Radar & its Classification

by: Himank Charaya

3. Continous wave radar. 5. 2.Outline 1. Radar classification. . Doppler effect. FrequencyFrequency-modulated CW radar. 4. Introduction to radar .

fog. clouds.RADAR  What is RADAR an acronym for? Radio Detection and Ranging.  Radio wave is generated. transmitted. smoke  RADAR is good for isolated targets against a relatively featureless background. and detected. .  RADAR unimpaired by night. reflected.

 6. Transmitter Antenna Receiver Display unit Power supply Duplexer( improved radar). .  3.  5. The components of a radar system.  4.  1.  2.

Two Basic Radar Types  Pulse Transmission Wave  Continuous .

Pulse Transmission .

Continuous Wave Radar  Employs continual RADAR transmission  Separate transmit and receive antennas  Relies on the ´DOPPLER SHIFTµ .

Continuous Wave Radar  Continuous wave (CW) radars typically determine target velocity. These radars are typically simpler. and can achieve considerable ranges without the high peak power. more compact and less costly. .

 The Doppler affect can be used in a CW radar in order to determine velocity. .Doppler Effect  that the Doppler effect is the change in frequency that occurs when a source and a target are in relative motion.

.Doppler effect theory  Fd = 2Vr Fd = doppler shift Vr = relative velocity of target with respect to radar.

Doppler Frequency Shifts Motion Away: Echo Frequency Decreases Motion Towards: Echo Frequency Increases .

Continuous Wave Radar Components Transmitter CW RF Oscillator Antenna OUT Discriminator AMP Mixer IN Antenna Indicator .

FMFM-CW radar  An unmodulated CW radar is incapable of detecting range. differences between the transmitted and received frequencies can be used to estimate range. frequency modulating the CW signal. as there is no reference point in the transmitted or returned signal for measuring elapsed time.  By .

Continuous Wave  Requires 2 Antennae  Range or Alt.Pulse Vs. as well  Susceptible To Jamming  Physical Range Determined By PW and PRF. usually Alt. Info  High SNR  More Difficult to Jam But Easily Deceived  Amp can be tuned to look for expected frequencies . Continuous Wave Pulse Echo  Single Antenna  Gives Range.

Types of Radar Output Displays A Scan Used for gunfire control  Accurate Range information  B Scan Used for airborne fire control  Range and Bearing. forward looking  E Scan  Used for Altitude Used for surface search and navigation  PPI  .

Specific Types of Radar  Frequency Modulated CW Radar  Use for radar altimeters and missile guidance. Signals compared with previous return to enhance moving targets. Carrier wave frequency within pulse is compared with a reference signal to detect moving targets.  Pulse Doppler   Moving Target Indicator (MTI) System   Frequency Agile Systems  . (search radars) Difficult to jam.

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