PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COILS ~~perimental Unit at Bolinas, California, 1981

- ~.. . . .

. ~-'

DISCLAIMER:

This materia~ was written ear~y

in the project and is in need of extensive revision. Pages 1-16 res~t £rom experiment~ investigations and theoretica~ considerations wh:i.~e at my ~ab in the Marconi Wire~ess Bui~ding (R.C.A.), at Bo~:i.nas, Ca~:i.fornia, from 1980-1981. Pages 22-25 are taken from reference (2) and adapted

for re~ation to Tes~a Coi~ waves. Pages 25-31 are taken £rom reference (3) and serve as an i~~ustrat:i.on of how the Tes~a Magni£y:i.ng Transm:i.tter can extract energy from the Earth's resonant e~ectr:i.c fie~d.

Eric P. Do Ld.az-d March 22, 1986

P.O. BOX 429 * GARBERVILLE, CA 95440-0429 * U.S.A.

1

THE TESLA TRANSFORMER

© I '1 ~ b E, f. f) 0 U-Art.1;)

At the turn of the century Tesla was in the process of devising

a means of wireless power transmission. The transmission involved

the generation of Lonq.i tudinal ether waves. Whether Tesla accomplished

this is not known, but the idea was considered by other notables *

such as Kelvin and Maxwell. Kelvin considered it possible to

generate "longitudinal waves in the luminiferous ether" thru the

phenomena of displacement current (capacity current aD/at). He goes

on to indicate his feeling that these waves must be faster than

light, as the longitudinal waves in a steel rod move with much

greater velocity than the transverse waves. Tesla claims that the

waves from his transformer propagate at 1T/2 the velocity of ~ight. It is interesting to note that-the veloci.ty IIJ.easured .on ,the ~e.sla

coil is ,also Tr/2 greater than the veloc:i.ty 'of:'light, but" this' does. appear to be a phase velocity rather than a group velocity.

In his writi.ngs Tesla indicates some seemingly impossible

phenomena surround the e~nations from the

spherical terminal

capacity, and I have determined these to be true by experiment.

One is that the power gradient (poynting vector) is in the same

axis as the dielectric flux gradient. The other is the slow forma-

tion of a conductive area surrounding the sphere that is not ionic

in nature (in other words is not a spark or glow discharge).

Contrary to popular relief, the Tesla transformer is not a

·See reference 6.

2

steady state device but is a magnifier of transient phenomena. Also it does not behave like a L. C. network nor a transmission line, but more like a unique type of wave guide. If all parts of the system are designed properly the EMF and hence dielectric flux jumps from zero to an enormous value a~ost instantaneously, thereby producing an almost inconceivable displacement current

into space. The transformer is then basically a device for rapidly

discharging the capacitor bank nearly instantl¥ into free space, producing an enormous dielectric shock wave similar to a sonic boom.

Because the dissipation of the transformer is for all practical purposes negligible, the energy keeps increasing at a linear rate per cycle of oscillation, thereby accumulating a gigantic quantity

of electrical energy.

(A form of laser action may be possible.)

In order for the transformer to resonate with the planet the energy storage in the active region that grows around the sphere terminal must equal the conjugate energy storage of the earth,

a stiff requirement.

It is interesting to note that dielectric breakdown in this active region grow into a log periodic form based on X2-X=1 as the

log base.

This will be recognised as the trancendental PHI or

the Golden Ratio. In glow discharges the ions of metallic elements form stable spheres of diameter inverse to the atomic weight of

the element involved.

The transformer's principals of operation are as follows:

The first requirement is the sudden collapse of an energy field thereby producing a sudden impulse of energy, second is the

[

;

PI G- ..t c<..

eTC.

TcSLA ,/1/IAGN/F/CATION TIZAN) po!Z,A/JER.

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5

transforming properties of the odd harmonic ordered single wire delay line (coil) which allow for the production of enormous E.M.F. and M.M.F., and third, the dielectric phenomena surrounding the free space capacity terminal.

1) The formation of the energy impulse involves the discharge

of a capacitor with the highest practical stored energy into an impedance (inductive) of the lowest practical value, and the discharge path is coupled to an energy supply through a negative resistance device. This negative resistance is classically a spark discharge, but a superior plasma device needs to be developed to enhance efficiency. Under optimal conditions the exponent of oscillation amplitude will be positive over a sustained period of time.

The net result of this system is the production of an extreme impulse of M.M.F. of great d¢/dt. An alternate method is the discharge of an inductor of the highest practical stored energy into a circuit of the lowerst practical admittance, thereby producing an enormous impulse of E.M.F. of great d~/dt.

2) The energy impulse generated by the aforementioned methods is then coupled into a pair of single wire transmission systems. Through induction a strong travelling wave is formed. Due to the impedance transforming properties of the odd (~j4, 3~4, etc) order line, the E.M.F. of the wave is converted into lightning magnitudes, still retaining the extreme djdt of the initial discharge.

The capacitive discharge method of impulse generation is Tesla's faVorite, but Steinmetz shows that inductive discharges will also work.

6

The capacitor contains the initial energy of the oscillating system. The buss from the capacitors to.the primary loop should have a negligible transient impedance. The capacitors should be

of the bolt on vacuum type, however, the unique dielectric properties of water might be of advantage as capacitor plates. The capacitors must be in symmetrical arrangement with the primary coil. The primary must be of one turn only and exhibit the lowest practical impulse reactance S(P) P=di/dt. Tesla indicates the proper length

of the primary conductor to be ~/2=Kn, where n is a harmonic number convenient for the size of the unit and K is unspecified. Also unspecified is if this value is free osc. disconnected from the

capacitors or is LC dependent.

The transmission network consists of two ~/4 single wire transmissi

systems of negligible radiation loss. The first of these is called _:the secondary coil. The next is called the "extra coil" by Tesla, but . .henceforth wi.ll be called. the: a~esl.a .Cc±l-_ This .netwcrk_ or _·li.ne

.' i.s typically. absent- in most- un.i.ts;· pw:pcrtinq to. be.·Teslat:ransformers.

~he secondary coil. serves as a matchi.nq.ne~r.k between the wave generatinq primary loop- and. the Tesla coil. The magnetic coupli.ng factor- ~- between the PRI and SEC coi.ls is typically 20%.

Negligible magnetic coupling should exist between the secondary

and Tesla coils.

The function of-the secondary is three fold. The first is the transforming of the primary M.M.F. pulse into an abrupt travelling

electric wave. Second, to provide a constant potential constant current transformation for good voltage regulation at the output terminal of the Tesla coil, and third is to match the drive impedance of the Tesla coil to the drive impedance of the earth.*(next page)

7

The secondary coil is of a low characteristic impedance of the value SS=~f. This low impedance requires it to be of high self capacity. This capacity is best facilitated by flat

spiral coils of wide strip, or by short coils of wide strip,

or by short coils of wide strip wound edgewise. The diameter of the secondary must be very nearly that of the primary loop.

3. Connected to this secondary coil is an additional coil,

the Tesla coil. This is where the magnification properties are most

pronounced. This line or coil is also ~/4 long however, it must

possess the minimum possible self capacity, resulting in the

highest possible characteristic impedance, thereby facilitating

the greatest possible magnification of E.M.F. by the relation

EO=~' lin.

The self capacity of the coil is minimum when the diameter is

equal to length, roughly l~ per centimeter of diameter. The velocity

of propagation alone this coil is"l2-, times the veloc:Ltyof_light due to the distributed shuntcapa.c:i.ty. 'rh.is resuLts. in p::onounced

capaci ty effects when the coil is operated' hlgher in frequency

than resonance. It will discharge a rate much faster than the angular

velocity of free osc:Lllation, producing explosive phenomena. The

self capacity of the terminal sphere brings the frequency of OSC

down to that of light velocity by acting as a shunt capacitor load across

the coil. Tbere can be con sd.de r ab Le e ~rgy radiation from the capacity

terminal. Steinmetz equations show a power factor as high as 40%

is possible.

Dielectric radiation from the Tesla coil itself must be minimized.

*It should be noted that the primary acts as a halfwave, therefore exhibiting no impedance transforming properties.

8

~ l,vp~r I/OtTACE J //l1Pvl." C

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+ _ ••

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A, -
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.l'll' F ~ ANr;,,(.~ It VCLOc.1 Ty Lv.AVt" V£1.0C ITy FACio R..

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10

This is achieved by concentric configuration with the primary/

secondary system therby enclosing its dielectric flux.

The potential gradient along L~e Tesla coil is approximately a step function due to the phase displacement of the input impulse's

harmonics, however, the velocity of the higher ordered overtones

become proportionate to frequency if the self capacity becomes

significant, thereby distorting this gradient which assumes equal

velocity for all overtones.

Consider the table.

Freguency Coil Length in Degrees Input Pulse Degrees

Fo 90 ° 0°
3Fo 270° (-90 0) 0°
SFo 4S0° (+90°) 0°
7F ° 630° (- 90 0) 0° The harmonics of the time function impulse are all in phase,

however, the harmon~cs of the space function are all out of phase

and is therefore a step function. The coil can be considered a form

of differentiator.

Hence the gradient along the coil is abrupt at the last few

degrees of coil length but small elsewhere along coil (see Fig. 2).

The last turns of the coil must be insulated accordingly, it would

seem possible the gradient to continue to increase beyond the

*

dielectric terminal! By facilitating the last few degrees in a

lead from coil to terminal, the gradient can be made to appear

along the lead rather than in the coil, minimizing capacity and flashov

*EMF then also becQmes greater farther from terminal, possible reaching astronom~cal magnitudes.

11

problems. The dielectric radiation from this lead will be small

as it is immersed in the sphere's flux. No data exists as to the

ratio of the size of the sphere and earth •

The complete Tesla transformer is shown in Fig. 3. The

electrical length is 360 degrees at the fundamental of oscillation.

The earth connection must have negligible transient impedance, a

star radial system preferred. The earth terminal is the M.M.F.

counterpart to the E.M.F. capacity terminal. Like the capacity

terminal, it is quite possible that the magnetic gradient and force

will increase as the wave penetrates the earth. Hence the 5 sections

of the Tesla transformer:

1. Earth

2. Primary ststem/ power supply

3. Secondary wave coil

4. Tesla or magnification coil

5. Die~ctric: antenna.

It shoul.d·be. born' in mind-that "resla.:designed. thi:s' system for

*

the. transmission of electric waves:. .. This,. is hardly desirable for

lab work as severe. damage to U.D.pI,·otected apparatus and electrical

interference can result. To confine the energy an image coil

(1800 shift) must be connected to the earth terminal. Making this

arrangement in a horseshoe configuration produces intense dielectric

flux and displacement current that is quite usefull for plasma work.

Due to the immense difficulties surrounding the spark device,

a simple method and one of much greater control is shunt feed of the primary network by an A.M. radio transmitter of special design such as the unit at building number one. Due to the high impedance

*The theories of radio at that time considered transmission thru existin lines of force or "ether tensions".

12
1'i!"tI q6- yo- 9(J- -.
FIG '3
L()

re. zp '2~ ~T '2 J 21\
T ~e EAIZTH -""/~#'t
~1' 'PRIMARy AJ~ /80°
i "J'J.n' I ~ 0 O/~ "" '
"Zs SECONDAn y )../'1 i:fOCl L£AD

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o

~T':: "Ajll

} 90°

7£51...4

1)1£1 ECTIlIC AuT.

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:

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J:. ~ T- ~ s + Zr " % T, = ;,60

1.3

. F/(;. 1-1

~AL4NC€1)

CO,,_ ~ ys-' eM

·1

/'l Fe IX. /P.GK

H~DC·-J~ar,rnf~~--lr--4l~~--_/~~~

'''tJ JC" )./1/ A

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AlV'T/?ACToJ/t, thoDE

A/Vl.TIPACToR D/l/vc

14

offered by the primary resonator the ~pedance effective of the tubes must be high and therefore must operate at high anode

voltages. The electron emission however, must also be high, necessitat_. large cathodes and teIr.peratures. High anode S and large electron em.i.s"" are usually of inverse relation in available vacuum tubes. Special pulse modulator vacuum tubes must be used. Hydrogen thyratrons might operate satisfactorally at low frequencies where the_ 1 microsecond deionization time will not hinder commutation. The most effective device for shunt feed may be the multipactor tube due to its stong negative resistance effects, but it is not clear if it will operate be~ lij60KC with much efficiency.

By the utilization of the aforementioned devices a much Lmproved field is devloped at the transformer output with regard to stability. This I have found desirable for the production of stable plasma formations.

However, I have not noticed the "jamming together of electrons" unless the spark method is used as the rate of rise of EMF is much greater by the spark method. Perhaps the multipactor will operate comparatively but strong impulses do not seem possible with shunt methods.

For stability of certain plasma effects AFC may be required. (See Fig. 5) The image coil system exhibits strong discriminator effects and thereby facilitates the formation of an error signal to the V.C.O.

As to physical construction the primary should be sheet copper of great conductor width and large loop area. Large surface is required as the skin effect is total with impulses. Large width also minimizes inductance allowing for larger capacitors and more

15

"iy4JC ,Pv(.s £ t---~ G~AI

C, ;tel.

SEC.

~EC. ..

CA~C"Y -r-- _ CA?AC,'Y "lZq~e-

?!2ol]c L-L. _

¥ TO ?H'#U »/rc/t/-/_ATon

16

rapid discharge and hence high impulse strength. In opposition to this required jnductive reduction is the need for a large area due to the flashover and coupling requirements. Hence a balance has to be established between the need for minimum inductance

for rapid discharge and for a large magnetic field, resulting

in large inductance. The formula for inductance (rationalized) is L=area/width.

Tesla indicates that the copper weight of the secondary must equal that of the primary for maximum efficiency. This

of course goes along with standard transformer theory but it must be remembered that the depth.of .penetration of waves into conductors

is microscopic forimpulses. This copper requirement must be modified ~ to equal surface area rather than weight. As to the use of water

for capacitor conductors Tesla gives no reason. It would seem that this is done for the sake of simplicity and/or is a holdover from

the Leyden jar. (Remember he began this in 1890) . However, water

has many curious dielectric properties that may be essential in operation. By theory, for maximum discharge velocity the dielectric must be a vacuum.

Analysis (See Fig. 6)

The oscillating coil differs from the transmission line on account of turn to turn capacity and distributed mutual induction.

The presence of series capacity causes the coil to respond as a capacitor network (with no inductive effect) towards abrupt impulses and angular velocities greater than the angular velocity of free . oscillation.

FIG- 6

17

___. M~
L
EL£.A-1e"v 7 OF
~ \~ (d-x )
7e'iLA COIL
'A~ Ij'J..K
Ie " '3 ? A T 10/ S 0 ,t:' FLOW
Q
1-
• Ie 6
£L£"MEA/T OF
;2.. WIR£ L.INe (d-x)
I
.. 0 PATH of FL~w
/ '/-J.L II.,. L

~KJ:~ Ie

EL£#cA/T of WAVeGUIDE (d"it.)

/ PAT" OJ:' Fl.O W

fi1 s .MvTCJA£ /A./f)uCTIOA/ X! /YIVTvAL CAfJACI7Y

C ~ "SHt.h4"T CAPAC '''Y

L. ! SE e/rs jA/l)uCTAi'VCe

18

The voltage distribution along the coil at the first instant depends on the factor a=~. Cg= capacity to ground, Cs=

capacity from end to end.

The greater a, th~ greater the concentration of voltage

at the feed end of the coil. The maxLmum voltage per unit length

is equal to a times the voltage of uniform distribution. a is a

small fractional value with Tesla coils.

The greater the d/dt or ~ the greater the gradient of voltage.

If the impulse has a long tail the phenomena will be as

described but followed by a damped oscillation. (OSc)

By impressing a sustained oscillation, and if the coil has a small dissipation constant u, the voltage will

continue to increase indefinately. Initially the coil acts as a

capacitor ladder network (See Fig. 7). The capacity elements are

ch~ged to nearly twice the applied E.M.F. The effective

~ capacity being charged is C=~. Because this netwwork contains

impedance elements of only one type the voltage distribution is

hyperbolic rather than periodic.

If %=distance/total length and

e is voltage to ground at the particular distance,

e= Eo COSH a %. For Tesla coils this distribution should be as COSH a

linear as possible (small a).

As the distribution goes from initial to final the voltage

can be analyzed into a complex series of decremental waves at various

frequencies and wavelengths. This is accomplished by analyzing the

initial distribution (hyperbolic) into space harmonics with respect

to the final (DC) distribution.

If a is considerable, no linear relatL

exists between frequency and wave length. (See Fig. 8)

When an oscillating wave follows the initial impulse (as is the

19

FIG 7

K K k k
---iTT I I I r-
IA/ITIAt..
RESrOA.JrE'
• TC TC Tt. • ,

I

I

I

e

I

I I

""~""'I ,

20

case with the Tesla transformer) the alternate positive and negative voltages cause continuous increase in voltage and energy. The effect of the alternations is to increase the amplitude of the wave by twice the applied voltage for ea~h alternation. Example - oscillating voltage is 1.24 times applied voltage. (initial) At each cycle

this is multiplied by twice Ea, causing E to ground to increase in sten. At second cycle E is 4.72, at third E is 7.20, etc. This effect is reduced or suppressed by large u or ~

The action of the spark gap has a multiplicative effect also.

Consider Steinmitz' analysis. "Continual or cumulative oscillations involve an energy supply to the system. If the energy supply is less than energy dissipation theO SC. damps as a transient with reduced u. If the supply equals the dissipation the OSC is continuous.

If supply is greater the OSC is cumulative.

The OSC represent energy and frequency transformation from the L.F. or D.C. supply to theH .F. OSC system. This transfer may

- be brought about by the transient of energy readjustment resulting from a change in circuit conditions, producing again a change in circuit conditions and thereby an energy adjustment by transient, etc., etc ..•

Recurrent oscillations tend to run into each other and form continuous OSC. When successive transients run in to each other they tend to synch.

However, the formation of continuous OSC is not the mere overlap or running together of successive waves. The recurrent

esc cannot start until the preceding esc has died out, and sufficient charge time has elapsed for next arc a'er of gap. With overlap no deac period occurs during which normal or supply frequency is supplied. Energy then must be supplied by a phase disDlacement within arc

L -
-
C =
k =
/'V\ -
-
L, =
C, -
-
K, :I
oM •
I 21

FI G - 9'

G~OUNb

L / NE EL F".Mt:A./ T.A L

dx

-J /Y)v~A~ lA/I)", c rA",vCtr I.A./ (/-o'6'",vn y )

_, f!3_+Q.]

'U - J L C ;2. L

22

During osc~llat~on, wh~ch g~ves a negat~ve energy cycle or a reversed_

hysteresis loop. For continuous osc~llation then, a hysteres~s

loop nust be rormed by the lag or errect berore cause." (This ~s

negat~ve resistance or the rormation rather than the dissipation of energy.) "For the cumulat:l.ve osc~llation, the area or the loop must

depend on and increase with the stored volt amp. of the oscillating

system. •

Mathematic analysis (See Fig. 9) (See reference 2) e - E to ground es = E gradient (E/inch)

By ~irchoff's Law

= 0

(23a)

Let 7s =

= space operator

Let '7t::: a / = time opera tor

/Jt:

Then

.I. .,t. Ir; - I, :: 0

Di~ferentiation of (2)&) in time gives

(23b)

These, (23a) & (23b) are independent or ~nitial and rinal distr~but~on-

of EMl".

Equation (23b) must be expressed ~n one var~ableD In terms of

voltage aDd current, the current density in capacity to ground is

C per inch of co~l t~mes the rate of change of e to ground. g

'Y-s r, = ",.~ e (,

(26)

Relating I &Dd voltage a

23

I in capacity between turns equa~s capacity per inch t~es s

the time rate of vo~tage gradient.

1 :

S

(28)

(29)

Re~at~g Il and vo~tagel

The relation between magnetizing current and I~ is complex and defiea analysis. (See Fig. 10). For the fundamental distribution

(t wave) the effective inductance of the coil is the space integra~

of the t cosine wave of current of H.M.F. and is equiva~ent to 2/

times the norma~ total inductance. For the third harmonic, 3/4

cosine wave of current or M.M.F. the inductance of l/J of the coi~

opposes the remaining ~ductance resu~ting in diminishment of se~f

induction depending on the mutual inductance of the bucking section

to tne rest of the coilo The process progre •• es similarly for the

rest of the harmonic series (5F, 7F, 9F, etc.). This results in surge

impedance for each harmonic but effects tend to cance~ for wave length ..

Capacitance of the coil behaves in a similar fashion and may be

voltage dependent giving the coil voltage gain under the proper conditions. (Parametric amplification)

Denot~ this residual inductance as leakage inductance L, and

-2 1

the dimensions of 1 as the mutual inductance M (Henry- ), then

=

(L M.)

(JOa)

(L M.)

(JOb)

24

rIC 10

(

(~{.._(-O

.A 13 c

ABc [) E

(-{-{~E{-~

AI LJ /SA • .;tII. F

'l/ ,." M. /fII. ;: o, C.

(')./'l1 - 2/'?r + ~/7r ) ~.~.,c D,C, (:J./'lr -?jlr f 'l/7r - l/'lf -# ';/-rr) /h . .hJ.,c ~,

L,,= IN7)uCTANCc = n (h1.~.F)

2.5

(30b} give. the va~u. of -rtI" , whi~e (23a) :i.nTo~Tes "'Y" I"

If we differe~tiate the former with respect to x and the ~atter with

respect to t, substitution becomes possible.

(31 )

(31), (29) and (27) express in terms of volts the three terms of (23b).

Hence, the general equation:

(33)

This equation neglects losses.

Analysis of the interaction between the earth and various coils

is possible by the use of velocity measure. This in general is a

complex quantity consisting of real and imaginary parts.

By the relation well known:

(34)

where v is the velocity of the wave. Then velocity is the ratio of

time to space. Letting this velocity be of ~it value, time and space

2. 2.

fimction. become equiY8.lent, .')'s =?'z:- • Steinmetz gives the fol~ow:i.ng

ustructions for accomplishing this •.

"L:i.ne constants are typically given per unit length, as per

centimetre,.mile, 1000 feet, etc.

The .oat conve~entvunit o~ length, when dealing with transients

in distrubuted circuits, is the veloci~ unit v.

That is, choosing as unit le~gth the distance of propagation in unit time, or 3 times 1010 cm/sec for transverse waves in air, this

gives v :I 1 and therefore LC = 1 = a-

-1 C :I L ;

26

That is, the capacity per unit of length, in velocity measure,

is inversely proportional to the inductance.

In this velocity

unit of length, distance will be represented by)..."

Substituting ~ = I

Time angle 0 = 2nFt = 2Tt/~o

Distance angle w = 2nF~= 2~~/~o

Analysis of the travelling wave along Tesla coil* utilizing

the light second.

,

The equation for standing waves on a line are as follows:

(1 )

e = eo x SIN ((~~l'.·)

u is the power dissipation constant. The power involved is:

~ -2ut SIN2 ua.·.,~ = ei

(2 )

2

Because the sineterm makes this symmetrical about zero

the average power is zero. For the travelling wave:

i = i 0 :If COS (" ~ ,.)

e = eo ~ COS (G ;W)

( 3 )

The power involved is :

eoio -l14~

E- [1 + COS (2) (":l'.~

(4)

2

Power average is now:

(5)

* Steinmetz's analysis modified.

27

Thus two waves exist, a travelling steady power flow given by

(5) and a standing wave given by (2) such a flow of power flows along the different sections of the Tesla transformer, consisting of sections of different u. For instance the primary has very low

u due to the large surfaces and the negative u of the arc, the secondary has a higher u due to no arc, the Tesla coil has higher yet due to

the small conductor size of winding, and the dielectric antenna

has a very high u due to radiation.

In the primary the duration of oscillation is very great as u

is zero or negative. The duration of coil oscillation is shorter due to their higher u, and by themselves their OSC would dampen quickly. Since all are connected together, all must dampen together. It then follows that power must flow during transient from primary

to antenna, so as to have all sectio~s dampen together.

Three conditions can occur in the general compound system: a) The power flow is uniform, that is, the power remains

constant in the direction of propagation.

b) The flow decreases in the direction of propagation.

c) The flow of power increases in the direction of propagation. This last case is of special interest in the Tesla transformer

as it increases the steepness of the wavefront, producing greater displacement current.

If the flow of power increases along system, more power leaves every line element than enters it; that is, the line element is drained of its stored energy by the ?assage of the wave, and then dies down with time at a faster rate than by its own dissipation. That is, not all the stored energy of the line elements supplies the power dissipated in the line elements, but part of the energy leaves the elements in increasing the flow of power along the line. The

28

rate of dissipation thus is increased, and instead of u, u+s enters

the equation. That is the time decrement is:

-(u+s)t

€-

s is the power transfer constant.

But, inversely, along the line the power flow increases,

that is, the intensity of the wave increases, by the same factor, +5"

E-

or rather, the wave decreases along the line at a slower rate than

that scattered by the power dissipation. Therefore, that taken from

the time domain is transfered to the space or distance domain.

i = io

{(u+S)t E;.stcos (0-w)

Similar for e

P AVG is ~ 2

-2(u+s)t

E

+2s x

E

The power transfer constant s determines the steepness of

the wavefront. To meet these requirements the u of the line

must exceed the average Uo of system.

Example (See Fig. 11):

Transformer

Line

Length = "-

in light seconds

-3 1.OxlO

-3 1.5x10

Load 0.5x10-3

Dissipation =

u u~

100 0.1

'2:1.4).. = 800 ~')..

900 1. 35

1600 0.8

uo= u A\1G. =

and s

=

+700

-100

-800

29

FIG 11
'x F;Iff R J./A/c J.OAD
"\-tinA' """"
')(.FM~ '1.(. -700
.- - - - -
J.IN- "'Z<.. +/00
F
\III L.CJAl) "U.. +v-OO
D ,
, ,
P6cv~Jt.
R , '1)I*STANCe
~
I •
,
L •
, - - ... ... - - - , - - - "Xp,.,p. LIMe LaAD
II~nnao' ,,~
X+'MR u -~j3
• , , " " , , , " , , ,
• J./A/c 'Z<. - 73
~
!'awOl · LOAD -c.c: -ltJ~ 7 ,

,

,_,1 ",,, ••

30

The transformer thus dissipates power at a rate u=lOO but

sends power at the rate of 5=700, or seven times as much as it

dissipates by internal losses. The load dissipates power at

u - 1600 and receives power at the rate -5=800, that is ~ the power

it dissipates is supplied from other sections, in this case the

transforner ~

The transmission line dissipates power at the rate of u=900

only a little faster than the system Uo of 800; and the line receives

power at -5=100, that is, receives only 1/9 of its power from the

transformer; the rest comes from its stored energy.

For the special condition of waves increasing in magnitude

towards lead;

Transformer
).. = lxlO-3
u = 100
~= 1.0
u = AVG u =
0 Line

Load

3 1.5xlO

-3 0.5xlO

500

1600

0.75

0.8

S = +433

+33

-1067

That is the power transfer constant of the line has become

positive 5=33 and the line now assists the transformer is supplying

power to the load (See Fig. 12).

The preceeding paper has attempted to show the considerations

involved in the optimization of the Tes1a transformer. The enormous

number of factors involved make this a difficult task indeed! The

authors of coil analysis have come up with conflicting results and

an attempt towards resolve has been. made. Solutions to the differential

equations have not been given due to lack of generality of those

)1

available and lack of space.

It has been mentioned in papers on the subject of coil

oscillations that theory does not match practice. Much more

experimentation is necessary. it also might be possible that _):>_ does not give the proper velocity, remembering that Tesla 7:-

claims that his velocities are faster than light. For further

information see:

1. ABNORMAL VOLTAGES INTRANSFO~~RS. J. M. Weed. American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Sept. 1915, p.2157.

2. ABNORMAL VOLTAGES WITHIN TruL~SFORMERS. L. F. Blume.

Feb. 1919, American Institute of Electrical Enginers, p. 577:

3. ELECTRIC WAVES, DISCHARGES AND IMPULSES. C. P. Steinmetz

4. TRAVELING WAVES ON TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS. Bewley, L.V. 1938, 1951. Dover.

5. DIELECTRIC PHENOMENA IN HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES. D. M.

Robinson, 1936.

6. ROENTEEN RAYS AND PHENOMENA OF THE ANODE AND CATHODE.

E. P. Thompson. 1896, Van Nostrand Co., p. 93 (Kelvin), p , 136 ('resla).

32

FIG. /;2.

_ Energy Dist rihution in Compound Osrillation of (, pen Circuit.

Faster Than Light!

By HUGO GERSSBACK

IT ma,. come as " sheek, to most stud~nt~ of science, to learn thAt th .. r~ ar~ <till in th.. wortd ~ome ~t'i .. nti~ts who belle ... thAt th~r .. Are sr ... ·ds "r .. ater than that of lill'ht.

Since the ady .. nt "f F.instrin, ",,,st .'':'i·nti,ls and ph}'5icist~ have tRicen it fur j!r.nt e d thRt 'I,..~"~ jrr-alt'r than 186,800 miles per second art' impo;sibl e in the universe, Indeed. one of the principal tenets of the relati"ity theory il that the ma ... of • body inCreLSf'S ... ith ill I~ and would become Inftnit.e at the "elocity 01 !ichL Hersee, a greater .eloci~· i. impossiblr.

Amons thoR who deny fhat UU i. true. there Ia ~Ikola Tala. -eU known for hIa bUAdreda of 1_ portant laW'eJ'Itiona. The Inductioa motor and the 11-taD of cllatrlbutln, altematin, nlrre"t are !:nat a few of his rr-t contributions to modem.a-. In 18111. be made his hi.torie esperimenll in Colorado; where he ID&nufactu~ for the lint tinw. artiftclaJ lI!ktnlnlf

I bolts 100 f~t Ion,. and where he IIIU abi e, b)' mean. of high-fretluelK')' currents. to Ii~ht electric lamp6 .t a distance of thr~ IlOilf'S witMut the use of any wires _hats~"er.

Talking to me Ahuut these eltp#rlments ree e ntly. Dr.

Tc:a.la reyealed that be had m.de a number 01 ~ur· pri.in~ di~o"eries in the high-frequency elf'dric fleld and that, in the course of these eaperimenu. he had become conYineed that he propap:atf'd frequencia at apeeds higher than the I~ of li,ht.

In hb patent No. 787.'12. flied May 16. 1900. Tesla ahowed that the current of hi. transmitter p.ssed oYer the earth' I .urf.ce "'ith • ~pef'd of 2!12.S80 mil~ per aec-ond, _hlle radio .a"eI proceed "'ith th,. 'el'H'ity of lip:ht. Tesla holds. how .. v er, th.t our pr ese n: "rRdio" .... " .. 5 are not trur H,.rtzian .a.e5, bUI r e Allr soar.d .... ,,~s ..

He in(nrms me, furth,.r. Ih"t hf' kilO"", U( sl'''~'.h leveral tim~~ grr.t .. r I han th.t n( lilfht ... no thAt he h.. d e signed aprar.tus .... ith whi"h he ""1'<' .. 1$ to projeet 5CH:AJlf'd elet·trons with. speed ...... al to twit'e that of light.

Coming frolll 10 eminent a IOUree. the Itatrment a'_'ld be ri"ftl due consideration. After aU. .bstract

nu,th .. m .. ti cs i. "", th:,.~. and a('tu.1 e"pe~;mentation i. Another. :-'-nt so :n.n~· year, a 110 , on e of th,. ",·.,rld·, jr r r ~I .. s t ... i e ntiq, .)( tt·~ t irne rrn,· .. d 'nath~III .. li .... lly tt,,,t it is inqu.·~""I".!" :,' t!r ;.. tw-a\·~~r-th.~n-Alr ~lhl("hine'. Yet ""Of' ~rf' ~~·ir.Jl r:t"~'\ ,..( j,&~rl'l&n~~ tOft!":'

Tt"~l. \'u"trl'4u:rt ... It part ~I: tht" :,..I"ti\-·it~ ti'l""f" .. mph .. ti,·all~·. hO"lil1jr that ma,.. is un.'!~"R!l!e; otberwise. en"rltY eould ), e prndu .. f'd !rom "othinll. ,in('e the kinetic: en .. r;ry ""quired in the (.11 o( a budy would be gr .. ater than th .. t nec:rua". to lift it at a sm.1l "eloeitr·

It is withlll the bounc1s of posslhility that Einstein'. mathemAtiCli of s~ rreater than Ii,ht ma~' ~ _?Ong. Tala baa beeD ri«ht lIIany tUOIa during th.p •• t. and he may be p""''''' richt In the future. [11 any eYent. the Itatemnst tNt there are .peeda (aster than li(ri\t i. a tremcnclolU 0-., &Dd. opea. up eRtirely new \·i.t .. to Ki~.

Whilf' it is be!i,. .... d t-~ ·.'an~ scientiSts. t',da~·. that the (nrC'f' of ~ra"it .. li"" i:i In-,..I~· anotIM-r mani( e statiu" ot .. Ie"cot r:,rr"c!'°,t; h. W"Y".·:. theor~ h,. "f"'. a" vet, h ee n no pr,O(l(s of' this. n",re are, of '·l'''"e. n,~n" olo,,· .. r .. t!lin~ .... i"'ut ~:-a\·i~di .. n ~h.t We hll'·e not, ~ yf"t. f.tlu'lllr:d.

At Oll~ time, it .... ~ believed hv :nan .. ,cier,ti'ts thd the sp,.ed of If'" it.tinn is inshntan;"u, th'roiJj:'hout th,. univ,........ This is limpl:.- aneth", way of putting It th.t these Art' &pet""I, ,~eat~r thAD light.

y e t, frolll a strictlr ..-ientift" "ie.·point. ,,0 one t od.y has 4n~' ide .. buw fut Itr.,-itali.,nal .... ,·""-.llIIay5 pro"idin, thut Ihe force is ill :.-tn"r_tro v e 1. tr the moon, fur in~!.r.rt'. ,.'ert" ttl eaplode .t ... h·~n morn .. nt, "' .... '"nil '" ",,!.I .r I· .. i ... ( .• re t .... Fr ... itatinnAi disturban"''' \''''':J~d Of" (I'll • ~ r:.~t~· "'('IuIJ ~h ....... "'it\ itat;nnal ilnpulse or ... · ... 'f>5 r:4\"t'! .t ~:'f" s' ..... d of litrht--tha, is • '''6.000 ",;1('5 rrr ...... nO· -or ,.,': . .11 t"" .. tf.,~t I.., i.,· st.nt.neou~: ~.~ dn "" ~:-I~.

The' ,",ntirt' . .,uhjr-c-t .'111 ~o dtJlit,t :\" "4 t,.t:ltrnduus

in,,.rest in ~l'i .. nl;tic circlt'''- It i6 I d. that other

ui e nti.,s will he elK·our.~ to in ... ~tJ,au Dr. Tel.'. far-reaching ....... rtions; either to df'6nJtel,. pro"e or to clisproYe thera.

33

No. 649,621.

N. TESLA.

Patented .ayI5, 1900

APPARATUS FOR TRAIIUISSIOII OF ELECTRICAL ENER6Y.

"8'

Mkola Te"'a. IflJIen/Qr

~.

bg/fi.v, ~~

UNITED

STATES PATENT

OFFICE.

NJKOL), TE~r.A. 0. NEW YORI{, S. Y

APPARATUS FOR TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY.

8PEClnC4TIOll formua~ pu"t of Wt.wre J'.~\ _0. MO,«Iln, d.a'-' .. ,. 15, 1800.

Orifi •• la"hcaU ••• 1 .. ~_r "lIl1,"rllI ... 160.343. %)191." II. \" •• ,~II_U •• II .. r.""*'7 11.1100. 10,.;.1 ••. 5.110. ' ...... 1 .

Tn all k·hmn " ",au ~"f''''''': .levAtion lUI table for tbe purposee 01 Han,,·

8. tt known that I, N1KOLA TaLA, a CiLi., missioD. Tbe ot.herCoermiD:l1 of tll.secoad"r)" zen of t.h. V Diled Sl"t .. , reeidiac At. t.be ber- A i. eenneeted In _rLb, and, if dMired, to oll&:h ot MAnhAt.tAn, ia the cit.y ot Ne- York. the primary "I.,. ia order lhM tll.laUer In"y

S countvaau !:Itateof N.- York, ha,.. inv.atf'd be at lIul"l.&nti~lI! I be I"me poCoeaLial u tho SS eert."i~ n.""nd u .. ful Itnprov.maab ia Ap· MJAC"ent portioD!I ur thelleCoadarr, tball iupluatus for tne Tran.miuion of Electrical suria~ .... r.l)". At. lhe rK'ei"'iag' .c.atiOll " Energy, of ""hlcb tbe follo .. ing is a I~inc,,· t.r"Dsformer of lilDilar ~nltrnction i_ emt.ion, reforence Uein~ had to Lbe dra-ioc .e· ployed; but in thil e .... the 10D!rer coil A' eon-

10 companyiag "ud forlDin~ a part oC th. same. _t.il.llI,el tb. primary, and the shorter .. oil C' 60

Tbl. "pplicl"ion i. a division of an "pplic:a. theeecoodary, of the traa.former. 1 nth. cir\loa ftled by ma 011 SepCoem l>er 2, ) e97. Serial euit ot the Iauer are CODOOCted lalDp3 L, mo· No. 6.50,343, eDtltled .. Syeteml oC trealmi.· to,. ll, or o~h.r d.vle. tor utiliziag tbe eurlions oC electriCAlenarcy," And is baaed UPOD ",at..· Tbe .. lavaled terminal O' coanecb"ith

IS a.w and u .. Cul t_Lnree "ud combinatioll.l ot tha eenter oC the coil A', aod :h" otber Coer· bS apparatos Iho"l1 aDd deac:ribed in aaid appli. mlaal 01 _atd eoll il conDected to eArth An,t f'a1.loD tor CArryinr OOL the method t.harein preferably, al.o, to I.hecoil C' (or till:' reasons

dieclOMd ADd claimed. abO •• lLated.

The iavention wbicb Corllli tbe lOnbject. uC The leD,tlL of th" tbia .·ire <,oil ill each

JO my pl"eseat "pplicaLioa compri_a traDemil· Lr"nlCoraner ahoul~ be appro~ilaattoly one- 7C tic; ooli or conductor iD whicb electrical cur- quarter o( the _av. I.arth ot Lbl!' eloetrre disr6aLs or <»ematioDII are produced 'Alld whioh tnrbance ia lhe circuit. thi ... timA'e boia,::

ia arranced to c:aUM eaebcorreata or o.cill,.· 'baled oa !.be valocity of propagaLlua nf t.he Liona to be propar"tedby conduGtioD through alstllrUance I.broqh the coil l ..... t-If aDd Lbo

'5 theaalaralmediulD fromoaa;poirntoaaoua.r circuil. wlLh whicb It ia·d .. igned to be aled. 75 remote t.l1ereCrolll and. receivhlK cOil or COD· 8y1l'''Y Cit ilIulLratioD, if the ",If' at wbich ductor '" _ach din-nt. point &d~pted to l>e ez· th. curreot tra\·e,... th. circuit illcludiag cited by Lb. OACillatloD. or eUrTeota propA- th. coil be oa. huadred aDd .Ighty·li ,'e tboopc.ed frolll tha LmDslIliUer.. ..Dd mil .. per IecOfId tben A (requeDey of

30 Thil apparatus ill.hoWD ill lb.accompA0Y' nia. hundred aod I. •• o,y· frt~ rer lecolld 80 In, dra.iDg', wbich II a diacralDmaLic 11101· .oold mai'alAia aiDahaDdNC1 Aad tweot"":"e trAUoa of t.ha .. m.. atationary mo .... in a oirc.i~ 00. Iluadred

A ta A coil, ,nerally ot maDY tur1U aDd of aad "I,hty·lh·. tbouBAnd mil .. Ioog aod-.eb

a v.". la'll. di"meCoer, woaDd iD IlIlral for.. .a,,·a would be two huadreclmll .. ia I.ogth.

J5 .Ith.r aboDt a marD.Lic core or aot., M may For lacb a 10. frequancy, which .oold be IS

be d .. lrecS. C I. a aeeoad 0011 formed b, a resor.1ed to ooly _baa it i_ ladi.epeu .. ble tor oaalhlewr of mllcb IArc.r aize aad Imallar Lbe ope~lion of mol.ors ot the ordiGArr kiD,1 I.orth "ou.ld aronn4and in proximiLy 1.0 tbe uod.r th. condi"ionl abo"e ... umed, I would coli A. a:.. A Meondar,. of fttty mil .. ia leoglh. My

40 The "PllAJ'llLu. a&" one polD&' il liNd .. a lach aD adjus~m.nt. or proportioaiall' of lb. 90 &.IaulIlilLer, Lh. coil A In t!ais caM constitat- I.arlb of "ire ill tha MeOReS.r,. coil or coila lar A birD·tealipn, MCODciAI'7, "nd th. coil C Lbe pointa of biCh .. t. .po:"ntial are mAd. \0 Uaeprill'l.ry, ot much lo •• r tealioa,of a trans· coiacid. "'itb th •• Ievated Coer," inale 0 D'. rorm~r. ID tb. circlIit of the prilnAry C i. iO-IAad tt. "boil !oJ be und~rstood th"t wbatever

45 cluded a ,uitAule .aurce of corrent U. ODe lan::lh be ,Ina to Lhe wlr .. tblS requlr.m"nt 95 terminAl of tb. aeeonllary A w at the ceGLer sbould be complied -ith in order l~oOlll.lt1

oC Lbo IIplr.1 coil, And trow toil Lermloal the I tbe Ucst r.lulta.

current Is led b,. a coaduct.nr n to a ter!\lioAI I IL Will b. rf'6(1I1,. und.retood tUAt -heD "i", D, prd.rably of lar,e Inr(a.ee, formed or abeve-presertbed reratlon, eli,t Ib" IJcaI rnn·,

So mniDIIl;aed by luch me:\116 u a balloon.t Aa ; ditioDS Cor reaonance bet .... D tb. tr&nsmlt· 100

35

t

l,jng and receiving circuita,,~ I\ttAined, and I tbe former case tho t'nllllection oC ono termi- 09l"ill;; to lbe tact that the points oChighest po- nal of the reeei \'in~ llpparatus to ~he groond tent ial iu tbe coil" or conductor- A A' are . might not be perraauent. but milrht be inter· 70 coiucident with tbe elevated terminals tbe I mit.tent ly or inductively established without

S maXlmOIll tlow of caM"tlnt will Lake place io depArtiog (rom the spirit of my inveotion,

tbe t1ll"0 coils, aod this, (urther, oeceSSArily It is to be noted thAt the phenomonon hero implies Ihl\t the C'l\pACity and inductance in involved in the transmission of electriCllI ell· eacb of the elrenits hav.lIocb vahles as tc ergy ie one ot true conduction and ill not t.o 75 l8Cure ,he moe' perCec' coadltion of eyncbro- be coofonnded '''iLh tbe pheDomeoa of elee-

10 nitra wit.h the impNDed oecUl&"ons. trlcal Ndil\t.ioa wbich h.ve here&otore b.n

When t.he IOUI'Ce of curreDt G ia 10 opera· obeeryed and wJlich Crom t.he very nALQ~ and tiOD ADd producee rapidly palaatln, or oecll· mode of propagatiOD wonld render PrllCtiCAlly. latiag carreale iD the circuit of eoil C, eoe- impOeaible Lbe trllDamiaioc of any I\ppl"&- ho respoDding induoed carreotJI of very mucb ciabl. amonaLof eaergy to aach distAnc" 1\.-

15 hieber pO\ent.lal are geDerated io tbe aeoond· are of practical importAnco .

.,y ooil A, aDd siDcet.be potential io tbeaame What I DOW claim I1S my in"eotion is-

gradually increasea witb tbe Dumber of turDI 1. The com bial\t,ion witbA transraittiugcoil

Loward tbe eeater and tbe differeace of poten- Or cond.nctor conDected to ground And to aD 85 ual betweeo tbe adjaceot tDral is comparl\· ele"AWd teruiiDAI respectively, Aad na~"Ds for

10 t,iyely smana very high pOtentiAl i mpraetioca· produeing thereia elect'rical currents or ceeitble witb ordinAry coils may be successively latioos, ofl\ receit"ir.g coil or conductor simi· obtai oed. larly eonneeted to jrrouatl I\n.1 to an ele\'I\t.foU

As the ml\iu object for which the appr.rAI as termioal, At a oiltaac9 (roOi tbe trllnsmi .. Ijo) is d_igned if! to produce a corrent of exc ... • ting-coil And I\dapt.erl to be ncited by cur-

's :\·ely·higb potential, tbis object is fAcilitAted rents CAused to be propA~tl'd from tbo flame

uy tlsiug a primary current of very cousid- by conduction lhrouCh t ho intcn'nain!: nat erable trequency; bot the frequency of the oral medium, 1\ !!Condary ccuductor in incurrents is in A large mel\.~lIr" arbitrary, for ductive relation to the reeeiviug-conductor 9S if the potential be 8nttkiently hig .. Rod the And det"ice8 {or u~ili::iD~ the current in the

30 terminals uf the coila be IOlliotaioed at the cireu it of sr.id 3econd~ry conIuctor. ns !IN proper elevation wbere tbe Atmosphere is forth.

",retied the stratum DC aIr ""ill serve rs ~ con- ~. Thecombiaation wIth" transmitLlogcoil

ducting medium for th~ current produced or conductor bAvicg i:.s cuds connected to 100 Aad the latter will be transmitted throngh tllo8 :;rocnd aad 10 au el'3t";;.!ed terminal reapee·

35 &.Ir, with, it may be, even less resistl\nce ~an tively, a priml\ry coil in induct! .. e rell\tion

:IUlODP aD ordiaary eonductor thereto :lnc! 1\ ooarce ot eloctriCAI oecillatione

Aa to tbe elevatioa o( Ihe terminal:! D D', It ia said primary circuit, at" receiving eonduc-

Ie obylou that tbie Is 1\ mAtter wbich will be tor or coil havin( itaeads connected to ground 105 d.sermlaed by A DDmber of thio,.. M by the IMld to an ele"BWd t.e~inal respectivelyaad

.0 &moll.' aDd qaality of the ... ork to be per· adapted to be ucit.ed by cnrre!lta caused to fot'llled, by Lbe coDdltloo of 'be atmosphere, bo propapMld from tbe traDamitter tbroqb

aad aJ.o by th. cbar~ter of the aarroandioi; the DlltDral meciiutU aDd .. McoAdary circuit country, ThOll If there be high mODDtnic.:l ill i[!daeti~e relALioD to the ,_iviDg-circuit 1.0 ill the YiaiJlity tb. termioaa f!bo;.rld 1:0 at B Uld I'Cceiviog devicee CODDected therewith .

• s greater hei,hL, aad generally t.hey should al- aa eet torth.

W&,11I be&;u ~titude mDch gT'Mt.er thAO that : 3. The combiaatioa witha traa!lutittinr laot the higheet objieta near them. SinC''' by strumect com9risiog A traollforcer hat"iog ita

tbe 1'0_011 deecribed practit'Jfolly aoy pow.ntiAlol 8&COnwy couneeted to (round e.od to aD el ... I S that is deaired may be prodoce<l, tbe currents VI\t.ed terminal reepeeti\'ely, aad m_n. for

SO throogb th.airatrata may be very amall, thus iDlp .... ing eleeLrical oacilll\tioDs apoD.it.a prt-

rednclDr Lbe lc.a in the air. :nary, of a r~iviDr iastrcmeDt compriaial

The apparata. .t Lbe recei"ioi-station re- a t.ranlformer havillg ita primary aimU&rly IpODda to Lbe carreata propapl.ecl trom tbe oonnect.ed to ,,"ouDd aDd to aD elevUed ter· 110 traalmiLt.er i. a maD:ler wbich yill be well mioal, and a traoalaUD, device CODDect.d

55 uDdel"ltooll from th. foregolOC descriptioa. with ita lI8COodary, Lbe CApaoity &ad iDduc&.

The primary circuit of Lbe receiver-tbAt. ie,' aaee of the two traaaformere haying luch Lbe thiD wire coli ,A·-lit ucit.ed by the cur- "aluN" to MCure IYOchroDiam with tbe im·

reDta propllat.ed by_coDdactioa tbroL:gb the preMed oecmationl, .. set torth, ,,~

l:sterveDiDg Datura! mecHam (rom the trane- 'TbecomblnaUoo witb. traosmittiD, 10,

M miLtar, aDd th_ cur~ota induce io tbe sec- .,~rnmellt compriaial( aD elec~rtcal LranaoodAry coil C' otber cur~nta which aMI utU· former h)vlag Ita eecoOdA~y coonected tc i&ed for operatJDg th~ deYiCM included in !be groaad and to aD elevated termInal reepee·

clreait Lbereof, lively, aDd meaDa tor imp~ing electrical I jO

Obnously tbe rece. vlug-coil.s. trAnsform· oscillatioas upon Ita prtm"ry, oC a roceiviD,

6S ere, or other apparatull may b3 movable-u, instro meDt comprialag a traaa!ormfOr bavJnI

for izat.ance, when ~ey are CArried by a vea· ita prtmary limilarly OODDeoted to grouod

lei fto&t.iDK iD Lbo aIr or by asbip I\t 1181\. Ju aod to an elented t.enRiDAl, and a ~,..u1a&.-

36

e49.eal

J

IO!; r:8virc c("noecte,1 w i th ;:.'1 secondarv, tilt' ! iont:'th oC lhe disturbuuce pr,'pAgated, ai'. set rapAcity and inou':(Anr", of lhe ~O{"onollory or ! furth.

toe lransmittin:; nn d priml\ry oC lhe receiv \' 8. Thec,qn(,inaL;oa .... ith a t .. l\aamiltia:;coi! iag in!trnraeota ~la\'lng sucb v:\!ues s.s to se- or conductor connected to ground aod to an J5

5 cliresyncbronLsII. with the turpressed osci lta- ~le\'atad l""niual re!pccti~ely, sud adapted

tlons, .. eeL forta. :.0 CAUas nil: prOJ,lA3Atioa of currents or oscll-

~. Thecolobiaatioo with a t.ransmittingcoil IlatiGnS by couductior. tl1r('u~h tbfO natural

or coaductor eenaeeted to grouud and An ele- medi um, ot a recni ving·circnii. similArly CODvate4 termioal reapeet.ively, and meAns for aect.ed to grounli And to an elevated terrai· 40

10 producing electrical curreatA or oscillations nal, aad of a capacity and inductance soch 10 tb. _e, of a rec.1.iu, coli or coadactor Lhat ita period of .ibratioo ia t.he &ame as t.hat .lmiiarly cf)aneat.ect to grouad aad to an el... of th" traasmitter, .. set forth •

•• tad l.ermCnal aad synchroaized with t.:le 9. The traa.mlLting or ·rocei.ing clreuit

trauraltting coli or coudactor, .. set. forth. berein described, cOQnect.ed to groand aDd 45

.s II. Th.combiaation wUh a trAnsmitt.ing in- an elet'&.ted terminAl respectively, aDd ar.trament cOluprLsing an elect.rical trAas· ra.nged in 80ch UI&nDer that t.he elet'ated tei. forraer, laaving ita secondary connect~d to miual is chargftd to the muiwam potentiAl groaad and \0 an elevated terminal respee- developed iu the cireult, as set forth.

tively, of a receivlatr inetrameut comprieia, 10. The corabiaAtion with a trausmltling 50

10 a lraulform.r, havlug Ita primary .imilarly coil or condnctor conoected to ground and to connected to :roand and to aa ele\'ated ter- an ele\·"c.ed terminal respectively of" eeeeivmillal, the recelving·coil beiag IYDchronited iog·circuit h"ving a periocl of vibrnt.ion cor. witb that of t.he t.l'1\nsmiLter, .. eet forth. responding to tb"t of the ~r"nsTUitlin:;·circl\it

7. Thecomoioationwit.hatranlmittingcoil and 8i:nihuly connected t" gronnd and to "n 5~

15 or conductor connected to groand aDd to an elevated tertnlual and so arr"nged thnt til!' elc\,;\teo1 terminal respect.ively, Gnd mean. Cor I elevated termiual i~ C'harl:eU to the bight"'!! produciug electrical ca~nts or oscillations i potenti,,1 i1c\·el.)oe.1 in the C'i~rlli t. 1\9 :let forth

in the S&1:1\!, of a recei\"ing coil or conductor , NIKO! .. \ TESLA.

I'llnilarly connected to ground aDd to an ele·! W:~nessus:

30 vated terminal, the 9!lid coil or coils hl\vin;:: P.,-RK£R \\" PAU~.

a length equal to Jne·qtlnrtcr .,;: L!:a -:r.Y.\! :,i,. ~':£LLl" ~ vu.z v

37

P-360

N. TESLA.

arr !i\A ,L'S rOF. 'R.\ SSM I nINO l:LECT81CAL E:NE:RO\

1:~t .. co lut 4. 1001.

Patented Dec. 1. 1914.

1.119,732.

.E~~~E

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

NIXOLA TESLA., OF NEW YORX, N. Y.

APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING ELECTlUca.L El'lEll.GY.

1.1 t9.7:l2.

.peclllcaUoll of Letters hte.t.

Patented Dec. 1. 1914 •

• pplleattoll Aled I.llury II, 1102. Serial 1'10, 90.245, lI.eanr.d •• ,. .. 1107, Serial .0, :In,ln.

To Ill! ,riff"" it m"y ronrern :

Be it known that 1. :\IKOL,\ TEl'L,\, 11 citizen of the United !"t:1tl'!', residing' ill tluborough "I ~1:lIlhatt:lII. III the city. ('''lIlIt\',

I and Stall- of ~,,'\\' York, han' 1n\l'lIt,-,1 I'ei" tum III'W and useful 1r1l1"")\('lIlI'nt'" III ,\rpn, rams for Trunsmitt ing '·:It·ctl'll'al Ellt'r~y, of \\ IIII'll th.· fullnwlJIg I'; :t !'1'1.·cili('atlOlI, ref eret ... e III.'m'" had tn the drn \\ lilt! aC'coUl

III p:lIIylll;! :tIllT fUI'm:ng ;! I':lrt of t!Il:' same.

In endeavoring to :,,1:lpt currents 01' dIS' rhDrgl's of very IlIgh tension to vurrous \'0111, 1I1,le 1I~. as the distr-ibution of energy through wires hom eent rn l plants to distant

.6 places of consumption. or the trnnsnussron of powerful disturhnnces to great distances, through the nnturul 01' non-urtificra I media, 1 have encountered .lrfhcultics In confining considcrnblc amounts "I' olectricitv to t he

20 conductors and pn'\(:nt:lII! its I('ak'a~c 0'(,1' their ~1I1'1)Urt~, or Its l'"cll'e into tho .uubicnt air, whiv I ulwnvs take- plu .. c when the eh-ctric surface densit v reuclu-s a ('CI'l:1I11 \ a lu«,

The IIItl'n~lt v of thl' l'tI""1 .. f a transmit

26 ting ct rvu it With a fre,' or clC\':It..( tvruuna l is proportronnte to the quantity of vlcctrrc ity displaced. which is dcn-ruuncd l-v the product or the cnpncity of th .. , crrcnit, the pressure, and tl ... Irequcncy of the currents

~n employed. To produce an clect ru» l movement of the required mngmtude It IS desirablc In charg« the termmal as highlv :IS possible. f(OJ' wln le n great qunut itv of d,·c' tri('it,\' lIIay also be displaced h~' a large

36 capacity ella r;..:l'u to low pressure, there are disadvuntngcs met wrth rn mall," eases when the {orOl(,I' I!' marie too 1:1I'gt!, The chic! of th,'!'C a re 0111' to the fal't that an increase of the CIII':I,.,t·: ent.uls a lowermg of the fre·

40 qut'''."" of th(' impulses 01' discharges and a drnnnutiou of the energy of vibration. This "111 be understood "'hel) It IS borne in mind. thRt. II cuvuit with a I:Jrge cllplleity behaves Q8 a ~lnC'l,sprmg. wherells one with a small

4& CIlPO(·lt~· nets like D stiff sprrng, vibrating mort' 'I~orously, Therefore, In order to attnin th« lughest possible frequency, wluch for cert.un purposes is n,hnntng .. nus nnd. apnrt Irom that, to develop the gn·at,·~t

110 elleq:)' III such D t ransnutung crrcurt , I emrlu," :I t r- rminal of relat I H·It, small I':ll':lelty. which I rll:l"l:e 10 a!' hi::h n pressllre ns pr:tc· ticnlilc To nccomptish this re!'lIlt 1 hnve found it imperative to I'll construct the ell"

66 rated eondnr-tor, th:lt it!' O'llel' !'IIrfACE'. on

which the electrical charge chiefly aeeumuIntes. hns Itself a Inrge rRdius of cur"nture.

or IS composed of separate elements which, Irl'l'''pectl''C of their own radius of curvuturc, nrc arranged In close proximity to ench 110 other and so, that the outside ideal surface cn,'d<>pang them 15 or • large radius. Evidently, the smaller the radius of curvature the greater, for a si ven electric displacemcnt, will be the surface-densrty and, con- 60. !K'f1"l'ntl~', the lower the limiting pressure to which the terminal may be charged without electricity escaping into the air. Such. terminal I secure 1.0 an insulating support entering more or less into its interior, and I 70 likewise connect the circuit 1.0 it inside or, generally, at points where the electric den. sity is small. This plan of consrructing.end supporting 11 highly charged conductor I

hn ve found to be of grt':lt practical impor- 76 tnnce, nnd it may be usefully applied in many ways.

HefelTing to the accompanj-ing drawing, 11,(' ti;!III'e is n view in elevation and pDrt ,',','1 If II of nn improved free terminal nnd 110 l'm'lIil of 1:lrgt' surface With supporting -tvurt nre and generating appuratus,

The terminal D consists of n suitably ,..hapl'd metallic frame, in this case a ring of rol'or'" circular cross section, which is ('0", ,,~ (,I'I'eI \\ ith half spher-ical metal plates P P, thus t'l1nrtituting a "ery large conducting s'lIrf:lC'e,.smooth on all places where the eleetric charge principally accumulates, The frame is carried by a strong platform ex- !!.l pressly provided for safety appliances, instruments of obser".tion, ete., which in turn rests on insulating supportsF F, These should penetrate fu into the hollow space formed uy the terminal, IlDd if Ute electric ,,~ density at the points where they are bolted

to the frame is still considerable. they may

be _5Pe<.'ially proc.ect.ed by coDducting hoods

lUI H.

A part of thtl lDlprovementa which form !I)O the subject of this specification. the transnlitting circuit. in its general feotures, is ident ir-ul with that described and claimed in

mv Clriginal Patents ~{)s, 645.571i an-i 049,021.

The circuit comprises a coil'" which is in "." I'lCl~ inductive relation witb a primon C,

nnd one end of which is connected io a ~""nri,plllte E. while it~ other end i. led

I hrolll:h a ~plU'lIt,. !'CI f, induction coil Bond

A m('tlllli~ eylinder B' to the terminal D 110

fI,l' cr-nncr-t ion to the latter should alwavs I u ' mn.l.- at. or near th., center. In ord .. r to ',·'·I"·,·:t -vmrnet r rcal UI~ll"l"'Jli"ll "f tllp("ur· n'lIl :" ;·t hvrw 1St'. when thp f,,.qll.·nn· i!'

[, "'ry hll!h and the flll,," ,.r lar::,· ,,,llIml'. the p.,..r.,rmnnre of the nrp:,ratll~ n:t::hl 1,1' impaired TI", prinmrv emil_\" 1"It' t'x··ttt'd In ali" .ksirE'u manner. from 11 stllLal>lc sourc-e "(c:trrCnb Ii. w hich muv lIt'lln alternator

10 1)1' condenser. the illll'0~"tont requirement I'ci,,~ thnt tht' resonant coruht ion is estnb- 1i~It~j. thnt is to suv, that the terminal D IS l"llnrll'ed to the maxunurn pressure- developed in tt.c circuit, as 1 have specified In my

15 nriginal patents I ,dot·!' referred to. The adjustmcnts shollid 1)(' marle with particular cure 1\ hen LIoI' trnnsmittcr is one of J!reat p .... ·er. not only on account of economy, but also in order to avoid .Innlll'r. I have shown

20 that it IS pruct icnble to produce in a resonat. in~ circuit as E A n B' D immense electrical activities. measured bv tens and even hundreds of thousands of horae-power, and in such :I case. i r the points 6f maximum

2~ pressure should be thifted below tbe ter minnl D. aloll,!t coil 11. a ball 01 fire m.igtlt ht't'1lk out and destroy the IlIIpport F or &bY' thin~ I!'II'e in the .... y. Fcft' tbe betm:r ap· precJDtion of tbe n.t1Jft of dUa dUlF it

30 should be stated, that the destruc:t.ive ac:LiOll may tuke plll('t! ,,·ith inCODeeiTSbk! Tiolmce This will cease to loe su!1Jrising ... ben it IS horne III mind, that the entire energy sccumulstcd in t 11(' excited circuit, instead of reo

3:; qnil"illj.!. as un-Ier normal working condit ions, <'".' quarter of the period or more for it- tr:lnsf"rmotll'n from static to kinetic ("1"111. m:l~' spend Itself in an mcomparsblv "lIIall~r interval IIf time, at a rate of many

4') millions of horse power Tbe al't'ident is 'trt to (1('('111' when, the transmitting circuit u"mg" I'11·ongl.v l'lICIc..-d. the impressed oscillilt ions upon It are cau!ied. in any manner mOI'1' or I ..... ~ sudden, til be more rapid thAD

41\ the frff .. scif lat ions, It is therefore advissble to 1lE'llin the adjusrments with feeble lind somew hat slower impre!l!ll!d oscillations, strength .. ninll lind quickening them gradually, until the apparatus has been brought

so under fW'rfeoc-t control To increase the '1Rfely.1 provide on a coevenient plaee.preferabl v on terminal D. one or more elements or plntes either of somewhat smaller radius of curvature or protruding more or 1_ be-

&6 yond the othel'll (in whi('h eue they may be of I.r~t.'r radius of ('uruture) 110 tbat. shuuld the rr~:<"," .. e rise to a "alue, beyond whieh it is not dvsired to go, the powerful discharge mn t dall "lit there and 1._ itself h rrmlessly

00 in till' air, ~tll'h n plate, perf('rmit~ a func· tion snmlur to that of a safety valve on a hi:.:-h 111'E'SSIlI'C reservoir. is indiceted at V. ~tlll further e xtcnding the principles undcrlvinz my invention. special r('{er('nct! 66 &a made to coil Band ,-"nductor B' The

39

1.110,'71.

)IItfRr is in thl' form of a cylinder ... ith smooth or polished sur f ace of 11 radius much laq;!'pr thnn thut of til .. half spherical eleruents l' P. lind "'ld"n5 out nt the bottom

mt .. " hood fl. whrch snould be slotted to 10 !I'old I(K.~. hv eo d.,' (·IIrrt'nt.c; and the purpo)S(' of "''''t'll will be clear from the fore ~Olnt; The r-oi l n is wound on a frame 01

.1 r IIm J)' IIr inslllat'"~ material. with its turns cln • -e to;!'('ther I ha ve discovered that ~5 when so wound the E'ffE'<'t of the smal] ",dius

of curv ature «f the wire ILwif is o\"l,,.r.om('

a .« 1 thl' coil bchn v es us Q I'ond,,(',o, of Inr~ radius nf cur' ntur .... ~TI'Spondl"~ to that

nf th« rlrum. This f"'lItllr" I~ of consider- 80 ~ulc prncticnl IIIl[W'luIlN und III unpliceble not only In thi" SI'(,Cl.al instance. hut G!nemil.'" .. For exurnple , such plates lit l' P

(I{ terminal 1>. thourrh prefernblv of Ill!1re

r adills of curvature, lIl'ell not hI' necessnrilv a& so. for provided onlv th:lt the individual plat .. s or pll!'ntl'nL.~ (If II high potential conductor OJ tCi11 II lIaI ure arrnnged in pros'mntv to ench other and n' itb their outer boundarres :t1o~ an ideal sylQJDetrical en- 110 "eloping surface of • large radius of eun-ature, the Id"anLaJreS of tM l,,~entJOll'l ... m

be more _ hs funJ'_liz.ed The Im'I'er 4!IDd of the coil ~,,"bich, if desired. 1M'"

be enmcied up to the WnnlDal D-should 11& ~ SOiIW! ... ·hllt hPlo'19 the uppermost tum of coil A. This, I find, lessens the tendency of the charge to hre nk out from the "'ire- conneet.inz both :md tu pass ulong the sup-

port F' . 100

Having described my in ventron, I cluim :

I. :\5 II means Ior producing great electrical uCtl vrties n rvsonunt circuit ha ,;nl1:

its outer conducting bounduries, which nre char~t'd to a hig:, potent.ial, arranged in 1011 surfaces of large radii of curvature so as

to prevent It'aka~e of the oscillating charge, subsltlntially as set forth .

. 2. In apparatus for the t.rnnsmission of eleetrioal energv a circuit connected to 110 2round and to all elevated t.erminal and ha"ing itll outer conducting boundaries, which anl subject to high tension, arranged

10 surfaces of Inr~e rndii of curvature substantially IS, lind for the purpose described 1 t:I

3. In 11 plant for the transmission ()f eleetrlclI) energy without wires. in combination with • primary or exciting circuit a second-

Ilr" connected to ground and to an elet'ated ~j.mill,,1 und ha,;ing· itsoutcr conduc:t~1lft 110 boundaries, which are charged to a ~ pott'ntial, Rrran~ in surfaces of lorge radii

of curvature for the purpose of preventing ICllk31N and loss of energy, substantially lUI

Sl't forth 1111

l. As a means for transmittin .. electrical enerzv to a distance through the natural uwui.t n grollndl'd resonant circuit, comprisinl! U part upon which oscillations are impressed and another for rlllslOg the ten- 110

40

sion, h:I"In!! It~ nlll"r .·"nd".·tiro)! houndaru« nn which a hlj!h It'II~,,,n ,'harj!" accunmlato-, arrall,z .. d ill ~lId:l<'''''' flf larC'I' radii of curvn.:; rr-, ~1I1.:,t:llltj::dh' as dvscr ibed ..

t. Tho means for .producing excessive l·II'('tric pnt .. ntiuls consisting of a primary excitirnr circuit and a I'f'sonant saecoadlln' hnvinjr tts outer conducring elements which are subject to high tension :arranged in prex-

11) imitv to each other and in surfaces of l:tr~ rneiil of curvature so as to prevent I('akage of the charge and attendant loweringof potentinl. substunt ial lv :IS described.

G, .\ circuit cnm,;ri,,;ing a I':lrt 111'011 which

15 oscillations arv impres-e-I and unother part for r:rising the tension hy resonance, the latter part lleing supported on places of low electric density and ha "jng its outermost conducting boundaries arranzed i11 surfaces

:0 of larj!e radii of curvature, :IS set forth,

i, In apparatus for the transmission of eleeerieal energy without wires :1 ~ounded circ1lit the outer conducting elemenu of ... tuch have a gre:t ~g:r.tt' .rea aDd are

::1 a~ in surboes of large radii of curva· ture 80 as to pennit the storing of a high ch.~ at a small electr-ic density and prevent 1035 through leakage, substantially as described,

1.11D. '712

8

8, A wireless transmitter cf'mprisinll in ar combination a source of oscillntions as a condenser, n pr-irnc ry c:tt'itin~ circuit and :! .secondary grounded and elevated conductor the outer conducting bound. ries of which are in proximity to each other and arranged ::~ in surfaces of large radii of curvature. substantiftlly as described,

9, In apparatus for the tra.nsmission of I'If'<'tncal energy ~ithollt wires lin elevated conductor or Antenna h:l\:ing its outer high 41' potential conduct.ing or capacity elements urrallgl'd in proximity to each other and in surfaces of large rndii of curvature so ns to overcome the effect of the smal] radius of curvature of the individual elements and 4" If'aknj!c of the charge. U1> set forth,

10, A grounded ~lD.nt tranmniUing circuit ha"ing its outer conduet.ic~ boundnries arranged in surfaces of lar~ radii

of curvature in combination "'ith an ele- :'11 vated termiaa! of great surface supported

at points of low electric density, subseantially as described. .

NIKOLA TESLA.

Witnesses:

M, LA MI!IOI'I DTEa, R.JclLUlD Do:-;OV.N.

Coptel ot WI patellt IIL&~ 1:e obUJlle4 tor lYe cnts each. by a44rcsullC U1e Y Cnna.baS.aer of hle.ta. lh.II!DetO •• D, c.'"

·~. _.

CAPACITIEti*

By

FRITZ LOWENSTEIN

j,rl(~r~4

As the seat of energy of an electrical field is in the space

outside of the charged bodies we will consider the shape and concentration of the field only, but not that of the body itself, This distinction if' necessary because capacities are usually attributed to the bodies charged, whereas the energy is excluded from that space w hich i" occupied by the body. Considering the space between two charged bodies :I" the only seat of energy. the expression "charg:rd body" is best replnccd by "terminal surface" of the field.

Comparing geometrically similar elements of two !!('ometrically similar fiekl-. the elementary cnpacities are pro-

portional to lineal dirm-n-iou-. (~<'(' Figure 1.)

Extending this law over the cnt ire fielrl hy tho integrating process, we find that geonwtrically similar fie-lds han capacities proportional to the lineal dimensions of t he terminal surfaces. It is to be expected. therefore. that capacities expressed in dimensions of tcrrninnl surfaces should he of lineal dimensions.

That the capncitv i- hy no means a function of the volume of the field or of the terminal body may be easily seen from Figure 2 where a field element is increased to double the volume by adding

• Presented before The Institute of Radio Engineers. ~C\\' York, DecemhPr I, 1915.

17

c ,

volume in the direction of the field lines and in a direction perpendicular to the lines. In the first case the capacity has been decreased whereas in the latter case increased, altho in both eases the volumetric increase is the same.

FIGt.'RE :!

It is seen. therefore. t hat instead of being dependent on the volume, the capacity i,. rather a function of lineal dimension and therefore the maximum lineal dimension predominates,

An interesting example of this predominating lineal dimension or "maximum reach" is given by the composite capacity of two wires joining at one end under various angles, as shown in Figure 3.

FI\Ol'RE 3

Wht'n the angle i!'i "mall the composite capacity is practically the same as that of the single wire, since the addition of the second wire has not increased the maximum reach ... If the second wire H be joined to .-1 at an angle of 180 degrees;' which means in straight cont inua tion of wire A the total capacity has

18

oubled, as the maximum reach now is twice that of the single wire. We notice also that by deviating wire B slightly from the

traight continuation of wire A, the maximum reach of the system is not materially altered, from which one may correctly eonclude that turning the wire B thru an appreciable angle b does not materially change the capacity of the system. On the other hand a great change of maximum reach is produced by '·:J.ri:J.tions of the angle when the two wires are approximately perpendicular, and in Inct the capncity of the total structure i~ most sensitive to changes of angle between the two elements at about 90 degrees.

In Figure 4, I haw given a table of capacities per centimeter of the greater lineal dimension of t he different eonfigurntions,

o

C=501

o

(-201

C-.IOl Frcrn» ..

III Fijrur« .j the wire .4 B is a-sumed to he moved IJ\' the variablo nh"ei"":lE' I, tlwr('hy ~(,IH'r:1tinJ.! a conducting sheet S.

It i" instruct ive to follow the variation of the capacity C sH)

- .. _-------------,..

.'

'I

.,

At %-11 the cnpacity Is thutof the wire Cob; as long as a is small the capacity is practically constant because the width of the sheet is small compared to the length A B and a change of % does not involve a change of the predominating lineal dimension; however, as % increases and finally becomes greater than .4 B, it assumes the part of the predominating dimension, and, indeed, the graph shows the capacity then to be propertional to z,

~ ~ J

FIGt:K£ ;j

Compurirur the capacities of a sphere and of a wire, it is found that the capacity of the sphere is only three or four times as great as the cnpucity of the wire in spite of the million times greater volume.

I have spoken of the capacities of a wire and of other bodies instead of tho capacity of the field simply becaui s e I do not wish to distract attention from the familiar conceptions. Let me analyze tho field shown in Figure 6, haying two concentric spheres :I.'" tr-rminnl surfaces, and defining as "volumetric energy den-ltv" th« ('Iler!!y r-ontnined in one cubic centimeter. As the energy of a field element is made up of the product of potential alone t he line- of force within that element and of the number of lines t ra versinz it. t he ('ner!!:y of a cubic centimeter of electric. field i .. proportional to the square of the field density.. "Since the field density diminishes as the square of the distance from the center of field. the volumetric energy density diminishes with the fourth power of the distance from the center. The diagram' to the h-It in Figure () shows the decrease of volumetric energy densitv,

Of I!rl'atl'r intere-t than the volumetric energy density is the, lineal ('n('r!!:y density. which may he defined as the energy contained

20

f#.

.~?,

in a sphericnl la .... er uf OIH' ('('lItim!'t('r radial thicknr-«: and as the volume of such ln .... or iIH'J'(·a,.;p" with t ho ""lIar(' of t he distn nr-rfrom t he ceutcr. t h« law fllllol\'" Irorn t hi- Iur-t , .uul from till' volum--r ric PIH·!'!! .... d(·Il"il .... law t h.it till' lill(·~d f'IH·r!!.'· d,'""it~· decreases inversely as t he squart- of t hc di"tall('(' from IhC' ('I·lItpr. :-,ul'h dependcuce is I,!raphil'ally "hO\\'I, tu tilt, right ill Fil!lIn' (j. TIl(' shaded surface below I hi" curvr rt'pn'''I'li i'" t lu- I utul ,'IH'rI:!Y of tho field and it is ea"ily ""('cn therefrom that the maximum cn('rgy of the field is concentrated neur the smaller of the two "pllf'r('~ ,

I hun taken a simple case of n field with spherical terminal "lIrf:l(,,(,>< to show that the concentration of energy lies nenr the "m:lllf'r terminal surface. Similnr considerations can he nppliNI when subst itutirur for t hi" fi(,ld rnrliat inz threo-dimen-ionnllv. :1 fi(·hl of hi-dimensional radiation (a,.. that occurring in till' (':'''(' of IOllg cylindrical terminal surfaces}: wher«, as in this inst nnec. till' hdk of the ('ll('rgy of III(' hpld i" to I,,· Iouml ucnr the snmlk-r orx- of till' two terminal surfncos.

III Figur« T, r han' shown a fil'ld with ('on('l'lltri(' tr-rmirnl ~lIrf:"· .. ,, i .. it hr-r spherical or r-vlindricul). and han' ill''l'ea''l'd till' "'"1''' of t lu- field h~' l'l'dul'illJ! tho "izl' of t he smaller terminal !'urfar'(' without, however, changing either the total numlx-r of fic·lrI lines or the larger terminal surface. As the lineal (,llI'r~y d('n"ity i,.. \'t'r~' great near the smaller terminal surface. such addition of t he field at that point must have mnterinlly inert-n-ed the ('nt'rJ!Y of till' field aud the change in capncity to he expt'(,t"d should b('I'IlIl"id('rahlto. In Iuct , a considerable change in l'ap:rl'ity of a -plu-n- i,.. obtuined I)y :r change of it s diameter.

If, ill Fiuurt- i t hc larger terminal surface alone is charun-d,

21

I

'::~":'

even materially, the total energy of the field will be increased very slightly only; due to the fact, as we have seen, that the energy density near the larger terminal surface is very small. Such a small change in energy- corresponds to only a small change in the capacity of the field, from which we conclude:

FIGt"RE i

In n field having two terminal surfaces of greatly different .:-:ize'. n change of the -mallcr surface produces a great change in capacity, whereas a change of the larger terminal surface affects the capacity of the' field only very slightly. The capacity of a field is, therefore, almost entirely determined by the shape of the smaller terminal surface.

That is why we may with correctness speak of the capacity of a sphere. or any other body. without mentioning the size and shape of till' other n-rmirnl surface, as long as the assumption is corn-et that :-:ut"i. otlwr tcrmirul surface is of greatly larger dimensions.

It rnuy not hI' nrni-« to call your attention to the fact that thr- im-n-n-« of field "'llf'r~y as illustrated in Figure 7 is aceompanied hy :1 dl'('r('a,,(" in cupacity. This relation may easily he t1Nlul"(·d from phv-icul considerations, as well as, from eon-' . siderntion of the mathematical expression for the capacity

(" = ~~ where ~ = total field lines

32 ;:'~ 11' IF = energy,

wherein til!" cnpucity j" expressed a!l a property of the field alone. I am temptr-d to introduce here the reciprocal value of capacity and npplv to it till' tr-rm "stiffness of the field," as an increase of l'nC'r~' would II(' followed by an increase of stiffness. I am,

22

..

however, loath to mar any additional insight which may be gained from these explanations by deviation from so familiar a term as capacity.

For a better conception of the slight change of capacity caused by a considerable increase of the larger terminal surface, I refer to Figure 7, where the difference of capacity is only 1 per cent in spite of the diameter of the larger terminal surface being increased lOOper cent. It appenrs, therefore, that that part of the capacity of an nntr-nnn which i" due to the flat top is not materially changed by its height above ground.

While considering the capacity of a flat top antenna to ground, it must have occurred to many engineers, as it did to me, that the statement to be found in many text books on electrostatics is rather misleading: "That the free capacity of a body considered alone in spnce must not he confounded with till' capacity the body may hn ve agninst another hody ("or "i!l(·n·d as a plate condenser." This statement i:< quite erroneous. As the strength and direction in any point of a field i" of ,.:illJ,!l(' and definite value, only om' electric field can exist in a ginn space at a given moment. nurl. t lu-rcfore. onlv one \':\111(' of cnp.u-irv. It is incorrect, t lu-reforv, to distinguish 1)(,t\\'('('11 Irr-e (·ap:lI'it~· and condenser capacity. This clarifying statement is deemed advisable, or at least permi-, ... ihlc, in view of the quoted errors,

By speaking of the rapacity of the field instead of that of the body, no such erroneous thought is possible, and it is clear that by free capacity of a body is meant the capacity of the field whose smaller terminal surface is the given body find whose J:trtrf'T terminal surface is one of vastly greater dimensions. It is not essential that this It"'ater terminal surface Ix- located at infinite distance. becnu-«- of tilt' Inet that even if construed as of t en times the lineal dimensions of, the small surface the "h:m~(' caused by removirur it to an infinite distance would n--ult in a change ill (·ap:H·it~· of not more than one-tenth of 1 pr-r cent ,

At a time when I had not realized the' ,.:inJ.!ly determined value of a field capacitv, I considered a comparison between free and plate capacity as shown in Figure 8, wherein to an upper

di-« (of which the free capncity is ~r). was added another lower disc, th"f{'!'y Iorrning a plate condenser. The problem arose' in my mind to determine the distance of separation of the two pbt,·" "0 that tile plate capnritv would equal the free capacity of the singlo di-e. From the well-known formula. .. for the disc

23

r·------------------------------~==========-------- .. ~

FIGURE 8

capacity and plate capacity, it would appear that the two were equal at a distance equal to d = ~r, and I must confess that I had quite a struggle to decide whether in speaking of the capacity of the upper plate I would not have to add the two capncme-. While such a mistake need hardly be called to the attention of tho majority of engineers, I do not hesitate to make mention of it for the benefit of even the few students who might gain t hi-refrom.

The advent of the aeroplane has opened another field, for radio communication. Whereas in the static field of an antenna, one terminal surface is artificial and the other provided by the surrounding ground, both terminal surfaces in an aeroplane outfit have to be artificial and are, therefore, open to design. The question arises in such a radio oscillator 88 to how much may I>t' gainC'ci in energy for each single charge by increasing that 011(> of till' two terminal surfaces which consists of a dropped wire. TIl(' arra nzvment is shown in Figure 9. It is evident that

FIGt:RE 9 24

: .

as long as the dropped wire is of smaller dimensions than the electrostatic counterpoise provided on the aeroplane, an increase in length of such dropped wire will materially. increase the capacity of the field and, therefore, the energy per charge (as we may conclude by analogy from Figure 7). As soon, however, as the dropped wire is materially longer than the conductor on the aeroplane it assumes the role of the larger terminal surface of the field, and any further increase of its length will not materially contribute to an increase of eleetrostntic capacity nor of the energy per unit charge.

Figure 10 shows the function of the volumetric and lineal energy density in a field whose smaller terminal surface is a long cylinder. Such a field, radiating hi-dimensionally only, shows an energy concentration not so accentuated as that found in the

5~11:~lIs

-- II! --

_.L-~ , _I-

==- p2=- : 'II. -_p.=

.1 -

I.'ill

Ii

I' S

5

FIGURE 10

tri-dimensionally rndia t iug field; 11U~ considering the larger terminal surface of a diameter ten times that of the smaller surface, the (·:tp:wity would only bl' ("italll!f"d I per cent by increasing the larger terminal surface infinitely.

In all C3,.e,.;, t herefore, where the larger terminal surface does not come closer at any point than (say) ten times the corresponding dimension of the smaller terminal surface, we need not be concerned with the actual shape of the larger terminal surfae« when we determine the seat of energy, the capacity and the configurnrion of the field lines emanating from the smaller surface. It "'iII he seen, therefore, that from the fiat top of an antenna, lines emanate almost svmrnetr ically both upwards anti. downwards a- though the larger terminal surface were one-

2S

surrounding the antenna symmetrically on all sides, in spite of the Iact that the ground is located entirely at the bottom of the antenna. This is clearly illustrated in Figure II.

By integrating the lineal energy density of a three-dimensionally radiating field between the radius of the smaller sphere

FIGt'RE 11

and that of the larzer sphere, we can find the energy of such a field: whereby the capacity is determined, The lineal energy

densitv Iollows t hr. 1:\ w of -~. and its integral is proportional

r-

to 1; and consequ-ntly the capacity of the field varies as r.

r .

We have deduced. therefore, the capacity of a sphere from properties of thr- fif·lt! alone. r-onsidering the sphere ll.'1 a terminal surface only,

III deducing similarly the r-apaeity of the wire from properties of the fiehl alone. \\'l' have to start with the hi-dimensionally rndiur ing fir-ld tilt' lineal energy density' of which follows the 1

1:1 w - as we ha ve ':1.'('11. The integral of such function is of r

IUJ!;arithmi(' uatun-. :l" indeed i,. the capacity of the wire. .

[ wish to call your attention to the Iact that in a sphere' segments of the same projected axial length contribute equally to the capacity of the sphere, as shown in Figure 12.

If n chnrze \\"N" made to enter a sphere' and traverse the sphere in the direction of a diameter, the sphere as a conductor would behave like a straight piece of wire of uniform lineal capncity. This fact \\":1,.. first recognized, to my knowledge, by

2G

~ .

FIGl"Rt: 12

Mr. Nikola Tesla, and [ expevt to come back to the hehavior of n sphere as a conductor of rruliu frequency currents at some

later date,

The study of cnpacitie- of eompositc bodies i:< most in-

structive and conducive to n dear cOlll'('ption of capucity. Let, as in Figure 1:3, n number of small :<plwre:< of radius lx- :<0 arranged a~ to cover ('oIllPh·t('ly the :<lIl'fa('(' of t he lnrger sphere, the rndiu" H of \\·hid. Ill' lOO. If 1':H'h (lIH' of t hc

3L.JUU -mnlh-r spheres ('uuld hi' counn-d nt its full value of capucit y , the cupncitv of tilt' l'I)mpo,.:itt· hody would he 31,400; L" a matter of fact, however, it is not more than radius R of th«- larger sphere, that is laO, Indeed, the eonfigurat.ion of tlw (·l(,(·tric fidel F could not ha ve changed materinllv by the arrunaerucnt of the small -pheres, anti the capacity cleurly presents itself 3!' a property of the configuration of the field lyin~ outside of the enwloping: surface of the eornposi te

structure.

2.

:-- ..

Capacity may playa part in the conduction of electricity thru liquids and gases. Let us assume a series of spheres in lineal arrangement as shown on Figure 14.

A:; long as the distance between the spheres is great compared to the diameter of the spheres, each sphere will retain its full capacity as given by its radius. By decreasing the distance

cP4$ 0 0 OOcP$OOOOO

~C£'$OOO

FIGCRE 14

between spheres the individual capacities of the spheres decrease, because of the negative capacity coefficients. If such approximation he carried to the point of contact between the spheres, the capacity of each individual sphere would be reduced to ap-

proximately! of the original capacity. If such a ruw uf splu-rc-

!

were conceived as freely movable, so as to enable each sphere to make contact with a plate P, which is kept charged to a certain potential, then the charges carried away by the sphere; after contact with the plate would he proportional to the full capacity of each sphere (1:; long as the spheres are far apart, and would

he onlv ! = - 1 __ th part of such maximum charge when the

.! 2.718

spheres art' in contact. As we assumed the plate P to be maintained at a certain potential hy an outside source of electricity, the r-onveet ion curre-nt represented by the departing charges of the sphere!" would vnry approximately in a ratio of 2.71 to "1:

In the- passage of electricity thru an electrolyte, the molecular conductivity has been found to be the same for all electrolytes, and varying only with the concentration of the solution; the molecular conductivity being approximately 2.5 times as great in the very dilute solution as in the concentrated solution.

I wish to call your attention to the striking similarity between the ratio of conductivity experimentally determined in elec- 28

; .

trolytes of small and large concentration and the ratio of conductivity of the row of spheres where the spheres are far apart or close together, I do not pretend at this moment that &

ALCOHOLS

., N c;.H ..... OH

o H-OH WATER

I C H,-OH IUTM'rL A~OHOL. 2 ~...,-QIot ETI4Y1..

, S...,-OH PROPV\.

4 c;.I1,-OH BUTYL

S C,Ho-oH I~HTY\. ALCOMOL " ~Z.7

o

zz..

I

FIGUnE 1:)

plausible modification of the t.heory of conduction t hru electrolytes and gases can be bused 011 such a coincidence: ami ill fact, assumptions would have to 1)(' 11I:1I1l'. Fur example, a lineal arrangement of the ions in the .lin-ct ion of the static field impressed on the electrolyt c or on the g:a:-: mu:-:t· ht.· assumed,

roRMIC AGIO -coo_.. .......... "
METlfYL l"O_n I+-COO-C",\ I '11
ETHYL. H-COO~H, Z. ~
l~lITTL • _coo-c."\ .4
,,"' .... L, -<:00-4'\ , ~ ~
ACETIC 'ACID CH;COO-H
ETHYl.. N::ETAn eM;' coo-c,io\ 2
PROPV\. CH,- coo-c,H, , 6.,) o 2:3 4 ,N or .... ~ A .........

FIGURE 16

But the fact that such ratio in the case of the spheres is deduced from Itl'omctrirnl considerations alone coupler] with the fact that in electrolytes the same ratio follows from purely gcometricnl (X)n."id('ration~. is sufficient tu warrant further thought. I do not hec:itat(' to bring t his interesting coiucidcnce to your knowledge, with the hope that other physicists may curry on investigations

2'J

1~1--------------------------~~----~ I

I

in the same direction. I have snid that the molecular conductivity of electrolytes arose from geometrical considerations only, and I think it advisable to call your attention to the foundation of such a statement. While it is true that the conductivity of different electrolytes varies considerably, it has been found that the molecular conductivity is the same for all electrolytes. The similar behavior, of the same number of molecules, independently of the weight of the molecule. therefore reduces the phenomenon to :1. purely geometric ha. .. is.

SUMMARY: Considerlnc that elec:tTostatic enercy is ac:tua1ly in the space surroundinc a charced body, the latter is called a .'tc:nninal aurfac:e." It is shown that capacity is predominantly a functioa of the mMxJmum lineal dimension of the terminal surface. The volumetric and lineal enercy densities in the field are defined and studied in a number of cases. It is proven that the capacity between two terminal surfaces is &reatly affected by chanCinc the lineal dimensions of the smMller terminal surface. but not so for changes of the larger. Certain current errors in connection with "mutual ·capacity" are considered.

The practical applications to a radio antenna and to aeroplane counterpoises arc given.

When a charge traverses a sphere. entering parallel to a diameter, the sphere behaves as a conductor of unifonn lineal capacity.

Applications of the theoretical considerations are "also &iven in eeanection with the conduL:ivity of concentrated and dilute electrolytes.

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