This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IDENTIFICATION OF NEED
Introduction Our group name is ‘HAND’, want to redesign a rostrum specially to use in Dewan Tunku Ibrahim,UTHM. This rostrum has been improved in design by fitting assembly of mechanical mechanism to adjust height where it can be use for all people with different height from children to adult.
Problem statement This project invented because most of the rostrum in market is made in
standard height about 150 cm height. Usually Asian people especially woman and young lady has a height between 150 – 170 cm. Its not suitable for them to have a speech in usual rostrum in market because the rostrum is higher than that person itself. Usually whether school, university or firm have some of rostrum with different size and height where it will use depends on certain function. However, the problem is still the same where it cannot be adjusted according to height of the person that gives the speech. In the term of ergonomics, the position of the person is wrong if the rostrum height is not adequate with the person height. It will cause back sick could be happened. 1.2 Scope Our scope for this project is to produce the adjustable rostrum height is about 113 cm minimum and 130 cm maximum. 1.3 Objective
To produce an adjustable rostrum for Dewan Tunku Ibrahim, UTHM. 1.4 Expected Result Our expected result for this an invention is it can be function well to move in minimum and maximum height level range. The movement could be slowly and smooth. The level height of the rostrum will be adjusted automatically with push the button.
1.5 Design Stage Chart 1.0 : Design Stage 4 .
1.6 Project Planning CHAPTER 1 Identification Of Need • Gathering information about material and methods • Ergonomic CHAPTER 2 Background Research Primary Goal Product Design Specifications • background of the problems • objective • scope • project CHAPTER 3 Conceptual Design Concept Generation • Brainstormin g • Ishikawa Diagram Concept Evaluation Matrix Evaluation Methodology Design Review • Dimensional Modeling • Material Selection • Analysis/ CHAPTER 4 Embodiment Design CHAPTER 5 Final Design • Detail Drawings • Manufacturin g Process • Evaluate Cost • Design 5 .
7 Gantt Chart NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 CONTENT 1/1 GROUP SELECTION SEPARATE GROUP DUTIES OBJECTIVE/CREATED IDEA SEARCHING INFORMATIONS SKECTHING THE CONCEPT ANALYSE DEPEND THE CONCEPT DECIDE THE DESIGN SKECTHING AND DIMENSIONING THE MODEL ANALYSE THE MOTION OF MODEL MATERIAL SELECTION EXECUTING THE PROJECT PROJECT PRESENTATION 1/2 1/3 1/4 2/1 MONTH/WEEK 2/2 2/3 2/4 3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4 LEGEND : TARGET FORECAST REAL FORECAST 6 .1.
and human factors. The field is also called human engineering. principles. 2. The important things are it must be safety user and easy to use. This selection of this technical report is to focus on the field of the uses of adjustable height rostrum. This study can be collaborated with the inventing for a new design of rostrum. The new invention will be considered about the rationale of making that adjustable height.CHAPTER II BACKGROUND RESEARCH 2. Ergonomic research is performed by those who study human capabilities in relationship to their work demands.0 Introduction This chapter consists of reviews made on several reports that are relevant to this study.1 Ergonomics Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with designing according to human needs. The new innovation of rostrum is made from some of materials. Usage of variety material will make the rostrum looks simple but interesting. and the profession that applies theory. data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. Information derived from these studies 7 .
1. jobs. examples are given of how products or systems could benefit from redesign based on ergonomic principles. Safety: The AHR is stable and will not collapse where all the sharpen edge has been on them could be larger so that a deburred. 2. 8 . 1. environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs.1 : Five Aspects Of Ergonomics Based on these aspects of ergonomics. Comfort: This AHR provided a comfortable level of height according to different normal height of Asian person. products. abilities and limitations of people. 2.1 Five Aspects Of Ergonomics 5 aspects Comfort Easy to use Productivity Safety Aesthetics Chart 2.contributes to the design and evaluation of tasks.
A material can be anything: a finished product in its own right or an unprocessed raw material. 2. ready for distribution. construction. Productivity/performance: The AHR give a smooth movement when the adjustable process done by pressing the switch button.2 Material Materials are substances or components with certain physical properties which are used as inputs to production or manufacturing. Basically materials are the pieces required to make something else. 5. Easy of use: The AHR have a simple switch button to make upward or downward movement. These can be input into a new cycle of production and finishing processes to create finished materials. Aesthetics: The AHR used an acrylic as a selected material for body and top base which it has a transparent view. 4. then processed to produce semi-finished materials. and consumption. Raw materials are first extracted or harvested from the earth and divided into a form that can be easily transported and stored.3. 9 .
refined and processed into steel. but has properties that make it superior to glass in many ways. a semi-finished material.S. domestic cell cast is a good choice for applications that require the best. Lucite and Plexiglass. In this project. which is harvested from plants. Steel is then used as an input in many other industries to make finished products. is softer.An example of a raw material is cotton. Steelmaking is another example—raw materials in the form of ore are mined. can scratch easier and may contain impurities. Material for this project consist a lot of material and kind of material. a semi-finished material. table. which can then be woven into cloth. Common brands of high-grade acrylic include Polycast.2. 10 . and can then be processed into thread (also considered a raw material). and rod to build the adjustable rostrum. which is a finished material. Imported cell cast acrylic is often manufactured to lesser standards. clear plastic that resembles glass. we’ve choose several material to use in some part of our product such as casing. There are two basic types of acrylic: extruded and cell cast.1 Acrylic Acrylic is a useful. Extruded or "continuous cast" acrylic is made by a less expensive process. Cell cast acrylic is a higher quality acrylic and U. Cutting and sewing the fabric turns it into a garment. The material that we planned to are :- Adjustable rostrum Casing Mild steel Zinc Plastic Table Wood Glass Acrylic Body Wood Iron Aluminium 2.
Some people worry that acrylic scratches too easily. namely that it yellows. If taken care of. Seams that are welded and polished are invisible. There are some misconceptions about acrylic. There are also no seams in acrylic structures. the fighter planes of WWII have acrylic bubble-tops.Acrylic is used to make various products. You will also find acrylic in malls. Adding to this favorable array of properties. bounce off acrylic windows. It is chosen over glass for many reasons. The Presidential motorcade. the Pope's booth-vehicle. Baseballs that crash through glass windows will. prisons. A unique property of plastic is its ability to be shaped. potentially saving on heating bills. 11 . Very thick glass will have a green tint. institutions. Falling against an acrylic shower door will not likely break it. Though this might be true of very cheap forms of plastic. windows and skylights. a transparency rate of 93% makes acrylic the clearest material known. teller enclosures and drive-through window enclosures all feature bullet-resistant acrylic. it is not so with acrylic. as chemical welding at the molecular level actually "melts" seams into one piece of solid material. Another great advantage of acrylic is that it is only half as heavy as glass. while acrylic remains clear. Bow-front aquariums are beautiful examples of acrylic's wonderful properties. Today acrylic is used more than ever. such as shower doors. whereas glass must be scored. and if exposed to a direct flame it will melt and eventually burn. hospitals and commercial buildings. Acrylic also insulates better than glass. in most cases. For example. acrylic remains new looking regardless of age or exposure to sun. making it much more impact resistant and therefore safer. there are two disadvantages of acrylic: it is more expensive than glass. turns brittle and cracks over time. It is many times stronger than glass. Acrylic just over one inch thick (32mm) is bullet resistant. It can also be sawed. Airplane windows are also acrylic. but unlike glass. Virtually all major public aquariums now build display tanks out of acrylic. bath enclosures. This makes working with acrylic much easier. For all of its advantages. scratches can be easily buffed out of acrylic.
It may cost a little more than glass.952-1.33 % 0. 1 hour Tensile Creep Modulus.043 lb/in3 . Unnotched Charpy Impact. 1000 hours 63-97 6820-11500 psi 7980-12300 psi 1-30 % 4-5 % 319-551 ksi 435-508 ksi 11700-20000 psi 14500-17000 psi 203 ksi 0.If upgrading the windows in your house.3-0. remodeling your bathroom.9 ft-lb/in² 0. consider acrylic.03 ft-lb 261000-392000 psi 174000-261000 psi ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES Electrical Resistivity Dielectric Constant Dielectric Constant.9-27 g/10 min MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Hardness.0415-0. Rockwell M Tensile Strength. Low Frequency 1E+14-1E+15 ohm-cm 2.8-4 3-4 12 . but its sheer clarity. or adding a beautiful aquarium.6 ft-lb/in2 0.04-28.375 ft-lb/in 5.003-0.0065 in/in 0. Ultimate Tensile Strength. light weight and insulating properties make it a superior choice for many applications.0.17-1. Notched Gardner Impact Tensile Creep Modulus. Yield Elongation @ break Elongation @ Yield Tensile Modulus Flexural Modulus Flexural Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength Shear Modulus Izod Impact.3-2 % 0. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Density Water Absorption Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium Linear Mold Shrinkage Melt Flow 0.225. Unnotched Charpy Impact.06 ft-lb/in 9. Notched Izod Impact.
49-1. such as that used for windows.46 MPa Deflection Temperature at 1. brittle.55 1E+14-1E+16 ohm 600 V THERMAL PROPERTIES CTE.351 BTU/lb-°F 1. isinglass (Muscovy-glass). transparent amorphous solid. acrylic glass.2 Glass Glass generally refers to a hard.8 MPa Vicat Softening Point Glass Temperature Flammability.2.349-0.67 BTU-in/hr-ft²-°F 266°F 106-217°F 176-217°F 106-212°F 117-243°F 212-221°F HB 18% OPTICAL PROPERTIES Refractive Index Haze Transmission. but not limited to.2 µ in/in-°F 0.498 1-96% 80-93% PROCESSING PROPERTIES Processing Temperature 469-482°F 2. or eyewear.Dielectric Strength Dissipation Factor Dissipatin Factor. Visible 1.32-1. many bottles. linear 200 C Heat Capacity Thermal Conductivity Melting Point Maximum Service Temperature. UL94 Oxygen Index 33. Air Deflection Temperature at 0.55 0.03-0. or aluminium oxynitride. soda-lime glass. Low Frequency Surface Resistance Comparative Tracking Index 450-1520 kV/in 0.3-72. borosilicate glass. 13 .05-0. including. sugar glass.
In addition. including plastics. Germany. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier. and paper. resins. tools. In the scientific sense the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids). glass science commonly includes only inorganic amorphous solids. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. besides traditional melting techniques.In the technical sense. In a living tree it conducts water and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues. However. or wood chips or fiber. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to make 14 . while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science.2. or other silica-free amorphous solids. such as ion implantation.3 Wood Wood is an organic material produced as secondary xylem in the stems of woody plants. container glass. and art. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass. Many glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former. thermal insulator (glass wool). and to material engineered from wood. furniture. Glass plays an essential role in science and industry. glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. that the late-Latin term glesum originated. and the sol-gel method. People have used wood for millennia for many purposes. Wood may also refer to other plant materials and tissues with comparable properties. probably from a Germanic word for a transparent. weapons. 2. any other means of preparation are considered. glass fiber reinforced concrete). and has a support function. biology and further scientific disciplines. notably trees and other woody plants. enabling plants to reach large sizes. artworks. optics and optoelectronics material. reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic. packaging. lustrous substance. primarily as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses. laboratory equipment.
There are two main types of plastics. 2. thermoplastic and thermoset. will break before deforming — and therefore are not "plastic" in the technical sense. Aluminum.2. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust. after oxygen and silicon. that allows them to be cast. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. boxes. for instance. its atomic number is 13. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as the free metal. pressed. if exposed to heat. 2. bottles. tubes. The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at that time. It refers to their malleability. is "plastic" in this sense. but not "a plastic" in the common sense. Thermosets will keep their shape until they are a charred. The word derives from the Greek πλαστικός (plastikos). Thermoplastics. and the third most abundant element therein. while some plastics.inferences about when a wooden object was created. Examples of thermosets are kid's dinner sets and jet skis.5 Aluminium Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white and ductile member of the boron group of chemical elements. and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs. or extruded into an enormous variety of shapes—such as films. It has the symbol Al. fibers. plates. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight. in their finished forms. or plasticity during manufacture. and much more.4 Plastic Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. piano keys and some automobile parts. "fit for molding". The common word "plastic" should not be confused with the technical adjective "plastic". Some examples of thermoplastics are grocery bags. from πλαστός (plastos) "molded". smoking mess. will melt in two to seven minutes.2. 15 . which is applied to any material which undergoes a permanent change of shape (a "plastic deformation") when strained beyond a certain point.
effectively preventing further oxidation. including being used in ammonium nitrate explosives to enhance blast power.Instead. gold. Aluminium mirror finish has the highest reflectance of any metal in the 200–400 nm (UV) and the 3000–10000 nm (far IR) regions. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. and copper. malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull grey. The strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. Aluminium is nonmagnetic and non sparking. it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. It is ductile. Aluminium is one of the few metals that retain full silvery reflectance in finely powdered form. making it an important component of silver paints. and easily machined. lightweight. It is also insoluble in alcohol. cast. Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion (due to the phenomenon of passivation) and its low density. though it can be soluble in water in certain forms. particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. Its reactive nature makes it useful as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures. This corrosion resistance is also often greatly reduced when many aqueous salts are present however. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa. 16 . Aluminium is a soft. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. Aluminium has a high stacking-fault energy of approximately 200 mJ/m². Corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air. and extruded. while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. depending on the surface roughness. while in the 400–700 nm visible range it is slightly outdone by tin and silver and in the 700–3000 (near IR) by silver. The chief source of aluminium is bauxite ore. durable. which may explain its high melting point.
1 Building & Construction Industry: • • door and window frames wall cladding.Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor. are exposed to intense cosmic-ray bombardment during their travel through space.2 • • Manufacture of Electrical Products: high tension power lines. t1/2 = 7.5.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss. with a superconducting critical temperature of 1. 2.2. The ratio of Al to Be has been used to study the role of transport. quartz in rock exposures. manganese nodules.5. after departure from their parent bodies. glacial ice. Aluminium isotopes have found practical application in dating marine sediments. Meteoroid fragments. cables.1 Some Common Uses Of Aluminium2.3 .9+ %.5. and meteorites. Only Al (stable isotope) and Al (radioactive isotope. After falling to Earth. roofing.2. burial times. deposition. however.1.2. causing substantial Al production.55 billion years ago.1. sediment storage. whose mass numbers range from 23 to 30. and erosion on 105 to 106 year time scales Cosmogenic Al was first applied in studies of the Moon and meteorites. radios. Aluminium is capable of being a superconductor.1. busbars components for television. Meteorite research has also shown that Al was relatively abundant at the time of formation of our planetary system. refrigerators and air-conditioners Packaging & Containers: 17 2. by weight better than copper.2 × 105 y) occur naturally. Al has a natural abundance of 99. and its decay can then be used to determine the meteorite's terrestrial age. Aluminium has nine isotopes. Most meteoriticists believe that the energy released by the decay of Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.2. Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic-ray protons.5. atmospheric shielding protects the meteorite fragments from further Al production. wires. awnings 2.
4 • 2.5. Aviation & Automotive Industries: • • • • propellers airplane and vehicle body sheet gearboxes.188.8.131.52.2. aluminium will conduct more than twice as much electricity as copper) Highly reflective to radiant energy in the electromagnetic spectrum Highly corrosion resistant in air and water (including sea water) Highly workable and can be formed into almost any structural shape Non-magnetic Non-toxic • • • • • 18 .2.1.2 • Properties Very lightweight (about 1/3 the mass of an equivalent volume of steel or copper) but with alloying can become very strong.5.6 • • Leisure Goods: tennis racquets. softball bats indoor and outdoor furniture 2.5. • • Excellent thermal conductor Excellent electrical conductor (on a weight-for-mass basis. foil semi-rigid containers Cooking Utensils: 2.5 kettles and saucepans Aeronautical.2.• • beverage cans. bottle tops foil wrap. motor parts 2.
Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength.25% 0.2. but it is cheap and malleable.25% to 0. Type of steel Percentage of carbon Mild steel Medium carbon steel High carbon steel Up to 0.05–0.45% 0.45% to 1.6 Mild steel Mild steel is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications.1 : Carbon steels 19 . therefore it is neither brittle nor ductile.29% carbon.2. Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.50% Table 2.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0. surface hardness can be increased through carburizing.16–0.
the pure metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century. mercury. The metal is hard and brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and 150 °C. also referred to in nonscientific contexts as spelter. Above 210 °C.For a metal. lead. such as the alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. magnesium. is the most important zinc ore.Its melting point is the lowest of all the transition metals aside from mercury and cadmium. Other applications are in batteries and alloys. a zinc sulfide. nickel.]Zinc is a fair conductor of electricity. such as zinc chloride (in deodorants). lethargy and copper deficiency.7 Zinc Zinc is a metallic chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry.2. Zinc. pyrometallurgic winning or electrowinning. Although zinc has been used in the copper-zinc alloy brass since Roman times. Roughly one quarter of all zinc output is consumed in the form of zinc compounds. Sphalerite. bismuth. and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. necessary for sustaining all life. Zinc production includes roasting. diamagnetic metal. It is somewhat less dense than iron and has a hexagonal crystal structure. an alloy of zinc and copper. the metal becomes brittle again and can be pulverized by beating. leaching and. It is a first-row transition metal of the group 12 of the periodic table. lustrous.Many alloys contain zinc. zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints). gold. tin. including brass. iron. is a bluish-white. silver. though most common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish. Corrosionresistant zinc plating of steel is the major application for zinc. cobalt. zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos). Zinc is an essential mineral. Consumption of higher concentrations of zinc can cause ataxia. at the end. antimony. and the metal was produced in large scale in India around 1200 AD. zinc has relatively low melting (420 °C) and boiling points (900 °C).2. Industrial-scale production in Europe had not started until the late 18th century. tellurium and 20 . A variety of zinc compounds find use industrially. such as brass.
3 Component Components in AHR are mechanical components requiring extra mechanical needs that are needed to support other parts to completely function. In this design. force. electrical components.While neither zinc nor zirconium are ferromagnetic. we divided the system into 2 category which is mechanical components. in AHR project. Below is the type of jack that can be use in this project. The mechanical parts must able to sustain the mechanical properties such as load. the mechanical parts involve is jack.sodium. For mechanical components its consist the parts that’s make the system going smoothly in application. deflection. the alloy ZrZn2 exhibits ferromagnetism below 35 K. 21 . The jack selected is usually use in automotive sector. bends. 2. etc.
TYPES OF JACK Bottle jack Floor jack Scissor jack Transmission jack Screw jack Long ram jack Hydraulic cylinder jack Jack stand Farm jack Mechanical jack Hydraulic air jack 23 .
pressure-persistent and excellence in air- Usage • Rugged steel construction.3.1 TYPES OF JACK 2. durability. long nose types with 1 step and 2 steps. • Kind: oddbal. • Capacity from 2T to 100T. ergonomic designs.1.1 Bottle Jack Figure 1 : Bottle Jack Features • Hydraulic bottle jack is an excellent jack that has outstanding tightness with a safe design structure. heavy duty. ideal for auto and truck repairs. anticorrosion under any circumstances.3. 24 .2.
2 Floor Jack CN0201 CN0401 CN0601 CN0801 CN1001 CN1201 CN1601 CN2001 CN3001 CN5001 CN10002 Capacity Min.3. low profile.height 2T 4T 6T 8T 10T 12T 16T 20T 32T 50T 100T 148mm 180mm 200mm 200mm 200mm 210mm 225mm 235mm 255mm 285mm 330mm Figure 2 : Floor Jack Features • Lifting height 80mm 110mm 125mm 125mm 125mm 135mm 140mm 145mm 150mm 180mm 180mm Adjusting height 50mm 60mm 80mm 80mm 80mm 80mm 60mm 60mm - Professionally designed with thick welded steel plate construction and an oversized saddle • Specially designed several sizes wide.1.S. • easy operate. standard Table 1 : Hydraulic Bottle Jack In U. standard Model 2. durable roller wheel for quick and accurate placement where you need it.Hydraulic Bottle Jack In U. 25 Each floor jack paired with one handle for .S.
light Y. repair work or Specification MODEL CAPACITY MIN.HEIGHT N. with screw bar to adjust the height. heavy duty X. The reference to scissors is due to the fact that the lever arms open and close like a pair of scissors. • Kind: light X.5 Table 2 : Specification Of Floor Jack 2. Mainly used in the shops.3. 26 .1.HEIGHT MAX.3 Scissor Jack Figure 3 : Scissor Jack Features • Scissor jacks are mechanism defined by a connected series of levels.Usage • storage.W(KG). heavy duty Y. CNF1021 2T 135mm 320mm 7.5 CNF1022 2T 135mm 355mm 8. Usage • The purpose of most scissor jacks is to raise and lower things.
3. Wide stable stance.HEIGHT G. CNS010 1TON 90MM 3250MM 2.Specification MODEL: CAPACITY MIN. 27 . • • • Full range adjusting head assembly.HEIGHT MAX. and farm.W. shop.3KGS Table 3 : Specification of scissor jack 2.4 Transmission Jack Features • Transmission jack mainly used in the assembly line of plant and also helpful in the garage.1. Full swivel ball bearing casters.
CNI01 0.5KGS MODEL: CAPACITY MIN.Usage • Rugged steel construction. ideal for auto and truck repairs Figure 4 : Transmission Jack MODEL: CAPACITY Saddle Degree G. CNI05 0.2TON 60-10 degree 14.HEIGHT MAX.6TON 1260MM 1970MM 51KGS Table 4 : Specification Of Transmission Jack 28 .HEIGHT G.W.W.
• Screw jack with forged alloy steel Jaw.2 110 220 CNL005 5 130 250 CNL008 8 140 260 CNLA10 10 150 280 CNL016 16 320 Table 5 : Specification Of 180 Jack Screw CNL020 20 180 325 CNL025 25 130 275 CNL032 32 200 395 CNL032 32 180 320 29 . • Mechanical gears are safer for heavy duty usage.5 Screw Jack Figure 5 : Screw Jack Features • Compact screw jack. can use for inside and outside pulls.1.2. And bearing pull.h(mm) CNL003 3.3. Specification Type Capacity(ton) Lift height(mm) Min. easy to maintain. lifting tracks and Railway maintenance. Usage • They are good for repairing vehicles.
Usage • They are good for repairing vehicles. LOAD (N) NET WIGHT (KG) 16 20 28 46 30 . Figure 6 : Mechanical Jack TYPE CNR015 CNR030 CNR050 CMR100 CAPACITY (KG) 1.1.6 Mechanical Jack Features • Lifts with either fixed toe or on clawed head • Versatile mechanical jack in all blue paint.5 147 EFFORT 350 400 580 REQUIRED TO 300 LIFT MAX.5T 3T 5T 10T TEST LOAD (KN) 22 44.1 73.2. lifting tracks and Railway mantainance.3.
H. pulling.5T 160mm 345mm 43mm CNQD10 10T 5T 180mm 410mm 45mm CNQD15 15T 7.TOP MAX.7 Farm Jack Features • The farm jack (also known as the handyman jack or high is a versatile mechanical jack with auto lock pin. clamping and spreading on tractors and 4-wheel drives vehicles.5T 280mm 580mm 60mm Table 7 : Specification of Mechaincal Jack For Railway 2. Usage • Ideal for lifting.1. 31 .3. TOP. • Adjustable top clamp clevis can be moved to any position on the upright steel standard for clamping purposes. TOE. CNQD05 5T 2.Table 6 : Specification Of Mechanical Jack Figure 7 : Mechaincal Jack For Railway Model MAX.H.H.TOE LIFT.
1 Pole motor A shaded-pole motor is a type of AC single-phase induction motor. the mechanism that use must be in semi automatic or fully automatic. the application can be converted into semi auto system.2. Currents in this coil delay the phase of 32 . By using the motor. In the shaded-pole type.2 TYPE OF MOTOR Meanwhile.3. a part of the face of each field pole carries a copper ring called a shading coil. Below are the selected motor that suitable to use in this project. As in other induction motors the rotating part is a squirrel-cage rotor.3. This rostrum is a semi automatic system using a motor to adjust the height. in order to make the rostrum more added value than other rostrum. Mostly jack in market use manual mechanical method.2. All single-phase motors require a means of producing a rotating magnetic field for starting. 2.
which often are used with fans. The effect produces only a low starting torque compared to other classes of single-phase motors. this motor will start in a clockwise direction as viewed from the long shaft end. no capacitor nor starting switch. The second photo shows detail of the shading coils. they are compatible with triac-based variablespeed controls. The first photo is of a common C-frame motor. Moreover.magnetic flux in that part of the pole enough to provide a rotating field. other designs offer better characteristics. Because their starting torque is low they are best suited to driving fans or other loads that are easily started. Figure 13 : Pole Motor 33 . For larger motors. These motors have only one winding. They are built in power sizes up to about 1/6 hp or 125 watts output. making them economical and reliable. With the shading coils positioned as shown.
such as a microcontroller. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count. which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. 34 . In that way. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet. on the other hand. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off. they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet.2 Stepper motor Stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless. The motor's position can be controlled precisely. Stepper motors operate differently from normal DC motors. effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. and generally are closed-loop commutated). To make the motor shaft turn. Stepper motors. synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. and from there the process is repeated." with an integral number of steps making a full rotation.2. which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth.2. the motor can be turned by a precise angle. the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one.3. without any feedback mechanism (see open loop control). Each of those slight rotations is called a "step. first one electromagnet is given power.
since pressure from the hydraulic system was merely released to lower the window. The Hydro-Lectric system. To prevent this. Power windows are usually inoperable when the car is not running as the electrical system is not 'live' once the ignition has been turned off. 35 . some automakers eliminated hand cranks from all models. however. seat and top) and tended to leak. This also prevents children from using them as toys and pets riding with their heads out windows from activating the power window switch.Figure 14 : Stepper motor 2. as opposed to using a hand-turned crank handle.2. Raising the windows required the pump to operate (at a fairly high noise level) and introduce pressure at each cylinder. could lower the windows at rest. many vehicles feature a driver-controlled lockout switch. Some designs place the switch in a location on a hand rest where it can be accidentally triggered by a child climbing to place his or her head out of the window. These hydraulic systems also required pressure lines to each cylinder (door. preventing rear-seat passengers (usually smaller children) from accidentally triggering the switches.3. Power windows have come under some scrutiny after several fatal accidents in which children's necks have become trapped. Power windows have become so common that by 2008. leading to suffocation. Some many vehicles have power windows that some people no longer understand the (formerly) common sign from another driver of using their hand to simulate moving a window crank to indicate that they wish to speak with someone (stopped at a light or in a parking lot).3 Power window Power windows or electric windows are automobile windows which can be raised and lowered by depressing a button or switch.
At 180 degrees. In this motor.2. At 0 degrees. One drawback to the motor is the large amount of torque ripple that it has.3. The rest of the time the coil spins on its own and the torque drops to 36 . but in opposing directions since the direction of current flow in the segments is reversed with respect to the magnetic field. Both forces are of equal magnitude. the rotational kinetic energy of the motor keeps it spinning until the brushes regain contact. This is accomplished by forcing current through a coil and producing a magnetic field that spins the motor. but the force is in the downward direction. the same phenomenon occurs. The current that flows through wire segment C-D interacts with the magnetic field that is present and the result is an upward force on the segment. The reason for this excessive ripple is because of the fact that the coil has a force pushing on it only at the 90 and 270 degree positions. used here to discuss the DC motor theory. The simplest DC motor is a single coil apparatus. The voltage source forces voltage through the coil via sliding contacts or brushes that are connected to the DC source. the brushes will make a connection every 180 degrees and current will then flow through the coil wires. The current that flows through segment A-B has the same interaction. These brushes are found on the end of the coil wires and make a temporary electrical connection with the voltage source. In these two positions. the brushes are in contact with the voltage source and current is flowing. At 90 and 270-degrees. the brushes are not in contact with the voltage source and no force is produced.Figure 15 : Power windows 2. but segment A-B is forced up and C-D is forced down.4 DC Motor A DC motor works by converting electric power into mechanical work.
As more and more coils are added.3 TYPE OF SWITCH 2. the torque curve approaches a straight line and has very little torque ripple and the motor runs much more smoothly. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand. though even many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) require a spring to 37 .3. Another method of increasing the torque and rotational speed of the motor is to increase the current supplied to the coils. as more coils are added to the motor.zero.3. Figure 16 : DC Motor 2. Buttons are most often biased switches.1 Push Button A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply "button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. thus increasing the current at the same time. the torque curve is smoothed out. This is accomplished by increasing the voltage that is sent to the motor. usually plastic or metal. so as to be easily depressed or pushed. The resulting torque curve never reaches the zero point and the average torque for the motor is greatly increased. The torque curve produced by this single coil. Buttons are typically made out of hard material.3.
This method of linkage is used in simple manual operations in which the machine or process have no electrical circuits for control. These pushbuttons are called emergency stop buttons and are mandated by the electrical code in many jurisdictions for increased safety. Commonly used colors are red for stopping the machine or process and green for starting the machine or process. Red pushbuttons can also have large heads (called mushroom heads) to for easy operation and to facilitate the stopping of a machine. mash. In this way a start button when pushed will cause the process or machine operation to be started and a secondary contact designed into the operation or process will close to turn on the pilot light and signify the action of pushing the button caused the resultant process or action to start. such as press.return to their un-pushed state. 38 . a stop button can "force" a start button to be released. and punch. In this way. depress. In industrial and commercial applications push buttons can be linked together by a mechanical linkage so that the act of pushing one button causes the other button to be released. The source of the energy to illuminate the light is not directly tied to the contacts on the back of the pushbutton but to the action the pushbutton controls. a pilot light is commonly added to draw the attention of the user and to provide feedback if the button is pushed. This large mushroom shape can also be found in buttons for use with operators who need to wear gloves for their work and could not actuate a regular flush-mounted push button. Pushbuttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the operator will not push the wrong button in error. As an aid for operators and users in industrial or commercial applications. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of the button. Typically this light is included into the center of the pushbutton and a lens replaces the pushbutton hard center disk.
2 Rotary Switch A rotary switch is a type of switch that is used on devices which have two or more different "states" or modes of operation.3 Packet switching Packet switching is a network communications method that groups all transmitted data. each of which serves as a contact for the "spoke" through which any one of a number of different electrical circuits can be connected to the rotor. as band selectors on multi-band radios. etc.3. as range selectors on electrical metering equipment. each layer is equivalent to one pole. such as a three-speed fan or a CB radio with multiple frequencies of reception or "channels".Figure 16 : Pushbutton 2. arranged in a circle around the rotor. Thus a rotary swich provides greater pole and throw capabilities than simpler switches do.3. 2. The network 39 .3. type. Usually such a switch has a detent mechanism so it "clicks" from one active position to another rather than stalls in an intermediate position. called packets. irrespective of content. or structure into suitably-sized blocks. The switch is layered to allow the use of multiple poles. It has an array of terminals. Figure 17 : A three-deck rotary switch allows controlling three different circuit functions A rotary switch consists of a spindle or "rotor" that has a contact arm or "spoke" which projects from its surface like a cam.3. Rotary switches were used as channel selectors on television receivers until the early 1970s.
Usually new cars with special specs and old cars using this switch to regulate the power window motor in order to make the window become semi 40 . 2. circuit switching. Any buffering introduces varying latency and throughput in transmission.4 Power Window Switch A Power Window Switch is a electrical switch that controls the power window to open the window or close it. When traversing network adapters. packet-based) communication may be utilized with or without intermediate forwarding nodes (packet switches). first-out buffering. The system of this power windows switch is using the 12V current direct from the source such as battery. Packet mode (or packet-oriented. The principal goals of packet switching are to optimize utilization of available link capacity and to increase the robustness of communication. depending on the traffic load in the network. resulting in variable delay and throughput.over which packets are transmitted is a shared network which routes each packet independently from all others and allocates transmission resources as needed.3. which normally are forwarded by a network node asynchronously using first-in. packets are buffered and queued. Network resources are managed by statistical multiplexing or dynamic bandwidth allocation in which a physical communication channel is effectively divided into an arbitrary number of logical variable-bit-rate channels or data streams. In case of a shared physical medium. Alternatively. the packets may be forwarded according to some scheduling discipline for fair queuing or for differentiated or guaranteed quality of service. Packet switching contrasts with another principal networking paradigm.3. the packets may be delivered according to some packet-mode multiple access scheme. There are many types of power window switch in the market comes with variety system and function. switches and other network nodes. a method which sets up a specific circuit with a limited number dedicated connection of constant bit rate and constant delay between nodes for exclusive use during the communication session. such as pipeline forwarding or time-driven priority (TDP). Each logical stream consists of a sequence of packets.
automatic than ordinary type by using handle. The system of this power windows switch comes with many types of system. Some of the power window switch only functions when we push the button. Some of the switch comes with the automatic system that because the system automatically stops when the windows are fully open or fully closed.
Figure 18 : Power Window Switch
This chapter presents the conceptual design of the Adjustable Height Rostrum (AHR), which includes product specification, concept generation and concept evaluation. In this stage of design involves drawing up a number of difference viable concept designs which satisfy the requirement of the product outline in the Product Design Specification (PDS) and then evaluating them to decide on the most suitable to develop our product design.
Product Design Specification (PDS)
The product design specification (PDS) is a very important document in the design process as it contains all the information necessary for a design team to successfully produce a solution to the design problem. A PDS splits the problem up into smaller categories to make it easier to consider the problem. The final document should fully document as unambiguously as possible all the requirements that a product must fulfill together with any constraints that may affect the product. The actual or intended customer should be consulted as fully as possible while the PDS is being drawn up as their requirements are of paramount importance. Any numeric properties in the PDS should be specified as exactly as possible together with any tolerances allowed on their value.
Common categories Various aspects relating to the product must be considered. The actual categories can
vary, but a typical PDS may consist of the following categories:
Appearance Documentation Installation Legal and safety implications Materials Processes Product life Standards
Competition Ergonomics Product disposal Legislation, patents and copyright Packaging and transport Product cost Quality Testing
Customer Environment Lead times Maintenance Performance Product dimensions Quantity
Table 3.1 : Product Design Specification
Physical and Operational Characteristics a. Performance requirements The device must be able to move smoothly either upwards or downwards. It must be strong enough to withstand the forces that are applied from top base through the body. b. Safety The material of the device should be non-sharpen edge and anti-corrosion. Light-weight material should be used in making the top base. The device must be durable enough to stand firmly from collapse. c. Accuracy and Reliability The device should be manufactured with a high level of precision in order to ensure proper clearances between the ranging of normal Asian height from 145cm to 170 cm. d. Life in Service The product should withstand normal daily use for many years. e. Operating Environment 43
44 . h. b. schools. ii. universities and etc.The product could be operated in any environment. Production Characteristics a. 720mm x 200mm. Ergonomics The AHR should be sized according the range of normal Asian height population. The size of the bottom base should be large enough to support the whole body. It should be constructed in such a way that reduce uncomfortable situation that were happen to the speeches when use the ordinary rostrum. The AHR would be most useful also new invention in rostrum area. Customer The customer would be firms. Materials The entire AHR should be composed of a rod iron. Weight The device should not weigh less than 20kg. g. acrylic and zinc plate. The materials should all be anti-corrosion. The top base should be suitable to place at least a laptop. f. i. Size The body of the AHR should be 910mm in length and 305mm in width. Target Product Cost The cost should be no more than RM 250.
This will help us to remember and to describe the design more effectively.3. To generate the ideas. the more likely we will end up with good solutions. There are a number of techniques available to the designer to aid the development of new concept.2. we used three concept of creativity thinking method which is brainstorming and morphology chart. The more ideas we have.3 Concept Generation Concept generation produces a number of solutions which we write or draw every idea on paper as it occurs to us.1 Brainstorming Method 45 . 3. it also becomes easier to us when we discuss with others group member.3. Besides that.2.
3.2.Figure 3.2 Morphological Chart 46 .1 : Brainstorming Method 3.
3 Function Structure 47 .3.Features Means 1 2 Tracks 3 Air Cushion 4 Slides 1 Support Bottom Base 2 Power Electric Battery Hydraulic Pneumatic 3 structure mild steel woods stainless steel aluminum 6 Lifting Hydraulic Ram Rack and Pinion Screw Scissor Jack Chart 3.1 : Morphological Chart 3.2.
Input AHR Output Battery Energy Jack Mechanism Scissor Jack Force Power Window Motor Vertical Movemen t Chart 3.2 : Function Structure 48 .
3.2 : Component Selection 49 .3 Component Selection FUNCTION CONCEPT 1 CONCEPT 2 CONCEPT 3 CONCEPT 4 Type of jack Bottle Scissor Stand Hydraulic Air Type of motor Pole Stepper Power Window DC Type of switch Multi-switch Power window switch Push button One way switch Table 3.
transparent .1 Sub-function Part Material Selection (Final Decision) 1 2 3 4 Selection Factor -strong -easy to join BOTTOM BASE Sta Aluminum inless Steel d Steel Mil tic Plas -high stiffness -sustainable -flat surface -esthetic look -tough BODY Ply Acr ylic wood llow Iron Glass Ho -smooth and flat surface -transparent -no fragile -light -smooth and flat TOP BASE ylic surface Acr od Wo Glass Sta inless steel .no fragile -tough Table 3.3.3 : Material Selection 50 .3.
Selected Component Scissor jack Figure 3. heavy duty X. • Kind: light X. The reference to scissors is due to the fact that the lever arms open and close like a pair of scissors.4 i. heavy duty Y.2 : Scissor jack Features • Scissor jacks are mechanism defined by a connected series of levels. ii. with screw bar to adjust the height.3. Power window motor Power window switch 51 . i. Usage • The purpose of most scissor jacks is to raise and lower things. light Y.
Common brands of high-grade acrylic include Polycast.29% carbon. bath enclosures. making it much more impact resistant and therefore safer. 52 . such as shower doors. Selected material Bottom base Mild steel is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. clear plastic that resembles glass.16–0. windows and skylights. Falling against an acrylic shower door will not likely break it. Acrylic also insulates better than glass. Acrylic is used to make various products.5 i.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0. therefore it is neither brittle nor ductile. Extruded or "continuous cast" acrylic is made by a less expensive process. Body and Top base Acrylic is a useful. but has properties that make it superior to glass in many ways.05–0. It is many times stronger than glass. bounce off acrylic windows. surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. There are two basic types of acrylic: extruded and cell cast. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength. Cell cast acrylic is a higher quality acrylic and U. in most cases. can scratch easier and may contain impurities.S.3. It is chosen over glass for many reasons. but it is cheap and malleable. Baseballs that crash through glass windows will. ii. potentially saving on heating bills. Low carbon steel contains approximately 0. Lucite and Plexiglass. domestic cell cast is a good choice for applications that require the best. Imported cell cast acrylic is often manufactured to lesser standards. is softer.
3.4 : Developing Drawing Concept 53 .6 Developing Drawing Concept Function Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 Concept 4 Top base Pentagon Rectangular Parabolic Hexagon Body Bottom base Size: Top base Body Bottom base Parabolic Rectangle Coffin Rectangular Diamond Circle Rectangular Cuboids 310mm x 310mm 920mm x 320mm 720mm x 210mm 455mm x 310mm 910mm x 305mm 720mm x 200mm 310mm x 455mm 930mm x 330mm 720mm x 220mm 455mm x 455mm 940mm x 340mm 720mm x 230mm Final Design Table 3.
therefore big storage space must be provided. The AHR covered normal Asian height population compared to available rostrum that needed more than one rostrum for different height of person. e) Operation • • User friendly Easy to handle Can be used in any function 54 .7 Final Design Decision (Concept 2) a) Ergonomic • • b) Cost • • product cost are not expensive component can be obtained easily this product is easy to used and comfortable friendly user c) Multi purpose use • d) Space • • The AHR smaller than available rostrum.3.
One of the useful techniques for matrix evaluation is to decide on which concepts is the best is by giving a rating. iv. Ergonomic Cost Space Multipurpose-use Operation 55 . v. firstly we chose a suitable number of concepts which have been generated in the product design specification. some criteria have to consider: i. The product design specification should be used as the basis of any decision being made.3. In the rating matrix evaluation. ii.6 Matrix Evaluation In matrix evaluation. iii.
operation.30 Table 3.5 : Rating Of Matrix Evaluation 56 .30 5 0. E.20 0.7 Rating Of Matrix Evaluation By using the rating of matrix evaluation.00 1.3.2 0.30 0.20 0.30 5 1.00 0. marks are given according to the criteria that most been chosen by our group members. ergonomic.20 3 0.20 2 0. cost Step 2:Define the concept and fulfill the specification that needed for entire design. Step 3:Giving the mark for each idea or concept by using the point rating (1 – 5) Step 4: Calculate and analyze the rating Criteria Ergonomic Items Cost Space Operation Multi purpose-use Total Weighting factor Concept 2 0. The procedure of this rating is: Step 1:Determine the criteria.20 3 0.g. space. multi purpose use.
Item Rod iron (5.70 RM 12. 5.00 RM 38. Bil.00 RM 4. 1.00 RM 8. 8.00 RM 24. The aesthetic value for every design depends on how much money spends on it.00 RM 4. Table 3.00 RM 38.6 : Cost Estimation CHAPTER IV 57 . 7. 9.00 RM 8.00 RM 212.8 Cost Estimation Every design involved big expense for each part.00 1 1 1 1 set 3. 10.00 RM 8.85 meter) Power window motor Scissor jack Power window switch Acrylic (915mm x 305mm x 25mm) (460mm x 305mm x 5mm) Wire Bolt and nut Cloth Zinc plate (1000mm x 1000mm) Sticker Total Quantity 1 1 1 1 Price RM 18.70 6. 3.5 meter 1 2 RM 50.3. 2. 4.
The arc continuously melts the wire as it is fed to the weld puddle. including flat. wire electrode.METHODOLOGY 1) Welding process The type of welding that use is metal inert gas (MIG). stainless steel. (. or gas mixture. copper and several others. and welding conditions capable of producing high-quality welds at a low cost. Continuing developments have made the mig process applicable to the welding of all commercially important metals such as steel.1 : MIG welding machine Safety rules 58 .030 in. Materials above . It is simple to choose the equipment.76 mm) thick can be welded in all positions. . The weld metal is shielded from the atmosphere by a flow of an inert gas. vertical and overhead. Figure 4. aluminum. shielding gas.
2 : Types Of Goggle • Flash goggle (picture A) is worn under the welder’s helmet and by persons working around the area where welding operations are taking place. i. Below is the figure that allow for the welding process. Figure 4. This spectacle type of goggles has side shields and may have either an adjustable or nonadjustable nose bridge. When welding in locations where other welders are working. They are fitted with a removable protective colored filter and a clear cover lens.While doing the welding process. we need to wear the suitable cloth and equipment in order to ensure the safety of the welder. Goggle Helmets and welding goggles used for eye protection are made from a nonflammable insulating material. The flash goggles will also serve as eye protection when chipping the slag from a previous weld deposit. the welder should wear flash goggles beneath his helmet to provide protection from the flashes caused by the other welders’ arcs. 59 .
top of the shoulders. Cloth Figure 4. for a flip-up filter lens 2 inches by 4 1/4 inches second is to eliminate the harmful infrared.3 : Types Of Cloth • The cape and sleeves are particularly suited for overhead welding.• Eyecup or cover (picture B) is for use in fuel-gas welding or cutting operations. Use of 60 . ii. and the upper part of the back and chest. These goggles must be fitted with a shade of filter lens that is suitable for the type of work being done. • The helmet shown in view C has an opening. The larger window affords the welder a wider view and is especially useful when the welder is working in a confined place where head and body movement is restricted. because it protects the back of the neck. called a window. • The helmet shown in view D has a 4 1/2-inch by 5 1/4-inch window. They are contoured to fit the configuration of the face.
The clothing selected varies with the size. • Aprons and overalls provide protection to the legs and are suited for welding operations on the floor. gives added protection to the chest and abdomen. iii.the bib. This is especially true when several welders are working in close proximity to one another. five-finger gloves like those shown in view A should be used. Glove Figure 4. • During any welding or cutting operation. in combination with the cape and sleeves. 61 . use the two-finger gloves (or mitts) shown in view B. For gas welding and cutting. and nature of the work to be performed. • The jacket should be worn when there is a need for complete all-around protection to the upper part of the body. you should always wear flameproof gauntlets. location. • For electric-arc welding.4 : Glove • A variety of special welder’s clothing is used to protect parts of the body.
The figure is shown below. Figure 4.Figure 4.6 : Bottom Base Frame 62 . At the beginning process of making bottom base. we had cut the rod iron according to dimension that decided. we weld to each proportional joint based on drawing specification which is rectangular shape. Before started the welding process. ii.5 : Proper Way Of Safety Wearing Cloth Welding procedure : i.
Scissor jack with power window assembled was located in the middle of the bottom base as a main mechanism of the whole system.8 : The Welding Process 63 . The welding process was continued until the base completely builds.iii. iv.7 : Assembly Of Power Window And Scissor Jack Figure 4. Figure 4.
In cutting metals the waste is chips and excess metal. If this were a discussion of woodworking. safety rules must be obey to prevent unexpected accident. and the finished part. the measurement of the dimension needs to be done. ruler and liner. The net result of cutting is two products. protractor. tool that used for cutting processes are jig saw and high speed cutter. generally known as machining.11: Cutting acrylic with angle 64 . While doing the process.2) Cutting process Cutting is a collection of processes wherein material is brought to a specified geometry by removing excess material using various kinds of tooling to leave a finished part that meets specifications.9 : Measuring Dimension Figure 4. the waste or excess material. The equipment that used for the measurement processes are L-elbow. Beside that. Figure 4. the waste would be sawdust and excess wood. Before doing the cutting process. These processes can be divided into chip producing cutting.
14 : Cutting Using Hydraulic Swing Beam Shear Machine 65 .13 : High speed cutter Figure 4.15° Figure 4.12 : New Angle View Figure 4.
Technically.15 : The Grinding Process 4) Drilling process Drilling is the cutting process of using a drill bit in a drill to cut or enlarge holes in solid materials. It can produce very fine finishes and very accurate dimensions. as grinding is a true metal cutting process. end cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge and shears a tiny chip that is analogous to what would conventionally be called a "cut" chip. Different tools and methods are used for drilling depending on the type of material. and the time to complete the operation. yet in mass production contexts it can also rough out large volumes of metal quite rapidly. Grinding practice is a large and diverse area of manufacturing and tool making. As the drill is rotated and advanced into the work piece. fluted. the number of holes. grinding is a subset of cutting. the size of the hole. Figure 4. 66 . Grinding is considered to be the most accurate of the existing machining processes. Drilling is a cutting process in which a hole is originated or enlarged by means of a multipoint.3) Grinding process Grinding is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. such as wood or metal.
Figure 4. and skin irritation from cutting fluids all create situations that could pose a problem for the operator.16 : The Drilling Process 5) Bending process Bending characterizes the behavior of a structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicular to the axis of the element. Quickly rotating tools. Figure 4. One study showed that drilling accounts for nearly 90% of all chips produced.17 : Bending Process 67 .material is removed in the form of chips that move along the fluted shank of the drill. hot sharp chips expelled from the work piece. the material at the top of the beam is being compressed while the material at the bottom is being stretched. Bending produces reactive forces inside a beam as the beam attempts to accommodate the flexural load. Risks should be taken into consideration when drilling.
The rivet assembly is inserted into a hole drilled through the parts to be joined and a specially designed tool used to draw the mandrel into the rivet. These types of blind rivets have nonlocking mandrels and are avoided for critical structural joints because the mandrels may fall out.Figure 4.18 : Folding And Bending Machine 6) Rivet process Blind rivets that are used for this project which are tubular and are supplied with a mandrel through the center. due to vibration or other reasons.19 : Riveting Process 68 . Figure 4. This expands the blind end of the rivet and then the mandrel snaps off. leaving a hollow rivet that will have a significantly lower load carrying capability than solid rivets.
to both sawing and grinding in effect. Filing helps achieve work piece function by removing some excess material and deburring the surface. Filing operations can be used on a wide range of materials as a finishing operation. Similar. but used mostly for finishing operations. depending on use. namely in deburring operations.7) Filing process Filing is a material removal process in manufacturing. Figure 4. it is functionally versatile.21 : Filing Process 69 .
8) Tapping process Procedure : i. This is the initial tap used to start the tapping process for a female thread. iv.23 : Tapping Process 70 .22 : Hole Drilling Process Figure 4. A tool for holding the tap during the hand tapping process using 'Tee Handle'. Figure 4. iii. ii. The second tap used after the first tap to produce the full thread in blind holes where the thread does not need to go close to the bottom of the hole. Also known as '1st Tap'. A hole drilled into a material from one side without penetrating the opposite side.
The 12V battery is sufficient to give motion to power window motor that used for the system. Power window switch + .9) Wiring process The wiring process that has been done is for switch to control the height movement whether upward or downward.+ .25 : Assemble Wire To The Switch 71 . The power source that used to generate the system by using 12 V motorcycle battery.24 : Schematic Circuit Figure 4.+ + Power window motor battery Figure 4.
26 : Power Window Switch 72 .Figure 4.
the analysis below guides us to get proper specification in our design before started fabricate the AHR.1 Introduction The important when doing the analysis of the product. In this project.CHAPTER V ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 5. Its might be the mechanism can’t move upward smoothly as we expected. Hence. we can obtain the critical part value that influence the performance and efficiency of the product. The significant of the analysis will shows that the AHR will collapse if the top base can’t afford the overload. we analyze the maximum load can be applied to our AHR. 73 . Therefore. we can predict what will happen if AHR having an overload condition.
288 2 = 0 2 + 2( a )( 0.19 ) a= 0.02 g 0.38 2.19 m Dshaft = 0.05 m 1.288 m / s ρ = 7300 kg / m 2 (mulleable cast iron ) s = 0.1 Calculation 5. v 2 = u 2 + 2as 0.5.1.218 = = 0.288 2 = 0. µ= a 0.218 m / s 2 0.1 : The System Schematic v = 0.1 Maximum Load Analysis Figure 5.38 74 .
115 .04 = 34923 . d A = 0.14 kg 7.025 m 2 0.38 5.2rad / s 2.01m v = πj 2 v = π( 0. Shaft mass m = ρv = 7300 (1.5 ×10 −3 ( ) ω= 0.025 ) 2 ( 0.04 = 0.5 ×10 −3 4.963 ×10 6.78 rad / s 0. Gear ratio = αmotor =1 α jack 75 .3.2 2 = 0 2 + ( 2 ×α × 0.963 ×10 −5 ) = 0. v = ωr 0.38α 2 ω2 = ω12 + 2as α= 13271 .288 2 = ω + 2.288 2 = 115 .01 ) −5 v = 1.19 ) 13271 .
0125 )2 2 = 2.81 Motor ∴ .8. I motor = I shaft = MK 2 = 0.1.1875 ×10 −5 (1) 4 ( ) = 2.21 kg 9.1875 ×10 −5 + 2.955 Nm 10.374 ×10 −5 kgm 2 9.1875 ×10 −5 kgm 21 I setara = 2.78 ) = 0.734 × 10 −5 )( 34923 .2 Ansys (Total deformation) 76 .955 (115 . Force transferred from motor P = TW = 0. 5.14 ( 0. Motor torque Torque = Iα motor = ( 2.21 kg > 7 kg 11 can generate power to the system.2 ) =110 N = 110 =11 .
The analysis undergone to investigate the structure which is the body of the AHR either deform when the maximum allow load is applied.2 : Total Deformation 77 .The analysis to the structure has been done by using Ansys software. Hence. we can say that the body can be afford the maximum load which is 110N based on calculation analysis. Refer to the result. The values are too small and we can assume that value approximate to zero. Figure 5.248 x 10-4 m and at the bottom base is 3.9263 x 10-9 m. the deformation value at the top base is 1.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.