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the beneficent. 30V 17 CHAPTER-11: 9 -Volts Battery 18 CHAPTER-12: CONCLUSION 19 REFERENCE. We would like to express our deep appreciation to our project supervisor Eng.Sayyed Aqeel Ashraf for his incisive comments and skillful 3 . 10 µF. 20 AKNOWLEDGMENT In the praise of almighty ALLAH.CHAPTER-10: CAPACITOR. the merciful who showed the path of righteous ness and blessed me the strength to embark this task.

We are also thankful to Dr. We wish to express our thanks to the HOD.guidance throughout the design process. Salim Dhofar for his valuable suggestions. Hani Jobron and Mr. Saeed Al-Mahri for their help in experimental studies. 4 . Finally we are thankful to Mr. and the Dean of our college for their encouragement and for making the facilities available.

SN Action 1 Select the project Reason for Date of change Don Target Comple Comple ACCCCC PLAN e By Date tion tion Date Grou p with 25/4/200 30/4/200 Done Guid 6 6 e Cultural week IC was not availabl e 2 3 4 5 Study the project Grou 15/5/200 1/5/2006 and its p 6 working Collect the Grou compo p 23/5/200 31/5/200 nents with 6 6 Hani Collect the circuit Grou on 1/6/2006 5/6/2006 p bread board Collect data Grou sheet p of with 12/6/200 6/6/2006 active Guid 6 compo e nents Done Done 6 Capacit Testing or & IC 15/6/200 the 6 Grou was 19/6/200 Project 5 p damage 6 d. Writing the Done 21/6/200 25/6/200 .

a p-n junction is formed within the semiconductor crystal. the charge carriers inject across the junction into a zone where they recombine and convert their excess energy into light. The materials used at the junction determine the wavelength of the emitted light. It also 6 . Within a semiconductor crystal.ACTIOT PLAN Chapter 1 Introduction Solid-state LED light sources are known as p-n semiconductor devices. when a forward voltage is applied to the pn junction from the p region to the n region. A clear or diffuse epoxy lens covers the semiconductor chip and seals the LED. The do pant in the n region provides mobile negative charge carriers (electrons). By doping a substrate material with different materials. while the do pant in the p region provides mobile positive charge carriers (holes).

LEDs come in a variety of angular distributions.provides some optical control to the emitted light. Chapter 2 Circuit Diagram 7 .

Chapter 3 Picture of Our project 8 .

Chapter 4 IC. Each 9 output Q0-Q9 . 4017-Decade Counter The count advances as the clock input becomes high (on the rising-edge).

When high it resets the count to zero (Q0 high).1. Counting to less than 9 is achieved by connecting the relevant output (Q0-Q9) to reset. The disable input should be low (0V) for normal operation. It can be used to drive the clock input of another 4017 (to count the tens). When high it disables counting so that clock pulses are ignored and the count is kept constant.3 connect Q4 to reset. for example to count 0.2.goes high in turn as counting advances. For some functions (such as flash sequences) outputs may be combined The reset input should be low (0V) for normal operation (counting 0-9). This can be done manually with a switch between reset and +Vs and a 10k resistor between reset and 0V. The ÷10 output is high for counts 0-4 and low for 5-9. so it provides an output at 1/10 of the clock frequency. 10 .

555 Timers The circuit symbol for a 555 (and 556) is a box with the pins arranged to suit the circuit diagram: for example 555 pin 8 at the top for the +Vs supply.5 to 15V (18V absolute maximum).Chapter 5 IC. Usually just the pin numbers are used and they are not labeled with their function. The 555 and 556 can be used with a supply voltage (Vs) in the range 4. 555 pin 3 output on the right. Standard 555 and 556 chips create a significant 'glitch' 11 the supply when on .

This is rarely a problem in simple circuits with no other ICs.The ground (or common) pin is the most-negative supply potential of the device. 100µF) should be connected across the +Vs and 0V supply near the 555 or 556. For example: using a 12 volt supply. but in more complex circuits a smoothing capacitor (e.their output changes state. which is normally connected to circuit common when operated from positive supply voltages. The action is level 12 . Pin 2 (Trigger) .g. Pin connections and functions: (See schematic below for basic circuits) Pin 1 (Ground) . the trigger input voltage must start from above 8 volts and move down to a voltage below 4 volts to begin the timing cycle. Triggering occurs when the trigger input moves from a voltage above 2/3 of the supply voltage to a voltage below 1/3 of the supply. which causes the output to go high and begin the timing cycle.This pin is the input.

7 volts less than the supply voltage when the timing cycle begins. The output returns to a low level near 0 at the end of the cycle.This pin allows changing the triggering and threshold voltages by applying an external voltage.A low logic level on this pin resets the timer and returns the output to a low state. the trigger voltage must return to a voltage above 1/3 of the supply before the end of the timing cycle in the Monostable mode. Trigger input current is about 0.sensitive and the trigger voltage may move very slowly. When the timer is operating in the astable or oscillating mode. Pin 5 (Control) . Pin 4 (Reset): . To avoid retriggering.The output pin of the 555 moves to a high level of 1. It is normally connected to the + supply line if not used. Maximum current from the output at either low or high levels is approximately 200 mA. Pin 3 (Output) .5 micro amps. this input could be 13 .

If not in use.This pin is an open collector output.This is the positive supply voltage terminal of the 555 timer IC. Pin 6 (Threshold) . which is in phase with the main output on pin 3 and has similar current sinking capability. it is recommended installing a small capacitor from pin 5 to ground to avoid possible false or erratic triggering from noise effects. Pin 8 (V +) . 14 .5 volts (minimum) to +16 volts (maximum).used to alter or frequency modulate the output. Supply-voltage operating range is 4. Pin 7 (Discharge) .Pin 6 is used to reset the latch and cause the output to go low. The action is level sensitive and can move slowly similar to the trigger voltage. Reset occurs when the voltage on this pin moves from a voltage below 1/3 of the supply to a voltage above 2/3 of the supply.

Chapter 6 1N914 Signal diodes are used to process information (electrical signals) in circuits. Germanium diodes such as the OA90 have a lower forward voltage drop of 15 .7V. so they are only required to pass small currents of up to 100mA. General-purpose signal diodes such as the 1N4148 are made from silicon and have a forward voltage drop of 0.

YELLOW. Chapter 7 LED 9 V. and they have very low leakage currents when a reverse voltage is applied. which extract the audio signal from the weak radio signal. where the size of the forward voltage drop is less important. RED. GREEN COULOR Example: Circuit symbol: Testing an LED Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and . For general use.2V and this makes them suitable to use in radio circuits as detectors. they have a lower resistance when conducting.burn it out 16 . silicon diodes are better because they are less easily damaged by heat when soldering.0.

The coloured packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent. orange. amber. for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply voltage is 12V or less. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the .other colures The semiconductor material determines the colour of an LED. green. not by the coloring of the 'package' (the plastic body). LEDs of all colors are available in uncolored packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). CHAPTER-8 TRANSISTORS.LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value. yellow. Remember to connect the LED the correct way round! Colures of LEDs LEDs are available in red. blue and white. 2N3904 17 .

the second being PNP. NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors. can use as many as 289 million transistors. Although millions of individual transistors (known as discretes) are still used. (or BJTs). automobile and telephone. It is the key active component in practically all modern electronics. as of 2005. A logic gate comprises about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor. resistors.The transistor is considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions in modern history. capacitors and other electronic components to produce complete electronic circuits. The letters "N" and "P" refer to the majority charge 18 . the vast majority of transistors are fabricated into integrated circuits (also called microchips or simply chips) along with diodes. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (fabrication) that achieves vanishingly low per-transistor costs. ranking in importance with the printing press.

If the arrow is pointing to the Base region. (i. If the arrow is pointing away from the Base region.carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. Not Pointing iN). then it's a PNP BJT.e. since this is the easiest and most cost effective to make from silicon. then it is an NPN BJT. A helpful mnemonic for recognizing an NPN BJT symbol is to look at the Emitter region. NPN transistors are commonly operated with the emitter at ground and the collector at a positive voltage. Most transistors used today are NPN. 19 . NPN transistors consist of a layer of P-doped (the doping agent is often boron) semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped (often made with arsenic) layers.

47K. Chapter 9 180.A small current entering the base will allow a large current to travel across the collecter-emmitor. 10K Ohms RESISTORS 20 .

often in surface-mount packages without wire leads. At high power levels. now obsolete) or on the surface of the cylinder (film) resistors. There are carbon film and metal film resistors. But resistors made in this way are difficult to fabricate and may take up a lot of valuable chip area.Some resistors are cylindrical. and a conducting metal lead projecting along the axis of the cylinder at each end(axial lead). Resistors can also be built into integrated circuits as part of the fabrication process. Chapter 10 21 . with the actual resistive material in the centre (composition resistors. The photo above right shows a row of common resistors. Resistors used in computers and other devices are typically much smaller. resistors tend to be wire wound types. Power resistors come in larger packages designed to dissipate heat efficiently. using the semiconductor material as a resistor. so IC designers alternatively use a transistor-transistor or resistortransistor configuration to simulate the resistor they require.

22 . This is especially the case in power-supply filters.CAPACITOR. where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage and current fluctuations. and especially in the absence of rechargeable batteries that can provide similar low-frequency current capacity. in rectifier output. the large value of the capacitance allows them to pass very low frequencies without carrying DC. 30V An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor with a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. 10 µF. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits where AC should be conducted but DC should not. making them valuable in relatively highcurrent and low-frequency electrical circuits.

The negative terminal is fashioned into a snap fitting which mechanically and electrically connects to a mating terminal on the power connector. This makes 23 .Chapter 11 9-Volt Battery A PP3 battery. Its dimensions are 48 mm × 25 mm × 15 mm (ANSI standard 1604A). The battery has both the positive and negative terminals on one end. The power connector has a similar snap fitting on its positive terminal which mates to the battery. commonly referred to simply as a nine-volt battery. is shaped as a rectangular prism and has a nominal output of nine volts. It is widely used in smoke detectors and as backup batteries for digital clocks or for personal alarms.

others press foil strips against the ends of the cells. Some brands use soldered tabs on the battery. Counter outputs 1 through 4 are wire ORed using 4 diodes so that the (Red -North/South) and (Green .some brands are slightly longer than others -. or special flat. Inside a PP3 there are six 1. These are either long cylindrical cells roughly equivalent to AAAA cells. The exact size of the constituent cells varies from brand to brand -.5 volt cells arranged in series. The timing sequence is generated using a CMOS 4017 decade counter and a 555 does the manner in which they are joined together.battery polarization obvious since mechanical connection is only possible in one configuration. Chapter 12 CONCLUSION The LED traffic Light circuit controls 6 LEDs (red. yellow and green) for both north/south directions and east/west directions. rectangular cells.East/West) LEDs will be on during the first four 24 .

electroicsforu.North/South).East/West) and (Red .counts.East/West) and (Yellow .North/South). REFERENCES 1. The time period for the red and green lamps will be 4 times longer than for the yellow and the complete cycle time can be adjusted with the 47K 25 m . Count 10 (pin 11) controls (Red .East/West) and (Green North/South). The fifth count (pin 10) illuminates (Yellow . http://www. The eight 1N914 diodes could be substituted with a dual 4 input OR gate (CD4072). Counts 6 through 9 are also wire ORed using diodes to control (Red .

http://www.htm#401 7 2. 26 .kpsec. 4.html 3. m/technical_information/datas m/components/cmos.direlectronics.fairchildsemi.freeuk.

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