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Operationalizing strategy This phase is the translation of the agreed upon long term objectives, the strategic plan, into organizational action. Here the focus shifts from strategy formulation to strategy implementation. There are four important things to be done well to make this transition: 1. Identify short term objectives
± They translate long term objectives into annual targets for action. ± They provide clarity and can be very powerful motivator and facilitator of effective strategy implementation.
2. Initiate specific functional strategies
± They translate business strategy into daily activities. ± Functional managers are involved in developing these tactics and their participation helps in clarifying what needs to be done to implement the strategy.
3. Communicate policies that empower people in the organization
± Policies are empowerment tools that simplify decision making by empowering operational managers and their subordinates. ± They empower the people involved in execution by reducing the time required to decide and act.
4. Design effective rewards
± It is aimed at rewarding the desired actions and results.
Annual or short term objectives They provide a guidance to the people in the organization as to what needs to be done currently to make the long term objectives become reality. They provide specific guidelines about the things to be done. They "operationalize" long -term objectives. e.g. if the long term, say five year plan is to gain forty percent market share from the current twenty percent, then what needs to be done in this year to increase the current market share by "X" percent Discussion and agreement on short-term strategies help raise issues and potential conflicts that requires coordination to avoid serious consequences. It identifies measurable outcomes of action plans or functional activities, which can be used to make feedback, correction, and evaluation more relevant and acceptable.
They specify what exactly needs to be done. which help short-term objectives in three ways: 1. 2. .a schedule with starting and ending dates. 3. These action plans identify functional tactics and activities that will be undertaken in the next week.Short-term objectives are accompanied by action plans. It identifies who is responsible for each action in the plan. They provide a time frame for completion . month or quarter to build competitive advantage.
production) than staff areas (e.Qualities of effective short-term objectives 1. Measurable Short-term objectives are more consistent when they clearly state ± what is to be accomplished ± when it will be accomplished ± how its accomplishment will be measured This helps in effectively monitoring each activity and the progress across several interrelated activities. Difficulties in quantifying objectives often can be overcome by initially focusing on measurable activity and then identifying measurable outcomes.g. . Measurable objectives make misunderstanding less likely among interdependent managers who must act on the plans. It is easier to quantify objectives of line units (e. personal).g.
2.2. Priorities Some annual objectives would require higher priority either because of the timing considerations or because of their effect on a strategy's success. Objectives can be given weights (e. The various ways on which priorities can be established are: 1. E. top and secondary can be used.g. Ranking method Terms such as primary. . new product development may be more important than promotional activities Not prioritizing will lead to conflicting assumptions which may inhibit progress towards strategic effectiveness.g. 0 to 100 percent) to establish and communicate the relative priority. 3.
g. T o achieve this it can have a series of short-term objectives like focusing on particular products. The link between the short-term and long-term objectives should resemble cascades through the firm. which may be necessary to integrate and coordinate objectives and activities at the operating level. from basic longterm objectives to specific short-term objectives in key operational areas. e. Linked to long-term objectives Short-term objectives can add specificity in identifying what must be accomplished to achieve long-term objective.3. Adobe systems has an long-term objective of achieving five percent of its total revenue to come from India in the next 5 years. The cascading effect provides a clear reference for communications and negotiation. .
5. 6.4. Acceptable Flexible Suitable Motivating Understandable Achievable . 9. 7. 8.
If the managers are part of the process of deciding the shortterm objectives then it becomes a valid basis for addressing and accommodating conflicting concerns that might interfere with strategic effectiveness. Such clarity of purpose can be a major force in helping the firm in using its "people assets" more effectively. . Meetings to set short-term objectives and action plans become the forum for raising and resolving conflicts between strategic intentions and operating realities.The value-added benefits of short-term objectives and action plans Short-term objectives and action plans give the operational personnel a better understanding of their roles in the firm's mission.
. trigger points and other mechanisms for controlling and implementing of strategy. schedules. They provide a basis for strategic control by providing clear. They can be powerful motivators for employees when the objectives are linked to the firm's reward structure. measurable basis for developing budgets.
Every activity in the value chain executes functional tactics that help to accomplish strategic objectives. finance. They are actions designed to accomplish specific short-term objectives.Developing Functional Strategies Functional strategies or functional tactics are the key. R&D. and HRM to provide the business's products and services. routine activities that must be undertaken in each functional area like marketing. . production.
Specificity 3. Time horizon 2.Difference between Business strategies and functional tactics They are different in three fundamental ways: 1. Participants who develop them .
policies about defaults help customer service personnel in credit card companies 2. policies on replacement of defective products . E. By defining discretion. This helps reduce friction arising from favoritism. discrimination and disparate handling of common functions.g. Policies ensure quicker decisions by standardizing answers to previously answered questions that otherwise would recur and be pushed up the management hierarchy again and again.g. E.Advantages of creating policies that empower 1. Policies establish indirect control over independent action by clearly stating how things are to be done now. E. purchase policies help in best deals for companies 3.g. Policies promote uniform handling of similar activities. policies in effect control decisions yet empower employees to conduct activities without direct intervention by top management.
E. policies on work timings and attendance help organizations avoid resistance from employees . E. unambiguous operating policies clarify what is expected and facilitate acceptance. thereby providing a necessary foundation for coordinated. Policies reduce uncertainty in repetitive and day-to-day decision making.g. When major strategic change is undertaken. This minimizes conflicting practices and establish consistent patterns of action in attempts to make strategy work. dress code and timing for different departments help in discipline in the institution 5.4. Policies counteract resistance to or rejection of chosen strategies by organization members. Policies institutionalize basic aspects of organization behavior. policies on travel helps salesmen to get their travel bills cleared from accounts department 6.g.g. efficient efforts and freeing operating personnel to act. E.
This greatly expedites dealing with problems. E. scheduled maintenance of machines . policies on inventory to be maintained helps in routine reordering 8. E. E. Policies increase managerial effectiveness by standardizing many routine decisions and clarifying the discretion managers and subordinates can exercise in implementing functional tactics. decisions and actions of managers and their subordinates in implementing a firm's strategy. E. Zero defect manufacturing at Toyota 10. Policies afford managers a mechanism for avoiding hasty and ill-conceived decisions in changing operations.g. Policies are directives designed to guide the thinking.g.g.7. Policies offer predetermined answers to routine problems.g. policies on overtime by employees help managers to take well thought out decisions 9.
Empowering helps in serving the customer better thus achieving the objective of customer satisfaction. online booking in deciding ticket prices . e.g. GE empowers its appliance repair personnel to take decisions about warranty credits.g.Policies empowers operating personnel Policies are important to empower the operating personnel. Toyota empowers the employees to stop production if any quality problem exists ± Aggressive use of automation e. quality circles ± Eliminating whole level of management e. Delta Airlines empowers its customer service personnel to take decisions on ticket pricing Empowerment can be achieved through: ± Training ± Self-managed work groups e.g.g.
strategy. while at the same time allowing considerable latitude to operating personnel.g. Pricing policies are internally derived. policies regarding environment usage are developed in compliance with external (government ) requirements. e. E. .g. E. and tactics of the business.g. specifying the maximum discount that can be given by a sales person Policies must to derived from functional tactics (sometimes from corporate or business strategies) with the key purpose of aiding strategy execution.Developing policies It is necessary to ensure that decision making is consistent with the mission. sales manage may be authorized to give free samples of products to help in improving market share Policies can be externally imposed or internally derived.
. 3. 7. content and intended use.Characteristics of policies Policies may be written and formal or unwritten and informal. 6. They communicate the authorization or sanction of policies more clearly. 4. They supply a convenient and authoritative reference. 5. They systematically enhance indirect control and organization wide coordination of the key purposes of policies. They ensure unalterable transmission of policies. written policies have the following advantages: 1. 2. They require managers to think through the policy's meaning. Formal. They reduce misunderstanding. Informal. unwritten policies are usually associated with a strategic need for competitive secrecy. They make equitable and consistent treatment of problems more likely.
the basic way in which the firm's different activities are organized.the need for direction and building a team to execute the strategy.The three basic levers through which the managers can implement strategy: 1. Structure . . Culture . Leadership . 3. 2.the shared values that create the norms of individual behavior.
Structuring an effective organization .
The Internet 3. Globalization 2.Three fundamental trends are driving decisions about the effective organizational structures in the twenty-first century: 1. Speed of decision making .
information flow. ± ± e. The need for global coordination and innovation is forcing constant experimentation and adjustment to get the right mix of local initiative.Globalization Over two-thirds of all industries either operate globally (e. top managers scrutinize compensation schemes to make managers pay attention to global performance while also attending to their local operations. engineering happens where the right talent is available . leadership and corporate culture.when raw materials are taken from around the world. .g. At Ericson.g. Today's globalization .the ramifications for organization structures are revolutionary. computers) or will do so soon. Philips regularly moves its headquarters for different businesses to the "high voltage" markets. manufacturing is done at most efficient places.
The Internet Internet allows anybody in the business to access information instantaneously. employees and suppliers can work together in real time. inefficient and noncompetitive. offices and activities dispersed around the world to be seamlessly connected so that far-flung customers. communication and decision-making functions are accomplished real fast. . Traditional organizational structures become slow. Coordination. It allows the global enterprise with different functions.
lest the opportunity be lost. new products.g. . Leading edge technologies will enable employees throughout the organization to seize opportunity as it arises.Speed of decision making Digitizing of activities like employee benefits. accounts receivables. and new processes. payroll can result in cost saving and improvements in speed. The speed at which these negotiations must be conducted and decisions made require a simple and accommodating organizational structure. This creates a challenge for the traditional hierarchical organization. Globalization of business creates a potential situation which increases the sheer velocity of decisions that have to be made. These technologies will allow all people involved with the enterprise and located at different places to coordinate to develop markets. Cisco may be negotiating 50-60 alliances at one time due to the nature of its diverse operations. ± e.
Useful guidelines and approaches to arrive at a suitable organizational structure 1. Match structure to strategy e.g. Downsize and self-manage: Force decisions to operating level e.g. regional marketing managers made to take decision on customers to target . Reengineer strategic business processes 5. Balance the demands for control/differentiation with the need for coordination/integration e. even when focusing on different verticals software companies offer integrated solutions to customers which needs coordination of different verticals 3. software companies have different heads for different verticals as their strategy is to focus on verticals 2.g. Restructure to emphasize and support strategically critical activities e. Infosys hived off its BPO for better focus 4.g.
Intel uses its operations in different for its chip design 8. vertical heads and geographic heads structure used by software companies 7.6. Redefine the role of corporate headquarters from control to support and coordination . Take advantage of being a virtual organization e.com have worldwide customers 9. Web-based organizations e. online companies like shaadi. Allow multiple structures to operate simultaneously within the organization to accommodate products.g. innovation and customers e.g.g. geography. ambidextrous learning organization 10. Remove structural barriers and create a boundaryless.
A single-product firm or single dominant business firm should employ a functional structure e. Karnataka milk federation ± This structure allows for strong task focus through an emphasis on specialization and efficiency. . while providing for adequate controls through centralized review and decision making.Match structure to strategy The conclusion of a strategic management research that examined the evolution of a business over time and how the degree of diversification from a firm's core business affected the choice of organizational structure are as follows: 1.g.
± When synergies are possible within such a group. e. ± The greater the degree of diversity across the firm's businesses. DRDO ± Closely related divisions should be combined into groups within this structure. . with less role for corporate level staff. the greater should be the extent to which the power of staff and decision making authority is lodged within the division. the appropriate location for decision making is at the group level. A firm in several lines of business that are somehow related should employ a multidivisional structure.2.g.
. accounting. ± All operational and business level strategic plans are delegated to the strategic business units.g. planning. ± Since there are no synergies across the firm's businesses.3. legal and related activities should be centralized at the corporate office. there are significant differences between the two. ADAG group ± Although the strategic business unit structure resembles the multidivisional structure. Early achievement of a strategy-structure fit can be a competitive advantage ± If the strategy changes. 4. ± With a strategic business unit structure finance. it will lead to change in the structure. A firm in several unrelated lines of business should be organized into strategic business units e. the corporate office serves largely as a capital allocation and control mechanism.
Many firms have found value in multiple structures.Challenges of this approach Resistance to changing the existing structure . As firms move from single product/service to multiple product/service. operating simultaneously in their company. .is a major challenge to new strategies. the reality that it requires different structures should be accommodated when implementing growth strategies."the way we do things here".
is an important structural decision. Dividing activities in this manner. These separate activities however need to be coordinated and integrated back together as a whole so the business functions effectively. Firm's divide different activities into logical. operations so that each set of activity can be done most efficiently. . sometimes called "differentiation". focus and efficiency.Balance the demands for control/differentiation with the need for coordination/integration Specialization of work and effort allows a unit to develop greater expertise. common groupings like sales.
± GE changed its Medical Systems structure from allowing local product managers handle everything from product design to marketing to a new structure where the local managers and customers will give input about product requirements to a centralized team who would design products for worldwide applications. Demand for control and the coordination needs differ across different types of businesses and strategic situations. Coca-Cola changing in order to provide greater coordination/integration in local markets where local managers independently launch new flavored drinks.g. . ± e.
. Wal-Mart's organizational structure is designed to ensure that it's impressive logistics and purchasing competitive advantage operate flawlessly. and retail support to its bottlers in its organization structure.Restructure to emphasize and support strategically critical activities Restructuring trend is the notion that some activities within a business's value chain are more critical to the success of the business's strategy than others. ± e. advertising. ± Cola-Cola emphasizes the importance of distribution activities. downsizing and outsourcing were prominent tools for strategists restructuring their organizations.g. During 1990s reengineering.
off-shore model used by most Indian software companies focus on software development in India as central to their organizational structure ± ± ± Those activities should be identified and separated as much as possible into self-contained parts of the organization. E. Then the remaining structure must be designed so as to ensure timely integration with other parts of the organization. It is usually found in functionally organized organizations that support activities like finance.g. Managers need to make the strategically relevant activities the central building block for designing organization structure.Two considerations are critical when a restructuring is undertaken to emphasize and support strategically critical activities. . engineering and information processing often are obsessed with performing their own tasks more then emphasizing the key results of the business as a whole. 1.
2. The second consideration is to design the organization structure so that it helps coordinate and integrate the support activities to
maximize their support of strategy-critical primary activities does so in a way to minimize the costs for support activities and the time spent on internal coordination.
Reengineer strategic business processes Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is one of the most popular methods by which organizations worldwide are undergoing restructuring efforts to remain competitive. BPR is intended to place the decision making authority that is most relevant to the customer closer to the customer, in order to make the firm more responsive to the needs of the customer. Following are the steps pursued by companies that have successfully reengineered their operations around strategically critical business processes:
1. 2. Develop a flowchart of the total business process, including the its interfaces with other value chain activities. Try to simplify the process first, eliminating tasks and steps where possible and analyzing how to streamline the performance of what remains.
Determine which part of the process can be automated (those that are repetitive, time-consuming and require little thought or decision); consider introducing advanced technologies that can be upgraded to achieve next-generation capability and provide a basis for further productivity gains down the road. Evaluate each activity in the process to determine whether it is strategy-critical or not. Strategy critical activities are candidates for benchmarking to achieve best-in-industry performance status. Weigh the pros and cons of outsourcing activities that are noncritical or those that contribute little to organizational capabilities and core competencies. Design a structure for performing the activities that remain; reorganize the personnel and groups who perform these activities into new structure.
Spans of control have become larger due to information technology. creating strategic business units within business in companies like Axis bank Empowerment eliminates up to half the levels of management previously existing in an organization structure. Downsizing resulted in more work. There is effort to create distinct businesses within business. reengineering and automation. This delegation. particularly middlemanagement in a company.g. One of the outcomes of downsizing was increased self-management at operating level of the company. conceiving a business as a confederation of many "small" businesses. is accomplished through concepts like self-managed work groups. also known as empowerment.Downsize and self-manage: Force decisions to operating level Downsizing is eliminating the number of employees. . E. running "lean and mean" and delegation to lower levels. Scrutiny of the value added by the middle level with continuous improvement in information technology has helped downsizing. allowing major management decisions to be made at operating levels.
time and culture. innovation and customers The Matrix organization was one of the early structure attempts to do this so that skills and resources could be better assigned and used within a large company. language.Allow multiple structures to operate simultaneously within the organization to accommodate products. . market. People typically had a permanent assignment to a certain organizational unit. particularly in an international context complicated by distance. yet they were also frequently assigned o work in another project or activity at the same time. The product-team structure emerged as an alternative to the matrix approach to simply the focus on a narrow but strategically important product. geography. The dual chains of command proved problematic for some organizations. customer or innovation. usually a functional or staff department.
team members are assigned permanently to that team in most cases. E. The team generates cross functional understanding that irons out early product or process design problems. or process team that is empowered to make major decisions about their product. teams created for creating Scorpio at Mahindra and Nano at Tata Motors The team is usually created at the inception of the product idea and they stay with it indefinitely if it becomes a viable business. .g. project.g. as in the matrix structure. The product-team structure assigns functional managers and specialists (e. finance. It speeds up innovation and customer responsiveness because authority rests with the team allowing decisions to be made quickly. The coordination cost is much lower and since every function is represented it usually reduces the number of management levels above the level needed to approve the team decisions. Instead of being assigned on a temporary basis. marketing) to a new product.
They help in taking advantage of opportunities quickly without tying up money. . access to markets and costs. Outsourcing was an early driving force for the virtual organization trend.g.suppliers. customers. even competitors linked primarily by information technology to share skills. subcontractors. Outsourcing was a result of BRP which found many processes which were not adding value and could be done more efficiently outside the organization. Strategic alliances with suppliers. contractors and other provides help in providing value to the customer. partners. small firms doing business with each other Virtual organization is defined as a temporary network of independent companies . Outsourcing along with strategic alliances are integral in making a virtual organization work.Take advantage of being a virtual organization e.
The future organizations will be internet-driven designed to deliver speed. employees. world-class resources digitally. eBay Web-based organizations use the web as in internet but they are also organizations who are web like shaped in their structure. A web structured organization is flat.Web-based organizations e. Google. suppliers and customers in various collaborations. .g. external contractors. The players will grow more and more interdependent. customer service-enhanced products to savvy customers from an integrated virtual web structure pulling together abundant. intricately woven form that links partners. The pyramid structures have been eliminating layers to almost having an omnipotent CEO at its apex. We have the pyramid and the web represent the vast change in structures.
Managing this intricate network of partners. spin-off enterprises. An outsider will not be able to make out where an individual firm begins and where it ends. contractors and freelancers will be as important as managing internal operations. .
understanding the customer or technology.Remove structural barriers and create a boundaryless. Boundaryless organizations are those that are able to generate knowledge. Organizations should encourage learning and sharing information. ambidextrous learning organization The evolution of virtual organization structure as an integral mechanism through which managers implement strategy has brought the focus on the role knowledge plays in this process. They should also be very flexible. Knowledge may be in terms of know-how. share knowledge and get knowledge to the places it could be best used to provide superior value. businesses and geographic boundaries . . Internal divisions were being erased to enable people to move across functions. Managers will become knowledge "nodes" through which intricate network of players are constantly coordinated to bring together relevant know-how and successful action.
Redefine the role of corporate headquarters from control to support and coordination Globally engaged multinationals are changing the role of corporate headquarters from one of control. supporter and enabler of innovation and synergy. discussions and analysis. resource allocation and performance monitoring to one of coordinator of linkages across multiple businesses. . One way to do this is to create a executive council having top managers from each businesses which will serve as a critical forum for corporate decisions.
Product Team . Geographic 3. Divisional or Strategic Business Unit 4.Related pros and cons The five basic primary structures are: 1. Functional 2.Primary organizational structures and their strategies . Matrix 5.
g. A hotel may be organized around housekeeping. maintenance. reservations and sales. or technology considerations determine the identity of the parts in a functional structure. customer. Product. It provides well-defined skills and areas of specialization to build competitive advantages in providing products or services. Dividing tasks into functional specialties enables the personnel of these firms to concentrate on only one aspect of the necessary work. accounting and personnel. .Functional organizational structure It is predominant in firms with a single or narrow product focus. ± e. This also allows use of latest technical skills and develops a high level of efficiency. the front desk. restaurant operations.
Challenges Effective coordination of the functional units. The narrow technical expertise achieved through specialization can lead to limited perspectives and to differences in the priorities of the functional units. Integrating devices (such as project teams or planning committees) are frequently used in functionally organized firms to enhance coordination and to facilitate understanding across functional areas. . Specialists may see the firm' strategic issues primarily as "marketing" or "production" problems.
Geographic organizational structure Structuring by geographic areas is required to accommodate the different approaches needed in different geographic areas in producing.g. lodging regulations and customer mix. e. Holiday Inn is organized this way as differences exist in traveling requirements. . providing and selling products.
HUL When a firm diversifies its product/service lines. A new structure is often necessary to meet the increased coordination and decision-making requirements that result from increased diversity and size. A SBU structure allows management to delegate authority for the strategic management of distinct business entities .g. utilizes unrelated market channels or begins to serve heterogeneous customer groups. . a functional structure becomes inadequate. A division/SBU is usually given profit responsibility.Divisional or Strategic Business Unit structure e.the SBU. A divisional or strategic business unit (SBU) structure is the most suitable form. which facilitates accurate assessment of profit and loss.
thus overcoming a key deficiency of a functional structure while at the same time retaining the advantages of functional structure. performance responsibility. Matrix structure increases the number of middle managers who exercise general management responsibilities. It provides dual channels of authority. evaluation and control. People and other r resources have to be put temporarily in product development and projects as and when they are needed. Matrix is a structure where subordinates are assigned both to a basic functional area and to a project or product manager.Matrix organizational structure As organizations grow and diversify into numerous products and projects there arises a need for providing skills and resources where and when they are most vital. This for of structure is intended to make the best use of talented people within a firm by combining the advantage of functional specialization and product-project specialization. .
some firms are accomplishing particular strategic tasks. This overlay structure is meant to take temporary advantage of a matrix-type while preserving an underlying divisional structure . Negotiating shared responsibilities. by means of a "temporary" or "flexible" overlay structure. To avoid these deficiencies.Challenges It is difficult to implement because of the dual chain of command. use of resources ad priorities can create misunderstanding among subordinates.
Organization leadership involves action on two fronts. 2. . Providing the management the skill to cope with ramifications of constant change. Guiding the organization to deal with constant change. This means identifying and supplying the organization with operating managers prepared to provide operational leadership and vision. The strategic intent had to build their organization and shape their culture to fit with opportunities and challenges change affords. This requires CEOs who embrace change and do so by clarifying strategic intent. The accelerated pace and complexity of business will continue to force corporations to push authority down through increasingly horizontal management structures. 1.Organizational Leadership Why is leadership important? The organizations of the twenty first century will increasingly depend on the skills of the CEO and a host of subordinate leaders.
Shaping organizational culture . This can be done through three interrelated activities: 1. Clarifying strategic intent 2.Strategic leadership: Embracing change The blending of telecommunications. Building an organization 3. Change has become an integral part of what leaders and managers deal with daily. The leadership challenge is to galvanize commitment among people within an organization as well as stake holders outside the organization to embrace change and implement strategies intended to position the organization to do so. computers and internet combined with globalization has increased the pace of change exponentially.
g. Outsourcing non-core activities though it had been well integrated vertically. Lou Gerstner. ± e. understood that many people in IBM were focusing on the war that was lost. meaning the PC and PC software.Clarifying strategic intent Leaders help stakeholders embrace change by setting forth a clear vision of where the business's strategy needs to take the organization. He aggressively instilled networkcentric computing as the strategic intent for IBM in the next decade. He understood the importance for IBM to become a leader in "network-centric computing". ± For P&G its CEO Alan Alley had the strategic intent of its R&D focusing on outside opportunities rather than being inward looking. . The strategic intent will be an articulation of what the company must become to establish and sustain global leadership. Former CEO of IBM.
leaders have to address a few concerns like: ± ensuring a common understanding about organizational priorities ± clarifying responsibilities among managers and organizational units. ± empowering newer managers and pushing authority lower in the organization. Since embracing change often involves overcoming resistance to change. ± gaining the personal commitment to a shared vision from managers throughout the organization. .Building an organization Leaders spend considerable time shaping and refining their organizational structure and making it functional effectively to accomplish strategic intent. ± keeping closely connected with "what's going on in the organization and with its customers". ± Uncovering and remedying problems in coordination and communication across the organization.
changed its reward system from salary plus bonus to a system where rewards involved substantial cash bonuses and stock options. The management support is needed for all the activities taken up by the leadership.g. This improved the sales figures of the company.Shaping organizational culture It is well known that values and beliefs shared throughout their organization will shape how the work of an organization is done. Leaders use reward systems and structure among other means to shape the organization's culture. Traveller's Insurance Co. Assignment of key managers is another leadership tool. Reshaping the organization culture is very important when changes are embraced in an organization. . Leaders look to managers as a source of leadership. ± e. They are expected to accept risk and cope with the complexity that change brings about.
.Recruiting and developing talented operational leadership As business get complex the decision making will be pushed down the organization level. innovators and collaborators. change agents. The new decision makers will be global managers. strategists. motivators. strategic decision-makers.
1. and managing change and conflict. Social skills ± In relation to influencing and inspiring others. communicating. 2. Social awareness ± In relation to sensing other's emotions (empathy). . conscientiousness. integrity. referred to as emotional intelligence. which are necessary to get the competencies referred in the previous diagram. 3. reading the organization (organizational awareness) and recognizing customer's needs (service orientation). 4. collaborating and building relationships with others. Self-awareness ± It is the ability to read and understand one's emotions and assess one's strengths and weaknesses. which comes from the confidence and positive self-worth. initiative and achievement oriented. Self management ± In terms of control. There are four characteristics.
The member becomes fundamentally committed to the beliefs and values when he or she internalizes them.Organizational Culture Organizational culture is a set of important beliefs and values that members of an organization share in common. direction and the basis for action. yet ever-present theme that provides meaning. It influences the opinions of members. It is intangible. . Beliefs and values are shared through internalization among the organization's individual members.
g. IBM changing its business to network centric ± Maximize synergy e. Bajaj setting up new plant for manufacturing bikes ± Reformulate the strategy or culture e. ethics at MindTree Encourage dissemination of stories and legends about core values e.Some of the ways to manage and create distinct culture are: Emphasize key themes or dominant values e. innovation at 3M and Google Adopt some very common themes in their own unique ways Managing organizational culture in a global organization Managing the strategy-culture relationship ± Link to mission e. At&T and Merrill Lynch .g. customer satisfaction at Toyota Institutionalize practices that systematically reinforce desired beliefs and values e.g.g.g. Holiday Inn focusing on ± Manage around the culture e.g.g.
± e.g. differentiation. E. P&G key theme is quality. Du Pont's safety orientation . FedEx for speed The emphasis can be through wording in advertisements.a report on every accident must be on the chairman's desk within 24 hours has resulted in a safety record that was 17 times better than the chemical industry average and 68 times better than the allmanufacturing average. cost advantage or speed) within their organization that reinforce competitive advantage they seek to maintain or build.Emphasize key themes or dominant values Leaders should nurture key themes or dominant values (like quality.g. all internal communications. Wipro is focused on doing business ethically. and in the new vocabulary used by company personnel to explain "who we are". .
Frito-Lay's zealous emphasis on customer service is reflected in frequent stories about potato chips route salespeople who have slogged through mud. anecdotes and legends in support of basic beliefs.g. ± e. 3M tells innovation stories.Encourage dissemination of stories and legends about core values Companies with strong cultures are enthusiastic collectors and tellers of stories. P&G and J&J tell quality stories . Reliance takes pride in the returns they have been offering to their investors at all times.5 percent service level to customers. snow and rain to uphold the 99. because organization members identify strongly with them and come to share the beliefs and values they share. These stories are very important in developing an organizational culture. hail.
g. finally. First. who are widely publicized throughout the company. the store winners compete in regional championships. next. the regional winners compete in the "All-American" contest.g. ± E. there is a competition to determine the best hamburger cooker in each store. McDonald's has a yearly contest to determine the best hamburger cooker in its chain. The winners. The strategies of these companies is strongly influenced by the beliefs and values. Google encourages innovation where 20% of an employees office time can be dedicated to her innovative projects ± e. get trophies and All-American patches to wear on their McDonald's uniform .Institutionalize practices that systematically reinforce desired beliefs and values Companies with strong cultures take the process of shaping their beliefs and values very seriously.
whereas weak companies focus on internal politics. Reliance ± a belief that customers should reign supreme e.g. Toyota ± a belief in the importance of people as individuals and a faith in their ability to make a strong contribution e. whatever their ability ± a belief in the importance of informal communication ± a belief that growth and profits are essential to a company's well-being Every company implements these beliefs differently and every company has a distinct culture which no other company can copy successfully. Honda ± a belief in inspiring people to do their best. the nuts and bolts of doing the job well e. Intel ± a belief in superior quality and service e.g.g. Stronger companies direct their culture towards customers and markets. Tata ± a belief in the importance of the details of execution.Adopt some very common themes in their own unique ways The most typical beliefs that shape organizational culture include: ± a belief in being the best e. .g.g.
g. Education plays an important role in the development of different cultures across countries. Infosys Social norms create differences across national boundaries that influence how people interact. . e. Leaders should be sensitive to global differences in approaches to education to make sure their cultural education efforts are effective. E. whereas the need for group dominate the value structure of people in Japan Religion is yet another source of cultural differences. Values and attitudes about similar circumstances also vary from country to country.Managing organizational culture in a global organization Organizations must recognize cultural diversity.g. individualism is central to a North American's value structure.
systems. Managing the strategy-culture relationship requires: 1. people and style influence the way in which important managerial tasks are executed. The compatibility or "fit" between those changes and the firm's culture. staff. . Sensitivity to the interaction between the changes necessary to implement the new strategy 2. Implementation of a new strategy is largely concerned with adjustments in these components to accommodate the perceived needs of the strategy.Managing the strategy-culture relationship Managers understand that key components of the firm like structure.
Four important considerations should be emphasized by such firms: 1. . top executives should use all available internal and external forums to reinforce the message that the changes are inextricably linked to it. Key changes should be visibly linked to the basic company mission Since the company mission provides a broad official foundation for the organization culture.Link to mission Let us consider a situation (like cell 1 in fig) where a firm is faced with the following situation: ± implementing a strategy requires changes in many cultural factors ± but where most of the changes are highly compatible with the existing culture Such firms are in a great advantage as they can pursue a strategy requiring major changes but still benefit from the power of cultural reinforcement.
± A firm may choose to outsource an important step in a production process because that step would be incompatible with the current culture. 4.2. Care should be taken if adjustments in the reward system are needed ± These adjustments should be consistent with the current reward system. This ensures current and future reward systems approaches are related and changes in the reward system are justified. Emphasis should be placed on the use of existing personnel where possible to fill positions created to implement the new strategy ± Existing personnel embody the shared values and norms that help ensure cultural compatibility as major changes are implemented. so current norms are not disturbed. Key attention should be paid to the changes that are least compatible with the current culture. 3. .
. ± Serving this radically different market required numerous organizational changes. ± But because the software requirements were not compatible with IBM's current operations. ± Where feasible. IBM personnel were used to fill the new positions created to implement the strategy. virtually all its initial efforts were linked to newly acquired Lotus Notes Software. IBM's strategy in entering the Internet based market.e. ± To maintain maximum compatibility with its existing culture. ± Numerous messages relating the network-centric computing to IBM's tradition of top quality service appeared on television and in magazines and every IBM manager was encouraged to go online.g. IBM put considerable external and internal efforts to link its new Internet focus with its long-standing mission.
Use this time of relative stability to remove organizational roadblocks to the desired culture .Maximize synergy Consider a situation (like in cell 2 in fig) where a firm needs: ± few organizational changes to implement its new strategy ± those changes are potentially quite compatible with its current culture A firm in this situation should emphasize two broad themes: 1. Take advantage of the situation to reinforce and solidify the current culture 2.
g. legitimizing a culture that placed its highest priority on quality service to the middle-to-upper-income business traveler. dining and gambling/entertainment services It only had to incorporate gambling/entertainment expertise into its management team.e. which was already capable of managing the lodging and dining requirements It sold the change internally as completely compatible with its mission of providing high-quality accommodations for business and leisure travelers. The resignation of its CEO removed an organizational roadblock. rather than a culture that placed its highest priority on family-oriented service . Holiday Inn's move into casino gambling ± ± ± ± Holiday Inn saw casinos as resort locations requiring lodging.
design and build Scorpio Subcontract ± e. Mahindra set-up a team to conceive.Manage around the culture Consider a situation (like in cell 3 in fig) where a firm needs: ± a few major organizational changes to implement its new strategy ± these changes are potentially inconsistent with the firm's current organizational culture There are various ways in which a firm can manage around the culture: Create a separate firm or division ± e.g. Bajaj set-up a new plant to manufacture its bikes which had a different culture from the plant that was manufacturing scooters Use task force.g. teams or program coordinators ± e. HDFC website is subcontracted to be designed and maintained by an third party .g.
g. IBM brought Louis Gerstner to bring a change in its culture sell out ± e. Karnataka government sold NGEF as it could change its work culture .g. bring in an outsider ± e.
Reformulate the strategy or culture Consider a situation (like in cell 4 in fig) where a firm faces a very difficult challenge in managing the strategy-culture relationship. usually entrenched. values and norms. If the answer to the above questions is "no" then reformulate the strategy to be more compatible with the existing culture. ± The firm needs to ask if formulation of the strategy is appropriate ± It should ask if all the organizational changes really necessary ± Should the firm expect that the changes would be accepted successfully If the answers to the above questions is "yes" then massive changes in management personnel are often necessary. . A firm in this situation needs to make organizational changes that are incompatible with its current.
It needs a change in the culture where people who were selling services had to sell products.g.000 managers as part of a massive recreation of its culture to go along with major strategic changes. Merrill Lynch wanted to pursue a product development strategy in its brokerage business to be competitive in the deregulated financial services industry. . This move was resisted by the brokerage employees and Merrill Lynch had to refocus its brokerage more narrowly on basic client investment needs. e. At&T offered early retirement to over 20.
the insiders expect to balance the claims of outsiders in a way that protects the company's mission. complex and contingent on specific situations. water pollution by textile mills The insiders also feel that the tax money given by organizations should be good enough as a social responsibility. . E. While some stakeholders like customers.g. Each firm regardless of its size must decide how to meet its perceived social responsibility. The issues of CSR are numerous. society and government expect organizations to give priority to general good ahead of the organization's good.Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility is the idea that a business has a duty to serve society in general as well as the financial interests of its stockholders.
± It requires managers to maximize profits whenever possible. . 2. Economic responsibilities Legal responsibilities Ethical responsibilities Discretionary responsibilities Economic responsibilities ± It is the most basic responsibility of a business. 4. 1. ± It is the essential responsibility of business to be providing goods and services to society at a reasonable cost. Strategic managers can consider four types of social commitments which will help them to understand the nature and range of social responsibilities and plan. 3. ± The company becomes socially responsible by providing productive jobs for its workforce and tax payment for the state and central governments.
Some actions that are legal might be considered unethical. to behave ethically. ± Setting up consumer courts. printing of MRP. ± Protection of environmentally sensitive areas by not allowing any industry to be set up is a result of the environmental movement. They are obligations that transcend legal requirements. e. ± The consumer and environmental movements were helpful in laws that govern business in the areas of pollution control and consumer safety. selling of cigarettes is legal but is considered unethical by many . Firms are expected. Ethical responsibilities ± ± ± ± It reflects the company's notion of right and proper business behavior.g. but not required. date of manufacture and date of expiry are results of consumer movement. quantity.Legal responsibilities ± It reflects the firm's obligations to comply with the laws that regulate business activities.
E. ± They include ± public relations activities Through public relations activities managers attempt to enhance the image of the companies products and services by supporting worthy causes. Colgate collaborates with IDA for zero cavity ± full corporate social responsibility.g. green initiatives taken by ITC . Green building by Godrej.g.g. ± good citizenship Companies that adopt the good citizenship approach activity support ongoing charities or issues in the public interest. A commitment to full corporate responsibility requires strategic managers to attack social problems with the same zeal in which they attach business problems. E. sponsoring marathons to build health consciousness This form of discretionary responsibility has a self-serving dimension. E.Discretionary responsibilities ± These are responsibilities that are voluntarily assumed by a business organization.
The resurgence of environmentalism 2. Globalization of business . Increasing buyer power 3. Corporate Social Responsibility has become a priority to companies due to three broad trends: 1.
Nike. . CSR can also run afoul of the skeptics with serious ramifications for reputation. ± e. Companies need to review their overall strategy to CSR as an important part of their overall strategy but not let the commitment obscure their broad strategic business goals. Larger companies must move beyond the easy options of charitable donations but also steer clear of over reaching commitments.Limitations of CSR strategies Research suggests that embedding social responsibility and sustainability commitments in core strategies may be unrealistic for largest and more established corporations. despite its best efforts has been on the defensive in trying to redeem its reputation.g.
Future of CSR It is an irreversible part of the corporate fabric. It can confirm significant benefits in terms of ± ± ± ± ± corporate reputation hiring motivation retention building valuable partnerships .
Ethics refers to the moral principles that reflect society's beliefs about the actions of an individual or a group that are right or wrong. The values of one individual, group or society may be at odds with the values of another individual, group or society. Approaches to ethics There are three fundamental ethical approaches for executives to consider 1. The utilitarian approach 2. The moral rights approach 3. Social justice approach
The utilitarian approach Managers who adopt utilitarian approach judge the effects of a particular action on the people directly involved, in terms of what provides the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This approach focuses on actions, rather than on the motives behind the actions. If positive results outweigh negative results, the manager taking this approach will go ahead with the action. That some people might be adversely affected by the action is accepted as inevitable.
The moral rights approach Managers who follow this approach judge whether decisions and actions are in keeping with the maintenance of fundamental individual and group rights and privileges. It includes the rights of human beings to life and safety, a standard of truthfulness , privacy, freedom of expression, and private property.
Three implementing principles are essential to the social justice approach: ± distributive-justice principle ± fairness principle ± natural-duty principle . fairness. and impartiality in the distribution of rewards and costs among individuals and groups.Social justice approach Managers who take this approach judge how consistent actions are with equity. The liberty principle states that individuals have certain basic liberties compatible with similar liberties of other people. These ideas stem from two principles known as the liberty principle and the difference principle. The difference principle holds that social and economic inequities must be addressed to achieve a more equitable distribution of goods and services.
Natural-duty principle This points to a number of general obligations. including the duty to help others who are in need or danger. . individuals should not be treated differently on the basis of arbitrary characteristics such as race. the duty not to cause unnecessary suffering and the duty to comply with the just rules of an institute. assuming that the company rules are deemed fair. sex. Fairness principle This means that employees must be expected to engage in cooperative activities according to the rules of the company.Distributive-justice principle According to this principle. religion or national origin.
Approaches to managing a company's ethical conduct There are four basic forms: 1. The ethical culture approach . The unconcerned or nonissue approach 2. The damage control approach 3. The compliance approach 4.
. These companies want profit at any cost. not ethics and that if others are following unethical principles. They believe that business ethics is a oxymoron and that under-the-table dealings can be good business.The unconcerned or nonissue approach This approach is prevalent at companies whose executives are immoral and unintentionally amoral. They believe the business of business is business. it is acceptable to do it.
What is preached about ethics is not followed.The damage control approach This approach is favored at companies whose managers are intentionally amoral but who fear scandal and are desirous of containing any adverse fallout from claims that the company's strategy has unethical components. . executives took the other way when shady behavior occurs. At these companies employees do not operate with a strong ethical context. Although unethical practices are not endorsed. Companies using this approach usually make some concessions to window-dressing ethics. to prove innocence if there is any exposure to the unethical behavior of the company.
Lean toward being somewhat amoral but are highly concerned about having ethically upstanding reputations 2. Are moral and see strong compliance methods as the best way to impose and enforce ethical rules and high ethical standards.The compliance approach In this approach light to forceful compliance is favored at companies whose managers: 1. .
Companies that adopt a compliance mode usually do some or all of the following to display their commitment to ethical conduct: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± make the code of ethics a visible and regular part of communications with employees implement ethics training programs appoint a chief ethics officer or ethics ombudsperson have ethics committee to give guidance on ethics matters institute formal procedures for investigating alleged ethics violations conduct ethics audits to measure and document compliance give ethics awards to employees for outstanding efforts to create an ethical climate and improve ethical performance try to deter violations by setting up ethics hotlines for anonymous callers to use in reporting possible violations. .
The weakness of this approach is that ethics control resides in the company's code of ethics and in the ethics compliance system rather than in the individual's own moral responsibility for ethical behavior. The driving force stems from a desire to avoid the cost and damage associated with is approach unethical conduct or to gain favor from stakeholders for having a highly regarded reputation for ethical behavior. . Emphasis here is usually on securing broad compliance and measuring the degree to which ethical standards are upheld and observed.
business principles and corporate values. The ethical principles embraced in the company's code of ethics are seen as integral to the company's identity and ways of operating. People who follow ethical ways are recognized. The strategy must be ethical in all respects.The ethical culture approach A company using this approach seeks to gain employee buy-in to the company's ethical standards. Responsibilities for ethics compliance is widely dispersed throughout all levels of management and the rank-and-file. . The top executives have to set the standard for ethical conduct.
± They walk the talk in displaying the company's stated values and living up to its business principles and ethical standards. Creditors do not like to lend to unethical companies.Why should company strategies be ethical? For the following reasons: 1. 2. Rehabilitating a company's shattered reputation is time-consuming and costly. Consumers shun companies known for their shady behavior. An ethical strategy is good business and in the self-interest of shareholders ± ± ± ± ± Pursuing unethical strategies puts a company's reputation at high risk and can do lasting damage. . A strategy that is unethical in whole or part is morally wrong and reflects badly on the character of the company personnel involved ± Ethically strong managers consciously opt for strategic actions that has no tolerance for strategies with controversial components. Unethical companies have problem in recruiting and retaining talented employees.
Linking a company's strategy to its ethical principles and core values If ethical standards and statements of core values are to have more than a cosmetic role. The following questions need to be asked whenever a new strategic initiative is taken: 1. board of directors and top executives must work diligently to see that they are observed in crafting the company's strategy and conducting every facet of the company's business. Is it apparent that this proposed action is in harmony with our core values? Are any conflicts or concerns evident? Strategic initiatives that do not stand up this scrutiny are rejected. . Is what we are proposing to do fully compliant with our code of ethical conduct? Is there anything here that could be considered ethically objectable? 2.
It has its own code of ethics. ± e. Cultural.g. . societal and economic diversity in the operations of organizations provide challenges that need to be addressed through codes of ethics. which it calls a Code of Conduct. which is a set of ethical principles intended to guide management decision making.000 contract manufacturing units spread over 50 countries. Nike products are manufactured by 660.Codes of Business ethics Codes of ethics help organizations to ensure consistency in the application of ethical standards.
These include: ± policies that are designed to guide employees on what to do if they see violations occur ± sanctions that will be applied for violation including consequences on their employment and civil and criminal charges. Businesses are increasingly requiring all employees to sign the ethics statement as a way of acknowledge that the have read and understood their obligations. annual reports and in posters on bulletin boards. . Companies are adding enforcement measures to their codes. They are prominently displayed on corporate websites.Trends in Codes of Ethics Codes of ethics have began to be coded and this has led to both the proliferation of formal statements by companies and to their prominence among business documents.
g. MindTree gives the book defining the company's code of ethics to all its employees. There is a trend of increased attention by companies in improving employee's training in understanding their obligations under the company's code of ethics. The objective of such training is to emphasize the consideration of ethics during the decision making process. . ± e.
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