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Central Nervous System

Central Nervous System

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Published by: Ray Perez on Oct 19, 2010
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is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body.

NERVOUS TISSUE: Neurons or nerve cells  Supporting cells (neuroglia or glial cells)  .

Nervous tissue: Neurons ± are specialized to transmit messages (nerve impulse) from one part of the body to another. * nuclei * ganglion * dendrites * axon .

Nervous tissue: Supporting cells (neuroglia or glial cells) -act as phagocytes and protect and myelinate the delicate neurons .act as a selective barrier between the capillary blood supply and nerve fibers .insulate nerve fibers (schwann cells) (schwann .

SynapseSynapse.Junction or point of close contact between neurons .

Classification of Neuron on the basis of structure .


Classification of neurons on the basis of function:    sensory (or afferent) neurons motor (or efferent) neurons Interneurons (connector neurons or association neurons) .

Classification of neurons on the basis of function: .


Structure of a Nerve .

Structure of a Nerve  Epineurium -surrounds the nerve -a fibrous connective tissue sheath .

Structure of a Nerve  Perineurium .coarse connective tissue that surrounds bundles of nerve fibres .

surrounds the individual nerve fibres .a thin layer of loose connective tissue.Structure of a Nerve  Endoneurium  .

Components of the Nervous System  Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System   .



surrounds and protects the brain .BRAIN Skull or Cranium .

Meninges  protective membrane between the bone and soft tissue of CNS .

BRAIN  Cerebrospinal fluid * Ventricles of brain * Central canal of spinal cord * Subarachnoid space surounding the entire CNS .

CNS is composed of:  White matter Gray matter  .

Gray Matter  consist of nerve cell bodies. dendrites or bundles of unmyelinated axons or neuroglia .

White Matter  tracts within CNS and aggregation of dendrites and myelinated axons .



2. DIENCEPHALON: ~ Thalamus ~ Hypothalamus ~ Pituitary gland .

3. MESENCEPHALON: ~ Midbrain .

Midbrain .superior colliculi .cerebral peduncles .inferior colliculi .

METENCEPHALON: ~ Cerebellum ~ Pons .4.

5.MYELENCEPHALON: ~ Medulla Oblongata .


functions: -control sensory and motor activities -reasoning, memory and intelligence -instinctual and limbic function (emotional)

~ 2 layers: -surface layer (cerebral cortex) - gray matter -second layer - white matter


~ different folds "Convolutions"


Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe Occipital lobe Insula

Frontal lobe 

verbal communication, personality, intellectual process

Parietal lobe  expression of thoughts and emotions .

Temporal lobe  memory (storage of auditory and visual experiences) .

Occipital lobe  integrates movements in focusing eye .

Insula  memory .

for initial autonomic response to pain .for all sensory impulses to cerebral cortex except smell.Thalamus ~ paired organ ~ functions: * Relay center .

body temperature. sexual response .Hypothalamus: ~ functions: -Regulation of renal water flow. hunger. heartbeat -Control of secretory activity in anterior pituitary gland -Instinctual and limbic functions -Sleeping wakefulness.

Mesencephalon Midbrain ~a short section of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the pons .

superior colliculi: -2 upper eminences -for visual reflexes b.Mesencephalon (Midbrain) ~contains: -Corpora Quadrigemina ( 4 rounded elevations) a. inferior colliculi: -2 posterior eminences -for auditory reflexes .

Mesencephalon (Midbrain) Cerebral Peduncles * support and connect the cerebrum to other regions of the brain .

Mesencephalon (Midbrain)  Red nucleus .

Mesencephalon (Midbrain)  Substantia nigra .

VI.VIII .VII.METENCEPHALON:  PONS: ~rounded bulge on the underside of the brain between midbrain and medulla oblongata ~functions: *Relay center contains the nuclei of cranial nerve V.

 CEREBELLUM: ~second largest structure of the brain ~supported by 3 cerebellar peduncles ~function: balance and motor coordination .

vasoconstriction .MYELENCEPHALON:  MEDULLA OBLONGATA: ~functions: -Relay center -Autonomic center for controlling vital visceral functions ( respirations. heart rate.

MENINGES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: ( Tissue membranous coverings) .

1.DURA MATER:  in contact with the bone and composed of fibrous connective tissue .

2.ARACHNOID MEMBRANE: ~middle of 3 meninges ~netlike membrane which spreads over CNS ~subarachnoid space between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater and contains CSF .

3. PIA MATER: ~attached to the surface of CNS and follows the contour of brain and spinal cord ~contains loose fibrous connective tissue .

central canal.CEREBROSPINAL FLUID: ~formed by the active transport of substances from blood plasma in the choroid plexus ~found in the ventricles. and subarachnoid space .

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID: ~specific gravity .between L3 and L4 .1.like that of a brain tissue ~spinal tap .007 ~density .

subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord.Pathway of the CSF fluid:  CSF is formed in the choroid plexus at the lateral ventricles--from ventricles--from lateral ventricle--to ventricle--to foramen of Monroe or interventricular foramen--3 ventricle--to foramen--3rd ventricle--to cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius--4 ventricle-Sylvius--4th ventricle-foramen of Magendie and foramen of Luschka--crista Luschka--crista galli--spinal galli--spinal canal. arachnoid granulations .

BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: ~a structural arrangement of capillaries surrounding connective tissue and specialized neuroglial cells called astrocytes ~determine which substance can move from plasma to extracellular fluid of brain .

while other substances are allowed to enter freely. so that some substances. .BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER:  A physiological mechanism that alters the permeability of brain capillaries. are prevented from entering brain tissue. such as certain drugs.

BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: Key functions of the BBB are:  Protecting the brain from "foreign substances" (such as viruses and bacteria) in the blood that could injure the brain  Shielding the brain from hormones and neurotransmitters in the rest of the body  Maintaining a constant environment (homeostasis) for the brain .

SPINAL CORD ~portion of CNS that is continous with the brain through the foramen magnum of the skull ~extends through the neural canal of vertebral column .

SPINAL CORD ~consist of: -Centrally located gray matter involved in reflexes -Peripherally located ascending and descending tracts of white matter which conduct impulses to and from the brain .

SPINAL CORD ~functions: -Provide means of neural communication to and from the brain through the tracts of white matter -center for spinal reflexes ~extends from the position of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone to the level of the first lumbar vertebrae .

cervical enlargement 2.lumbar 2.SPINAL CORD ~2 enlargement: enlargement: 1.lumbar enlargement .

SPINAL CORD ~Conus medullaris terminal portion of spinal cord .

SPINAL CORD ~Filum terminale extends from the conus medullaris to the coccyx .

SPINAL CORD ~Cauda equina .nerves which radiate from conus medullaris through vertebral canal .


PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: ~convey impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord ~parts of the PNS: -sensory receptors with sensory organs -neurons -nerves -ganglia -plexus .

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: ~Classification: *based on where they arise from: -cranial nerves from brain -spinal nerves from spinal cord .

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: ~Classification: *based on the direction the nerve impulses are conducted: -sensory -motor -mixed nerves .

CRANIAL NERVES: ~12 pairs ~2 pairs from the forebrain(cerebrum) ~10 pairs from the midbrain and brain stem  Oh. To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet. Oh. Such Heaven!:(Note eaven!:(Note that the accessory nerve is referred to by its alternative name Spinal accessory nerve in this mnemonic.) Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Business Makes Money  . Oh.

OLFACTORY II .Vagus XI .Trigeminal VI .Hypoglossal .OCULOMOTOR IV ± Trochlear V .Abducens VII . Such Heaven!             I .Glossopharyngeal X . To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet.OPTIC III .Facial VIII ± Vestibulocochlear IX .Spinal Accessory XII .Cranial nerves             Oh. Oh. Oh.




pupil constriction .Number Name Function Location I Olfactory Nerve Smell II Optic Nerve Vision III Oculomotor Nerve Eye movement.

VI Abducens Nerve Eye movemen .Number Name Function Location IV Trochlear Nerve Eye movement V Trigeminal Nerve Somatosensory information (touch. muscles for chewing. pain) from the face and head.

balance IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve Taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue). Location VII Facial Nerve VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve Hearing. controls muscles used in facial expression. Somatosensory information from tongue. tonsil. somatosensory information from ear.Number Name Function Taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue). controls some muscles used in swallowing. . pharynx.

Numbe r Name Function Location X Vagus Nerve Sensory. digestion. XII Hypoglossal Nerve Controls muscles of tongue . heart rate) XI Spinal Accessory Nerve Controls muscles used in head movement. motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands.

motor   .SPINAL NERVES:   31 pairs formed by union of a dorsal and ventral spinal root which emerges from the spinal cord through an intervertebral foramen dorsal root (posterior) ± sensory ventral root (anterior) .

SPINAL NERVES:  spinal nerves: -cervical (8) -thoracic (12) -lumbar(5) -sacral(5) -coccygeal (1) .

SPINAL NERVES:     First pair of cervical nervesnerves--emerges between the --emerges occipital bone of the skull and atlas 2nd -7th cervical nerves--nerves--emerge above the vertebrae Remaining pairs---below the pairs---below vertebrae Plexus---network Plexus---network of nerves which come from the ventral rami of the spinal nerves .


AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYTEM  It is classically divided into two subsystems: the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. . system.

The Autonomic Nervous System ‡ Regulate activity of smooth muscle. cardiac muscle & certain glands ‡ Structures involved ± general visceral afferent neurons ± general visceral efferent neurons ± integration center within the brain ‡ Receives input from limbic system and other regions of the cerebrum .

cardiac muscle or glandular secretion ± two neurons needed to connect CNS to organ .Somatic Vs Autonomic Divisions  Somatic nervous system ± consciously perceived sensations ± excitation of skeletal muscle ± one neuron connects CNS to organ  Autonomic nervous system ± unconsciously perceived visceral sensations ± involuntary inhibition or excitation of smooth muscle.

The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the Nervous System .

The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the Nervous System .

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