This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Instructor/Author: Ching H. Wu
DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS I. ROCK POROSITY I) II) III) VI) V) VI) VII) II. Definition Classification Range of values of porosity Factors affecting porosity Measurement of porosity Subsurface measurement of porosity Compressibility of porous rocks I-1 I-1 I-1 I-2 I-3 I-5 I-13 I-25 II-1 II-11 II-15 III-11 III-1 III-3 III-5 III-13 III-14 III-17 III-19 III-25 III-27 III-29 III-31 IV-1 IV-1 IV-1 V-1 V-1 V-8 V-9 V-18 VI-1 VI-1 VI-2 VI-2 VI-14 VI-14 VI-33
SINGLE PHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) Darcy's equation II) Reservoir systems
III. BOUNDARY TENSION AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE I) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) IX) X) XI) Boundary tension Wettability Capillary pressure Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation history Capillary pressure in reservoir rock Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure Converting laboratory data to reservoir conditions Determining water saturation in reservoir from capillary pressure data Capillary pressure variation Averaging capillary pressure data
IV. FLUID SATURATIONS I) Basic concepts of hydrocarbon accumulation II) Methods for determining fluid saturations V. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK-FLUID SYSTEMS I) Electrical conductivity of fluid saturated rock II) Use of electrical Formation Resistivity Factor, Cementation Factor, and Saturation Exponent III) Laboratory measurement of electrical properties of rock IV) Effect of clay on resistivity VI. MULTIPHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) II) III) IV) V) VI) Effective permeability Relative permeability Typical relative permeability curves Permeability ratio (relative permeability ratio) Measurement of relative permeability Uses of relative permeability data
VII. STATISTICAL MEASURES I) II) III) IV) V) VI) VII) VIII) IX) X) Introduction Frequency Distributions Histogram Cumulative Frequency Distributions Normal Distribution Log Normal Distribution Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Variability (dispersion) Normal Distribution Log Normal Distribution
VII-1 VII-1 VII-2 VII-3 VII-6 VII-8 VII-9 VII-10 VII-11 VII-12 VII-16
I. ROCK POROSITY I) Definition A measure of the pore space available for the storage of fluids in rock In general form: Porosity = φ = where: φ is expressed in fraction Vb = Vp + Vm Vb = bulk volume of reservoir rock, (L3) Vp = pore volume, (L3) Vm= matrix volume, (L3) Vp Vb - Vm = Vb Vb
Classification A. Primary (original) Porosity Developed at time of deposition B. Secondary Porosity Developed as a result of geologic process occurring after deposition C. Total Porosity φt = total pore space Vb - Vm = Vb Vb
Effective Porosity φe = 1. 2. interconnected pore space Vb Clean sandstones: φe = φt Carbonate, cemented sandstones: φe < φt
Particle arrangement 3. Particle shape 2. Vugs and fractures Particle shape Porosity increases as particle uniformity decreases. ft I-3 . Cementation 5.) 50 40 SANDSTONES 30 POROSITY. Factors: 1. C. % 20 SHALES 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 DEPTH OF BURIAL. EFFECT OF NATURAL COMPACTION ON POROSITY (FROM KRUMBEIN AND SLOSS. Packing Arrangement Porosity decreases as compaction increases B. Particle size distribution 4.VI) Factors affecting porosity A.
01 0. Vugs.little interstitial material Shaly sand . Particle Size Distribution Porosity decreases as the range of particle size increases SAND 100 FRAMEWORK FRACTION SILT CLAY CLEAN SAND SHALY SAND WEIGHT % INTERSTITIAL MATERIALS AND MUD FRAGMENTS 0 1. 2.has more interstitial material F. 2. MM E. Fractures 1.0 0.extremely complex I-4 . 3. Contribute substantially to the volume of pore spaces Highly variable in size and distribution There could be two or more systems of pore openings . 3.D.001 GRAIN SIZE DIAMETER.1 0. Interstitial and Cementing Material 1. Porosity decreases as the amount of interstitial material increases Porosity decreases as the amount of cementing material increases Clean sand .
71 2.65 2.Vm Vp = Vb Vb Table of matrix densities Lithology ρ m (g/cm3) ___________ ___________ Quartz Limestone Dolomite A. Conventional core analysis measure any two 1) 2) 3) b.V) Measurement of porosity φ= Vb . Vm pore volume. Vp bulk volume 1) 2) calculate from dimensions displacement method a) volumetric (measure volume) (1) (2) drop into liquid and observe volume charge of liquid must prevent test liquid from entering pores space of sample (a) (b) (c) b) coat with paraffin presaturate sample with test liquid use mercury as test liquid gravimetric (measure mass) (1) (2) Change in weight of immersed sampleprevent test liquid from entering pore space Change in weight of container and test fluid when sample is introduced I-5 . bulk volume.87 Laboratory measurement 1. a. Vb matrix volume. 2.
c. matrix volume 1) assume grain density dry weight Vm = matrix density 2) displacement method Reduce sample to particle size.V2 I-6 . evacuate Open valve CORE VALVE OPEN V2 = Volumetric of first chamber & volume of second chamber-matrix volume or core ( calculated) Volume of first chamber + volume second chamber (known) VT 4) Vm = =V T . then a) b) 3) volumetric gravimetric Boyle's Law: P1V1 = P 2V2 a) P(1) V(1) VALVE CLOSED b) c) P(2) Put core in second chamber.
evacuate Open valve V(1) CORE VALVE OPEN V2 3) Vp = Volume of first chamber + pore volume of core (calculated) = V2 . pore volume 1) gravimetric Vp = 2) saturated weight .V1 I-7 .d.dry weight density of saturated fluid Boyle's Law: P1V1 = P 2V2 a) P(1) V(1) CORE VALVE CLOSED b) c) P(2) Put core in Hassler sleeve.
2. Application to reservoir rocks a. intergranular porosity (sandstone. use representative plugs from whole core in laboratory measurements don't use sidewall cores secondary porosity (most carbonates) 1) 2) 3) use whole core in laboratory measurements calculate bulk volume from measurements determine matrix or pore volume from Boyle's Law procedure I-8 . some carbonates) 1) 2) b.
0 gm = 0.9 gm/cc.0 cc Bulk volume of sample = 10.9 cc Example I-2 The core sample of problem I-1 was stripped of the paraffin coat. What is the bulk volume of the sample? Solution: Weight of paraffin coating = 20.0 cc = 9. The dry sample weighed 20.9 cc . The volume of the grains was 7.1.9 cc of liquid.Vm 9.9 gm.7.7 cc φ= b = = 0.9 gm / (0.9 cc.7 cc V . The dry sample coated with paraffin weighed 20. Assume the density of solid paraffin is 0.9 gm . The paraffin coated sample displaced 10. Solution: Bulk Volume Matrix Volume = = 9.Example I-1 A core sample coated with paraffin was immersed in a Russell tube.9 gm/cc) = 1.0 gm. I-9 . crushed to grain size.22 Vb 9. What was the porosity of the sample? Is this effective or total porosity.9 cc 7.9 gm Volume of paraffin coating = 0.20. and immersed in a Russell tube.9 cc It is total porosity.7 cc.
427.6 gm Density of water = 1.6 gm 1 gm/cm3 179.dry core wt.0 cm3 11.10 .3 gm 1 gm/cm3 21.Example I-3 Calculate the porosity of a core sample when the following information is available: Dry weight of sample = 427. core wt. core wt.6 gm Solution: Vp Vp = = sat.0 gm/cm3 Weight of water saturated sample immersed in water = 269.0 cm3 Vp = 21.3 cm3 sat.3 cm3 = . density of water 448. in air . in air .119 Vb 179. core wt. in water density of water 448.6 gm .6 gm .sat.9% Vp Vb Vb = = = Vb = φ = φ = I .3 gm Weight of sample when saturated with water = 448.269.
71 gm/(cm3) 157. The lithology is limestone.Vp 179.7 cm 3 wt.3 gm = 2. Is the porosity effective or total? Why? Effective.7 cm3 I . of dry sample matrix vol.11 .21.3 cm3 = 157. = 427. because fluid was forced into the pore space.What is the lithology of the sample? Vm Vm ρm = = = Vb .0 cm3 .
7 = 42. The cells are connected and the resulting pressure is 28. Cell one is pressured to 50.488 cc VT .512 cc VT . Cell two is evacuated.12 .7 psia = 64.000 cc . Calculate the porosity of the core.1 psig.1 psig + 14.Vm 695 cc .7 psia) (1. Each of the cells has a volume of 1.0 psig.8% VT 695 cc V 2 V 2 V m V m φ I .512 cc .000 cc 50 psig + 14.V2 2.8 psia) 1.1. 695 cc) is placed in cell two of a Boyles Law device.Example I-4 A carbonate whole core (3 inches by 6 inches.488 cc = = .298 = 29. Solution: P V 1 1 V 1 P P 1 2 = = = = = = = = = P V 2 2 1.8 psia (64.7 psia 28.000 cc) / (42.000 cc.
65 2.0 ρ m gm/cc 2. Volume I) Lithology Sandstone Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite Salt Water ∆tm µsec/ft 55.∆tm Neutron log: e-kφ = CNf Table of Matrix Properties (Schlumberger.0 189.17 1.6 47. Log Interpretation Principles. ∆tL .0 67.∆tm ∆tf .5 50.87 2. Density log: ρ -ρ φd = m L ρm .5 43.ρf 2.96 2. Types of logs from which porosity can be derived 1. Sonic log: φs = 3.VI) Subsurface measurement of porosity A.71 2.13 .00 I .
Gamma rays are stopped by electrons .B. 3. Measures bulk density of formation M UD CAKE FORM ATION GAM M A RAY SOURCE SHORT SPACE DETECTOR LONG SPACE DETECTOR 2.the denser the rock the fewer gamma rays reach the detector Equation ρL = ρm 1 .φ + ρf φ ρ -ρ φd = m L ρm .14 .ρf I . Density Log 1.
0 I . ft 4100 ρ. API depth.8 3.6 2.FORMATION DENSITY LOG GR.15 .0 2.4 2. gm/cc 4120 4140 4160 4180 4200 4220 4240 0 40 80 120 160 200 2.2 2.
gm/cc _________ 2.Example I-5 Use the density log to calculate the porosity for the following intervals assuming ρ matrix = 2.157 ft : ρ = 2.0 gm/cc.ρf 2.450 Example: Interval 4.1.400 2.0 gm/cc I .2.143 ft -4.68 gm/cc . Interval.375 2.16 . ft __________ 4143-4157 4170-4178 4178-4185 4185-4190 4197-4205 4210-4217 ρ φd .430 2.680 2.68 gm/cc .375 gm/cc φd = m L = = 0.375 gm/cc L ρ -ρ 2.18 ρm .68 gm/cc and ρ fluid = 1.% ______ 18 20 15 17 0 14 L.350 2.
Travel time increases as porosity increases.17 . Measures time required for compressional sound waves to travel through one foot of formation T A B C R1 D E R2 2.φ + ∆tf φ (Wylie Time Average Equation) I . 3. Sound travels more slowly in fluids than in solids. Pore space is filled with fluids. Equation ∆tL = ∆tm 1 . Sonic Log 1.C.
SONIC LOG ∆T.18 . API depth. µ seconds/ft GR. ft 4100 4120 4140 4160 4180 4200 4220 4240 0 100 200 140 120 100 80 60 40 I .
Example I-6 Use the Sonic log and assume sandstone lithology to calculate the porosity for the following intervals.
Interval (ft) 4,144-4,150 4,150-4,157 4,171-4,177 4,177-4,187 4,199-4,204 4,208-4,213 Example: Interval 4144 ft - 4150 ft : ∆tL φs = = 86.5 µ-sec/ft
∆tL µ second/ft 86.5 84.0 84.5 81.0 53.5 75.0
25 24 24 21 1 17
∆tL - ∆tm 86.5 µ sec/ft- 51.6 µ sec/ft = = 0.25 ∆tf - ∆tm 189.0 µ sec/ft- 51.6 µ sec/ft
I - 19
Neutron Log 1. Measures the amount of hydrogen in the formation (hydrogen index)
Element Calcium Chlorine Silicone Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen
Average Number Collisions 371 316 261 150 115 18
Maximum Energy Loss/ Collision, % 8 10 12 21 28 100
Atomic Collision 40.1 35.5 28.1 16.0 12.0 1.0
Atomic Number 20 17 14 8 6 1
CLEAN SAND POROSITY = 15%
CLEAN SAND POROSITY = 15%
SLOWING DOWN POWER
RELATIVE PROBABILITY FOR COLLISION
Si 10 1
10-1 10-2 10-3
H .1 1 10
102 10 3 10 4 105 106 107
102 10 3 10 4 105
NEUTRON ENERGY IN ELECTRON VOLTS
NEUTRON ENERGY IN ELECTRON VOLTS
In clean, liquid filled formations, hydrogen index is directly proportional to porosity. Neutron log gives porosity directly. If the log is not calibrated, it is not very reliable for determining porosity. Run density log to evaluate porosity, lithology, and gas content.
I - 20
NEUTRON DENSITY LOG
depth, ft 4100
4240 0 200 30 -10
I - 21
Example I-7 Use the neutron log to determine porosity for the following intervals.
Interval (ft) 4,143-4,149 4,149-4,160 4,170-4,184 4,198-4,204 4,208-4,214
n (%) 23 20 21 9 19
I - 22
∆tm 189.71 gm/cc = 47.5 µ sec/ft = = 5.0 gm/cc ∆tL .ρf 2.∆tm 62.65 gm/cc .5 µ sec/ft = 2.76% ∆tf .73 µ-sec/ft φs = Assume limestone: ρm ∆tm = 2.522 gm/cc φd = m L = = 7.0 gm/cc φs = ∆tL . Assume sandstone: ρ m = 2. The depth of interest is 13.743 feet. A density log and a sonic log were run in the well in addition to the standard Induction Electric Survey (IES) survey.743 feet are: bulk density travel time Solution: Assume fresh water in pores.∆tm 189.47.73 µ sec/ft .∆tm 62.2.99% ρm .73 µ sec/ft.55.5 µ sec/ft I .ρf 2.5 µ-sec/ft ρ -ρ 2. 1 drilled in Lake Maracaibo.76% ρm .65 gm/cc ∆tm = 55.5 µ-sec/ft ρ -ρ 2.522 gm/cc φd = m L = = 10.2.71 gm/cc .522 gm/cc = 62. The readings at 13.0 µ sec/ft .55.47.42% ∆tf .65 gm/cc .71 gm/cc .1.5 µ sec/ft = = 10.Example I-8 Calculate the porosity and lithology of the Polar No.23 .0 µ sec/ft .1.
Assume dolomite: ρm ∆tm = 2.87 gm/cc . It is expected that the effective porosity is always less than .0 gm/cc = ∆tL .5 µ-sec/ft ρ -ρ 2. The general consensus is that the sonic log measures effective porosity when we use the Wyllie "time-average" equation.87 gm/cc = 43.ρf 2.∆tm 62.43.87 gm/cc .∆tm 189.22% ∆tf .522 gm/cc = m L= = 18.2. I . Are the tools measuring total or effective porosity? Why? The density log measures total compressibility because is "sees" the entire rock volume.5 µ sec/ft = 11% φd φs φlimestone Since both logs "read" nearly the same porosity when a limestone lithology was assumed then the hypothesis that the lithology is limestone is accepted.5 µ sec/ft = = 13.the total porosity.1.43.619% ρm .or equal to.24 .0 µ sec/ft . The sonic log tends to measure the velocity of compressional waves that travel through interconnected pore structures as well as the rock matrix.including all pores.73 µ sec/ft .
c is the fractional change in volume per unit change in pressure: ∆V ∂V V T c=.25 .1 ≅ V ∂P T ∆P A. Fo = Fm + Ff it follows that Po 3.0 psi/ft 0. Normally pressured reservoirs 1. Thus. Downward force by the overburden must be balanced by upward force of the matrix and the fluid Fo Fm Ff 2.VII) Compressibility of porous rocks Compressibility.465 psi/ft I . Po Pf = ≅ ≅ pm + pf 1.
Vm.26 . As fluid is produced from a reservoir. cf . c. important to reservoir engineers 1) 2) 3) 4) depletion of fluid from pore spaces internal rock stress changes change in stress results in change in Vp. b. ≅ 0 Bulk Compressibility cb used in subsidence studies 3. Formation Compressibility. Matrix Compressibility.4. is constant dPm = .dP f I . the force on the matrix increases causing a decrease in bulk volume and a decrease in pore volume B. the fluid pressure. since overburden pressure. Vb by definition ∂Vp cf = . Po. Types of compressibility 1.1 Vp ∂pm b. Pf will usually decrease: a. cm cm 2.also called pore volume compressibility a.
thus. vp.1 Vp ∂pm it follows that ∆ Vp expelled cf = + 1 Vp ∆Po I . ∂Vp cf = .1) Thus. is essentially constant. dPo (d) = dP m 3) expelled volume increases as pore volume. thus. pf. Po fluid pressure.dVexpelled (e) from definition ∂Vp cf = .1 Vp ∂pm 2) where the subscript of f on cf means "formation" and the subscript of f on Pf means "fluid" procedure (a) (b) (c) measure volume of liquid expelled as a function of "external" pressure "external" pressure may be taken to represent overburden pressure.27 . decreases. dVp = .
psi slope = cf. I .(f) plot CUMULATIVE VOLUME EXPELLED PORE VOLUME OVERBURDEN PRESSURE.28 .
29 .C.Jacketed Core Apparatus for measuring pore volume compressibility (hydrostatic) I . Measurement of compressibility 1) Laboratory core sample a) b) 2) apply variable internal and external pressures internal rock volume changes Equipment Internal Pressure Gauge Hydraulic Pump Mercury Sight Gauge Overburden Pressure Gauge Hydraulic Pump Copper .
009 4000 psi 1 psi = 50.596 0. fluid expelled.0 cc vol.448 0. cc 0.011 6000 psi 1 psi = 1.500 0. pore volume pressure.324 0.30 .25 X 10-6 @ 6000 psi: Slope cf = 0.Example I-9 Given the following lab data.244 0.392 0. calculate the pore volume compressibility for a sandstone sample at 4.000 psi: Slope cf = 0. psi 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Solution: from graph @ 4.000 and 6.630 = 2.546 0.83 X 10-6 I .000 psi.
005 0. cc PORE VOLUME. cc 0.31 .010 0. psi I .000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 COMPACTION PRESSURE.0.015 VOLUME EXPELLED.
% I .PORE VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY X 10-6 psi-1 100 PORE-VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY AT 75 % LITHOSTATIC PRESSURE VS INITIAL SAMPLE POROSITY FOR CONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES. PORE VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY X 10-6 psi-1 100 UNCONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES 10 HALL'S CORRELATION 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 INITIAL POROSITY AT ZERO NET PRESSURE.32 . % PORE-VOLUME COMPRESSIBILITY AT 75 % LITHOSTATIC PRESSURE VS INITIAL SAMPLE POROSITY FOR UNCONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES. CONSOLIDATED SANDSTONES 10 HALL'S CORRELATION 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 INITIAL POROSITY AT ZERO NET PRESSURE.
Abnormally pressured reservoirs "abnormal pressure": fluid pressures greater than or less than the hydrostatic fluid pressure expected from an assumed linear pressure gradient PRESSURE NORMAL LINEAR DEPTH SUBNORMAL (LOWER) SURNORMAL (GREATER) I .E.33 .
6 cc . uncoated sample ρ 249.241.6 cc φ = φ = 23. The density of the paraffin is 0.90 gm/cc Vm = Vparaffin = Vparaffin = Vb Vp Vp = 125 cc .Compressibility/Porosity Problem No.231 Vb 115.4 cc = 115. coated sample .st.1% (total porosity) I .88.6 cc = Vb . The limestone sample coated with paraffin was found to weigh 249.Vm = 115.9 cc .9.5 gm.0 gm = 9. The coated sample when immersed in a partially filled graduated cylinder displaced 125.0 gm.9 cc ρ ls 2.90 gm/cc.0 gm = = 88.7 cc Vp 26.34 .0 cc of water.4 cc 0. 1 A limestone sample weighs 241.5 gm .71 gm/cc wt.7 cc = = 0.26. What is the porosity of the rock? Does the process measure total or effective porosity? Solution: wt. dry 241.
250 0.9% (Complete mixing of the grains) remaining matrix volume (ft3) ___ 0.039 Final porosity . ft.750 0.000 0.000 0. remaining pore volume (ft3) 1.905 0.35 .0 9.5 3.095 0.961 component porosity (%) 100. 2 You are furnished with the results of a sieve analysis of a core from Pete well #1.Compressibility/Porosity Problem No. The correlation is seen below: gravel coarse sand fine sand 25% porosity 38% porosity 41% porosity What would be the minimum porosity of the mixture? What basic assumption must be made in order to work the problem? Solution: Begin calculation with a volume of 1 cu. Previous laboratory work indicates there is a correlation between grain size and porosity displayed by those particular particles.3.9 void space gravel coarse sand fine sand I .0 25.
pore vol. 3 A sandstone reservoir has an average thickness of 85 feet and a total volume of 7.000 4.22% ρ m .40 gm/cc.650 acre-feet. Density log readings through the fresh water portion of the reservoir indicate a density of 2.Compressibility/Porosity Problem No.1.000 2. A rock sample was sent to the laboratory and the following tests were run. B.500 psi to 3.65 .000 8.273 0.65 .000 7.40 = 15.36 .2. The Highgrade #1 Well was drilled and cored through the reservoir.000 6.224 0.960 inches in diameter. pressure (psig) 1.500 psi? Calculate: A. Assuming the compressibility at 4.196 0. how much subsidence occurs when the reservoir pressure declines from 5. Solution: A.298 0.315 The dry weight of the core sample was found to be 140 gm while the sample dimensions were 1.500 psi Amount of Ground Subsidence.ρ f 2. change (-cc)_________ 0.162 0. D. C. I .575 inches long and 1.000 3.500 psi is the average compressibility in the reservoir.00 Reservoir Porosity Sample Pore Volume Compressibility at 4.122 0.000 cum.250 0.000 5. Reservoir Porosity ρ -ρ φ = m L = 2.
37 .960 in) (2.026 ft = 0.0 = matrix volume = 140 gm cc = 52.69x 10 -7 psi-1 0.8 cc = 25. I .Vm = 78. An experienced engineer would be wary of this small number.7 cc C. Sample Pore Volume L D Vb Vm Vp Vp = (1.B.0 2 4.0 cm 2 3.000 psi = 0.7 cc D.32 inches Note: the pore volume (formation) compressibility is somewhat smaller than usually encountered.54 cm/in) = 4.0 = bulk volume = πD h = = 78. Experience shows that this is not the case.54 cm/in) = 5.52.0 cm = (1. Subsidence ∆H ∆H ∆H ∆H = H cp φ ∆P = 85 ft 9. Also it was assumed that the formation compressibility was exactly the same as the bulk volume compressibility.14 5.5 cc 4 4.65 gm = Vb .575 in) (2.8 cc 2. Compressibility (see graph) Vp = 25.5 cc .152 2.
0118 .0080 0.0120 SLOPE = ..38 .0100 C p = 9. psig I . cc PORE VOLUME.0040 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 PRESSURE.96 x 10-7 psi -1 0.0060 0.2000 VOLUME EXPELLED.POROSITY PROBLEM No.0140 0. 3 0. cc 0.0068 7000 .
969. If the pressure decreases 3.600 ft2 = 696.560) = 100 (6.969.1 Vp dp 5 x 10-6 (1/psi) = dVp -1 76.600) = 6.000 psi.Compressibility Problem A 160-acre and 100 ft thick reservoir has a porosity of 11%.665.665.960.39 .0 x 106 (1/psi).15 x 106 ft3 x 1 = 0.11) = 76. what is the subsidence (ft)? Assume Cf = Cb Solution: A Vb Vp = 160 (43.960.600 ft3 3.969.000 psi dVp = 1.000) (.600 ft2 I .000 ft3 = Vb(f) = (696.15 x 106 ft3 ∆H = 1.600 ft3 dVp Cp = . The pore compressibility is 5.165 ft 6.
constant of proportionality.h2) µL Length of sand pack. characteristics of particular sand pack.L = Z q= 1.II. k. 2.h2 h1 Z h2 q WATER SAND DARCY'S FOUNTAIN.1 . Water flow through sand filters q A h 1 . 3. SINGLE PHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) Darcy's equation (1856) A. not sample size Darcy's work confined to sand packs that were 100% saturated with water equation extended to include other liquids using viscosity II . kA(h1 .
cm/sec = density of flowing fluid .h2) µL B.cm/sec = interstitial velocity .q= kA(h1 .2 . Equation ρg dz vs = -k dP µ ds 1. Nomenclature vs vs/φ ρ g dP ds µ k = superficial velocity (volume flux along path s) .darcies II .980 cm/sec2 = pressure gradient along s .0133 x 10 6 ds +Z Vs s Θ +1 90o 180o 270o 360o +X -Z -1 +Y θ 2.centipoise = permeability . Generalized form of Darcy's equation 1.gm/cm3 = acceleration of gravity .atm/cm = viscosity .
k µ ds 1. Conversion factors dyne atm ρgh poise = gm cm/sec2 = a unit of force = 1.3.0133 x 10 6 ds m/Lt2 .k m/Lt L L = L2 = cross-sectional area vs L t k II .m/L3 L/t2 L = .3 .0133 x 106 dyne/cm2 = dyne/cm2 = a unit of pressure = gm/cm sec = dyne sec/cm2 4. The dimensions of permeability L m t vs µ ρ p g = length = mass = time = L/t = m/Lt = m/L3 = m/Lt2 = L/t2 ρg dp dz = .
Definition of Darcy units a. conventional units would be: 1) 2) b. feet squared in the English system centimeter squared in the cgs system both are too large for use in porous media definition of darcy A porous medium has a permeability of one darcy when a single-phase fluid of one centipoise that completely fills the voids of the medium will flow through it under conditions of viscous flow at a rate of one cubic centimeter per second per square centimeter cross-sectional area under a pressure or equivalent hydraulic gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter.4 . k A P1 .5.P2 µL q = II . c.
Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dz horizontal system. linear flow system q P1 A q P2 L a.II) Reservoir systems A. ds = 0 linear system. A = constant incompressible liquid. Flow of incompressible liquid 1. Horizontal. can use Darcy's equation non-reactive fluid. q II .5 . µ. q = constant laminar flow. k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature.
b. derivation of flow equation vs vs L q 0 qL-0 q ds = .k µ ρg dP dz ds 1.P1 µ = kA P2 .6 .k dP = µ ds A p2 kA = dP µ p 1 = .kA P2 .P1 Lµ Note: P1 acts at L = 0 P2 acts at L = L q is + if flow is from L = 0 to L = L II .0133 x 10 6 ds q = .
42 cm 3/sec II .P1 Lµ = (1) (5.88) = 91.0 cp length = L = 6 ft inlet pressure = P1 = 5.Example II-1 What is the flow rate of a horizontal rectangular system when the conditions are as follows: permeability = k = 1 darcy area = A = 6 ft2 viscosity = µ = 1.45 cm2/1 in2) = 5572.2.8) (5.0) (1) (182.572.0 atm = 2.8 cm 2 = 6 ft (12 in/1 ft) (2. k A L P1 P2 q q q = 1 darcy = 6 ft2 (144 in2/1 ft2) (6.88 cm = 5.0 atm = kA P2 .0 atm outlet pressure = P2 = 2.0 .54 cm/1 in) = 182.7 .0 atm Solution: We must insure all the variables are in the correct units.
linear system -Z P2 S Θ X P1 a. use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid.2. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dz = sinθ non-horizontal system. q II .8 . k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature µ. ds = constant linear system. Non-horizontal. q = constant laminar flow. A = constant incompressible liquid.
k A µ k ρg sin θ dP + ds µ 1.0133 x 10 6 P2 P1 kA ρg sin θ dp + µ 1. vs derivation of equation ρg dz = .k dP µ ds 1.9 .0133 x 10 6 L ds 0 vs q ρgLsinθ = .kA P1 .kA µ q = .b.P2 + µL 1.0133 x 10 6 ds = L q 0 ds = .0133 x 10 6 II .
1 linear system.10 . Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) dz vertical system. use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid. k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature. sinθ = . Vertical. linear system FLOW UNDER HEAD h h x L a.3. q = constant laminar flow. q = 270°. ds = sinθ = constant upward flow. µ II . upward flow. A = constant incompressible liquid.
11 .0133 x 10 6 ρg (h + x + L) 1.0133 x 10 6 L 1.0133 x 10 6 L 1.P2 L 1.0133 x 10 6 1.0133 x 10 6 = q = .k A µ kA µ = P1 P2 = = ρg h ρg ρg q = kA + µ 1.0133 x 10 6 ρg x 1.0133 x 10 6 P1 L P2 = ρg h ρg + 1.0133 x 10 6 ds ρg dP + ds 1.0133 x 10 6 q II .0133 x 10 6 ρg h = kA µL 1.b. vs vs q derivation of flow equation = k µ ρg dP dz ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ρg P1 .
use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid. h = constant incompressible liquid. q = constant laminar flow. radial flow system re Pw Pe rw re rw h a. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) dz horizontal system. q II .dr. ds = . A = 2πrh . constant temperature. µ.12 . ds = 0 radial system.4. Horizontal. k = constant 100% saturated with liquid. flow is inward constant thickness.
Derivation of flow Equation vs vs q 2πh q 2πh q = = . A = constant compressible gas flow. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) dz horizontal system.1n( rw) = k Pe .Pw µ 1n (re/rw) e Note: if q is + . horizontal. ds = 0 linear system.b.13 . use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid.Pw µ 2πhk P . flow is from r e to rw B. linear flow system q P1 A q P2 L a.k µ ρg dP dz ds 1.0133 x 10 6 ds q q = + k dP = = µ dr A 2πrh re rw dr = k r µ pe dp pw 1n(re) . k= constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature II . Flow of gas (compressible fluid) 1. q = f(p) laminar flow.
0133 x 10 6 ds q = . Assumptions 1) 2) µ. Pq Pscqsc q = where qsc is constant Z is determined at P.k dP µ ds 1. Z = constant Z(and µ ) can be determined at mean pressure c.k dP = µ ds Ads but q thus Psc T qsc Tsc A Psc T qsc Tsc A L ds = .k µz 2 2 P2 . Derivation of equation for qsc vs vs ρg dz = .P2 1 qsc = kA Tsc µL Tz Psc 2 Note: real gas equation of state Pq = ZnRT = volumetric flow/time = mass flow/time = ZnRT n R Tsc Psc qscz T 1 Tsc P where q n thus. T II .k o p1 p2 PdP µz = Psc qscz T PTsc P22 .b.14 .P12 L -0 = .
d. T = ZnRT z is determined at P.P22 µL P 2 P12 . P.P 1 2 µL q q = = This equation is identical to the equation for horizontal.15 . T qsc = P q Tsc z Psc T II . Derivation of equation for q qsc = 2 P1 . the equation for incompressible liquid can be used for compressible gas! Note: real gas equation of state Pq thus Psc qsc n R Tsc = znRT Pq where P P = = P1 + P 2 2 volumetric flow rate at P. linear flow of incompressible liquid thus if gas flow rate is determined at mean pressure.P2 kA Tsc 2 µL Tz Psc 2 but qsc = q = P q Tsc Z Psc T Tsc P12 .P22 k A 2 µL P1 + P 2 2 k A P .P22 = k A µL T z Psc 2 k A 1 P12 .
16 . A = 2πrL. k = constant 100% saturated with one fluid constant temperature II . radial flow system re Pw Pe rw re rw h a. Horizontal.2. Conditions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) dz horizontal system ds = 0 radial system.dr. q = f (P) laminar flow. use Darcy equation non-reactive fluid. h = constant compressible gas flow. inward flow constant thickness. ds = .
k dP µ ds 1.dr thus Psc T qsc 2Tsc π h re rw dr = k r Pe Pw ρdP µz P q zT = sc sc PTsc PscT qsc r P2 .17 .P2 w 1n r e = k e µz 2 2 Tsc π h w qsc = Tsc P2 .b. Assumptions µz = constant z (and µ ) can be determined at mean pressure c.P2 2πhk e w µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2 II .k dP = µ ds A but q and A = 2πrh and ds = .0133 x 10 6 ds q vs = . derivation of equation for qsc ρg dz vs = .
derivation of equation for q qsc = Tsc P2 . q.P2 ) 2πhk 2 e w µ 1n re/rw Pe + P w 2 2πhk P .P2 e w 2 = P q Tsc z Psc T q = 2 π h k 1 (P2 .Pw µ 1n re/rw e q q = = Note: Equation for real gas is identical to equation for incompressible liquid when volumetric flow rate of gas.18 .P2 ) e w µ 1n re/rw P 2 (P2 .P2 2πhk e w µ 1n re/rw Psc zT 2 but q thus P q Tsc z Psc T = Tsc 2πhk µ 1n re/rw Psc zT P2 .d. II . is measured at mean pressure.
C.48 L P1 .841 q bbl d darcy k darcy = k md 1.0 A .P2 0.841 q = q = 0.000md k darcy = 0.696 psia psia atm = 0. Conversion to Oilfield Units Darcy units cc/sec darcy sq cm cm atm cm cp gm/cc Oil field bbl/d or cu ft/d md sq ft ft psia ft cp lb/cu ft Symbol q k A h P L µ r Example: q= hkA P1 .01127 k A P1 .P2 psia atm 14.19 .P2 µL in oilfield units II .48 cm ft meter = 100 cm 1.P2 µL in Darcy's units 1.728 cu in cu ft 16.0 sq cm A sq ft sq ft A sq cm = 929.600 sec cc q sec = q bbl 5.39 cc cu in d 24hr hr 3.06805 µ 30.001 k 929.P2 P1 .P2 L cm = L ft 30.P2 atm = P1 .0 A sq ft P1 .001 k md A sq cm = 929.06805 P1 .615 cu ft d bbl cc q sec = 1.
P2 + ρ g L sin θ 1. Linear Dipping.Pw II .Pw 2 q = 2 π kh µ ln (re/rw) Pe . Linear Fluid Incompressible Liquid Incompressible Liquid q = kA µL Equation P1 .P2 q = kA µL P1 .Pw Tsc qsc = kA µ L Tz Psc q = kA µL P1 . Radial Real Gas qsc = µ π kh ln (re/rw) Tsc Tz Psc Pe 2 .D.20 . Radial Horizontal. Darcy Units System Horizontal. Linear Incompressible Liquid Real Gas q = 2 π kh µ ln (re/rw) Pe .0133 x 10 6 Horizontal.P2 P2 .P2 1 2 2 Horizontal. Table of Equations 1.
Pw II .001127 kA µL ρg L sinθ 1.P2 + Horizontal. Linear Fluid Incompressible Liquid Equation q = 0.21 .7032 kh µ ln (re/rw) Tz kh µ ln (re/rw) Pe 2 .P2 Pe .P2 q = res bbl/d Dipping. Oilfield Units System Horizontal.007082 Pe .1118 P12 .0133 x 10 6 kh µ ln (re/rw) kA µ LzT qsc = scf/d q = .P22 q = res bbl/d Horizontal. Linear Incompressible Liquid q = 0.001127 kA µL P1 .Pw P1 . Radial qsc = .2. Radial Horizontal.001127 kA µL P1 .007082 Real Gas qsc = . Linear Incompressible Liquid q = .Pw2 Real Gas q = .
22 .4 II .0 atm) (14.1271 x 10-3 q = 49.29.7 psi/atm) = 73.7 bbl / day 1. outlet pressure = P2 = 2.1271 x 10-3 kA P1 .P2 µL q = 1.7 psi/atm) = 29.4 psi q = 1. k A L P1 P2 = = = = = 1 darcy = 1.000 md 2 6 ft 6 ft (5.5 psi (2.0 atm.5 .0 atm) (14.000 6 1 6 73. Solutions: We must insure that all the variables are in the correct units.0 atm.0 cp length = L = 6 ft inlet pressure = P1 = 5.Example II-2 What is the flow rate of a horizontal rectangular system when the conditions are as follows: permeability = k = 1 darcy area = A = 6 ft2 viscosity = µ = 1.
23 .082 x 1--3 300 20 2.826 res bbl/d II .3 cp Solution: q= 7.3 6.Pw µ ln Re / Rw 7.Example II-3 Determine the oil flow rate in a radial system with the following set of conditions: K h = = 300 md 20 ft re rw re/rw ln (re/rw) = 330 ft = 0.740 psia µ = 1.1.500 psia Pw =1.082 x 10 -3 kH Pe .500 .492 q= q = 3.740 1.5 ft = 660 = 6.492 Pe =2.
P2 + kB whB µL P1 .P2 + kC whC µL P1 .24 .E. Horizontal. then k wh P1 . linear flow parallel to bedding P1 q A B C L qt = qA + qB + qC h = hA + hB + hC let k be "average" permeability. Layered Systems 1.P2 k h = kA hA + kB hB + kC hC k = n kj hj ∑ h j=1 II .P2 µL P2 q W qt = and qt = then kA whA µL P1 .
Pw and qt = 2 π kA hA µ ln (re/rw) Pe .Pw k h = kA hA + kB hB + kC hC and again k = n kj hj ∑ h j=1 II .25 . Horizontal. radial flow parallel to bedding re re hA hB rw qA qB Pe ht hC qC Pw again qt = qA + qB + qC h = hA + hB + hC qt = 2πk h µ ln (re/rw) Pe .2.Pw + 2 π kB hB µ ln (re/rw) Pe .Pw + then 2 π kc hc µ ln (re/rw) Pe .
P2 = qt µ L q µLA q µLB q µLC = A + B + C kA wh kB wh kC wh k wh since qt = qA = qB = qC L = LA + LB + LC kA kB kC k thus K = L n Lj ∑ j = 1 kj II .P2 µL P1 . linear flow perpendicular to bedding A P1 q B C P2 q kA ∆P A LA kB ∆P B LB kC ∆P C LC h W L qt = qA = qB = qC p1 .26 .3.p2 = ∆PA + ∆PB + ∆PC L = LA + LB + LC qt = and since k wh P1 . Horizontal.P2 = ∆ PA + ∆PB + ∆PC P1 .
27 . radial. flow perpendicular to bedding q Pw PA PB PC h rw rA rB rC qt = qA = qB = qC Pe .Pw = ∆PA + ∆PB + ∆PC q = 2 π k h Pe . Horizontal.4.Pw µ ln (re/rw) qt µ ln (re/rw) 2π k h + then k = ln re/rw n ln(rj/rj-1) ∑ kj j=1 = qA µ ln (rA/rw) 2 π kAh Pe .Pw = qB µ ln (rB/rA) q µ ln (rC/re) + C 2 π kB h 2 π kC h II .
25 ln 2/0.4 md The permeability of the damaged zone near the wellbore influences the average permeability more than the permeability of the undamaged formation. II .28 .Example II-4 Damaged zone near wellbore k1 = 10 md k2 = 200 md r1 r2 rw = 2 ft = 300 ft = 0.25 ln 300/2 + 10 200 k = k = 30.25 ft Solution: k = ln (re/rw) n ln (rj/rj-1 ) ∑ kj j=1 ln 300 0.
P2 assuming these flow equations have consistent units Ar2 8µL thus 2 k = r2 = d 32 8 where d = inches. Poiseuille's Equation for viscous flow through capillary tubes q= πr4 8µL P1 .F. Flow through channels and fractures 1.P2 A = π r2.P2 b. Flow through constant diameter channel A L a. k = 20 x 10 9 d2 md P1 . Darcy's law for linear flow of liquids q = kA µL P1 .P2 II . therefore q= Ar2 8µL P1 .29 .P2 = kA µL P1 .
If only 25 percent of the rock is pore channels (f = 0. what will the permeability be? B.0001 inch in diameter.Example II-4 A. Solution: A. k k = 0.25 (200 md) = 50 md II .25). k k k = 20 x 109 d2 = 20 x 109 (0. Determine the permeability of a rock composed of closely packed capillaries 0.0001 in) 2 = 200 md B.30 .
2. b2 A P1 .P2 = kA P1 . Flow through fractures b v= q h2 (P 1-P 2) = A 12 µ L 2 q = b A (P1 -P2) 12 µ L setting this flow equation equal to Darcy's flow equation.P2 12 µ L µL solve for permeability of a fracture: 2 k = b in darcy units. or 12 k = 54 x 109 b2 where b k = = inches md II .31 .
determine the average permeability using the equation for parallel flow. which contains on the average a fracture 0.005 in fracture area + 54 x 109 x 0. 0.000 144 k = 563 md II .Example II-6 Consider a rock of very low matrix permeability.005 2 12 in x 0.005 inches wide and one foot in lateral extent per square foot of rock. Assuming the fracture is in the direction of flow.01 md.439 + 81. similar to horizontal. linear flow parallel to fracture k = k = matrix area + fracture k total area 12 in 2 + 12 in 144 in2 0.32 . Solution: ∑ kj Aj k = A matrix k 0.01 .005 in 144 in2 k = 1.
P22 2 µ L Psc P12 . Perm plug method a. individual samples (perm plugs) from larger core extract hydrocarbons in extractor dry core in oven flow fluid through core at several rates qsc P sc A TURBULENCE SLOPE = k / m P 12 . d. c. Procedure 1. b. real gas flow with T = Tsc and Z = 1.0 qsc Psc = k A µ k = ( slope ) m II .P 22 2L qsc = kA P12 .III) Laboratory measurement of permeability A. linear. cut small.33 .P22 2L horizontal.
2. prepare whole core in same manner as perm plugs mount core in special holders and flow fluid through core as in perm plug method VERTICAL FLOW LOW AIR PRESSURE (FLOW) CORE RUBBER TUBING HIGH AIR PRESSURE PIPE TO FLOWMETER c. d.34 . b. Whole core method a. the horizontal flow data must be adjusted due to complex flow path whole core method gives better results for limestones II .
b. c. Fractures .35 .rocks which contain fractures in situ frequently separate along the planes of natural weakness when cored. f. II . called Klinkenberg effect mean free path is function of size of molecule thus permeability measurements are a function of type of gas used in laboratory measurement. d. Thus laboratory measurements give "matrix" permeability which is lower than in situ permeability because typically only the unfractured parts of the sample are analyzed for permeability. gas flow path with slippage e. gas molecules "slip" along the grain surfaces occurs when diameter of the capillary openings approaches the mean free path of the gas molecules Darcy's equation assumes laminar flow 2. Gas slippage a.B. Factors which affect permeability measurement 1.
i. kMEASURED 0 1 P II . permeability is a function of size of capillary opening. effect of gas slippage can be eliminated by making measurements at several different mean pressures and extrapolating to high pressure (1/p => 0) h. thus Klinkenberg effect is greater for low permeability rocks.negligible at high pressures. mean free path is a function of pressure.36 .H2 N2 k CALCULATED CO2 0 1 P g. thus Klinkenberg effect is greater for measurements at low pressures .
04 2. There was some question about what the true liquid permeability was.517 4. since nitrogen was used in the permeameter.38 md 5 GAS PERMEABILITY.76 3.76 2. Calculate the equivalent liquid permeability from the following data.192 2.1 II .2 0.64632 P bar Equivalent Liquid Permeability = 2. md 4 3 2 1 0 0.0 0.38276 + 1.Example II-7 Another core taken at 8815 feet from the Brazos County well was found to be very shaly. atm .0 Measured Permeability ( md ) 3.571 9.4 0. Mean Pressure ( atm ) 1.38 md RECIPROCAL MEAN PRESSURE.8 1.484 Solution: Plot kmeasured vs. 1/pressure Intercept is equivalent to liquid permeability From graph: kliq = 2.37 .6 0.54 k gas = 2.
reduce the permeability due to clay swelling. 1 1 10 100 1000 10000 AIR PERMEABILITY. Formation water reacts with clays 1) 2) lowers permeability to liquid actual permeability to formation water is lower than lab permeability to gas RELATIONSHIP OF PERMEABILITIES MEASURED WITH AIR TO THOSE MEASURED WITH WATER 1000 WATER PERMEABILITY.if its salinity is less than that of the formation water.000 . II .38 .000 ppm Cl ion.3. Injection water may. md b.25. md 100 10 Water concentration 20. Reactive fluids a.
b.This is likely to result in a change in permeability (+ or -).0 5.0 1550.especially around the well. Change in pore pressure a. Kw means permeability to fresh water 4.0 Ka means permeability to air.0 1960.9 197.0 2460.0 19. K500 means permeability to 500 grains per gallon chloride solution. II .0 119. The production of fluids.0 270. Field S S S S S S S S T T T T Zone 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 36 36 36 36 Ka 4080 24800 40100 4850 22800 34800 13600 7640 2630 3340 2640 3360 K1000 1445 11800 23000 1910 13600 23600 5160 1788 2180 2820 2040 2500 K500 1380 10600 18600 1430 6150 7800 4640 1840 2140 2730 1920 2400 K300 1290 10000 15300 925 4010 5460 4200 2010 2080 2700 1860 2340 K200 1190 9000 13800 736 3490 5220 4150 2540 2150 2690 1860 2340 K100 885 7400 8200 326 1970 3860 2790 2020 2010 2490 1860 2280 Kw 17.will result in a decrease in pore pressure and a reduction of in-situ permeability.2 147.Effect of Water Salinity on Permeability of Natural Cores (Grains per gallon of chloride ion as shown).5 9.39 .0 2060. The removal of the core from the formation will likely result in a change in pore volume.
I) BOUNDARY TENSION AND CAPILLARY PRESSURE Boundary tension. at the boundary between two phases there is an imbalance of molecular forces the result is to contract the boundary to a minimum size GAS SURFACE LIQUID III. σ A. B.III.1 .
D.2 .this is called "boundary tension" Boundary Energy = Boundary Tension x Length 3.C. Solid-Liquid Boundary physical attraction between molecules of liquid and solid surface III. Law of Universal Gravitation applied between molecules physical attraction (repulsion) between molecules Liquid-Gas Boundary attraction between molecules is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 3.Boundary tension between two immiscible liquids or between a fluid and a solid is called "interfacial tension" σgw σgo σwo σws σos σgs = surface tension between gas and water = surface tension between gas and oil = interfacial tension between water and oil = interfacial tension between water and solid = interfacial tension between oil and solid = interfacial tension between gas and solid I. 2. G. F. work in ergs required to create 1 cm 2 of surface (ergs/cm 2) is termed "boundary energy" also can be thought of as force in dynes acting along length of 1 cm required to prevent destruction of surface (dynes/cm) . Surface Tension . Forces a. the average molecule in the liquid is uniformly attracted in all directions molecules at the surface attracted more strongly from below creates concave or convex surface depending on force balance creation of this surface requires work 1. H. Forces creating boundary tension 1.Boundary tension between gas and liquid is called "surface tension" Interfacial Tension . E. b. 2.
σos = σow cos θ C. Liquid-Liquid Boundary some of each II) Wettability A. if the solid is "water-wet" σws ≥ σos AT = + cos θ = + 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° if θ = 0° .3 .strongly water-wet III. Adhesion Tension.4. AT AT = σws . forces at boundary of two liquids and a solid (or gas-liquid-solid) σow OIL WATER Θ σos σw s SOLID OIL σws = σos + σow cos θ B.
7% ISOQUINOLINE ISOQUINOLINE NAPHTHENIC ACID θ = 300 θ = 480 θ = 540 θ = 1060 (B) Interfacial contact angles. (A) Silica surface.D. (B) calcite surface III.4 . if the solid is "oil-wet" σos ≥ σws AT = cos θ = 90° ≤ θ ≤ 180° if θ = 180° .strongly oil-wet θ = 1580 θ= 300 θ= 830 θ = 350 (A) ISOOCTANE ISOOCTANE + 5.
III.5 . thus when column of water comes to equilibrium 2πr A T = πr2 hgρ w d. units dyne gm cm cm = cm2 cm cm sec2 cm3 gm cm sec2 dyne = force unit adhesion tension dyne AT = 1 r hgρ w cm 2 dyne = e. capillary pressure between air and water h Θ AIR WATER 1. total force down equals the weight of the column of water converted to force = πr2 hgρ w c. total force up equals adhesion tension acting along the circumference of the water-air-solid interface = 2πr AT b.III) Capillary pressure A. liquid will rise in the tube until total force up equals total force down a.
liquid will rise in the tube until the vertical component of surface tension equals the total force down a. since AT = σaw cosθ.6 .2. thus when the column of water comes to equilibrium 2πr σaw cosθ = πr 2 hgρ w d. units dyne gm cm cm = cm2 cm cm 2 cm3 sec gm cm dyne = cm cm sec2 3. 1 and 2 above both result in h= 2 σaw cos θ rg ρw III. total force down = πr2 hgρ w c. vertical component of surface tension is the surface tension between air and water multiplied by the cosine of the contact angle acting along the water-air-solid interface = 2πr σaw cosθ b.
pw = ρ wgh remember h= 2 σgw cos θ rg ρ w e. pressure at B is equal to the pressure at A minus the head of water between A & B pw = pa . pressure at A' is equal to pressure at A Pa' = Pa b. III.4.ρ wgh) pa . capillary pressure (air-water system) Pa h A' Pa A WATER Pw B' B Θ AIR pressure relations in capillary tubes a.(pa .pw = pa . call this pressure difference between B' and B "capillary pressure" Pc = pa .pw = ρ wgh d.7 .ρ wgh units: c. dyne dyne gm ⋅ cm = cm cm2 cm2 cm3 ⋅ sec2 thus between B' and B there is a pressure difference pa .
III.f. the downward force caused by the weight of the column of water is partially offset (bouyed) by the weight of the column of oil outside the capillary thus. thus Pc = 2 σgw cos θ r B. vertical component of surface tension equals the surface tension between oil and water multiplied by the cosine of the contact angle acting along the circumference of the water-oil-solid interface = 2πr σow cosθ b. liquid will rise in the tube until the vertical component of surface tension equals the total force down a. total force down equals the weight of the column of water minus the weight of an equivalent column of oil converted to force 1) weight per unit area of water = ρw h 2) weight per unit area of oil = ρo h c.8 . capillary pressure between oil and water h Θ OIL WATER 1.
ρo) capillary pressure (oil-water system) Po h Po A WATER Pw B' B Θ OIL a.ρ o) 2.9 . III. thus when the column of water comes to equilibrium 2πr σow cosθ = πr 2 gh (ρ w . thus the equilibrium for the height of the column of water h= 3.3) net weight per unit area acting to pull surface down = ρ wh . pressure at B is equal to the pressure at A minus the head of water between A and B Pwb = Pwa . pressure at A' equals pressure at A Poa = Pwa b.ρ o) d. 2 σow cos θ rg (ρ w .ρ oh = h(ρ w .ρ wgh pressure at B' equal to the pressure at A' minus the head of oil between A' and B' c.ρ o) 4) total force down = πr2 gh (ρ w .
thus capillary pressure. thus Pc = 4.ρ o)gh 2 σow cos θ rg (ρ w .Pob = Poa . = (ρ w .ρ ogh d.(Pwa . the difference between pressure at B' and the pressure at B is Pc Pc = Pob . 1/radius of tube) 2 σow cos θ r III.Pwb = (Poa .ρo) 2 σow cos θ r same expression as for the air-solid system except for the boundary tension term Pc = 2 σ cos θ r C. and Pc = thus Pc = f (adhesion tension. remember h= f. remember adhesion tension is defined as AT = σow cosθ.ρ ogh) .10 .ρ wgh) = Pwa since Poa Pc e.
11 . the straight capillary previously discussed is useful for explaining basic concepts . 1 = 2 cos θ = (∆ρ)gh rm Rm σ III. by analogy to capillary tube 1 + 1 = 2 cos θ r R1 R2 where Pc = 2 σ cos θ r call it Rm(mean radius). Pc = σ 1 + 1 R1 R2 R1 and R2 are the principal radii of curvature for a liquid adhering to two spheres in contact with each other. 3. an important result to remember 1. 2.ADHESION TENSION AIR AIR AIR WATER Hg WATER 1/radius of tube D.but it is a simple and ideal system packing of uniform spheres 2. pressure is greater in the non-wetting phase E. 3. capillary pressure-unconsolidated sand 1. the pressure on the concave side of a curved surface is greater than the pressure on the convex side or. pwb < pob thus.e. i.
wetting phase is continuous. (b) funicular distribution III. (a) Pendular-ring distributions. 1.12 . completely covering surface of solid WATER WATER SAND GRAIN SAND GRAIN OIL OR GAS OIL OR GAS (A) (B) Idealized representation of distribution of wetting and nonwetting fluid phase about intergrain contacts of spheres.F. 2. wettability-consolidated sand Pendular-ring distribution-wetting phase is not continuous. occupies the small interstices-non-wetting phase is in contact with some of the solid Funicular distribution .
b.13 . Capillary pressure is defined as the pressure difference across the interface. 2. Capillary pressure is greater for small radius of curvature than for large radius of curvature An inverse relationship between capillary pressure and wettingphase saturation Lower wetting-phase saturation results in smaller radius of curvature which means that the wetting phase will occupy smaller pores in reservoir rock III. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE R R HIGHER PRESSURE DEPENDENCE OF INTERFACIAL CURVATURE ON FLUID SATURATION IN A NON-UNIFORM PORE 1. adhesion fluid density variation of tube diameter with height consider an experiment in which liquid is allowed to rise in a tube of varying diameter under atmospheric pressure.IV) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation A. This illustrates: a. c. remember that the height a liquid will rise in a tube depends on 1. 3. Pressure in the gas phase is increased forcing the interface to a new equilibrium position. B. 2.
tube is filled with a wetting fluid and allowed to drain until the interface between wetting fluid and non-wetting fluid reaches equilibrium (drainage) tube is filled with non-wetting fluid and immersed in wetting fluid allowing wetting fluid to imbibe until the interface reaches equilibrium (imbibition) HIGHER P C R 2.14 . LOW PC HIGHER P C LOW PC Θ Θ R Θ SATURATION = 100% PC = LOW VALUE SATURATION = 80% CAPILLARY PRESSURE = P C SATURATION = 0% P C = HIGH VALUE Θ SATURATION = 10% CAPILLARY PRESSURE = P C (A) (B) Dependence of equilibrium fluid saturation upon the saturation history in a nonuniform pore. same contact angle. consider an experiment using a non-uniform tube (pore in reservoir rock) 1. (b) fluid imbibes. (a) Fluid drains. This is an oversimplified example. for given capillary pressure a higher value of wetting-phase saturation will be obtained from drainage than from imbibition III.V) Relationship between capillary pressure and saturation history A. same capillary pressure. however it illustrates that the relationship between wetting-phase saturation and capillary pressure is dependent on the saturation process (saturation history) a. Same pore. different saturation history 3.
4 0.B.6 0. Leverett conducted a similar experiment with tubes filled with sand. (FROM LEVERETT) 1.0 Φ ∆ρgh Φ 0.2 Imbibition 0.2 1. capillary pressure is expressed in terms of a non-dimensional correlating function ( remember Pc = (∆ρ gh ) in general terms. a.8 0.4 Φ Drainage Φ Imbibition Sand I Sand II (k/ø)1/2 1. Sw % 1. DATA FROM HEIGHT-SATURATION EXPERIMENTS ON CLEAN SANDS. drainage means replacing a wetting fluid with a non-wetting fluid imbibition means replacing a non-wetting fluid with a wetting fluid 2.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Drainage σ Φ WATER SATURATION. b.6 Φ 1.15 . III.
DRAINAGE PC IMBIBITION 0 WATER SATURATION.16 . S W 100 III.
17 . psia = density of water.Pw = h 144 Where: Po Pw h Po/w ρw ρo ρ w . lb/cf At any point above the oil-water contact.VI) Capillary pressure in reservoir rock Water Oil ρw h P w = Po/w 144 P w2 P o2 P o = Po/w - ρoh 144 Oil and Water P o1 = P w1 100% Water Pc = P o . psia distance above 100% water level.ρo = = = = pressure in oil phase. psia pressure in water phase. lb/cf = density of oil. po ≥ p w III. ft pressure at oil-water contact.
18 .PC HEIGHT ABOVE O-W-C P O = PO/W - ρoH 144 ρ H P w = PO/W .w 144 PRESSURE III.
Methods 1.up to 40 days for one core pressure is limited by "displacement pressure" of porous disk III. very slow . Start with core saturated with wetting fluid. b. 6. porous diaphragm mercury injection centrifuge dynamic method Porous diaphragm 1. 4.19 . very accurate can use reservoir fluids Disadvantages a. b. Results Advantages a. 5. 4. 2. B. 2. 3. 3. Repeat at successively higher pressures until no more wetting fluid will come out.VII) Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure A. 7. Use pressure to force non-wetting fluid into core-displacing wetting fluid through the porous disk. Measure Sw periodically. 8. The pressure difference between the pressure in the non-wetting fluid and the pressure in the wetting fluid is equal to Pc.
ruins core difficult to relate data to oil-water systems D. 5. 4. 3. Mercury Injection Method Force mercury into core . 2. 4.mercury is non-wetting phase . Centrifuge Method CORE HOLDER BODY WINDOW TUBE BODY 1. c.air (usually under vacuum) is wetting phase Measure pressure Calculate mercury saturation Advantages a. fast reasonably accurate use reservoir fluids III. b.C. b. 1. 2. fast-minutes reasonably accurate Disadvantages a. b. 3. Similar to porous disk method except centrifugal force (rather than pressure) is applied to the fluids in the core Pressure (force/unit area) is computed from centrifugal force (which is related to rotational speed) Saturation is computed from fluid removed (as shown in window) Advantages a.20 .
Dynamic Method GAS INLET ∆Po GAS OUTLET ∆P g Pc CORE TO ATMOSPHERE OIL INLET OIL BURETTE DYNAMIC CAPILLARY .21 . 4. very tedious III. Disadvantages a.E. 3. seems to simulate reservoir conditions reservoir fluids can be used 5. establish simultaneous steady-state flow of two fluids through core measure pressures of the two fluids in core (special wetted disks) difference is capillary pressure saturation varied by regulating quantity of each fluid entering core advantages a. b. 2.PRESSURE APPARATUS (HASSLER'S PRINCIPLE) 1.
22 .F.9 (other data indicate value between 5. Comparison of methods diaphragm method (restored state) is considered to be most accurate. 2. III. 1.8 and 7. thus used as standard against which all other methods are compared comparison of mercury injection data against diaphragm data a. simple theory shows that capillary pressure by mercury injection should be five times greater than capillary pressure of air-water system by diaphragm method capillary pressure scale for curves determined by mercury injection is five times greater than scale for diaphragm air-water data these comparisons plus more complex theory indicate that the ratio between mercury injection data and diaphragm data is about 6.5) b. c.
Calculate capillary pressure ratio.9 III. PcAH g .23 .1 @ σAHg = 480 σAW 70 = 6.Example VIII-1 Comparison of Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure Data with Porous Diaphragm Data A. PcAH g σAHg = PcAW σAW Solution: PcAH σ cos θAHg 480 cos(140°) g = AHg = PcAW 72 cos (0°) σAWcos θ AW (A) PcAH g PcAW (B) PcAH g PcAW PcAH g PcAW = 5. Calculate the ratio using the relationship. for the following data: PcAW σAHg = 480 Dynes/cm θ AH = 140° g σAW = 72 Dynes/cm θ AW = 0° B. Pore geometry is very complex. The curvature of the interface and pore radius are not necessarily functions of contact angles.
For both cases. mercury injection method requires a higher displacement pressure. D.Discussion: A. C. Best way to determine the relationship between mercury and air-water data is to generate capillary pressure curves for each set of data and compare directly.24 . mercury system still has higher required displacement pressure. III. For this given set of conditions. Minimum irreducible wetting phase saturations are the same. must adjust ratio between scales until match is obtained. Mercury Injection and Porous Diaphragm Methods B. Reduction in permeability results in a higher minimum irreducible wetting phase saturation.
degrees III.25 . dynes/cm = reservoir interfacial tension. psi = capillary pressure measured in laboratory. dynes/cm = reservoir contact angle. psi = interfacial tension measured in laboratory.VIII) Converting laboratory data to reservoir conditions 2σLcos θ L r 2σRcos θ R r PcL PcR setting r = r r= = = 2σLcos θ L 2σRcos θ R = PcL PcR ∴ σcos θ R PcR = PcL σcos θ L where Pc R Pc L σL σR θR θL = reservoir capillary pressure. degrees = laboratory contact angle.
333 PcL PcR PcR PcR = P cL III.Example III-2 Converting Laboratory Data to Reservoir Conditions Express reservoir capillary pressure by using laboratory data. lab data: σAW = 72 dynes σAW = 0o reservoir data: σOW = 24 dynes/cm σOW = 20o Solution: = σcos θ R PcL σcos θ L 24 cos20° 72 cos0° = 0.26 .
lb/cu ft = 32 ft/sec2 = 32 lbm ft lbf sec2 = ft = (sq in)/(sq ft. psI = ρ w .27 .) III.ρ O. B.IX) Determining water saturation in reservoir from capillary pressure data A. convert laboratory capillary pressure data to reservoir conditions calculate capillary pressure in reservoir for various heights above height at which capillary pressure is zero (∆ρ)gh Pc = 144 gc in English units ∆ρ g gc h 144 thus Pc = lbf/(sq in).
313 PcR PcL PcL = = = move to the right horizontally from PcL = 8.28 . Drop vertically to the x-axis.313 2.3 psi to the capillary pressure curve.3 psi 0. read Sw.6 = 8. PcR = 0.85 gm/cm3 20 ρ w = 1.0.4 lb 40 ft3 = 2.85 62. use the laboratory capillary pressure curve to calculate the water saturation in the reservoir at a height of 40 ft. above the oil-water contact. ρo = 0.0 .Example III-3 Determining Water Saturation From Capillary Pressure Curve Given the relationship.0 gm/cm3 P CL 10 8.313 P cL.6 psi 144 PcR 0.3 0 0 50 100 SW Solution: PcR = ρw − ρ o h 144 1. Sw = 50% III.
Water Capillary Pressure. ft Oil . 2. effect of permeability 1. displacement pressure increases as permeability decreases minimum interstitial water saturation increases as permeability decreases RESERVOIR FLUID DISTRIBUTION CURVES (From Wright and Wooddy) 900 md 200 md 100 md 10 md 30 200 180 Height above zero capillary pressure. psi (reservoir conditions) 24 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Sw % 60 70 80 90 0 100 18 36 54 90 18 12 6 III -29 Air .Water Capillary Pressure. psi (laboratory data) 72 .X) Capillary pressure variation A.
5 0 0 100 0 20 80 40 Water 60 40 Hg 80 20 100 0 60 60 348 50 Water/nitrogen capillary pressure.8 116 10 58 0 0 100 20 80 40 Water 60 40 Hg 80 20 0 100 0 60 1.36 md Factor = 5. 2.curve (b) (poorly sorted) III -30 Mercury capillary pressure. psi 290 40 232 30 174 20 Limestone Core Porosity = 23.1% Permeability = 1. so most pores are same size . psi Mercury capillary pressure.0% Permeability = 3.5 10 75.0 25 Water/nitrogen capillary pressure. majority of grains same size. Effect of grain size distribution 30 225.0 5 37.0 .B.curve (a) (well sorted) large range in grain and pore sizes .5 Sandstone Core 15 Porosity = 28.5 112.43 md Factor = 7. psi 20 150. psi 187.
XI) Averaging capillary pressure data J-function J Sw = Pc k 1/2 σcos θ φ attempt to convert all capillary pressure data to a universal curve universal curve impossible to generate due to wide range of differences existing in reservoirs concept useful for given rock type from given reservoir where Pc σ k φ = = = = dyne/(sq cm) dyne/cm (sq cm) fraction or can use any units as long as you are consistent III -31 .
0 1.) 2.6 0.CAPILLARY RETENTION CURVES. J EL ROBLE KINSELLA HAWKINS 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 WATER SATURATION. Sw Reservoir Hawkins El Roble Kinsella Katie Leduc Alundum Leverett Formation Woodbine Moreno Viking Deese Devonian (consolidated) (unconsolidated) III -32 .8 0.1 0.1 1.5 0.9 0.6 1.3 1.5 1.0 0 LEDUC LEVERETT KATIE ALUNDUM CAPILLARY PRESSURE FUNCTION.9 1.2 0.8 1.3 0. (From Rose and Bruce.4 0.7 0.2 1.7 1.0 0.4 1.
pw = ρ wgh = 1.209 psi III -33 .0142 atm 0. Calculate: a. 2.Capillary Pressure Problem 1 1.0 980 14. Solution: (1) σAW = 72 dynes/cm ρW g θ (a) = 1 gm/cm3 = 980 dynes/gm = 0o capillary rise of water if radius is . what is the difference in pressure in psi across the air-water interface in the tube.696 psi atm Pc Pc 0.69 cm (b) pressure drop in psi across interface Pc = = = pa . What is the diameter in inches of the largest pore in the porcelain plate? Assume 72 dynes/cm and 0 degrees. The interfacial tension between the air and water is 72 dynes/cm and the contact angle is 0 degree. b.01 1.0 980 h = 14.01 cm h= 2 72 cos0° 2σAWcos θ = rρg .01 centimeters. the capillary rise of water in the tube if the radius of the tube is 0. A glass tube is placed vertically in a beaker of water. The displacement pressure for a water saturated porcelain plate is 55 psi of air.69 14.
696 psi 1.54 cm 3.99 x 10-5 in r = r = r d = = III -34 .797 x 10 -5 cm 6 2.792 x 10 1.(2) Pc Pc Pc = = = = 2σAWcos θ r 55 psi 55 psi atm 14.495 x 10-5 in 2.792 x 106 dynes/cm2 2σAW cos θ Pc 2 72 cos0° in = 3.0133 x 10 6 dynes/cm2 atm 3.
Capillary Pressure Problem 2 Given the information below and graph of PcL vs. wetting phase saturation Sw , construct the curves for PcR, h in reservoir, and J-function vs. Sw. Water is the wetting phase in both the laboratory and the reservoir.
fluids θ σ ρwet ρnon-wet k φ
lab air-water 0° 60 dyne/cm 1.0 gm/cm3 0 gm/cm3 37 md 16%
res oil-water 25° 20 dyne/cm 1.1 gm/cm3 0.863 gm/cm3 variable variable
Pc k/φ 1/2 J= σ cos θ
35.0 32.5 30.0 27.5 25.0
20.0 17.5 15.0
10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 Sw % 60 70 80 90 100
Solution: σR cosθ R Pc σL cosθ L L 20 cos25 P 60 cos0 cL 0.302 P cL
(2) P cR
hR ρw - ρo 144 hR 1.1 - .863 62.4 144 .103 h R 9.74 P cR Pc k 1/2 σ cos θ φ PcL k 1/2 σAW cosθ L φ L PcL 37 1/2 60 cos0° .16 .253 P cL PcL psi 32 19.5 15.6 13.2 9.9 7.8 6.0 4.7 3.7 2.8 2 PcR psi 9.7 5.9 4.7 4.0 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.4 1.1 0.8 0.6 hR ft 94.1 57.4 45.9 38.8 29.1 22.9 17.6 13.8 10.9 8.2 5.9 J assorted 8.1 4.9 3.9 3.3 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.5
PcR hR (3) J
= J =
Sw % 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
10 8 6 Pc R 4 2 0 0 100 80 60 h R 40 20 0 0 10 8 6 J 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 Sw % 80 100 20 40 60 Sw % 80 100 20 40 Sw % 60 80 100
filtrate will be oil. factors affecting fluid saturations a. B. saturations may or may not change. water filled 100% of pore space Hydrocarbons migrate up dip into traps Hydrocarbons distributed by capillary forces and gravity Connate water saturation remains in hydrocarbon zone Methods for determining fluid saturations A. II) Initially. D. flushing by mud filtrate 1) differential pressure forces mud filtrate into formation Ph > Pres 2) for water base mud.1 . C. filtrate displaces formation water and oil from the area around the well (saturations likely change) for oil base mud. Core analysis (direct method) 1. FLUID SATURATIONS I) Basic concepts of hydrocarbon accumulation A.IV. 3) IV .
2 .Example: Effects of flushing by mud filtrates Coring with water base mud Oil zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↑ ↓ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↓ ↑ ? probably ↑ ↓ ↑ Gas zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↑ ↓ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ? ? Water zone: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ IV .
Coring With Oil Base Mud Oil zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ Gas zone at minimum interstitial water saturation: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↑ ↓ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓ Water zone: flushing by bit trip to surface Sw So Sg ↓ ↑ sat at surface compared to res ↓ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ IV .3 .
b. evaporation using retort distillation apparatus HEATING ELEMENT CORE COOLING WATER IN CONDENSER COOLING WATER OUT IV . bringing core to surface 1) 2) reduction in hydrostatic pressure causes gas to come out of solution gas displaces oil and water causing saturations to change 2. laboratory methods a.4 .
5 .1 1.0 0.2 1.3 Multiplying Factor 1.1) process a) b) c) d) heat small sample of rock oil and water vaporize.9 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Oil Gravity. °API at 60° F IV . then condense in graduated cylinder record volumes of oil and water correct quantity of oil For converting distilled oil volume to oil volume originally in a sample. multiply oil volume recovered by factor corresponding to gravity of oil in core 1.4 1.
cc disadvantages of retort process a) must obtain temperature of 1000-1100oF to vaporize oil.S o . cc volume of water collected. fraction gas saturation. water of crystallization from clays also vaporizes causing increase in water recovery WATER RECOVERED PORE WATER 0 0 TIME b) at high temperatures. cc volume of oil collected. (change in hydrocarbon molecules) amount of recoverable liquid decreases. fraction pore volume.6 . oil will crack and coke. core sample ruined c) IV .Sw where Sw So Sg Vp Vw Vo 2) = = = = = = water saturation. fraction oil saturation.e) determine saturations V So = o Vp V Sw = w Vp Sg = 1 .
3) advantages of retort process a) b) short testing time required acceptable results obtained b.7 . leaching using solvent extraction apparatus WATER OUT WATER IN GRADUATED TUBE CORE SOLVENT HEATER 1) process a) b) c) weigh sample to be extracted heat applied to system causes water from core to vaporize solvent leaches hydrocarbons from core IV .
d) e) f) water condenses.8 .Wdry .Vw ρ w ρo = weight of core sample after leaching V So = o Vp V Sw = w Vp 2) disadvantages of leaching a) b) 3) process is slow volume of oil must be calculated advantages of leaching a) b) c) very accurate water saturation value obtained heating does not remove water of crystallization sample can be used for future analysis IV . Record final water volume reweigh core sample determine volume of oil in sample Vo = where: Wi = after leaching Wdry weight of core sample Wi . collects in trap.
3. uses of core determined fluid saturation a.9 . cores cut with water base mud 1) 2) 3) presence of oil in formation determination of oil/water contact determination of gas/oil contact 0 SO 50 GAS OIL WATER So ≅ 0 in gas zone So ≥ 15% in oil zone 0 ≤ So ≤ Sor in water zone Sor = residual oil saturation IV .
C.b. cores cut with oil base mud ("natural state" cores) 1) 2) 3) minimum interstitial water saturation hydrocarbon saturation oil/water contact B. Capillary pressure measurements (discussed in Chapter VIII) Electric logs IV .10 .
2 gm 7. water vol.3 = 20. water and gas.7 .5 gm calculate: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Solution: gas vol.11 .7 gm the sample was evacuated and the gas space was saturated with water ρ w = 1 gm/cm3 Wt new = 219.3 .2 . 13 .5 = 20. Vb bulk volume = 95 cm3 Wt initial = 216.199.10 . Vg Vw = = 3 cc 10 cc porosity water saturation oil saturation assuming 35o API gas saturation matrix density lithology 219. Wt fluids Wt oil = = = = 219.7 gm the water with in the sample is removed and collected Vw removed = 13.Example IV-1 You want to analyze a core sample containing oil.7 .2 gm IV .7 .216.0 cm3 the oil is extracted and the sample is dried Wt dry = 199.
ρo Vo Vp φ Sw So Sg ρm = = = = = = = = 141.47 = 46.85 = 8.12 .6% 10/21.47 cc 21.85 gm/cc 131.97% 199.49 cc 8.5/(95-21.57% 8.5 = 0.47 = 13.46% 3/21.47) = 2.47/95 = 22.49/21.5 + 35°API 7.2/0.47 = 39.71 gm/cc lithology = limestone IV .49 + 3 + 10 = 21.
71 cc of gas volume.52 .37 cc 1.014 + 5.5 cc 100 gm = 5. A piece of the original sample weighing 105 gm was placed in a pycnometer and found to have a bulk volume of 45.014 .63(.14 cc 10.63 .52 cc 105 gm porosity water saturation oil saturation gas saturation lithology Wt matrix = 100 .0) = 91.71 cc 100 gm = 1. (Assume ρ w = 1.63 + 3.71 gm Vm Vp φ = = = 43.1.8 cc of water.85) .014 cc 70 gm 4.Example IV-2 A core sample was brought into the laboratory for analysis.5.7 cc 100 gm = 43.14/43. 70 gm of the core sample were placed in a mercury pump and found to have 0.7 cc.52 = 23.63 cc 80 gm 2.8 cc 100 gm = 3.5 cc of oil and 2. 80 gm of the core sample was placed in a retort and found to contain 4.0 gm/cc and 35o API oil) calculate: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Solution: Vg Vo Vw Vb = = = = .3.13 .50 = 33.3.50 = 10.31% IV .5.50 cc 80 gm 45.5(1.
5% 1.63/10.Sw So Sg ρm = = = = 3.14 = 34.14 = 55.014/10.75 IV .14 = 10% (91.38) = 2.5% 5.50/10.71/33.14 .
water. weight of core = 87.5 = 0.Vwρ w .95 gm weight of core immersed in water = 48.0 gm/cc oil gravity = 40° API γo γo ρo φ Vp Wo 141.Wdry 87.5 131.15 .0) .95 gm core was extracted with water recovery being 7.5 + 40° 0.825 131.825 gm/cc Vp Vb Vw + Vo + Vg Wsat . How should the calculated saturations compare with the fluid saturations in the reservoir? Oil well core with water base mud initial weight of saturated core = 86. and lithology from the following core analysis data.5 + °API 141.95 .17 1.4 gm after gas space was saturated with water.12(1. and gas saturations. core weighed 79.7.12 cc after drying core in oven.Fluid Saturation Problem 1 Calculate porosity.66 gm Solution: = = = (1) = = = = Wo = IV .17 gm assume ρ w = 1.79. oil.
Wi / ρ w 7.57 cc = 61.48.01 cc 0.0% 9.Wimm ρw (87.0) 5.Vo Vo Vw = = = = Wo ρo 1.13 = 23.55 cc 5.0 Vw Vp 5.95) gm = 39.57 + 2.(87.4)/(1.0 cc 1 gm/cc 9.12 .95 .57 cc 1.01 cc = 22.01 + 1.13 cc Wsat .Wsat .55 9.13 cc Vb .13 cc Vg Vp 1.86.825 gm/cc Vwrec .4% 39.0% 9.0% 9.66 gm = 2.16 .55 cc = 17.95 .13 cc Vo Vp 2.Vp Vw Vg Vp Vp Vb Vb φ = = = = = = = (2) Sw Sw So So Sg Sg = = = = = = = (3) Vm IV .
9.87 cc Wdry Vm gm 79. .17 gm/29.65 cc .87 cc = 2.13 = 29. lithology is sandstone (4) water saturation at surface will probably be greater than reservoir water saturation oil saturation at surface will be less than reservoir oil saturation gas saturation at surface will be greater than reservoir gas saturation IV .17 .Vm ρm ρm = = = 39 .
0 gm/cc oil gravity = 40o API 141. How should the saturations you have calculated compare with the fluid saturations in the reservoir? Oil well core cut with an oil base mud Sample 1 weighed 130 gm and was found to have a bulk volume of 51.71 gm.18 .87 cc x 100 = 1.5 = 0. and from the retort method was found to contain 1. water saturation.40 cc of gas space assume ρ w = 1.5 + °API 141.71 gm 100 gm 1.90 cc of water and 0.00 + 2.87 cc of oil Sample 3 weighed 50 gm and contained 0.71 gm 100 gm 0.825 131.72 cc Sample 2 weighed 86.80 cc 50 gm 100 gm (1.80) cc/100 gm Solution: γo γo ρo φ Vp Vo Vw Vg Vp = = = (1) = = = = = = IV .40 cc x 100 = 0.Fluid Saturation Problem 2 Calculate porosity. oil saturation.825 gm/cc Vp Vb Vo + Vw +Vg 0.5 + 40° 0.19 cc 86.90 cc x 100 = 2. and lithology from the following core analysis data.19 + 0.5 131.00 cc 86. gas saturation.
825 0.72 cc x 100 = 39.1.78/100 Vw x 100 Vp 2.80 cc x 100 3.78 .90 86.99 cc 54.1% Vg x 100 Vp = (2) Sw = = Sw = (3) So = = So = (4) Sg = = 0.99 35.99/100 x 100 = 10% 39.ρ oVo .71 .3.71 97 gm/100 gm Sg (5) Vm = = = Vm Wm = = = Wm = IV .19 .ρ wVw /Wsat 86.99 cc 20.0 cc x 100 3.79 cc/100 gm Wsat .78 cc 130 gm 100 gm 3.8% Vo x 100 Vp 1.87 .0.99 cc 25.19 cc x 100 3.Vp 39.1% Vb .Vp Vb φ = = 3.0 1.99 cc/100 gm 51.
limestone (6) water saturations should be fairly close in value oil saturation will be less than reservoir oil saturation gas saturation will be greater than reservoir gas saturation IV .71 gm/cc = = lithology .. = Wm Vm 97 gm/100 gm 35.ρm ρm ρm .79 cc/100 gm 2.20 .
ohm meters length .V. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK-FLUID SYSTEMS I) Electrical conductivity of fluid saturated rock A.meters area . Definition of resistivity ELECTRICAL CURRENT FLOW A L given a box of length (L) and cross-sectional area (A) completely filled with brine of resistivity (Rw) the resistance of the brine in the box to current flow may be expressed as r = Rw L A r = resistance .ohm resistivity .(meters)2 Rw = L A = = V-1 .
Ap < A b. oil gas pure water minerals rock fragments C. 3. Development of saturation equation (ignore clay) AP A ELECTRICAL CURRENT FLOW L 1. Lp > L V-2 . Nonconductors of electricity 1. water with dissolved salts conducts electricity (low resistance) clay D. the area available for current flow is the cross-sectional area of the pores. 5. 2. Conductors of electricity 1. 2. 4. the path through the pores is Lp.B. the electrical current flows through the water (brine) a.
ohm-m = cross-sectional area available for current flow. a measure of rock cementation. Since Ap ≅ porosity.2. φ A and Lp ≅ L tortuosity. then Ro = RwALp ApL = resistivity of formation 100% saturated with brine of resistivity. ohm-m (from water sample or SP log) Ro Ap Lp A L 3. porous media A thus Ro = RwALp ApL where r = resistance of rock cube with pores filled with brine. m 2 = actual path length ion (current) must travel through rock. m = m2 = cross-sectional area of porous media. water filled cube Ap R L r = o . m V-3 . resistance to electrical flow through the porous media is equal to the resistance of a container of area Ap and length Lp filled with water (brine) r= RwLp . Rw. ohm Rw = formation brine resistivity. length of porous media.
Electrical formation resistivity factor. tortuosity E. Ro Rw cementation factor. can be written as Ro = F R w where F is the electrical formation resistivity factor F= 3. it has been found experimentally that the equation for F takes the form F = C φ-m where C is a constant m is the cementation factor b.becomes Ro = f Rw. F 1. tortuosity 2. thus log F = log C . φ. m a. the equation for resistivity of a formation 100% saturated with a brine of resistivity of Rw Ro = f Rw.m log φ V-4 . φ.
oolitic limestones) Very slightly cemented (Gulf Coast type of sand.7 1. except Wilcox) Slightly cemented (most sands with 20% porosity or more) Moderately cemented (highly consolidated sands of 15% porosity or less) Highly cemented (low-porosity sands.1 φ 1. limestone.2 V-5 .dolomite) m values 1. Humble Equation F = 0.0 slope = -m.01 when intercept = C 0.8-1.5 1.100 F 10 1 0.0-2.4-1.15 (best suited for sandstones) Cementation Factor (m) and Lithology Lithology Unconsolidated rocks (loose sands. Archie's Equation F = φ-m b. the cementation factor 4.9 2. commonly used equation for electrical formation resistivity factor a. quartzite.6-1.62 φ-2.3 1.
62 42.5 ohm-meters. The formation rock 100% saturated with this water was 21.15 0. The formation water's resisitivity was 0.1 F = φ-m m = 2. V-6 .Example V-1 Determine the porosity for a sandstone using Archie's and Humble equation .1 φ = 14.15 φ2.15 = 0.62/F φ = 2.5 = 42.06% The Humble equation was developed for sandstone. Which of the two equations will give the most reasonable answer? Solution: F =21.41% Humble: F = 0.1 Archie's: φ = 15.62/φ2.05 ohm-meters.0 for sandstone φ2 = 1/F φ= 1 42.05/0.
it has been found experimentally that -1 R -1 Sw = I n = t n Ro where n is the saturation exponent ≅ 2. n 1.F. ohm-m 2. Resistivity Index.0 3. I. ohm-m Rt =resistivity of formation with water (brine) saturation less than 100%. and Saturation Exponent. rearrange Sw-n = Rt Ro Rt Ro -n log Sw = log V-7 . definition of resistivity index I= Rt Ro where Ro = resistivity of formation 100% saturated with water (brine) of resistivity Rw.
0 slope = -n. from water sample or electric log Ro = F R w convert Rt from electric log to water saturation Ro 1 n Sw = Rt V-8 . Cementation Factor. C.log y2 log x1 . when n is the saturation exponent NOTE: slope = log y1 .100 Rt Ro 10 1 . D.log x2 II) Use of Electrical Formation Resistivity Factor. and Saturation Exponent A. B.1 Sw 1. obtain porosity. φ. Rw. E. from electric log or core analysis F=Cφ -m (usually use Archie or Humble equation) obtain water resistivity.
Calculations 1.III) Laboratory measurement of electrical properties of rock A. ohms V-9 . resistance of core E = Ir where: E = I r ∴ rcore = E I voltage. Apparatus AC SOURCE 1000 OHM STD. RESISTOR CORE VOLTMETER B. amperes resistance. volts = = current.
fraction = resistivity of core 100% saturated with brine. desaturate core by 15-20%. record voltage from voltmeter determine resistivity of core a. resistivity of core r A Rcore = core L substituting r = E into the equation I Rcore = EA IL C. where Swir Ro Rt Rt Ro = minimum interstitial brine saturation (irreducible). until Sw < 100% Rcore = Rt repeat tests until Sw = S wir b. R core = Ro for next test. b. c. Procedure 1. low current preferred so core does not heat up. 2. ohm-m = resistivity index = I V .10 . for the first test completely saturate core with brine Sw = 100%. ohm-m = resistivity of core less than 100% saturated with brine of Rw. determine resistance of core a. set desired current from AC source.2.
Plot log Rt vs log Sw or log I vs log Sw Ro 100 I= Rt Ro 10 1 . n 1.D.11 . the slope of the plot is -n.1 Sw 1. where n is the saturation exponent V . Determine saturation exponent. rearrange saturation equation Ro 1/n Rt Ro Rt Sw-n Sw = = = Swn Ro Rt log Rt = -n log Sw Ro 2.0 3.
52 34.64 10.0 49.54 cm 3.0 63.01 amp 2.64 = 764 ohm I .16 27. Rw I D L = = = = 55 ohm-cm 0.12 .50 14.67 Sw Water Saturation.0 74. % 100.Example V-2 Given the following data.01 roA 764 2.2 cm E Voltage across Core.34 20.0 = Swir Solution: (1) electrical formation resistivity factor F ro Ro F = = = = Ro Rw E = 7. volts 7. calculate the electrical formation resistivity factor and saturation exponent of the core.2 Ro 1210 = = 22 Rw 55 V .54 2π/4 = = 1210 ohm cm L 3.0 54.0 86.
49 rt = E I (ohm) 1050 1434 2016 2452 3467 (.0.1 Sw 1 (1.54 .saturation exponent Rt Ro rA Rt = t L (ohm-cm) 1663 2271 3192 4358 5490 Rt Ro 1.13 .877 2.86 .10) 10 Rt/Ro 1 .1.63 .00 .537 -n log Sw = log Sw % 1.74 .334.638 3.601 4.0) V .374 1.000 1.
-n = slope -n n = = = log 10 .log 1 1-0 -.334 .10 = saturation exponent NOTE: Rt Et = Ro Eo Rt could have been calculated as the ratio of voltage at Ro Sw divided by the voltage at Sw = 1.0 2.log 1 log .0 so V .14 .4763 .
test several core samples from reservoir with formation brine a. Determine cementation factor. m.15 .E. Ro Rw plot data according to form of equation for electrical formation resistivity factor F = C φ-m log F = log C .1 φ 1. b. m = cementation factor intercept = C (intercept found at φ = 1.01 0.mlog φ 100 F 10 1 0. and constant C for electrical formation resistivity factor equation 1.0 slope = -m. 2.0) V . determine Ro and f for each sample determine Rw for formation brine F= c.
Data is given below.224 Solution: F = C φ-m log F = log C .152 0.168 0.213 0. Calculate the cementation factor and intercept for the formation resistivity factor equation.m log φ plot log F vs log φ 100 F 40 32 26 22 19 17 F 10 1 .1 ø 1 V . Porosity Formation Resistivity Factor φ 0.199 0.Example V-3 The laboratory test of Example IV-2 has been repeated for several core samples from the reservoir.16 .184 0.
slope = -m log 50 .log 0.21 log 0.17 .284 = slope = -2.21 log 0.284 -.2082 062 = intercept V .137 .log 10 = -2.21 = cementation factor intercept log F log 10 log C C = = = = log C -m log f log C -2.21 m = 2.
only water conducts a current in rock if clay is present. to determine electrical formation resistivity factor 1. ohm-m Rclay Ro 1 = 1 + 1 RoA Rclay F Rw C. measure resistivity of core sample (containing clay) in usual manner. ohm-m = component of measured resistivity due to clay.IV) Effect of clay on resistivity A. this will be RoA measure resistivity of brine.18 . V . B. ideally. portion of current conducted through the clay BRINE CLAY 1 = 1 + 1 RoA Rclay Ro where RoA = resistivity measured on sample of reservoir rock with clay. ohm-m = component of measured resistivity due to brine. Rw. in usual manner 2. 100% saturated with brine of resistivity Rw.
M) -1 1 -1 RW (OHM .19 . plot 1 ROA (OHM .3.M) 1 = 1 + 1 1 RoA Rclay F Rw where 1 = intercept Rclay 1 = slope F V .
1 φ 1. effect of clay 1. clays reduced the apparent formation resistivity F CLEAN SAND SHALY SAND FA RW 2. define factor FA = RoA Rw .D.0 V . formation resistivity factor decreases more gradually when clay is present in the formation 100 CLEAN SAND F 10 SHALY SAND 1 0.20 .
3. saturation exponent n is not constant when clay is present in formation.21 .0 V . 100 CLEAN SAND LOW R w n=2 I= Rt Ro 10 SHALY SAND n =? CLEAN SAND Swn-1 = I 1 .1 CLEAN SAND HIGH R w n=1 Sw 1.
the above equation becomes k A∆Pο qo = o µoL k A∆Pw qw = w µw L qg = kgA∆Pg µgL qo qw qg and ko kw kg = = = = = = flow rate of oil.1 .VI. Effective permeability is a measure of the fluid conductance capacity of porous media to a particular fluid when the porous media is saturated with more than one fluid Effective permeability is a function of: 1. MULTIPHASE FLOW IN POROUS ROCK I) Effective permeability A. previously discussed applies only to flow when pores are 100% saturated with one fluid . md effective permeability to water. volume/time effective permeability to oil. VI . k. 3.sometimes called absolute permeability kA∆ρ µL q= B. volume/time flow rate of water. geometry of the pores of the rock rock wetting characteristics fluid saturations D. When pore space contains more than one fluid. md where C. Permeability. 2. md effective permeability to gas. volume/time flow rate of gas.
2 .1271 x 10-3 w µw L qg = 1.P2 qo = 1.1271 x 10-3 o µoL k A P1 .P2 w qw = 1.E.P2 g µgL II) Relative permeability A. kg k It is normally assumed that the effective permeability at 100% saturation is the same for all fluid in a particular rock. in oilfield units k A P1 .1271 x 10-3 when k = A = P = L = q = md ft2 psia ft res bbl/day kg A P1 . (not necessarily true in shaly sand) III) Typical relative permeability curves A. Darcy equation for multiple fluids in linear flow. Defined as the ratio of the effective permeability to a fluid at a given saturation to the effective permeability to that fluid at 100% saturated (absolute permeability) k kro = o k k krw = w k krg = B. Use subscript wp to represent the "wetting phase" Use subscript nwp to represent the "non-wetting phase" VI .
only at S wp = 100% k rapid decrease in rwp as Swp decreases krwp = 0. at equilibrium Snwp krnwp Note that krwp + krnwp < 1. 3. 2. 4.3 . % EQUILIBRIUM S NWP 100 1. at minimum interstitial Swp = 0.0 VI .1 1 NON-WETTING PHASE Kr 2 WETTING PHASE 3 0 0 MINIMUM INTERSTITIAL S WP 4 SWP. krwp = 1.
B. b. two types of relative permeability curves a. 2. wetting phase saturation is increasing the typical relative permeability curve shown below represents a process in which a.non-wetting phase is displaced by wetting phase.wetting phase is displaced by non-wetting phase. VI . i.. Effect of saturation history 1. wetting phase saturation is decreasing imbibition curve .e. b..4 . drainage curve . process begins with porous rock 100% saturated with wetting phase (Swp = 100%) wetting phase is displaced with non-wetting phase (drainage) until wetting phase ceases to flow (Swp = minimum interstitial wetting phase saturation) then non-wetting phase is displaced with wetting phase (imbibition) until non-wetting phase ceases to flow (Swp = equilibrium or residual non-wetting phase saturation) c. i.e.
1 Krnwp DRAINAGE Kr IMBIBITION Krwp 0 0 SWP. % 100 minimum interstitial wetting phase saturation residual non-wetting phase saturation VI .5 .
initial distribution of fluids in reservoir was by drainage at and behind a water front (flood or encroachment) the process is imbibition 5. the word "hysteresis" describes the process in which the results (kr) are different when measurements are made in different directions the procedure (drainage or imbibition) used to obtain kr data in laboratory must correspond to the process in the reservoir a. b.3.6 . wetting preference for reservoir rocks is usually water first. then oil. 4. finally gas Fluids Present Water & Oil Water & Gas Oil & Gas Wetting Phase Water Water Oil VI .
often three phases are present in petroleum reservoirs tertiary (triangular) diagram is used to represent a threephase system 100% GAS 100% WATER 100% OIL VI .7 . Three phase relative permeability 1. 2.C.
The extended flow path length accounts for the change in relative permeability to oil at constant oil saturation and varying water saturation VI .3. dependence of relative permeability to oil on saturations of other phases is established as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) oil phase has a greater tendency than gas to wet the solid interfacial tension between water and oil is less than that between water and gas oil occupies portions of pore adjacent to water at lower water saturations the oil occupies more of the smaller pores. kro is shown in % a.8 . relative permeability to oil in a three phase system 100% GAS 1% 5 10 20 40 60 100% WATER 100% OIL Note.
4. b. Relative permeability to water in a three-phase system 100% GAS 0 Krw 10% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% WATER 100% OIL a. straight lines indicate relative permeability to water is a function of water saturation only thus.9 . krw can be plotted on cartesian coordinates against Sw. VI .
c.5. occupy the smaller pore openings and wet the surface of the rock k therefore. e. 1-Sg) and independent of how much of that total is composed of either phase k thus rg can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates against So + Sw b.e. Relative permeability to gas in a three-phase system 100% GAS 50% 40 30 20 5 1 100% WATER 100% OIL a. oil and water. rg should be dependent only on the total saturation of the other two phases (i. k curves above indicate that rg is a function of saturations of other phases present. k other research shows that rg is a unique function of gas saturation the other phases. d. VI .10 .
Bottom line . gas 1) 2) 3) is located in center of larger pores k therefore rg is a function of Sg only k thus plot rg against Sg (or So + Sw) on rectangular coordinate VI .6 krg 0.4 0.for three-phase system in water wetted rock a.8 0.1.11 .0 0 20 40 60 80 100 So + Sw 6. water 1) is located in smaller pore spaces and along sand grains therefore krw is a function of Sw only thus plot krw against Sw on rectangular coordinates 2) 3) b.0 0.2 0.
and S g thus plot kro against So. oil 1) is located between water and gas in the pores and to a certain extent in the smaller pore spaces therefore kro is a function of So. % Minimum Interstitial Water Saturation VI .0 0 20 40 60 80 100 So.12 .4 0.8 0. S w.2 0.0 0.c. S w.6 kro 0. S g on a triangular diagram if Sw can be considered to be constant (minimum interstitial) kro can be plotted against So on a rectangular diagram 2) 3) 4) 1.
13 . Flow in three-phase system 100% GAS 5% oil 5% gas 5% water 100% WATER 100% OIL Arrows point to increasing fraction of respective components in stream Region of three-phase flow in reservoir centers around 20% gas.7. 50% water VI . 30% oil.
b.IV) Permeability ratio (relative permeability ratio) A. permeability ratio = kg krg = ko kro 2. When the permeability to water is zero (as at minimum interstitial water saturation) it is sometimes convenient to use permeability ratio to represent the flow conductance of the rock to gas and oil as a ratio. Definitions 1. B. Steady-state flow process a.steady-state flow process Laboratory . Laboratory .displacement (unsteady-state process) Calculation from capillary pressure data (not covered here) Calculation from field performance data Laboratory Methods 1. 2. Methods 1. 3.14 . When the permeability to gas is zero (no gas or gas below "critical gas saturation") it is sometimes convenient to use permeability ratio to represent the flow conductance of the rock to oil and water as a ratio kr k permeability ratio = o = o kw krw V) Measurement of relative permeability A. 4. saturate core with wetting-phase fluid inject wetting-phase fluid through core (this will determine absolute permeability) VI .
outlet pressure and flow rates of each phase measure fluid saturation in core (see below) calculate relative permeability q µ L ko = o o A∆p q µ L kw = w w A∆p e. % 100 VI . f.15 . record inlet pressure. d.c. g. inject a mix of wetting-phase and non-wetting phase (start with small fraction of non-wetting phase) when inflow and outflow rates and portion of non-wetting phase equalize. repeat b through f with injection mixtures containing relatively more non-wetting phase until irreducible wettingphase saturation is reached 1 kr kro krw 0 0 Sw.
cc Vw/Vf saturation of wetting phase Sw = where: thus Sw = VI . ohm-m Rt Eo Et = resistivity of core with saturation of wetting phase less than 100%. gm ρ oVo + ρ wVw Wd = Wf and Vf where: ρ V = = = = Vo + Vw density. saturated with wetting phase. volts 2) volumetric balance 3) gravimetric method . gm weight of dry core. volts = voltage across core with saturation of wetting phase less than 100%.h. gm/cc volume. ohm-m = voltage across core 100%.remove core and weigh it Wf where: Wf Wt = = = Wt .16 .Wd weight of fluid in core. determination of fluid saturations 1) Sw = resistivity Ro 1 Eo 1 n= n Rt Et where: Ro = resistivity of core 100% saturated with wetting-phase. gm weight of saturated core.
ρ o ρw . same procedure can be used starting with 100% saturation of non-wetting phase 1) 2) 3) 4) injection ratio start with high ratio of non-wetting phase procedure ends at residual non-wetting phase saturation then is a hysteresis effect of same type as discussed with capillary pressure measurements choice of starting saturation depends on reservoir process which is being simulated j.Sw = Wf/Vf .17 . end effects 1) causes of end effects a) in the bulk of the core there is a wettingphase saturation and a non-wetting phase saturation. the saturation of the wetting phase must be 100% (see capillary pressure curve) there must be a saturation gradient from essential 100% wetting phase at the "end" to some value of Swp less than 100% in the bulk of the core b) e) VI .Pwp c) at the face of the core the pressures in the wetting-phase and the non-wetting phase are essentially equal Pnwp = P wp thus capillary pressure is essentially zero d) if capillary pressure is zero. therefore there is a finite value of capillary pressure thus there is a difference in pressure between the wetting-phase and non-wetting phase Pcap = P nwp .ρo i.
100 100 80 Theoretical saturation gradient Oil Saturation. % 60 60 Inflow face 40 Inflow face 40 20 20 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distance from outflow face.18 . % 80 Theoretical saturation gradient Oil Saturation. cm Distance from outflow face. cm 2) elimination of end effects a) b) install end pieces to contain end effects flow at rapid rates to make end effect negligible (pressure gradient > 2 psi/inch Inlet Thermometer Packing Nut Electrodes Copper Orifice Plate End Section Test Section Mixing Section Differential Pressure Taps Bronze Screen Outlet Highly permeable disk Inlet PENN STATE RELATIVE-PERMEABILITY APPARATUS VI .
5 88.30 cm diameter = 1.01 Draw the relative permeability curve Solution: 1.4 .20 2.01 0.01 0.696 0.5 17.6 15.19 .6 17.Example VI-1 The relative permeability apparatus shown above was used in a steady-state flow process to obtain the data given below at a temperature of 70oF.2 85.7.1771 0.3206 0.1 15.000 ppm oil.7650 0.0000 0.8898 0.6 78.1227 0.4 Outlet Pressure psig 7.10 2. Calculate absolute permeability using data with core 100% saturated with water k k k = = = qwµwL A∆p 1.7 13.4 67.0794 0.0354 0.1 78.482 darcy VI . 60.01 0.1003 0.56 8.85 cm area = 2.7 14.688 cm2 porosity = 25.1003 1.2998 Water Flow cc/sec 1.7 Voltage Drop volts 1.00 Electrical Current amps 0.0000 The Fluids brine. 40oAPI µw = 1.01 0.01 0. See figure on previous page.688 38.80 4.0105 0.30 2.5% Oil Flow cc/sec 0.50 cp Inlet Pressure psig 38. The Core sandstone length = 2.07 cp µo = 5.67 30.07 2.
Calculate effective permeabilities to oil and water qoµoL ko = A∆P 0.0105 5.50 2.30 2.688 67.5 - 13.5 / 14.696 0.0134 darcy qwµwL kw = A∆P 0.8898 1.07 2.30 2.688 67.5 - 13.5 / 14.696 0.2217 darcy
kw kw 3.
Calculate relative permeabilities k kro = o = .0134 = 0.028 k .482 k krw = w = .2217 = 0.460 k .482
Calculate water saturations Sw Sw = = Eo 1/2 Et 1.20 1/2 = .756 2.10
Results Relative Permeability to oil kro 0.000 0.028 0.072 0.182 0.371 0.686 Relative Permeability to water krw 1.000 0.460 0.303 0.143 0.050 0.000
Water Saturation Sw 1.000 0.756 0.655 0.513 0.372 0.200
ko/kw 0.000 0.061 0.238 1.273 7.419 -------
VI - 20
0.0 0 20 40 60 80 100
Sw, % pore space
Permeability Ratio, k /kw o
Sw, % of pore space
VI - 21
The data permit certain checks to be made
F F Rw Ro F Φ Φ
= = = = = = =
0.62 φ-2.15 Ro Rw 12 ohm-m for 60,000 ppm brine EA = 1.20 2.688 = 140 ohm-m IL .01 2.3 140 = 11.7 12 1 1 .62 2.15 = .62 2.15 F 11.7 .255
VI - 22
Displacement (unsteady-state)(Welge) a. b. does not result in relative permeability only give permeability ratio procedure 1) 2) 3) 4) mount core in holder saturate with wetting phase (usually oil) inject non-wetting phase (usually gas) at constant inlet and outlet pressures measure a) b) c. conditions 1) pressure drop across core high enough to make end effects negligible,but not enough to cause turbulent (non-darcy) flow. gas saturation can be described at mean pressure P + Po Pm = i 2 3) d. flow is horizontal and core is short so that effects of gravity can be neglected cumulative gas injected as a function of time cumulative oil produced as a function of time
calculations 1) convert gas injected into pore volumes Gipi LAφ pm = cumulative gas injected (measured at pressure pi), cc
Gipv = cumulative gas injected in pore volume pi = inlet pressure, psi
VI - 23
Sgav = Sgav where Np LA φ Np LAφ = = cumulative oil produced. psi 2 pore volume.24 . cc LA φ = 2) calculate average gas saturation. cc pore volume.pm = pi + po . cc 3) plot Sgav vs G ipv Sgav GAS BREAKTHROUGH 0 0 Gipv VI .
calculated above applies only at the gas saturation of the outflow face. thus must calculate Sgo Sgo = S gav .fo = ko fo µo/µg where kg = permeability ratio of gas to oil ko fo = fractional flow of oil 6) Permeability ratio. pore volumes = fractional flow of oil at outlet face of core VI . kg/ko koA ∆p µoL fo = koA ∆p kgA ∆p + µoL µgL fo = ko/µo ko/µo + kg/µg kg 1 . fo fo = d Sgav d Gipv fo = slope of plot of Sgav vs qGipv 5) calculate permeability ratio.25 .4) determine fractional flow of oil.Gipvfo where Sgo Gipv fo = gas saturation at outlet face of core = cumulative gas injected. kg/ko.
VI .26 . disadvantages 1) 2) k results in kg/ko.e. not kro and rg equations don't apply until gas breaks through. resulting in incomplete kg/ko vs Sgo curve. thus initial value of gas saturation may be high. advantages 1) 2) minimum amount of equipment rapid f.
Gi. Cumulative Gas Injection.0185 cp φ = .54)2 = 20.Example VI-2 The data from an unsteady-state displacement of oil by gas in a 2 inch diameter by 5 5/8 inch long sandstone core are given below.25 cp.9 769.24 2.6 Cumulative Oil Produced.210 Sgav = 0. µo = 2.6 cc 14. Calculate Sgav Sgav = Sgav = Np LAφ 14.2 33.2 112.5 25.4 32.210. µg = . Solution: 1.4 546.5 3068.27 cm2 .6 202.3 cm 20.3 cm A = p (2. p inlet = 5.3 35.6 19.5 22.27 cm 2 G Prepare to determine kg/ko by calculating Sgav and ipv.0 psig L = 5 5/8 x 2. p out = 0.9 5946.9 1226.0 psig. cc 14.6 30.9 Other data T = 70oF. Np. G Calculate ipv VI .5 28.54 = 14.27 . cc 14.3 401.0 50.4 35.
Results Sgav 0.24 0.27 cm2 .12 3.53 0.0 cc 19.42 0.32 0.59 Gipv pv 0.81 7.Gipv = Gipv = Gipi LAφ pm 14.7 psia + 14.5 23.0 VI .47 0.37 0.8 112.56 10.210 19.264 pv 3.3 cm 20.945 2.58 0.7 psia 14.55 0.50 0.7 psia /2 Gipv = 0.1 57.264 0.28 .3 14.
0357 .94 2.294 .42 0.55 0.58 0.886 1.0092 .338 .689 .1 57.58 0.56 10.222 .fogipv kg/ko = 1 .264 .17 3.075 .2 Gipv pv 0.375 .47 0.29 .12 3.5 23.8 112.3 14.37 0.55 0.550 . Sgo = S gav . Construct a graph of kg/ko versus S go.463 .264 0.81 7.381 .249 .53 0.53 0.3 14.376 . Solution: Plot Sgav vs.141 .59 µo = 2. The following data was obtained: Sgav 0.0046 .32 0.581 kg/ko . Determine kg/ko for each of the given saturations.59 VI .fo µ fo o µo Gipv pv .0118 .521 .78 6.5 23.32 16.405 .0005 .24 0.8 112.56 10.101 .0185 cp S Calculate and construct a fg verses Sgo plot.32 0.0001 Sgo .50 0. Gipv The slope from this plot is fo.47 0.50 0.4 82.945 2.0214 .37 0.24 0. Convert gavg to Sgo.0 Sgav 0.81 7.25 cp µg = 0.1 57.Example VI-3 A core sample initially saturated with oil is flooded with gas.42 0.0 fo .0137 .0013 .
4 0.5 Sgav fraction 0.0.1 . % VI .0 Sg.7 0.2 0.01 0.0 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Gipv.3 0.30 .3 0.5 0. pv 100 10 kg/ko 1 .6 0.1 0.8 0.9 1.6 0.4 0.
Field determination of permeability ratios 1. kg qg µg = ko qo µo replace qg/qo with qg Bg Rp . R s.C. and physical properties. producing gas-oil ratio.Rs qo = 5. vol/time = producing gas-oil ratio.31 . Bo. vol/time = oil flow rate measured at reservoir conditions.Rs = ko µo 5. must be calculated from production data and material balance calculations = = formation volume factor of gas. saturations in reservoir. Bg. equations kg A ∆p µgL qg qo = k A ∆p o µoL where qg qo thus. res bbl/STB = gas flow rate measured at reservoir conditions. µg.615 Bo 2.615 B o where Bg Bo Rp thus kg µgBg Rp . Rp. res cu ft/scf formation volume factor of oil. procedure a. Sg or So. scf/STB must include both separator gas and stock tank gas) VI . µo must be determined at some known reservoir pressure b.
615 1. temperature is 200oF.Rs µo 5.0282 z T/p = 5.100 SCF/STB.325 Tpc of gas Ppc of gas z Bg µg µo kg ko kg ko kg ko = = = = = = = VI . Production history and correlations indicate the bubble point at 3500 psia.32 .75 5. Reservoir pressure is now 3000 psia.314 0. What is kg/ko in the reservoir at this time.0192 5.34 x 103 res cu ft/SCF 0.7.Example VI-4 Discovery pressure for your well was 4250 psia. and initial producing gasoil ratio was 740 SCF/STB.75 cp µgBg Rp . Producing gas-oil ratio is 18. BBL/STB = 390 oR = 665 psia 0.560 0. Solution: Correlations covered in the fluid properties portion of this course yield the following value of the physical properties of the gas and oil at 3000 psia and 200o F.314 res.86 0.615 Bo 0.34 x 10 -3 18100 . Rs Bo = = 560 SCF/STB 1.0192 cp 0. Stock tank oil gravity is 30oAPI and surface gas gravity is 0.
ft 100% Water Production 0 0 Sw. % 100 Log Response Diagram SP Log RT Log h. % 100 100 % Sw VI .33 .VI) Uses of relative permeability data A. Determination of free water surface in reservoir (100% water production) 1 kr 0 0 Sw.
ft 0 0 Sw. 1 Determination of height of 100% oil production kr 0 0 Sw. % 100 Log Response Diagram SP Log RT Log 100% Oil Production 100% Water Production h. % 100 100 % Sw VI .B.34 .
Effect of permeability on thickness of transition zone
Low K High K
0 0 Sw, % 100
h = height of zone of interest
Low K High K
0 0 Sw, % 100
VI - 35
Fractional flow of water as a function of height
q qw 1 fw = q w = q + q = = tot o w ko A ∆ P kw A ∆ P ko µw 1+ + kw µo µo L µo L
kw A ∆ P µw L
0 0 Sw 100 h
0 0 fw h 1
0 0 Sw 100
VI - 36
Height above free water level, ft
20 0 0
20 40 60 80 100
Fraction of water in produced fluid, %
This figure indicates that lower permeabilities result in longer transition zones E. Determination of residual fluid saturations
0 0 Sw
Residual Oil Saturation
Imbibition curve used in water flood calculations Maximum oil recovery = area (acre) x h(ft) x f x 7758 BBL/acre ft x ∆Sw
VI - 37
Interpretation of fractional flow curve
1. 2. 3. 4.
fw at water breakthrough Sw at well at water breakthrough
Swav in reservoir between wells at water breakthrough 1 = pore volume of water injected slope
VI - 38
% Oil in Place 100 0 VI .1 3 2 Water input Pore vols.39 . fw 1 0 0 Oil Rec .
The classification of data for a large number of samples will often provide additional information to help describe the physical properties of the population. If the sample is representative of the population. Often we seek a single number (porosity or permeability) to represent the population (reservoir) for use in reservoir engineering calculations.e. Unclassified data is randomly arranged. we have a statistical basis for estimating properties of the population. STATISTICAL MEASURES I) Introduction Usually we can not examine an entire "population" (i. The sample data is said to be unclassified or classified depending on whether it is arranged or grouped in a particular order. cut it into plugs.1 . we can not dig up an entire reservoir. VII .VII. We can only "sample" the population and use the properties of the sample to represent the properties of the population. and measure the porosity of every plug).
The relative frequency of a class is the frequency of the class divided by the total frequency of all the classes. A tabular arrangement of these data according to class is called a frequency distribution or frequency table. Determine largest and smallest numbers in the raw data. The midpoint of each class interval is called the class mark.2 . Divide the range of numbers into a convenient number of equal sized class intervals. The number of class intervals depends on the data but is usually taken between 5 and 20 in number. The division of unclassified data into classified data is accomplished by allocating all data to respective class intervals. The number of observations for each class interval is the class frequency. The number of individuals belonging to each class is called the class frequency. D.II) Frequency Distributions It is often useful to distribute data into classes. VII . Sometimes classified data is called grouped data. Rules for forming frequency distributions A. C. B.
% 24 8 6 4 2 0 20 # of Samples 60 100 140 Permeability. The width of the rectangle corresponds to the class interval.3 . The vertical scale is the number of data points . md VII .the class frequency .in each class.III) Histogram A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution. Frequency of Occurence Mean Magnitude of Variable 8 6 # of Samples 4 2 0 12 16 20 Porosity.
Net pay thickness data from 20 wells summarized as relative frequency data Range of thickness. 50-80 81-110 111-140 141-170 171-200 Frequency (No.25 0.4 . 20% 35% 25% 15% 5% 100% 10 8 Frequency 6 4 2 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness. ft. ft VII .00 Relative Frequency as percentage.35 0.05 1. fraction of total wells) 0. of wells having thickness values in the range) 4 7 5 3 1 20 Relative Frequency (No. of wells having thickness values in each range.15 0.20 0.
ft VII .1 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.4 .5 .5 Relative Frequency .Sometimes the relative frequency is plotted on a histogram .2 .3 .
6 . ft VII .4 .2 0 Cumulative % less than or equal to 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.0 .8 .IV) Cumulative Frequency Distributions Relative frequencies are summed and plotted at the higher ends of the class intervals to create a "cumulative frequency less than or equal to" distribution Cumulative frequency less than for equal to 1.6 .
7 .Occasionally a "cumulative frequency greater than or equal to" distribution is plotted. Different probability paper is used for data with different distributions VII .2 0 Cumulative % greater than or equal to 1. ft Probability graph paper has been constructed so that data from certain probability distributions plot as a straight line. Relative frequencies are summed from the highest class interval and plotted at the lower ends of the intervals Cumulative frequency greater than for equal to .6 .4 .0 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 0 50 80 110 140 170 200 Random variable: net pay thickness.8 .
8 . σ.V) Normal Distribution The normal distribution is continuous probability distribution having a symmetrical shape similar to a bell. m. sometimes called a Gaussian distribution. f(x) Inflection point of curve a a µ −a µ +a Random variable x This distribution is completely and uniquely defined by two values . VII . and standard deviation.the mean.
Mode f(x) Median (geometric mean) Mean (arithmetic mean) Random variable x This distribution can also be completely and uniquely defined by the mean. and the standard deviation. σ.9 .VI) Log Normal Distribution The log normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution that appears similar to a normal distribution except that it is skewed to one side. m. It is also called an exponential distribution. VII . If random variable xi are log normally distributed then the variables log xi are normally distributed.
the value equalled or exceeded by exactly one-half of the samples.the nth root of the product of n numbers µg = x1⋅ x2⋅ x3 . When a set of data is arranged according to magnitude the average value tends to lie in the center of these data. . mode .VII) Measures of Central Tendency An average is a value which is typical or representative of a set of data. x n 1/n n 1/n µg = π xi i=1 where µg = the geometric mean VII . These averages are called measure of central tendency.10 . .the value which occurs with the greatest frequency geometric mean .the arithmetic average value of the samples n Σ xi µ = i =1 n where xi = values of the variable of interest for each sample nµ = number of samples median . mean .
VIII) Measures of Variability (dispersion) A measure of central tendency is the "average" or expected value of a set of variables.another measure of the dispersion about the central tendency n Σ xi . A. Mean deviation .µ 2 j f where rj = relative frequency for each class = = frequency for each class class mark where VII .11 .The square root of the mean of the squared deviations about µ. n Σ xi . where deviation is defined as the distance of the variable from µ. Standard deviation .µ 2 2 = i=1 σ n-1 where σ2 is the variance σ is the standard deviation B.µ MD = i=1 n For classified data σ2 = Σ fi xi .µ 2 j Σ fi j fi xj or σ2 = Σ frj xj . however it does not show the spread or variability of the variables on either side of the central tendency.
IX) Normal Distribution Porosity data is usually assumed to have a normal distribution. For the normal distribution the mean. Thus.12 . They are identical measures of central tendency. for unclassified data n Σ xi µ = i=1 n where i refers to each individual data point and. median and mode have the same numerical values. for classified data Σ fj xj j Σ fj j µ= where j refers to each class interval fj is the frequency of the class xj is the class mark or µ = Σ frj xj j f where rj is the relative frequency of the class. xj is the class mark VII .
001 Random variable x Cumulative frequency plotted on coordinate graph paper . distributed normally .999 Random variable x.001 50% Cumulative % < .001 Random variable x Cumulative frequency plotted on normal probability paper Normal probability graph paper .999 .13 .001 50% 84.999 Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Frequency . distributed normally Random variable x.999 µ+a σ µ µ .1% Cumulative % < VII ..
0 20.0 22.0<x<12.99% VII .7 -0.µ)2 84.0<x<22.µ)2 84.29 0.49 1.0 = 17.µ) -9.5 745.7 -4.7 +1.7 -2.64 fi(xi .0 19.0 21.0 147.0<x<16.3 +3.µ 2 j Σ fi j = 376.8 (xi .09 72.0<x<18.0 13.2 -6.0 17.88 13.0 (xi .18 = 8.0 204.5 0.96 = 2.14 .0 Frequency fi 1 0 1 10 12 8 7 3 42 Interval Midpoint xi 8.96 42 σ = 8.Porosity and permeability data from a well in the Denver-Julesburg Basin i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Porosity Interval Percent 7.0 16.90 5.64 0.0 12.0<x<25.89 22.0 14.0 15.0 150.52 76.92 376.18 µ= Σ fi xi Σ fi = 745.0 13.5 11.0 18.5 fixi 8.0 70.69 10.0 23.00 22.0 10.7% 42 σ2 = Σ fi xi .3 +5.09 7.64 44.0 152.23 100.89 33.0<x<10.0<x<20.0<x<14.
0<x<12.0 22.8% 28.0% 24 22 Core porosity. % 7.4% 4.0<x<22.0 16.0<x<16.2% 92.0<x<20.0 14.15 .0<x<25.0 20.9% 100.4% 2.7 .17.6% 57.0<x<10.0 10.7% σ = 20.0 12.Porosity Interval.7 = 3% VII .0<x<18.0 18.7% f + σ = 20. % 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 96 Cumulative % less than or equal to given values of porosity at 50th percentile at 84th percentile f = 17.0 Frequency 1 0 1 10 12 8 7 3 42 26 Cumulative Frequency Than or Equal to Upper Limit of Interval 1 1 2 12 24 32 39 42 Cumulative Frequency Expressed as Percentage 2.0<x<14.1% 76.
mode. and mean have different numerical values. Thus. for unclassified data n 1/n µ = π xi i=1 or n log (m) = 1 Σ log xi n i=1 VII . The median of a log normal distribution is equal to the geometric mean.16 . The median has been chosen as the value of central tendency which best represents the data.X) Log Normal Distribution Permeability data is usually assumed to have a log normal distribution. For log normal distribution the median.
8% 9.5% 19.2% 100.0% 28.6% 38.3% 95.0% 1000 Core permeability.17 .1% 66. md 100 10 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 96 Cumulative % less than or equal to given values of permeability VII .0% 83.4% 81.7% 71.Permeability Interval (millidarcies) 0-50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 301-350 351-400 401-450 451-500 501-700 701-1000 Frequency 2 2 4 4 4 8 4 2 4 1 5 2 42 Lognormal probability graph paper Cumulative Frequency Less Than or Equal to Upper Limit of Interval 2 4 8 12 16 24 28 30 34 35 40 42 Cumulative Frequency Expressed As Percentage 4.1% 57.
Capillary pressure in a capillary.PETE 306 HANDOUT 3/5/92 Calculation of Permeability using Capillary Pressure Data Purcell Approach (ABW: pages 167-172) Three basic considerations: 1. P c = 2 σ cosθ r 2. qt = kA ∆p µL P c = dynes cm2 σ = dynes cm r = cm = cm2 = cm2 = cm k A L 2 q = cm sec µ = poise = dynes-sec cm2 ∆p = dyne cm2 1 . Capillary flow: Poiseuille's law qi = π r4 ∆p i 8µL 3. Darcy's equation.
V = cm3 2 8µL Since r i = 2σ cosθ Pci σ cosθ 2 Vi qi = ∆p Pci 2 2 µ L 2 For a bundle of n capillary tubes. then the flow rate in a capillary is qi = Vr i ∆p.2 Let V i = πr i L. i = n σ cosθ 2 ∆p i=n V i qt = Σ Σ 2 i=1 2µL i=1 Pci 2 Since. qt = k A ∆p µL 2 k i=n σ cosθ 2 = Σ Vi 2 2 A L i=n Pci 2 .
k= σ cosθ 2 2 φλ i=n Σ i=1 Si Pci 2 In integral form.Define the fractional volume of ith capillary si = and Vi . σ cosθ 2 dS k= φλ 2 2 S=0 Pc S=1 3 . φ = fraction AL k= σ cosθ 2 2 φ i=n Σ i=1 Si Pci 2 Introducing a lithology factor λ for deviation of the actual pore space. VT s i = fraction φ = VT .
PETE 306 HANDOUT 4/16/92 Calculation of Relative Permeabilities using Capillary Pressure Data Purcell and Burdine Approach (ABW: pages 196-199) Purcell approach: The absolute permeability may be expressed as σ cosθ 2 dS k= φλ 2 2 S=0 Pc The effective permeability of the wetting phase may be expressed as S=1 kwt σ cosθ 2 = φλ 2 S=0 S=Swt dS P2 c The relative permeability of the wetting phase is the ratio of the wetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=Swt krwt = kwt = k S=0 S=1 dS P2 c dS 2 S=0 Pc 1 .
the effective permeability of the nonwetting phase may be expressed as knwt σ cosθ 2 dS = φλ 2 2 S=Swt Pc S=1 The relative permeability of the nonwetting phase is the ratio of the nonwetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=1 krnwt = knwt = k dS 2 S=Swt Pc S=1 dS 2 S=0 Pc 2 .Similarly.
λrwti = λi λwti The relative permeability of the wetting phase is the ratio of the wetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=Swt krwt = kwt = λrwt 2 k S=0 S=1 dS P2 c dS 2 S=0 Pc The tortuosity ratio is related to the minimum wetting-phase saturation Sm.Sm 3 .Burdine Approach: Burdine considered the tortuosity factors for one-phase and multiphase systems and modified the Purcell equations for the effective permeabilities. as λrwt = Swt .S m 1 .
S e 1 . and the equilibrium saturation to the nonwetting phase.Sm .Se 4 . the relative permeability of the nonwetting phase is the ratio of the nonwetting phase effective permeability to the absolute permeability S=1 krnwt = knwt = λrnwt 2 k dS 2 S=Swt Pc S=1 dS 2 S=0 Pc The tortuosity ratio for the nonwetting phase is related to the minimum wetting-phase saturation.Similarly. Sm. as λrnwt = Snwt . Se.