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Introduction One of the first and most widely used application of power electronic devices have been in rectification. Rectification refers to the process of converting an ac voltage or current source to dc voltage and current. Rectifiers specially refer to power electronic converters where the electrical power flows from the ac side to the dc side. In many situations the same converter circuit may carry electrical power from the dc side to the ac side where upon they are referred to as inverters. In this lesson and subsequent ones the working principle and analysis of several commonly used rectifier circuits supplying different types of loads (resistive, inductive, capacitive, back emf type) will be presented. Points of interest in the analysis will be. • Waveforms and characteristic values (average, RMS etc) of the rectified voltage and current. • Influence of the load type on the rectified voltage and current. • Harmonic content in the output. • Voltage and current ratings of the power electronic devices used in the rectifier circuit. • Reaction of the rectifier circuit upon the ac network, reactive power requirement, power factor, harmonics etc. • Rectifier control aspects (for controlled rectifiers only) In the analysis, following simplifying assumptions will be made. • The internal impedance of the ac source is zero. • Power electronic devices used in the rectifier are ideal switches. The first assumption will be relaxed in a latter module. However, unless specified otherwise, the second assumption will remain in force. Rectifiers are used in a large variety of configurations and a method of classifying them into certain categories (based on common characteristics) will certainly help one to gain significant
insight into their operation. Unfortunately, no consensus exists among experts regarding the criteria to be used for such classification. For the purpose of this lesson (and subsequent lessons) the classification shown in Fig 9.1 will be followed.
DC – DC CONVERTER
There are three basic types of dc-dc converter circuits, termed as buck, boost and buck-boost. In all of these circuits, a power device is used as a switch. This device earlier used was a thyristor, which is turned on by a pulse fed at its gate. In all these circuits, the thyristor is connected in series with load to a dc supply, or a positive (forward) voltage is applied between anode and cathode terminals. The thyristor turns off, when the current decreases below the holding current, or a reverse (negative) voltage is applied between anode and cathode terminals. So, a thyristor is to be force-commutated, for which additional circuit is to be used, where another thyristor is often used. Later, GTO’s came into the market, which can also be turned off by a negative current fed at its gate, unlike thyristors, requiring proper control circuit. The turn-on and turn-off times of GTOs are lower than those of thyristors. So, the frequency used in GTO-based choppers can be increased, thus reducing the size of filters. Earlier, dc-dc converters were called ‘choppers’, where thyristors or GTOs are used. It may be noted here that buck converter (dc-dc) is called as ‘step-down chopper’, whereas boost converter (dcdc) is a ‘step-up chopper’. In the case of chopper, no buck-boost type was used.
and then switched off by withdrawing the above signal. This device (NPN transistor) is switched on by a positive current through the base and emitter. Now-a-days. The collector is connected to a positive voltage. Similarly. For the voltage DC-link. when application requires high voltage. Hybrid Matrix Converters. 2) or current (Fig. instead of thyristor. mostly self-commutated devices of transistor family as described are being increasingly used in dc-dc converters TYPES OF DC –DC CONVERTERS Buck Converters (dc-dc) Boost Converters (dc-dc) Buck-Boost Converters (dc-dc) AC –AC CONVERTER An AC/AC converter converts an AC waveform such as the mains supply. As shown in Fig 1. MOSFETs are used as a switching device in low voltage and high current applications. which is termed as self-commutated device. in dc-dc converters. reducing the size of filters as stated earlier. It may be noted that. 3) DC-link are employed. the frequency used for the dc-dc converters using it (MOSFET) is high. to another AC waveform. it is used as a switch. These converters are now being used for applications. as the turnon and turn-off time of MOSFETs are lower as compared to other switching devices. So. the mains coupling . thus the frequency can be increased in the converters using them. where the output voltage and frequency can be set arbitrarily. AC/AC converters can be categorized into • • • Converters with a DC-link. as the turn-on and turn-off times of IGBTs are lower than those of power transistors (BJT). For such AC-AC conversion today typically converter systems with a voltage (Fig. Insulated Gate Bi-polar Transistors (IGBT) are preferred over BJTs. thus.With the advent of bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Matrix Converters. one of the most important being Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS).
Alternatively. The PWM rectifier is controlled in a way that a sinusoidal mains current is drawn. which is in phase or antiphase (for energy feedback) with the corresponding mains phase voltage. a braking resistor must be placed in the DC-link.could be implemented by a diode bridge. . an anti-parallel thyristor bridge must be provided on the mains side for feeding back energy into the mains. The disadvantages of this solution are the relatively high mains distortion and high reactive power requirements (especially during inverter operation). The DC-link quantity is then impressed by an energy storage element that is common to both stages. To accomplish braking operation of a motor. An AC/AC converter with approximately sinusoidal input currents and bidirectional power flow can be realized by coupling a PWM rectifier and a PWM inverter to the DC-link. which is a capacitor C for the voltage DC-link or an inductor L for the current DC-link.
mains independent input quantity exists for the PWM inverter stage. An inverter is essentially the opposite of a rectifier. Furthermore. and control circuits. the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers. from small switching power supplies in computers. In order to achieve higher power density and reliability. which results in high utilization of the converter’s power capability. there is the advantage that both converter stages are to a large extent decoupled for control purposes. a constant. to large electric utility high-voltage direct current . Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications.Due to the DC-link storage element. and when electrolytic capacitors are used. An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). switching. in the case of a voltage DC-link. there is potentially a reduced system lifetime. it is makes sense to consider Matrix Converters that achieve three-phase AC/AC conversion without any intermediate energy storage element. the DC-link energy storage element has a relatively large physical volume. On the other hand.
Basic designs In one simple inverter circuit. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. was once used in vacuum tube automobile radios. The electromechanical version of the switching device includes two stationary contacts and a spring supported moving contact. As they became available with adequate power ratings.applications that transport bulk power. to convert DC to AC. DC power is connected to a transformer through the centre tap of the primary winding. This type of electromechanical inverter switch. called a vibrator or buzzer. and thus were "inverted". buzzers and tattoo guns. The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then the other. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the switch continually switches rapidly back and forth. A similar mechanism has been used in door bells. The spring holds the movable contact against one of the stationary contacts and an electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the opposite stationary contact. transistors and various other types of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs . The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse.
In most cases they are used to provide an intermediate unregulated dc voltage source which is further processed to obtain a regulated dc or ac output. These two disadvantages are the direct consequences of using power diodes in these converters which can block voltage only in one direction. The main among them is their inability to control the output dc voltage / current magnitude when the input ac voltage and load parameters remain fixed. the output voltage / current magnitude can be controlled by controlling the turn on instants of the thyristors. such converters are rarely used in practice. they cannot be turned off from the gate terminals. these two disadvantages are overcome if the diodes are replaced by thyristors. They have. been proved to be efficient and robust power stages. Full bridge is the most popular configuration used with single phase fully controlled rectifiers. However. They are also unidirectional in the sense that they allow electrical power to flow from the ac side to the dc side only. in general. However. since the thyristor can block forward voltage. However. As will be shown in this module. Thyristors are semi controlled devices which can be turned ON by applying a current pulse at its gate terminal at a desired instance. Therefore. the resulting converters are called fully controlled converters. they suffer from a few disadvantages. Working principle of thyristors based single phase fully controlled converters will be explained first in the case of a single thyristor halfwave rectifier circuit supplying an R or R-L load.Introduction Single phase uncontrolled rectifiers are extensively used in a number of power electronic based converters. the fully controlled converter continues to exhibit load dependent output voltage / current waveforms as in the case of their uncontrolled counterpart. However. Analysis and performance of this rectifier supplying an R-L-E load (which may represent a dc motor) will be studied in detail in this lesson. Single phase fully controlled halfwave rectifier .
Fig shows the circuit diagram of a single phase fully controlled halfwave rectifier supplying a purely resistive load. no load current flows during this interval. Consequently. the thyristor blocks the supply voltage and the load voltage remains zero as shown in fig 10. it does not turn ON till a gate pulse is applied at ωt = α. unlike a diode. The load being purely resistive the load current io is proportional to the load voltage. the load voltage and the load current remains clamped at zero till the thyristor is fired again at ωt = 2π + α. In the process the thyristor undergoes reverse recovery and starts blocking the negative supply voltage. At ωt = 0 when the input supply voltage becomes positive the thyristor T becomes forward biased. The voltage across the thyristor collapses to almost zero and the full supply voltage appears across the load. At ωt = π as the supply voltage passes through the negative going zero crossing the load voltage and hence the load current becomes zero and tries to reverse direction. During the period 0 < ωt ≤ α. The same process repeats there after for There fore Or . Therefore. From this point onwards the load voltage follows the supply voltage.1(b). However. As soon as a gate pulse is applied to the thyristor at ωt = α it turns ON.
This method is known as phase control and converters are also called “phase controlled converters”. Since thyristors can block voltage in both directions it is possible to reverse the polarity of the output dc voltage and hence feed power back to the ac supply from the dc side. The same circuit while operating in the inverter mode requires load side counter emf. for commutation and are referred to as the “Load commutated inverter”. The controlled rectifier is obtained by replacing the diodes of the uncontrolled rectifier with thyristors. Of course the magnitude of harmonic voltage is lower in three phase converter compared to the single phase circuit. Control over the output dc voltage is obtained by controlling the conduction interval of each thyristor. The thyristors in the converter circuit are commutated with the help of the supply voltage in the rectifying mode of operation and are known as “Line commutated converter”. Since the frequency of the harmonic voltage is higher smaller load inductance leads to continuous conduction. In phase controlled rectifiers though the output voltage can be varied continuously the load harmonic voltage increases considerably as the average value goes down.Three phase fully controlled bridge converter Introduction The three phase fully controlled bridge converter has been probably the most widely used power electronic converter in the medium to high power applications. Input current wave shape become rectangular and contain 5th and higher . Under such condition the converter is said to be operating in the “inverting mode”. The controlled rectifier can provide controllable out put dc voltage in a single unit instead of a three phase autotransformer and a diode bridge rectifier. Three phase circuits are preferable when large power is involved.
The control circuit become considerably complicated and the use of coupling transformer and / or interphase reactors become mandatory. 13. Operating principle of 3 phase fully controlled bridge converter A three phase fully controlled converter is obtained by replacing all the six diodes of an uncontrolled converter by six thyristors as shown in Fig. static scherbius drives etc. The frequency of the harmonic voltage and current can be increased by increasing the pulse number of the converter which can be achieved by series and parallel connection of basic 6 pulse converters.) the basic B phase bridge converter block is still used. cycloconverter drives. However in very high power application (such as HV dc transmission system. In this lesson the operating principle and characteristic of this very important converter topology will be discussed in source depth.order odd harmonics. load commutated inverter synchronous motor drives. The displacement angle of the input current increases with firing angle.1 (a) . With the introduction of high power IGBTs the three phase bridge converter has all but been replaced by dc link voltage source converters in the medium to moderately high power range.
T5T6. This leaves only six possible conduction mode for the converter in the continuous conduction mode of operation. T5) and one from the bottom group (T2. Therefore thyristors on the same phase leg are fired at an interval of 180° and hence can not conduct simultaneously. Fig. 13. T4T5.1 (c). T6) must conduct.1 (b) shows voltage across different devices and the dc output voltage for each conduction interval. These are T1T2.For any current to flow in the load at least one device from the top group (T1. T4. 13.1 (c). Similar observation can be made about other thyristors. 13. The phasor diagram of Fig. Now the thyristors are fired in the sequence T1 → T2 → T3 → T4 → T5 → T6 → T1 with 60° interval between each firing.2 shows the waveforms of different variables (shown in Fig. Then from symmetry consideration it can be argued that each thyristor conducts for 120° of the input cycle. The conduction table of Fig. During this period the voltage across T 1 was vac. T2T3. 13. It can be argued as in the case of an uncontrolled converter only one device from these two groups will conduct.1 (a)). T3. If the converter firing angle is α each thyristor is fired “α” angle after the positive going zero crossing of the line voltage with which it’s firing is associated. Once the conduction diagram is . To arrive at the waveforms it is necessary to draw the conduction diagram which shows the interval of conduction for each thyristor and can be drawn with the help of the phasor diagram of fig. Each of these line voltages can be associated with the firing of a thyristor with the help of the conduction table-1. T3T4. For example the thyristor T1 is fired at the end of T5T6 conduction interval. 13. Each conduction mode is of 60° duration and appears in the sequence mentioned. T6T1. The phasor diagram of the line voltages appear in Fig.1 (c) also confirms that all the thyristors are fired in the correct sequence with 60° interval between each firing. 13. Therefore T1 is fired α angle after the positive going zero crossing of vac.
13. The next section will analyze the operation of this converter in more details.1 (b). Similarly line currents can be drawn from the output current and the conduction diagram. 9th etc. The input current on the other hand contains only odds harmonics of the input frequency other than the triplex (3rd.) harmonics. It is clear from the waveforms that output voltage and current waveforms are periodic over one sixth of the input cycle. Therefore this converter is also called the “six pulse” converter.drawn all other voltage waveforms can be drawn from the line voltage waveforms and from the conduction table of fig. .
It is particularly beneficial for the higher order harmonics. Only the third harmonic is little improved. as shown in figure . the AC inductor is even more beneficial. but the fifth and seventh is reduced by a useful degree. Since the three-phase rectifier has no third harmonic current.Additional inductance: The addition of AC input inductance to the single phase drive improves the current waveform and spectrum from those shown in Figures 2 and 3 to those shown in Figures 7 and 8.
Instead it drops gradually with load current. . The converter output voltage and input current waveforms also change significantly. which are for a hypothetical 1. This gives the improved waveform and spectrum shown in Figures 11 and 12. With source inductance present the output voltage of a converter does not remain constant for a given firing angle. the impedance of the feeder line comes in series with the source. Even if no transformer is used. The presence of source inductance does have significant effect on the performance of the converter.5kW drive for ease of comparison with the previous illustrations.Introduction: In most practical situations. In this lesson a quantitative analysis of these effects will be taken up in some detail. The series impedance of the transformer can not always be neglected. DC inductance Drives rated at 4kW or more usually have three-phase input and include inductance in the DC link. In most cases this impedance is predominantly inductive with negligible resistive component. most of ac dc converters are supplied from transformers.
1(a) shows a single phase fully controlled converter with source inductance.1(b) shows the corresponding waveforms. If there were no source inductance T 3 and T4 would have commutated as soon as T1 and T2 are turned ON. For simplicity it has been assumed that the converter operates in the continuous conduction mode.Single phase fully controlled converter with source inductance Fig. when T1 and T2 are turned ON T3 T4 does not commutate immediately. It is assumed that the thyristors T 3 and T4 were conducting at t = 0. 1. The input current polarity would have changed instantaneously. 1.1(b). it has been assumed that the load current ripple is negligible and the load can be replaced by a dc current source the magnitude of which equals the average load current. . for some interval all four thyristors continue to conduct as shown in Fig. 15. Therefore. if a source inductance is present the commutation and change of input current polarity can not be instantaneous. Fig. Further. However. This interval is called “overlap” interval. Instead. T1 and T2 are fired at ωt = α.
During this period the load current freewheels through the thyristors and the output voltage is clamped to zero. the input current starts changing polarity as the current through T1 and T2 increases and T3 T4 current decreases. On the other hand. At the end of the overlap interval the .
1(b) it is clear that. From Fig. .current through T3 and T4 becomes zero and they commutate. commutation overlap not only reduces average output dc voltage but also reduces the extinction angle γ which may cause commutation failure in the inverting mode of operation if α is very close to 180º. T1 and T2 starts conducting the full load current. In the following analysis an expression of the overlap angle “μ” will be determined. 15. The same process repeats during commutation from T1 T2 to T3T4 at ωt = π + α. From the equivalent circuit of the converter during overlap period for α ≤ ωt ≤α + μ .
can be represented by the following equivalent circuit The simple equivalent circuit of Fig. The open circuit voltage of this practical source equals the average dc output voltage of an ideal . 15.3 represents the single phase fully controlled converter with source inductance as a practical dc source as far as its average behavior is concerned.
converter (without source inductance) operating at a firing angle of α. this is called the “Commutation resistance”. Three phase fully controlled converter with source inductance When the source inductance is taken into account. The voltage drop across the internal resistance “RC” represents the voltage lost due to overlap shown in Fig. Therefore. Fig. . As in the case of a single phase converter the load is assumed to be highly inductive such that the load can be replaced by a current source.1(b) by the hatched portion of the v0 waveform.4(a) shows such a converter. the qualitative effects on the performance of the converter is similar to that in the case of a single phase converter. Although this resistance accounts for the voltage drop correctly there is no power loss associated with this resistance since the physical process of overlap does not involve any power loss. 15. 15. Therefore this resistance should be used carefully where power calculation is involved.
this situation is not very common and will not be discussed any further in this lesson.As in the case of a single phase converter. .5. It takes place over an overlap period of “μ 1” instead. Current in the outgoing thyristor gradually decreases to zero while the incoming thyristor current increases and equals the total load current at the end of the overlap period. However. In the time interval α < ωt ≤ α + μ. 15. The exact amount of this reduction can be calculated as follows.4 (b)) resulting in reduced average voltage. During the overlap period three thyristors instead of two conducts. The equivalent circuit of the converter during this period is given by the circuit diagram of Fig. commutations are not instantaneous due to the presence of source inductances. If the duration of the overlap period is greater than 60º four thyristors may also conduct clamping the output voltage to zero for sometime. Due to the conduction of two devices during commutation either from the top group or the bottom group the instantaneous output voltage during the overlap period drops (shown by the hatched portion of Fig. 15. T6 and T2 from the bottom group and T1 from the top group conducts.
ib = 0 .Therefore. in the interval α < ωt ≤ α + μ at ωt = α + μ.
20 holds for μ ≤ 60º.20 into 15.24 . It can be shown that for this condition to be satisfied To calculate the dc voltage For α ≤ ωt ≤ α + μ Substituting Equation 15.Equation 15.
Equation 15.3 with and commutation resistance It should be noted that RC is a “loss less” resistance.25 suggests the same dc equivalent circuit for the three phase converter with source inductance as shown in Fig. 15. since the overlap process does not involve any active power loss. .
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