ENGLISH PARTS OF SPEECH (KELAS KATA BAHASA INGGRIS) Kelas kata bahasa Inggris terdiri dari 8 jenis: 1.
Noun (Kata benda) Contoh: book, box, lady, orange, English, dll 2. Pronoun (Kata Ganti Benda) Contoh: I, they, them, her, us, dll 3. Adjective (Kata Sifat) Contoh: clever, diligent, clean, cold, hot, dll 4. Adverb (Kata Keterangan) Contoh: slowly, diligently, fast, well, dll 5. Verb (Kata Kerja) Contoh: cook, study, run, sleep, read, dll 6. Preposition (Kata Depan) Contoh: from, above, at, into, dll 7. Conjunction (Kata Penghubung) Contoh: and, but, or, neither….. nor, dll 8. Determiner Contoh: the, a, one, two, three, dll Pembahasan 1. Noun (Kata Benda/Nomina) Kata benda dalam suatu kalimat bisa berfungsi sebagai subjek, objek ataupun kata keterangan. Menurut bentuknya kata benda dapat dibagi dua yaitu: a. Kata benda Tunggal b. Kata benda Jamak Di dalam Bahasa Inggris kata benda jamak dibentuk dengan beberapa cara: a. Menambah akhiran -s pada akhir kata benda tersebut. Contoh: book ------- books toy toys chair ------- chairs orange ------- oranges Bila kata benda tersebut diakhiri dengan huruf y dan didahului oleh huruf konsonan maka huruf y tersebut diganti dengan huruf i kemudian ditambah es Contoh: lady ------- ladies lily ------- lilies
c. Bila kata benda tersebut diakhiri huruf x, s, sh, ch, o, untuk membentuk jamaknya ditambah huruf
es. Contoh: box watch ------------boxes watches
d. Bila kata benda diakhiri dengan huruf f atau fe, maka huruf f atau fe tersebut diganti dengan huruf
v kemudian ditambah es. Contoh: knife ------- knives wife ------- wives e. Ada beberapa kata benda yang bentuk jamaknya tidak menggunakan s/es. Ini biasanya disebut kata benda jamak tidak beraturan. Contoh: ox ------- oxen tooth ------- teeth goose ------- geese f. Ada juga kata benda yang bentuk jamaknya sama dengan bentuk tungggalnya. Contoh; fish ------- fish sheep ------- sheep deer ------- deer Pronoun (kata ganti benda) Subjective Objective Possessive Possessive Reflexive Pronoun pronoun pronoun Adjective Pronoun I Me My Mine Myself
Perubahan kata kerja dapat juga tidak beraturan seperti: run ran run eat ate eaten swim swam sum
Noun Phrase (Prasa Kata Benda) Prasa Kata Benda terbentuk bila kata benda tersebut terdiri dari Modifier (yang menerangkan + KATA BENDA) Contoh. 5. kata ganti benda atau prasa kata benda sehingga terbentuklah Prepositional Phrase (Prasa kata depan) yang berfungsi bisa sebagai kata keterangan tempat. waktu. a very beautiful lake. tujuan dsb. a good house. Jika kata kerja berakhiran dengan huruf y namun didahului oleh huruf konsonan maka huruf y tersebut diubah menjadi i kemudia ditambah ed.
. Secara umum perubahan kata kerja beraturan ditambah akhiran ed cook cooked cooked watch watched watched b. clever boy expensive car. my book. Preposition (Preposisi = Kata Depan) Preposisi sifatnya tidak bisa berdiri sendiri. sifat.
Adjective (kata Sifat) Kata sifat berfungsi menerangkan kata benda. dsb. expensive car young lady. seperti: clever boy. young lady Adverb (Kata Keterangan) Verb (Kata Kerja) Menurut bentuknya dibagi dua yaitu: 1) Kata kerja beraturan 2) Kata kerja tidak beraturan a.You We They He She It
You Us Them Him Her It
Your Our Their His Her Its
Yours Ours Theirs His Hers
Yourself/Yourselves Ourselves Themselves Himself Herself
3. study studied studied cry cried cried c. Preposisi biasanya diikuti kata benda.
turn on. Di dalam kalimat. above. on.Contoh. by. among. in. like. from. inside. past. upon. (Setiap Kalimat harus mempunyai paling sedikit satu subjek dan satu kata kerja) Skill 2: BE CAREFUL OF OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS A preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun that is called an object of preposition. across. near. Contoh. around. If a word is an object of preposition. up. in several weeks (waktu). for. prasa kata depan TIDAK BISA sebagai SUBJEK atau sebagai OBJEK. during. under. near the table. between. below. (students = kata benda) The students were happy yesterday. harus melihat posisi bola tersebut terhadap meja tersebut. unlike. onto. beside. under. to. on. (happy = kata sifat) Kata kerja Be akan berubah menjadi Present IS AM ARE Past WAS WAS WERE Past Participle BEEN BEEN BEEN Present Progressive Being
Skill I: BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB SUBJECTS AND VERBS A sentence in English must have at least one subject and one verb. outside. through. as.
. Berikut ini daftar kata preposisi. within. beyond. without Mempelajari preposisi kadang kadang tidaklah mudah (tidak boleh sembarangan) kecuali kita tahu letak atau posisi kata benda tersebut. Preposisi terkadang mengikuti mengikuti beberapa kata kerja (look at. throughout. atau kata benda. listen to. Dia berfungsi sebagai kata kerja bila diikuti kata sifat. You may want to complete these exercises before continuing with Exercise 2. of. NOTE: A lengthy list prepositions and practice in recognizing prepositions can be found in Appendix D at the back of the text. at home (tempat). versus. toward. until. after. at. beneath. agree with. about. except. it is not the subject and NOT an object. with. underneath. the room of this house (menerangkan). To BE To BE adalah kata kerja dan juga berfungsi sebagai kata bantu. despite. behind. dsb). since. down. Misalnya sebuah bola apakah over. into. They are students. over. for you (tujuan). against. along. off.
1. (2) the past participle of a verb. APP. She has painted this picture. It is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of the verb be. S V A really good mechanic. The boy is standing in the corner. or (3) an adjective. Skill 4: BE CAREFUL OF PRESENT PARTICIPLES PRESENT PARTICIPLES A present participle is the –ing form of the verb. including –ed verbs. If a word is an appositive. APP. The present participle can be (1) part of the verb or (2) an adjective. 2. The –ed form of the verb can be (1) the simple past. The boy standing in the corner was naughty.Skill 3: BE CAREFUL OF APPOSITIVES APPOSITIVES An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and is generally set off from the noun with commas. This picture painted by Karen is now in a museum. 1. Skill 6: USE COORDINATE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY COORDINATE CONNECTORS and S V. V Tom. She laughed. 2. For many verbs. Tom is fixing the car. She painted this picture. but or so yet
S V she wanted to cry. It is part of the verb when it is accompanied by some form of the verb be. Skill 5: BE CAREFUL OF PAST PARTICIPLES PAST PARTICIPLES A past participle often ends in –ed. it is not the subject. is fixing the car.
. The following appositive structures are both possible in English: S. but there are also many irregular past participles. a really good mechanic. the simple past and the past participle are the same and can be easily confused.
NOTE: A comma is often used in the middle of the sentence with a contrast connector.
S V.Skill 7: USE ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS TIME after as as long as as soon as before by the time once since until when whenever while
adverb connector as because since
S V Teresa went inside
because S V. he went to school. S V Even though Bob felt sick. The Smith family arrived at 2:00. Bob went to school
S V he felt sick.
S V Teresa went inside.
S V it was raining.
Skill 8: USE OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS CORRECTLY OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS CONDITION if in case provided providing unless whether CONTRAST although even though though while whereas MANNER as in that PLACE Where wherever
S V. it was raining. while the Jones family arrived an hour later..
Skill 9: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS what.
NOUN CLAUSE AS SUBJECT
noun connector/subject V
happened was great. whenever whether. if that S V
NOUN CLAUSE AS S V noun connector OBJECT
NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT
was wrong. why. how whatever. where. when.
Skill 10: USE NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS who what which whoever whatever whichever
NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT noun connector/subject S V
The book interesting.
types fast is
TOEFL EXERCISE (Skill 9-12): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.
you recommended was
Skill 12: USE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS/SUBJECTS CORRECTLY ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTOR/SUBJECTS Who which that (for people) (for things) (for people or things) S V
adjective connector/subject V
She needs a secretary
A secretary invaluable.Skill 11: USE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS Whom (for people) S V which (for things)
that (for people or things)
I liked the book recommended.
health risks. the reduced clause can be moved to the front of the sentence. Sampson developed a plan to incorporate police in enforcing environmental protection laws whenever ___ feasible. A cloud’s reservoir of negative charge extends upward from the altitude at ___ the freezing point. * If an adjective clause is set off with commas. (A) is that (B) of (C) that (D) what Skill 13: USE REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES CORRECTLY REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE CONNECTOR/SUBJECT) (who which that)
Dolphins form extremely complicated allegiances and ___ continually change. 1966. ___ have as least four hours of hazardous materials response training is mandated by federal law. enmities that (B) that are enmities (C) enmities that are (D) that enmities Scientists are now beginning to conduct experiments on ___ trigger different sorts of
with a be-verb in the adjective clause
with no be-verb in the ( ADJECTIVE CONNECTOR/SUBJECT} (VERB + ING) adjective clause (who which that) * To reduce an adjective clause. During free fall. (A) It (B) What (C) When (D) That 9. omit the adjective clause connector/subject and the be-verb. omit the connector/subject and change the main verb to the-ing form. (A) All police officers (C) All police officers must (B) That all police officers (D) For all police officers 6. ___ will be carried in the next space shuttle payload has not yet been announced to the public. At the end of the nineteenth century. were Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. (A) whom (B) whom millions (C) were some (D) whom some were 4.1. (A) it is (B) which is (C) being (D) is 10.p. 8.h. * If there is no be-verb. Alfred Binet developed a test for measuring intelligence ___ served as the basis of modern IQ test. (A) temperatures hit (B) hit temperatures (C) which temperatures hit (D) which hit temperatures 7. * Only reduce an adjective clause if the connector/subject is directly followed by the verb.
. (A) noise pollution can (C) that noise pollution (B) how noise pollution (D) how noise pollution can 3. In a 1988 advanced officers’ training program. The Apollo 11 astronauts ___ of the Earth’s inhabitants witnessed on the famous first moon walked on July 20. a skydiver will fall at a constant speed of 120 m. (A) Has (B) it has (C) and (D) which has 5. (A)
2. The fact ___ the most important ratings period is about to begin has caused all three networks to shore up their schedules. ___ up to a full minute.
Time: While he was eating. via Ellis Island.
8. 5. In the United States _______ approximately four million miles of roads. (A) In the beginning of (B) It began as (C) Its beginning which was (D) What began as Primarily a government contractor. 2.
6. (A) receives Weber (B) Weber receives (C) the reception of Weber (D) according to Weber’s reception Because the project depends on ________ at the federal level.SKILL 14: USE REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES CORRECTLY REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES (ADVERB CONNECTOR) (SUBJECT) ( ADVERB CONNECTOR) Time after before since while when Once until when whennever Condition If Unless Whether If Unless Whether (SUBJECT)
with a be-verb in the adverb clause with no be-verb in the adverb clause
(BE) (VERB + ING) Place Manner
Contrast Although though
Reduce in ACTIVE
Reduce in PASSIVE
• To reduce an adverb clause. (A) they (B) they reach (C) to reach (D) reach ________ a cheese shop has since grown into a small conglomerate consisting of a catering business and two retail stores. 4. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-14): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. the man choked on a small bone. then omit the subject and change the verb to the –ing form. __________ so long been a part of our culture. Cause: Because he is seriously injured. Nevada. (A) it happens (B) which happening (C) what happens (D) that it happens ________ definitive study of a western hard-rock mining community cemetery appears to have been done is in Silver City. 1. 3.
If there is no be-verb.
. and highways. _______ preferential treatment from government agencies as both a minority-group member and a woman. the dog may die. omit the subject and the be-verb from the adverb clause. (A) there (B) is (C) they (D) there are ______ twelve million immigrants entered the U. has an enormous influence. the city and country may have to wait until the budget cutting ends. streets.S. (A) has (B) it has (C) which (D) which has Psychologists have traditionally maintained that infants cannot formulate long-term memories until ______ the age of eight or nine months. (A) More than (B) There were more than (C) Of more than (D) The report of The television.
the subject and verb that follow are not inverted.
(A) Most (B) The most (C) Where most Where the most One of the areas of multimedia that is growing quickly ________ is sound.
S V I studied very hard. (A) Although well attending (B) Although it is a good intention (C) Although a good intention (D) Although well intended Skill 15: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH QUESTION WORDS INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS WITH QUESTION WORDS who what when where why how When the question word introduces a question. early approaches for coping with workplace stress dealt with the problem only after its symptoms had appeared. V S In the classroom were some old desks. the subject and verb that follow are inverted.
V S were they so happy.
. (A) yet is easily overlooked (B) is easily overlooked (C) it is easily overlooked (D) that is easily overlooked
PLACE (extra) PLACE (necessary)
In the classroom. When a place expression at the front of the sentence contains extra information that is not needed to complete the sentence. ______.
When the question word connects two clauses.
Skill 17: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH NEGATIVES INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS WITH NEGATIVES No not never neither nor barely hardly only rarely scarcely seldom little When a negative expression appears in front of a subject and verb (at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle of a sentence) the subject and verb are inverted.9. Skill 16: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH PLACE EXPRESSIONS INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS WITH PLACE EXPRESSIONS When a place expression at the front of the sentence is necessary to complete the sentence. the subject and verb that follow are not inverted. the subject and verb are inverted. I know what they are. question word S V S V.
it is possible to omit if and invert the subject and verb. 24 were given titles and 7 were published during her lifetime. Then the subject and verb are not inverted. from simple carnation to the most exquisite roses. he would help.
Skill 19: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH COMPARISONS INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS WITH COMPARISONS The subject and verb may invert after a comparison. ______ variety of flowers in the show.
TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 15 – 19): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.
4. S We S We V were V were
more prepared than
S the other performers V were
more prepared than
S the other performers. (A) they are on a (B) are on a (C) are they on a (D) on a ______ producing many new movies for release after the new season begins. 1. or were.
.Skill 18: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH CONDITIONALS INVERTED SUBJECTS AND VERBS WITH CONDITIONALS had should were When the verb in the conditional clause is had.
3. if If S V he were here. The following structures are both possible. (omitted if) V S Were he here. (A) A wide (B) There was a wide (C) Was there (D) Many The wedges ______ dartboard are worth from one to twenty points each. It is also possible to keep if. should. he would help. (A) His company is (B) His companies (C) The company (D) Why the company is ______ that Emily Dickinson wrote.
8. ______ all written works into ten classes according to subject. (A) so it was proposed (B) was proposed (C) because of the proposal (D) it was proposed 6.800 poems (C) Because the 1. In the Morgan Library in New York City _____ of medieval and renaissance manuscripts (A) a collection is (B) in a collection (C) is a collection (D) which is a collection Some fishing fleets might not have been so inefficient in limiting their catch to target species ______ more strict in enforcing penalties. Skill 21: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT AFTER EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY All most some half OF THE (OBJECT) V
. ______ by the governor to curtail railway expenditure. (A) the government had been (B) if the government had (C) had the government been (D) if the government
7. Since an immediate change was needed on an emergency basis. be sure that the verb agrees with the subject.l800 poems (D) The 1.(A) Of the 1. currently used in library throughout the world. The Dewey decimal system.800 poems 5. (A) dividing (B) divides (C) it would divide (D) was divided 9. Individual differences in brain-wave activity may shed light on why some people are more prone to emotional stress disorders ______ (A) that others are (B) and others are (C) others are (D) than others are
Skill 20: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT WITH PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES S (prepositional phrase) V When a prepositional phrase comes between the subject and the verb.800 poems (B) There were 1.
and comparisons. (same structure) (same structure)
. Skill 23: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER CERTAIN WORDS SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT AFTER CERTAIN WORDS These words or expressions are grammatically singular. the verb agrees with the subject. anybody anyone anything everybody everyone everything nobody no one nothing somebody someone something each (+noun) every (+noun)
Skill 24: USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS PARALLEL STRUCTURE WITH COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS and (same structure) and (same structure). place expression. negative expression. the verb agrees with the object. conditions without if. (same structure). so they take singular verbs.
Skill 22: MAKE INVERTED VERBS AGREE SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT AFTER INVERTED VERBS question negative place V S condition (no if) comparison After question words. which may be after the verb.When an expression of quantity is the subject.