚm úTôÕ Tϧ þ 51 u ¸r ®NôWûQ SPY¥dûLL°p DÓTÓm E¬ûUVô[o NmUkRlThP ùTôÚsLû[ C\dÏU§ ùNnÙm Sôh¥u NhPj§tÏ Ht×ûPV YûL«p RdL Nôh£VeLû[ RdL A§Lô¬LÞdÏ §Úl§V°dÏm YûL«p YZe¡P LPûUlThPYoLs. ÑeL CXôLô A§Lô¬Ls EP]¥VôL Ae¸L¬dÏm YûL«p AkRl ùTôÚû[l Tt±V ®YWeLû[ úTôÕUô] A[Ü ®¬ÜTÓj§ YZeL úYiÓm. CkR ®iQlTm Htßd ùLôs[lThP ®YWeLû[ ¨VôVUô] LôX A[®tÏs ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ ùR¬®dL RdL ®NôWûQ A§Lô¬Ls LPûUlThÓs[]o. ÑeL CXôLô®]o GkR LôX LhPj§tÏ SPY¥dûL úUtùLôs[Xôm GuTûRÙm RdL ®NôWûQ A§Lô¬Ls Ø¥Ü ùNnÕ ùNôpXXôm.

Tϧ þ 53 Eߧ ùUô¯ ApXÕ CûQVô] EߧV°l×
©W§Yô§ûVÙm RdL ®NôWûQ A§Lô¬Lû[Ùm TôÕLôdLÜm Utßm RY\ô] úSôd¡Xô] TVuTôhûPÙm RÓdLÜm Ht\ YûL«p Lôl× EߧùUô¯ ApXÕ CûQVô] EߧV°lûT TZeÏUôß ®iQlTRôW¬Pm RdL ®NôWûQ A§Lô¬Ls úLhÓd ùLôs[Xôm. B]ôp AlT¥ YZeLlTÓm EߧùUô¯ ApXÕ CûQVô] EߧV°lTô]Õ úRûYVt\ YûL«p CkR ®NôWûQSPY¥dûLLÞdÏ RûPVôL ¨odL LôWQUô¡®PdáPôÕ. CkR ®iQlTj§p ϱl©PlThÓs[ E¬ûU ÁWp ùTôÚ°àPu ùRôPokÕ DÓTÓj§ CÚdLd á¥V ùRô¯p Õû\ YûW Y¥YeLs Lôl׬ûULs, §hP YûW Y¥YeLs ApXÕ RôWô[ ®¨úVôLj§tÏ ®PlThÓs[ ùY°«PlTPôR RLYpLs B¡VYtû\ ReL[Õ Ø¥®u A¥lTûP«Ûm RtLô-LUôL ¨ßj§ ûYdLXôm. ¿§jÕû\ ApXÕ ©\ R² A§Lô¬L°u Ø¥ÜLÞdÏ AlTôtThÓm ÑeL CXôLô A§Lô¬Ls úUtLiPYôß SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôs[Xôm. AlT¥lThP ¨ûX«p Tϧ 55 Cu ¸r ¨oQ«dLlThP LôX A[Ü GuTÕ LôXôY§ B¡®Ó¡\Õ. RdL úSWj§p RdL A§Lô¬Ls ¨oQ«jÕs[ Uô²Vm YZeLlTPôR ¨ûX«p áP CÕ LôXôY§ B¡®Ó¡\Õ. AlT¥ HRôYÕ E¬ûU ÁWp SPk§ÚdÏm ThNj§p C\dÏU§ BÏm ùTôÚsL°u Tôp ¨oQ«dLlThP ¨TkRû]Ls úTôL, E¬ûU«û] ûYj§ÚlTYÚdÏ E¬ûU ÁWXôp CZl× HtTÓYûR RÓdÏm A[®tLô] ùRôûLûV E¬ûU ÁWp SPkÕs[RôL LÚRlTÓm ùTôÚsLû[ Aàl×m E¬ûUVô[o, C\dÏU§Vô[o ApXÕ AkRl ùTôÚsLû[ Htßd ùLôsTYo EߧV°l×j ùRôûLVôL ÑeL CXôLô LQd¡p ùNÛjÕYRu A¥lTûP«p úUtT¥ ùTôÚû[ ÑeL CXôLô®]o ®Ó®dLXôm. ClT¥lThP EߧV°l× ùRôûL YZeLlTÓYRô]Õ E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYÚdÏ ¡ûPdL úYi¥V ©\ ¾oÜLû[ RÓlTRôL úTôn®PXôLôÕ. AúR úSWj§p E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYWô]Yo CÕ NmUkRUô] úUp SPY¥dûLdÏ úYi¥V RdL SûPØû\Lû[ RdL LôX LhPj§tÏs YZeLô®¥p úUtT¥ EߧV°l×j

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

118

CODISSIA

ùRôûL AûR ùNÛj§VYÚdúL §Úl©V°dLlThÓ ®Óm GuTûRÙm ׬kÕ ùLôi¥ÚdLjRdLÕ.

Tϧ þ 54 RtLô-L ¨ßj§ ûYl× A±dûL
Tϧ þ 51 dÏ HtT ùTôÚs ùY°«PlTÓYÕ ¨ßj§ ûYdLlThÓ Es[Õ GuTûR NmUkRlThP ùTôÚû[ C\dÏU§ ùNnTYÚdÏm ®iQlTRôWÚdÏm E¬V YûL«p ùR¬®j§PjRdLÕ.

Tϧ þ 55 RtLô-L ¨ßj§ ûYl× LôXm
RtLô-L ¨ßj§ ûYl× ùNnVlThÓs[ ®`Vm ®iQlTRôWÚdÏ ùR¬®dLlThP Sô°p CÚkÕ 10 úYûX SôhLÞdÏ úUp LôX ¿h¥l× ¡ûPVôÕ. ARtÏ úUp ùTôÚsLs ®Ó®dLlThÓ ®PXôm. ùTôÚsLs ®Ó®lûT RtLô-LUôL ¨ßj§ ûYl×Lû[ RtLô-L SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôsÞm RdL A§LôWm TûPjR A§Lô¬Ls ApXÕ ©W§Yô§ûV R®W YZdûL ùRôPe¡ ûYjÕs[Y¬u RÏkR YôReL°u A¥lTûP«p YZdÏB]Õ Ø¥ûY úSôd¡ ùNuß ùLôiÓs[Õ GuTûR ÑeL CXôLô A§Lô¬LÞdÏ ùR¬®dLlTh¥ÚdLôR ¨ûX«Ûm úUtT¥ ùTôÚsLs ®Ó®dLlTPXôm ùTôÚjRUô] YZdÏLs ®`Vj§p CkRd LôXd ùLÓûY úUÛm 10 úYûX SôhLÞdÏ ¿h¥dLXôm. YZdÏ ÕYe¡P LôWQUô] ®`VeL°u RϧL°u A¥lTûP«p Ø¥ûY GhÓYûR úSôd¡ JÚ úYû[ SPY¥dûLs ùNuß ùLôiÓ CÚdÏUô]ôp ©W§Yô§ úLhÓd ùLôsÞm ThNj§p Ø¥ûY GhÓm úSôd¡Xô] T¬ºXû] GuTûR úUtùLôs[Xôm. ©W§Yô§ NhP éoYUô] YûL«Ûm CûRd úLôWXôm. RdL LôXLhPj§p CÕ SPdL úYiÓm. CkR SûPØû\Ls Uôt±VûUdLlThPRôLúYô, §ÚjRlThPRôLúYô ApXÕ EߧlTÓjRlThPRôLúYô CÚdLXôm. úUtLiPYtú\ôÓ CûQkÕ ¨tLôR ¨ûX«p ¿§jÕû\«u RtLô-L SPY¥dûL«u A¥lTûP«p ùTôÚsLs ®Ó®l× ÁRô] RtLô-L ¨ßj§ ûYlûT ùRôPWXôm ApXÕ ùRôPWXôm. Tϧ 50 TôWô 6 p Es[ NWjÕdLû[ CRtÏ ùTôßjRXôm.

Tϧ þ 56
ùTôÚsL°u E¬ûUVô[o Ut\m C\dÏU§Vô[ÚdÏ SxP DÓ ùNnRp Tϧ 55 u ùRôPof£VôL £û\ ûYl©-ÚkÕ ùTôÚsLs ®Ó®dLlTÓm úTôúRô ApXÕ RY\ôL £û\ ûYdLlThÓs[Rôp HtTÓm Tô§lûT DÓLhÓYRtLô] RdL CZlÀhÓjùRôûLûV C\dÏU§Vô[o ApXÕ ùTôÚû[ ùTtßd ùLôsTYoLÞdÏ ®iQlTRôWo YZeL úYiÓm Guß BûQ«P RdL A§Lô¬LÞdÏ A§LôWm Es[Õ.

Tϧ þ 57 RLYpLû[ BnÜ ùNnYRtLô] E¬ûU
E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTY¬u E¬ûUûV Cuù]ôÚYo Á±«ÚlTûR BnÜ ùNnRRu A¥lTûP«p AkR E¬ûU Á\p EߧlThÓ NmUkRlThP ùTôÚsLû[ ÑeL CXôLô®]o ©¥jÕ ûYj§ÚdÏm úTôÕ ARu ÁRô] ®NôWûQdÏ ARu E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏ úTôÕUô] Yônl× YZeÏm A§LôWjûR RdL A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs RWXôm. Ck SPY¥dûLL°u úTôÕ WL£VUô] RLYpLÞdÏ Tô§l× HtThÓ ®Pd áPôÕ. AlT¥lThP ùTôÚsLû[ C\dÏU§ ùNnTYÚdÏm AúR úTôu\ NU Yônl× A°dÏm A§LôWm RdL A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. YZd¡u RϧL°u A¥lTûP«p NôRLUô] ¾ol× YÚm ThNj§p NmUkRlThP ùTôÚû[ Aàl© ûYjRYo. C\dÏU§Vô[o Utßm ùTÚû[ ùTtßd ùLôsTYo Utßm úLs®dϬV ùTôÚ°u A[Ü B¡V ®YWeLû[ E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYÚdÏ ùR¬®dÏm A§LôWjûR RdL A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Eßl× SôÓLs YZeLXôm.

Tϧ þ 58

A§LôW YWl©tÏ ùY°«Xô] SPY¥dûLLs:

JÚ ùTôÚ°p A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûU ÁWp ¨LrjRlThÓs[ ØRp GiQj§u A¥lTûP«Xô] Nôh£Ls ¡ûPdLl ùTßmThNj§p AlùTôÚsLs ùY°YÚYûR RdL A§Lô¬Ls RôeL[ôúY (Tô§dLlThPYÚûPV ®iQlTm Cu±úV) RtLô-LUôL ¨ßj§ ûYlTRtLô] A§LôWjûR YZeÏUôß Eßl× SôÓLs úLhÓd ùLôs[lThÓs[] A RdL A§Lô¬Ls RôeL[ôLúY úUtùLôsÞm ClT¥lThP SPY¥dûLLs ϱjR RLYpLs HRôYÕ úRûYlThPôp AYoLs AYtû\ GkR úSWj§Ûm NmUkRlThP E¬ûUûV ûYj§ÚlTY¬PªÚkÕ ùTtßd ùLôs[Xôm B C\dÏU§ ùNnTYÚdÏm E¬ûUVô[ÚdÏm RtLô-L ¨ßjRm ϱjR ®YWeLs EPàdÏPu ùR¬VlTÓj§PXôm. RtLô-L ¨ßjRm ùNnVlThÓs[ SPY¥dûLdÏ G§WôL AkSPY¥dûLûV úUtùLôiÓs[ RdL A§Lô¬L°Pm C\dÏU§Vô[o Øû\ÂÓ ùNnVXôm. RtLô-L ¨ßj§ ûYl× SPY¥dûLVô]Õ Tϧ þ 55 p YÏdLlThÓs[ ¨TkRû]LÞdÏ EhThPRôÏm. AY£VUô] §ÚjReLs ùNnVj RdLRôÏm C) Su]m©dûL«u A¥lTûP«p ÕYeLlTÓm ApXÕ úUtùLôs[lTÓm SPY¥dûLL°u Ø¥®p úUtùLôs[lTÓm RdL ¾oÜ SûPØû\L°u ùTôßl©-ÚkÕ ùTôÕ A§Lô¬LÞdÏm AÛYXoLÞdÏm UhÓm Eßl× SôÓLs ®XdL°dLXôm.

Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights

119

©¬Ü þ 5 Ït\®Vp SûPØû\Ls Tϧ þ 61 ®VôTôW úSôd¡Xô] ùNVpTôh¥tÏ NmUkRlThP ùTôÚ°p Ru²fûNVôL úTô. ®XdL°dLjRdL ãr¨ûXLs ®`Vj§p CÕ ùTôßkRôÕ. úTô-Vô] YojRL Øj§ûWLs ETúVô¡dLlThÓs ùTôÚsLs ®`Vj§p.YojRL Øj§ûWûV TVuTÓj§«ßlTRu ÁÕm §ÚhÓjR]UôL T§l× ùNnVlThÓs[Ru ÁÕm Eßl× SôÓLs Ït\®Vp SûPØû\Lû[Ùm ©WúVô¡jÕ RiPû] YZeLXôm. úUtT¥ Ït\ SPY¥dûL«p ªLlùT¬V A[®tÏ DÓTÓjRlThÓs[ êXeLs Utßm AØXôdLeLû[Ùm úUtá±VYôß A¯jÕ ®PXôm.CODISSIA Tϧ þ 59 ¾oÜLs E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTY¬u ©\ E¬ûUL°u Tôp SPY¥dûLLs úUtùLôsYRtÏ Es[ Yônl×LÞdÏ Tô§l× HtTPôRYôß TôojÕd ùLôiÓ ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬L[ôp Uß T¬ºXû] ùNnVlTP úYiÓm Guß ©W§Yô§ úLhÓd ùLôsYRtÏ Es[ E¬ûU«û]Ùm LQd¡ùXÓjÕd ùLôiÓ Tϧ þ 46 u ¸r YÏdLlThÓs[ ùS± Øû\LÞdÏ HtT. E¬ûU ÁWp DÓTÓjRlThÓs[ ùTôÚsLû[ A¯lTRtÏ ApXÕ TôrTÓjÕYRtLô] BûQûV YZeÏm A§LôWm RdL A§Lô¬LÞdÏ Es[Õ. Ru²fûNVôLÜm YojRL úSôd¡Ûm A±Üf ùNôjÕ E¬ûUûV E¬ûU ÁWp ùNnÕ TVuTÓj§ Es[Ru ÁÕ Ït\®Vp SûPØû\«u ¸r Eßl× SôÓL[ô]ûY SPY¥dûLLs GÓjÕ RiPû] YZeLXôm. AlùTôÚsLs Es[Õ Es[T¥úVVô] YûL«p Uß HtßU§ ùNnVlTÓYûRÙm A§Lô¬Ls RÓdLXôm. ApXÕ AYtû\ ÑeL CXôLô®u UôßThP SûPØû\L°u ¸r ùLôiÓ YWXôm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 120 . Tô§l×dÏ DÓ ùNnÙm A[®Xô] ATWôRd LhPQm ApXÕ £û\ RiPû]Ùm áP YZeLXôm. YZdÏLs N¬VôL CÚdÏm ThNj§p E¬ûU SPkÕs[ ùTôÚsLû[ ûLlTt±úVô T±ØRp ùNnúRô A¯jÕ ®PXôm. Tϧ þ 60 ªLd Ïû\Yô] A[®Xô] C\dÏU§Ls TV¦L°u ÑûULs êXm YÚ¡\ YojRL ETúVôLj§u ¸r YWôR ªLd Ïû\kR A[®Xô] C\dÏU§Ls ApXÕ ªLd Ïû\kR A[®p AàlTlTÓ¡\ ùTôÚsL°u ®`Vj§p úUtLiP NWjÕLû[ DÓTÓjÕY§-ÚkÕ Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ ®XdÏ A°dLlThÓs[Õ.

2) ûLùVôlTj§Ûs[ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUVô]Õ T§Ü ùNnVlThPRôLúYô ApXÕ E¬ûU AàU§ Es[RôLúYô CÚkRôp AlT¥lThP T§Ü ApXÕ AàU§ SûPØû\Lû[ EߧlTÓjÕm YûL«p Eßl× SôÓLs SPkÕ ùLôs[jRdLYoLs. CRu êXm TôÕTôl× LôX LhPj§u úUp Es[ EjRWYôRUt\ ãr¨ûXûV R®ojÕd ùLôs[Xôm. CÚ RWl©]odÏUô] SûPØû\L[ô] G§ol×. 4)A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULs ûLlTtßRp ApXÕ TWôU¬lTRtLô] SûPØû\LÞdÏ Ht\ SûPØû\Lû[ Eßl× SôhÓ NhPØm AàU§dÏm ThNj§p ¨oYôL ç«Xô] WjÕ ùNnRp. U§l©ZdLf ùNnYRtLô] SûPØû\°u A¥lTûP«p Rôu úUtT¥ T¬ºXû] ùNnVlTPjRdLÕ. WjÕ ùNnRp. 5) TôWô 4u ¸r YÚm SûPØû\L°u A¥lTûP«p Cߧ Ø¥Ü GÓdÏm úTôÕ AûYLs ¿§jÕû\ ApXÕ ¿§jÕû\ A§Lô¬L[ôp Uß T¬ºXû] ùNnVjRdLÕ. ùYt± ùTt±WôR G§ol× ApXÕ ¨oYôL ç«Xô] WjÕ ùNnRp B¡V]Yt±u ÁÕ AlT¥lThP T¬ºXû] úUt ùLôs[ úYiÓm Guß GkR ùTôßl×m ¨oQ«dL úYi¥V§pûX.CODISSIA A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU ûLlTt\Ûm TWôU¬jRÛm AÕ NmUkRlThP CÚ RWl× SûPØû\LÞm Aj§VôVm þ 11 Tϧ þ 62 1) A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUûV TWôU¬jRp ApXÕ ûLlTtßRp SPY¥dûLLs B¡VYtû\ TôLm ©¬ÜLs 2 ØRp 6 Ø¥V Es[ TϧLÞdÏ HtT úUtùLôsÞm úTôÕ AûY RdL SûPØû\Ls Utßm NPeÏLÞdÏ EhThÓ CÚdL úYiÓm Guß Eßl× SôÓLs úLhÓd ùLôs[Xôm. AlT¥lThP SûPØû\Ls Utßm NPeÏL[ô]ûY CkR JlTkRj§u NWjÕLÞdÏ CûNkRRôL CÚdLjRdLÕ. úUÛm RdL LôX AYLôNj§tÏs AkR E¬ûU«u AàU§ YZeLs ApXÕ T§ûY EPu YZe¡P úYiÓm. ALt± ®ÓRp B¡V SPY¥dûLs úUt ùLôsÞm úTôÕ Ak SPY¥dûLLs Tϧ 41 TôWôdLs 2 Utßm 3 Cu ùTôÕd ùLôsûLL°u ¸r úUt ùLôs[lTPXôm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 121 . AûYL°p ϱl©PlThÓs[ Y¯Øû\L°u A¥lTûP«úXúV E¬ûU ÁWp Eߧ ùNnVlThÓs[ RVô¬lûT ûLlTtßRp ùNnV úYiÓm. 3) úNûY Øj§ûWL°u ®`Vj§p Tô¬v £\l× UôSôÓ (1967) u Tϧ 4 p AY£VUô] §ÚjReLs ùNnÕ TVuTÓjRXôm.

2) EXL YojRL AûUl× JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR§-ÚkÕ 5 BiÓLôXj§tÏ ùTôÕf ÑeLj¾oûY JlTkRm þ 1994 u Tϧ 23 u ÕûQ TôWôdLs 1 (B) Utßm 1 (C)B¡V]Ytû\ CkR JlTkRj§u ¸r RôYôdLs ¾oÜ SûPØû\LÞdÏ TVuTÓjR Ø¥VôÕ. Yônl×. CkR JlTkRj§u êX ®`Vj§tÏ EPuThPRôL Es[ A±ÜfùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u ¡ûPl× ¨ûX. ®§Øû\Ls ¿§jÕû\«u Cߧ Ø¥ÜLs Utßm ùTôÕYô] ETúVôLj§tLô] ¨oYôLf NhPeLs B¡V] ùY°ÂÓ ùNnVjRdLûY. 4) ϱl©hP ùTôÕjÕû\ ApXÕ R²VôoÕû\ ¨ßY]eL°u NhP éoY YojRL SXuLû[ Tô§dLd á¥V YûL«p ApXÕ ùTôÕ SXuLÞdÏ ØWiTh¥Úd¡\ YûL«p ApXÕ NhP AØXôdLj§tÏ RûP HtTÓjRd á¥V YûL«p B] WL£V RLYpLû[ ùY°«Pf ùNôp. CkR JlTkRj§u êX ®NVj§u A¥lTûP«p JÚ Eßl× Sôh¥u AWNôeLm ApXÕ AWÑ ØLYôuûUdÏm AÓjR JÚ Eßl× SôhÓ AWNôeLm ApXÕ AWÑ ØLYôuûUdÏm CûP«p AØXôdLjRdL YûL«Xô] JlTkReLÞm ùY°«PjRdLûY. EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl×Pu LXkRôúXô£jÕ CkR NhPeLs Utßm ®§Øû\Lû[ Es[Pd¡V ùTôÕYô] T§úYÓ ùYt±LWUôL EßYôdLlTÓm ¨ûX«p AlT¥lThP NhPeLs Utßm ®§Øû\Ls ϱjÕ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®tÏ A±®dL úYi¥V ùTôßl©-ÚkÕ Eßl× SôÓLû[ ®Ó®dLXôm. "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®]ôp Ae¸L¬dLlThP T¬kÕû\Ls úSW¥VôL GpXô Eßl× SôÓL°]ôÛm ùNVpTÓjRjRdLRôÏm. AØXôdLm. CkR JlTkRj§u êX ®NVj§u A¥lTûP«p JÚ Eßl× Sôh¥u AWNôeLeLs Utßm E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYoLÞdÏ ùR¬VlTÓjRd á¥V YûL«p CÚdL úYiÓm.CODISSIA RôYô RÓl×m ¾oÜm Aj§VôVm þ 12 TôLm þ 4 RôYô RÓl×m ¾oÜm Tϧ þ 63 ùY°lTûPjRuûU 1. Eßl× SôÓL°u NhPeLs. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 122 .CkRl Tϧ«u TôWôdLs 1. AlT¥lThP T¬kÕû\Lû[ Ae¸L¬lRtLô] AûUfNoLs ¨ûX UôSôh¥u GkR JÚ Ø¥ÜdÏ ApXÕ úUtT¥ 2YÕ TôWô®p ϱl©PlThP LôX LhPj§tÏ ¿h¥lTÕ Gu\ GkR JÚ Ø¥Üm ùTôÕYô] CûYL°u A¥lTûP«p GÓdLlTP úYiÓm. úUtùLôiÓm Nm©WRôVeL°u A¥lTûP«p Ae¸LôWm A°dÏm Øû\«p Gu±pXôUp. CkR JlTkRj§u AØXôdLjûR "¥¬lv'þ ÏÝ T¬ºXû] ùNnYRtÏ Ht\ YûL«p "¥¬lv"ÏÝ®u 1 þ p Es[ T¥dLô] NhPeLs Utßm ®§ Øû\Lû[ Eßl× SôÓLs A±®dLXôm. CkR ùTôßl×Lû[ G§o ùLôsYRtÏ Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ Es[ £WUeLû[ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ UhÓlTÓj§ ER®PXôm. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU«u CkRl Tϧ«u ÁRô] ϱl©PjRdL ¿§jÕû\ Ø¥ÜLs. 3) Utù\ôÚ Eßl× SôÓ GÝjÕ éoYUôL úLhÓd ùLôsÞm úTôÕ TôWô 1p ϱl©hÓs[ ®YWeLû[ YûL©¬jÕ YZe¡P JqùYôÚ Eßl× SôÓm RVôWôL CÚk§PjRdLRôÏm. Tô¬v £\l× UôSôh¥u Tϧ 6 u NWjÕL°-ÚkÕ EßYôdLlThP CkR JlTkRj§u ùTôßl×L°u ùRôPof£VôL A±dûL ùNnYRtÏ ùRôPo×s[ ùNVpTôÓLs ϱjÕ "¥¬lv"ÏÝ LY]m ùNÛjRXôm. úR£V ùUô¯«p úUtT¥ ùY°ÂhûP ùTôÕ®p YZeL Ø¥VôR ¨ûX«p AkR ùY°Âh¥u AojRj§p úUtT¥ ®YWeLs AWNôeLeLs Utßm E¬ûU ûYj§ÚlTYoLÞdÏ ùR¬VlTÓjRd á¥V YûL«p CÚdL úYiÓm. Øû\úLPô] ETúVôL RÓl×. ¨oYôL ®§Øû\Ls ApXÕ TWvTW JlTkRm B¡V] Tô§l× HtTÓjRdá¥VRôL Es[Õ GuTRtLô] SmTLUô] LôWQeLû[ Ru²Pm ûYj§ÚdÏm úTôÕ ¿§jÕû\«u AlT¥lThP Ø¥ÜLs ApXÕ ¨oYôL ®§ Øû\Ls ApXÕ TWvTW JlTkReLs Tt± úTôÕUô] ®¬ÜûWúVôÓ RLYp RWXôm ApXÕ RdL YûL«p GÝjÕ Y¥®p RWXôm Guß JÚ Eßl× SôÓ úLhÓd ùLôs[lTPXôm. 2. Utßm 3 Cp GÕÜm úLhÓd ùLôs[lTP®pûX. 3) ùTôÕf ÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkRm þ 1994 u Tϧ 23 u ÕûQ TôWôdLs 1 (B) Utßm 1(C) p ùLôÓdLlThÓs[Yt±tÏ JjR YûL«Xô] ×LôoLÞdLô] ¾oÜLÞdÏ CkR TôWôdL°p Es[ Yônl×Ls Utßm Rϧ ϱjÕ ClTϧ«u (Tϧ 64) TôWô 2 ϱl©PlThP LôXd ùLÓ®tÏs "¥¬lv"ÏÝ T¬úNôRû] úUtùLôiÓ AûUfNoLs ¨ûX«Xô] UôSôh¥p Ae¸LôWj§tÏ ûYdL úYiÓm. Tϧ þ 64 RôYô ¾oÜ 1) RôYôdLs ϱjÕ úTfÑ YôojûRLs SPj§ ¾oÜ LôiTRtÏ CkR JlTkRj§p £\lTôL úNodLlThÓs[ûY R®W. Hû]V TϧLs Aû]jÕm ùTôÕf ÑeLj ¾oûY JlTkRm þ 1994 u TϧLs 22 Utßm 23 u NWjÕL°²uß ùT\lThPûYVôÏm. ûLlTtßRp.2.

4) EtTj§d Lôl׬ûU ÁRô] TôÕLôlûT ùRô¯p ÖhTjÕû\dÏm ¿h¥l× ùNnYÕ NmUkRUôL CqùYôlTkRj§p Y[Úm SôÓLÞdÏ GÓjÕû\dLlThÓs[Õ.3. CYtû\ùVpXôm AØXôdÏYRtÏ AÛYXLeLs. ØLYôuûULs Utßm A§p T¦VôtßTYoLÞdLô] T«t£V°jRp B¡V]Üm CqùYôjÕûZl©u ¸r YÚ¡u\].3 Utßm 4 u NWjÕLû[ Eßl× SôÓLs ©WúVô¡dL úYi¥V§pûX. Utßm 4 u ¸r UôtÈhÓdLô] LôXLhPjûR Eßl× SôÓLs Y¡dÏm úTôÕ ARu NhPeLs. Tϧ þ 66 ªLÜm ©u Re¡V Eßl× SôÓLs 1) ªLÜm ©u Re¡V SôÓLû[l ùTôßjRYûW AûYL°u ùTôÚ[ôRôWm ¨§ ¨ûX Utßm ¨oYôLm £dLpLû[Ùm AûRùVôh¥V úRûYLû[Ùm AY£VeLû[Ùm LQd¡p GÓjÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. Tϧ þ 67 ùRô¯p ÖÔdL JjÕûZl× Y[Úm SôÓLs Utßm ªLÜm ©u Re¡V SôÓLÞdÏ NôRLUôL ùRô¯p ÖÔdL Utßm ¨§¨ûX JjÕûZlûT SpÏUôß úLhÓd ùLôs[lTÓm úTôÕ TWvTWm Jl×d ùLôs[lThP ®§Øû\Ls Utßm ¨TkRû]L°u A¥lTûP«p Y[of£VûPkR Eßl× SôÓLs AqùYôjÕûZlûT SpÏm úTôÕ "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ G°RôL AØXôdLd á¥VRôL AûR TôojÕd ùLôs[ úYiÓm. ClTϧ«u TôWôþ2 p GÓjÕû\dLlThÓs[T¥ CqùYôlTkRj§p AkR Eßl× Sôh¥tÏ ¨oQ«dLlThÓs[ AØXôdL úR§«p AkR Sôh¥u Wôw´V GpûX«p AqY[YôL TôÕLôl× HtTôÓLs ùNnVlTh¥ÚdLôR ThNj§p TôLm þ 2 u ©¬Ü 5 þ u NWjÕL°p AlT¥lThP ùRô¯p ÖhTjÕû\dÏ ¿h¥jÕj RWlThÓs[ áÓRXô] 5 BiÓLs LôX AYLôNjûR GÓjÕd ùLôiÓ AqúYtTôÓLû[ ùNnVXôm 5) TôWôdLs 1.CODISSIA Aj§VôVm þ 13 TôLm þ 4 UôtÈhÓ LôX LhPj§tLô] HtTôÓLs Tϧ 65 UôtÈhÓ LôX LhP HtTôÓLs 1) EXL YojL AûUl©u JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR ùTôÕYô] LôX LhPm LôXôY§VôYRtLô] JÚ BiÓ ØÝûU AûPYRtÏ Øu× ClTϧ«u (Tϧ þ 65) TôWôdLs 2. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 123 . 2) ªLÜm ©u Re¡V SôÓLs ReLs ùRô¯p ÖhT TXjûR ¨ûXjR RuûUúVôÓ A©®Új§ ùNnÕ ùLôsYRtÏ ER®VôL Y[of£VûPkR Eßl× SôÓL°u ¨ßY]eLÞm AûUl×LÞm ReL[Õ ùRô¯p ÖhTeLû[ Uôt±d ùLôÓlTûR FdLlTÓjÕm YûL«p ReLs Wôw´V GpûX«p Es[ AlT¥lThP ¨ßY]eLÞdÏ Y[of£VûPkR Eßl× SôÓLs FdLU°dL úYiÓm. 2) ClTϧ«u TôWô 1Cp ϱl©hÓs[Õ úTôX úUtϱl©hP NWjÕdLû[ ©WúVô¡lTRtLô] LôX LhPjûR ùTôßjRYûW JlTkRm AØÛdÏ YkR Sô°-ÚkÕ úUÛm SôuÏ BiÓLs LôX AYLôNUô]Õ Y[Úm SôÓLÞdÏ YZeLlThÓs[Õ. ®§Øû\Ls EßYôdÏYÕm AYtû\ CdLôXLhPj§p AØXôdÏYÕUô] SPY¥dûLLû[ úUtùLôs[d áÓm. TϧLs 3. ARû] AØXôdL AkSôÓLs LPûUlThÓs[]. 3) Uj§VlTÓjRlThP §hPªhP ùTôÚ[ôRôW Øû\«-ÚkÕ NkûRl ùTôÚ[ôRôWj§tÏ Uô±dùLôi¥ÚdÏm SôÓLÞdÏm Utßm R]Õ A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Øû\«p A¥lTûP Uôt\eLs ùNnÕYÚm RûPVt\ ¨ßY]lùTôÚ[ôRôW AûUl×LÞdÏm "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u ¸Zô] A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU Utßm ®§Øû\Lû[ AØXôdÏm úTôÕ G§o ùLôsÞm ©WfNû]LÞdÏ ¾oÜ LôiTRtÏm TôWôþ2 p GÓjÕû\dLlThÓs[ LôXRôU Yônl× TV]°dÏm. Utßm 5 u NWjÕLû[ R®ojÕ Hû]VYt±tÏ Rôu CÕ ùTôßkÕm. B]ôp AlT¥lThP SPY¥dûLLs "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NWjÕLû[ ®P YÛ Ïu±V YûL«p CÚkÕ ®Pd áPôÕ. AúRúTôX AqܬûULû[ RY\ôL TVuTÓjÕYûR RÓlTÕm C§p APeÏm. A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûULû[ TôÕLôdÏm SPY¥dûLLÞdLô] NhPeLs Utßm ®§Øû\Lû[ EßYôdÏYRtLô] JjÕûZlTôL AÕ CÚdLXôm.2.4.

"¥¬lv"ÏÝYô]Õ R]Õ AÛYpLs NmUkRUô] Eßl× SôÓLs ER®úVôÚm úTôÕ AqYûL ER®Lû[ YZeL úYiÓm. CkR TôWô (TôWô þ 2) Utßm 3 Utßm 4 TôWôdLÞdÏ HtT Es[ Tô§l׬ûU ùTôßl×Ls ùTo² £\l× UôSôh¥u (1971) Tϧ 18 þ dÏ ØÝûUVôL ùTôßkRjRdL YûL«p Uôt±VûUdLlTh¥ÚdLjRdLÕ. 5) JÚ Eßl× SôÓ EXL YojRL AûUl©u "¥¬lv"JlTkRjûR AØXôdÏYRtÏ Øu]o YôeLlThP êXeLs ApXÕ ©W§Ls ®`Vj§p Tϧ þ 1 Utßm Tϧ 14 u 4 YÕ TôWô®u NWjÕLû[ ©WúVô¡dL úYi¥V ùTôßl× JÚ Eßl× Sôh¥tÏ CpûX. úUÛm "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u 14 þ u TôWô 6dÏ ùTôÚkRdá¥VYûL«p EßYôdLlTh¥ÚdLjRdLÕ. úUÛm A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûUL°u YojRLm NôokR AmNeLû[d ϱjÕ BúXôNû] SPjÕYRtÏ Eßl× SôÓLÞdÏ Yônl× A°dLXôm. ϱlTôL Lôl׬ûUûV Ls[jR]UôL TVuTÓj§Ùs[ ùTôÚsLs NmUkRUôL Eßl× SôÓL°u ÑeL CXôLô®]¬ûPúV JjÕûZlûTÙm TWvTW RLYp T¬Uôt\eLû[Ùm A©®Új§ ùNnÕ ùLôs[ úYi¥ Es[Õ.CODISSIA TôLm þ VII ¨ßY] ç«Xô] HtTôÓLs þ Cߧf NWjÕLs Aj§VôVm þ 14 Tϧ þ 68 "¥¬lv' ÏÝ: CqùYôlTkj§û] ϱlTôL ¸rYÚm ùTôßl×Lû[ Eßl× SôÓLs GeL]m ¨û\úYtß¡u\] GuTûR "¥¬lv"ÏÝ LiLô¦dLXôm. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 124 . 3) NmUkRlThP êX ®`Vm úLs®dϬV Eßl× Sôh¥p AW£u ùTôÕl TVuTôh¥u ¸r YkÕ ®hP ¨ûX«p ARu ÁÕ LôlT°dL úYi¥V ùTôßl× GÕÜm ¨oQ«dL úYi¥V§pûX. ApXÕ CqùYôlTkRj§u ®§Øû\L°u ¸r TôÕLôl× ùTßYRtLô] §hPYhPUô] A[ÅÓLÞdÏ ApXÕ AYtû\ G§oùLôs[jRdL YûL«p CÚkÕs[]. Tϧ þ70 SPl©Ûs[ êX ®`VeLÞdLô] TôÕLôl× 1) "¥¬lv"JlTkRjûR úLs®dϱV Sôh¥p AØpTÓjÕYRtLô] úR§dÏ Øu]o AkSôh¥p ¨X®V NhPeLÞdÏ ùTôßl×Lû[ áhÓm YûL«p CqùYôlTkRm Y¥YûUdLlTP®pûX. CÕ ®`VUôL ReLs ¨oYôL AûUl©p ùRôPo× ùLôs[ úYi¥VRtLô] ûUVeLû[ ùR¬®d¡u\]o. 4) AjÕÁ± TVuTÓjRlThÓs[ TôÕLôdLlThÓs[ êX®`Vj§p Øu GÝkÕs[ ϱl©hP úSôdLeLs TôXô] GkR JÚ NhPj§u úSôdLeL[ô]ûY "¥¬lv"JlTkRj§u NhP éoY ®§Øû\LÞdÏ EߧlTÓm YûL«p CÚdL úYiÓm. ϱlTôL RôYô ¾oÜ SûPØû\Ls NmUkRUôL Eßl× SôÓLs ER® úLôÚm úTôÕ AqYûL ER®Lû[ YZeLúYiÓm. 2) CkR JlTkRj§tÏ HtT CpXô®hPôÛm úLs®dϬV Eßl× Sôh¥p JlTkRm AØpTÓjRlTÓ¡\ Sôs YûW CÚkÕYÚ¡\ GpXô êX ®`VeLÞdÏm CqùYôlTkRm ùTôßlûT ¨oQ«jÕ ùLôÓjÕs[Õ. AúR úTôX E¬ûULs AjÕÁ±l TVuTÓjRlThÓs[ ®`VeLû[ ReLÞdÏs T¬Uô¬dùLôs[Üm Eßl× SôÓLs RVôWôL Es[]. CûNjRhÓdLs RVô¬lTô[oLs Utßm CûNdLûXOoLÞdÏ Es[ CûNjRhÓ E¬ûULû[l ùTôßjRYûW AûYLs ØÝYÕm ùTo²£\l× UôSôh¥u (1971) Tϧ þ 18 dÏ Ht\ YûL«p Uôt±VûUdLlTh¥ÚdL úYiÓm. CdÏÝ R]Õ ØRp áhPj§tÏ ©\Ï KWôiÓdÏs EXL A±Üf ùNôjÕ¬ûU AûUl©àPu BúXôNû] SPj§ CdÏÝ®u TpúYß ©¬ÜLÞdÏsú[ JjÕûZlûT HtTÓjÕYRtLô] RdL HtTôÓLû[ ùNnÕ ùLôs[jRdLÕ. "¥¬lv"ÏÝYô]Õ R]Õ AÛYpLs NmUkRUô] Eßl× SôÓLú[ôÓ BúXôNû] SPjÕYúRôÓAYt±PªÚk