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³We must continue to look critically at our abilities to achieve decisive victory and aim to improve. I believe that one of the single most important innovations of the past 20 years...one of the keys to our edge today...is the After-Action Review. At all levels, the AAR provides us an honest appraisal of our performance and directs our efforts to correct shortcomings.´
General Gordon R. Sullivan, CSA ( Ret)
Terminal Learning Objective
Action : Identify the procedures for planning, preparing, and conducting a After Action Review. (AAR) Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC 25-20 Standard : The new OC/T will be able to plan,prepare, and conduct a After Action Review
Agenda 4 Definition Objective Purpose Key points Guidelines Formal AAR Informal AAR The four phases of an AAR Summary .
5 . that enables soldiers to discover for themselves What happened. It is a tool leaders and units can use to get maximum benefit from every mission or task. focused on performance standards.Definition An AAR is a professional discussion of an event. Why it happened and How to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses.
Objective The objective of an AAR is to improve individual and collective task performance by providing immediate feedback about how the training or tasks could have been done better. 6 .
Purpose Guide the unit towards achieving training objectives Identify lessons learned so they can be applied to subsequent training or task performance Increase confidence in unit leaders Increase proficiency of all participants 7 .
leader and unit performance 8 .AAR Key Points Involve all participants Are conducted during or immediately after each event Focus on intended training objective Focus on soldier.
AAR Key Points (cont) Use open-ended questions Are related to specific standards Determine strengths and weaknesses Link performance to subsequent training 9 .
Guidelines Maintain order and discipline Emphasize the goal is to achieve Army standards Make AARs positive in nature Avoid--±Lecturing ±Critiquing. criticizing or judging performance ±Embarrassing soldiers or leaders ±Comparing units 10 .
Formal External OC/Ts Takes more time Complex training aids Scheduled beforehand Conducted when best supported Conducted to gain maximum training benefit Normally for Platoon-level and above 11 .
Informal May be conducted by either the internal Chain of Command or external OC/Ts Takes less time Use simple training aids Conducted when needed Held at training site 12 .
crew. squad and platoon-level training Supports higher-level formal AAR Held prior to higher-level formal AAR 13 .Informal (cont) Uses standard AAR format Limited resources Normally for soldier (leader).
Phases of the AAR Planning Preparation Conduct Follow-up 14 .
Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the After Action Review planning phase Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC 25-20 Standard : Successfully describe the steps followed during the planning phase of the AAR 15 .
Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP).Planning Establish objectives for the AAR Select and train qualified OC/Ts Review the training and evaluation plan. mission training plans (MTPs) and soldier training publications (STPs) Determine when AARs will occur and identify participants 16 .
Planning (cont) Plan for stop points during exercise Select potential AAR sites Select/prepare training aids Draft/review AAR plan 17 .
prepare and defend a BP All 1 hour after change of mission Behind 2d squad GH44319218 Special Requirements LTC Smith will provide closing comments 18 .AAR Plan Observer Element Priority Tasks Who Attends When Held Location 1LT Jones 1st PLT Occupy.
Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the After Action Review preparation phase Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC 25-20 Standard : Correctly describe the steps followed during the preparation phase of the AAR 19 .
orders.Preparation Review training objectives. METL and doctrine Identify key events OC/Ts are to observe Observe the training and take notes Collect observations from other OC/Ts Begins once mission starts 20 .
AAR Observation Worksheet Example Training/exercise title: Event: Date/time: Location of observation: Observation (player/trainer action): Discussion (tied to task standard if possible): Recommendations (indicate how the unit could have executed the task(s) better or describe training the unit will need to improve future performances): 21 .
Preparation (cont) Organize observations (Identify key discussion or teaching points) Gather observations from OPFOR representative Recon and prepare the selected AAR site Conduct rehearsals 22 .
SAMPLE AAR SITE SET-UP SET Position all players in the AAR Site ± Keep sub-unit integrity ± Put leaders in the front ± OPFOR on the side Brief unit on how the AAR will be conducted OPFOR LDR WATER PT CDR SAND TABLE TO LANE 23 .
Discussion Techniques Leading/thought-provoking questions Have unit members describe what happened in their own words Explore alternative courses of action Avoid detailed examination of events not directly related to major training objectives 24 .
Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the conduct of the AAR Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC 25-20 Standard : Correctly identify the steps followed during the conduct of the AAR 25 .
Format of the AAR Introduction and AAR rules of engagement (ROE) Review of objectives and intent ±Training objectives ±Commander¶s mission/intent (what was supposed to happen) ±OPFOR commander¶s mission/intent ±Relevant doctrine. tactics. techniques and procedures (TTPs) 26 Summary of recent events (what happened) .
not a critique Everyone should participate Does not grade success or failure No EXROE discussion Be ³thick-skinned´ No sleeping.Sample AAR ROE This is a learning event. dipping or smoking 27 . eating.
Format of the AAR (cont) Discussion of key issues ±Chronological order of events ±Battlefield operating systems (Co level) ±Key events/themes/issues ±Plan. Prep and Execute (technique) 28 .
Format of the AAR (cont) Discussion of other issues ±Soldier/ leader skills ±Tasks to sustain/improve ±Fratricide ±Others 29 .
Key Leader Assessment Position CDR 1SG FSO 1st Plt PL 2nd Plt PSG Sustain Improve Guide comments to your key issues 30 .
Format of the AAR (cont) Discussion of force protection/ safety Closing comments 31 .
Enabling Learning Objective Action : Identify the steps followed during the follow up phase of the After Action Review Conditions : In a classroom environment and access to TC 25-20 Standard : Correctly identify the steps followed during the follow up phase of the AAR 32 .
retrain Revise SOPs.FollowFollow-up Identify tasks requiring retraining Fix the problem . integrate into future training plans Use to assist in making assessment 33 .
Summary Definition. objective and purpose Participation and key points Types of AARs The four phases of the AAR AAR videotape 34 .
you are providing feedback on the unit¶s performance as well as teaching the unit how to conduct their own AARs. Good AARs get results. As the OC/T. Focus your AAR on the major issues.BOTTOM LINE We are all trainers and the AAR is the primary training tool. Get the unit to admit their shortcomings and work together to develop a solution. 35 . Modify your technique based upon the situation and adjust the format to accomplish the mission.
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