UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS

UNIVERSITEITSEKSAMENS

UN1SAI~

CEM4M1C

October/November 2009

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY IV: FLUID FLOW (MODULE A)

Duration

3 Hours

100 Marks

EXAMINERS FIRST SECOND EXTERNAL

DR T MOKRANI MRT MOLAPO

MR M MOLLAGEE (UNIV OF JOHANNESBURG)

Use of a non-programmable pocket calculator IS permissible

This examination question paper consists of 5 pages AND 18 pages of data sheet plus 2 graph pagers

INSTRUCTIONS

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

IF THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE DATA SHEET IS NOT COMPLETE PLEASE ASSUME, AND SPECIFY THE REQUIRED VALUE AND CONTINUE WITH THE EXAM PAPER

CLOSED BOOK

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2

CEM4M1C October/November 2009

QUESTION 1

Two storage tanks A and B containing petroleum product discharge through pipes each 0 3 m In diameter and 1 5 km long to a Junction D From D the product IS earned by a 05 m diameter pipe to a third storage tank C, 08 km away The surface of the liquid In A IS initially 10 m above that In C and the hquid level In B IS 7 m higher than A

Calculate the initial rate of discharge of the liquid If the pipes are made of mild steel

Density = 870 kg rn', vrscosity = 07 mN s m-2, e = a 046 mm and ~ = 0002

B

A

c

7111

10 111

[20]

QUESTION 2

The charactenstics of a centnfugal pump at constant speed are as follows

Q (rn" S-1) a 0012 0018 0024 003 0036 0042
H (m) 226 21 3 194 162 11 6 65 06
'7 (%) a 74 86 85 70 46 8 [TURN OVER]

3

CEM4M1C October/November 2009

The pump IS used to lrft water over a vertical distance of 6 5 m by means of a 10 cm diameter pipe, 65 m long, for which the friction factor (¢) = 0 005

2 1 Determme the rate of flow and the power supplied to the pump

22 A second Identical pump IS connected In parallel with the onqmal pump Calculate the Increase m the flow rate and the power Input

[25]

QUESTION 3

A vacuum system IS required to handle 10 g S-1 of vapour (MW = 56 kg krnol') so as to maintain a pressure of 1 5 kPa In a vessel situated 30 m from the vacuum pump If the pump IS able to rnamtam a pressure of 0 15 kPa at ItS suction point, what diameter pipe IS required? The temperature IS 290 K, and the Isothermal conditions may be assumed In the pipe, whose surface can be taken as smooth The Ideal gas law IS followed

flga5 = 0 01 mPa s

(G)2 [~) Po2_~2 f(G)2

- In - + - + 4¢ - - 0= 0

A P2 2~~ d A

Re = ~~ = ~(~)

Assume d = 0 1 m and 0 08 m

From friction chart at Re:::: 12740, rjJ = 0 0035

Re = 16000, rjJ :::: 0 00325

[15]

QUESTION 4

A catalyst which consists of sphencal particles of diameter 50 x 10-6 m and density 1850 kg m-3 IS to be contacted with a liquid hydrocarbon of density 880 kg m3 and viscosrty 2 75 x 10-3 kg rn' S-1 In a flurdtsed bed reactor The depth of the packing In the reactor when the fluid IS not flowmq IS 1 37 m

4 1 At what superficial hnear flow rate of hydrocarbon will fluidrzatron occur? 42 What IS the pressure drop across the flurdrsed bed under minimum flurdtzatron conditions?

VOId fraction = 0 4 at pornt of minimum flurdizatron

[15]

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4

CEM4M1C October/November 2009

QUESTION 5

A certain fluid has to be mixed In a mixing tank dunnq the production of frurt JUice The fluid has a density of 1007 kg m~3 and a VISCOSity of 009 N s m-2

Management has decided that a 6-blade mixing tank with baffles and a square pitch must be Installed

5 1 Design the above mentioned mixing tank to satisfy the followmg product specifications

5 1 1 Medium agitation IS necessary with a tip speed of 34m S-1 5 1 2 Circulation capacity of 0 0345 m3 S-1

52 Calculate the theoretical power required for the tank configuration In question 5 1

, ,

P = N P1Vj D

4 I' A

Assume ~ = 6 = Np

[20]

QUESTION 6

Water flows at a rate of 15 52 m3 S-1 along the drainage canal shown In the figure below (not drawn to scale) If the canal drops 1 m for every 500 m, estimate the height x of the bottom section of the canal Assume C = 70

[15]

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5

CEM4M1C October/November 2009

8m

L_~ -... t1\
"" ~
\jl X 3m

<

>

2m

TOTAL MARKS [110] FULL MARKS [100]

© UNISA 2009

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

0'\ TA SHEET FOR FLUID FLO\V IV

Frrcrinn loss

L u? h I = -+¢ _c::_ -

I d a

o

Pressure

L\P=pg~h

01

Ol

P=pgh

Non-Ne'~tonjan Fluids

( J"-1

8u

l - k --

J app - d,

lammat flow

..».

Re

tut bulent flow

DATA SHEET

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11

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

h
0349
0325
0307
0281
0263
I 0250
I 0231
0213
L_ n

14

a
, ... 006-+6
00685
00712
00740
00761
00779
00804
00826 02

03

04

06

08

10

20

Chez} formula

Manning Formula

:z 1

0:= 2_AR3 S2

~ Fl 11 0

RH ~ hydraulic radius

Table: Values of absolute roughness £ for; new pipes.

E

I Mtlhrneti es

Drawn tubmg, brass, lead, glass, cenrnfugally spun

00015

cement, bnUfru110US hrung, ti ansite Cornmer CIa! steel or WI ought u OIl

0046 0046 o 12 0]5

Welded-steel pipe Asphalt-dipped cast n on Galvanised 1] on

Cast II on. average Wood stav e

1025

o 18 to 0 9

03 to 3 09 to 9

Concrete

RIveted steel

DATA SHEET

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~I r~fo OF PIPE DIAMETERS

~-~---'------!-----~~-~--i

--.--~ I

I I

I

)-----~ ~-~---~---+--~~~-!

I 90' long radius bend r I 20

~-- --------~~~-~--1

t T piece - entry from T I

~ -t~~-

\ +l'I'"

! T piece - entry into I

l_.~.~~ _

I

11l

Standard elbow 35
Ball valve ." 13
.....
Butterfly valve 50
Gate valve 25
Globe valve 50
wr elbow l~ Fnction.I1lo1lses m pipe fittmg~

i I

i--

I

! 45° bend

FITTINGS

,-

i900 elbow

\ I

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

15

60

900 std elbow

r

Unions and couplrngs

L_. __ . _

DATA SHEET

30

60

I

i I

_j

90

I

I .~J

I

I _ __ J

o

l

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IV

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

I F1TTINGS i NO OF PIPE l
I
I I
I DIAMETERS I
L I
i .OIL. ---j
I
I ... I
I
I Globe valve (fully open) T~ 300 I
I
I r i

I
,
I Gate valve I
Fully open -,- I 7
I I
J
!
I % open I 40
I I
I % open 200
I
I I
I % open 800
l I
I I
i I
I r -I
I
r- I I
) Ball valve ~ d 13 I
I I
l I
I
I -,-
I "<57
Diaphragm valve 40
I
----_- - ---- I
I

Strainer I 130 I
..... Hi I ~
------ --- -T- ~--
I ViM ~ I
I I I
I Check Valve ---__.,.. 50
I
Ali ..... , eeS&9Sf I
I
I
I
I I
I --- ------ --- ---~---~----'-~

DATA SHEET

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CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

SECTION

De

~------------~~--------------- __ ~--------------~

I

I Square Duct

4a~ ~~a a

Rectangular duct

h

4ab 2ab 2(a+b) ~ a-t-b

rl

4(n:D2/ _ JId2 ,"\ ___ ~ I 4't 14 )

nD+nd'

_ t(02 _dz) ~ ${D+d) ,

(O+d)(o-::-d) ~Tr5Td)

;:;; D~cj

Annulus I

!

i I

I Open Square channel

I

r------------~-----

I Open Reel Channel

I

,--

I

11rreaular

I ~

a 0 4a2 4
~=~a
a 3a 3
~I
a I 4ab
L____ __ J
b I Za-s b
I _----
----~f- I
I I
II US,e graph paper to I
I
I
deterrnme CIS area ar.d
C_r~j I
wheel to determine I
perimeter. I
-' I

1 -

p

.-' + z

pg

Ip __ p ) lvPSI-/ = z + __ \ _' ~.D - h •

, JI

pg

DATA SHEET

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VI

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

Centufugal pump relationships

NPSH1 = (~)2(Dl J:

NPSH~ lN2 o,

effect 0 f impeller diameter

(}r;:,OH Powei to duve pump "'" -_:;_=~ T/

S tandai d jdnk

) 6 1-1' de flat blade tui bme ~g • ,+~

1 - U i.-1..lv - I I ) .(.1-1 ... .1. ...... U 11 '-' lL.(J.LVJ

II) DA = [)1!3 Ill) He\. = D r/3 IV) a== OJ/5 v) 1= Dr/4 vi) HL-,o Dl

DATA SHEET

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VIl

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

Vl1) -+ symrnetncal baffles V11l) b= Dy/J 0

--1 I-

Il - Balf\~ ~ Tank
J \
r---- .---
- - - --- ..... -_ - -_- 1------- - - -
--------- ---.._--_---
-- -- --_- - - - _ ... - -
j
,
1
I
6-olad" flat 1
bto de I u rb In.
~p:~ a
t
H.
": I
u I 1

~---------Dr----------~

ItT = TfD.jN

Rc

n

pND~

CT b

app!zedfOl ce gravttvforcc

DATA SHEET

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DATA SHEET

VIII

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

lYe

"

pN~f)~

(J"

~ appliedforce

-~~------~----

surfacetension

I V"C"'" .1 1 Tu-b"'.nt ~

-~ --t-- ~---Tt",~ .. t,on ,,,no_ -------+-. ,y,

r rano· ra.oQe

B

o

,o~

Re .. --

POWCl curve fo] unbaffled tank

?OWCl CUI ve fo! baftle_d tank

Newtonian

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IX

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

Non- Newtonian

Line of Mettne' and Otto

- -

-----

Compressible flow

R~_

1 )Yo-phase 110\\

DATA SHEET

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1 GENERAL

kiwi CU:'Cf!.

PT PV=nRT=

MM

n " t t

pv = Plv! = cons an

x

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

Si.ECIAL DATA SHEET

who C 17 -- 1 isothermal (cons rant T)

n :.c; k isentropic (fnctionless adiabatic)

rlvogadro 's law (2 = m?

(1 m,

Density"

v p=--

9

r::.._;..q

P,essurc

P=pgH eP =- p 9 6h

In (ompre_s::, tble .001 v P2

V ~ J V d P = (P2 - p.) v

Flow work

p,A.ds1 - P2Ads2

DATA SHEET

COl1tInHLtv

Volume tlowrate

Q=vA

SpecIfic welght gp r=pg=-RT

SQeQ/ic volu11J:~ 1

v"" --

p

Kmemattc V1S(,OS If V

1.1 U:.::-

p

Force F=pghA F=p Gv

Frictionless

2 ~

P U, Uz

flZ, t- II + - = gz~ T P; V -I- -

~ ~ 2 .. - 2

,,>h(Jft \'wf-k (f,Ads1)hM

HC{lt (Y1AdS,P"

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Xl

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

Meclunucal Eiler'S) Balance (M£B)

( V2 \ / V;> \

1 PI _ 1 I /' h Q: p, 2

, Z • .,- ~ - 0::1 --- -+- i ..... ,,1' Y = I Z? -;- ~ - a_ - T 12 :

I,,' (1 29 ) I, \ - /2 - 2g j

where o Occ 1 turbulent J10w {J. ~:; lannnar flow

Bernoulli '-\ rheorC1J..Li2! _ >1 to B (5 IULOl1less lncomQl CHI hie fluld)

(PA v} \ (PB vi I

;---..:--+Z, )==, --t--+Za

\y 2g' 1,,/ 2g

" / \1 )

P v2

where H = ~- + Z + ~

prJ 2g

Crltenafo_r Ulvztollon

Power = yOH 1000

( ~nt_) = _ ( ~atm ~vap I

Y gauge l r )

F;_uerg\ eauqtlOn [O}" comp; eS51hle fluzds

h~ ~ V;2 T v}

1 ' 1- Q., = h2

2g 2g

C:;hear STreSS cquat!OIJ. Laminas

Turbulent

(dv / )"

r = .« ~/ dx____

r \2

f dv2/ j \ /dy?

DATA SHEET

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\,11

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

2

OPEN CHANNELS

Re _- R~ v_ h' .... '

_ Lanunat -> TI/J went at Re = 500

u

Slope of channel bed

S \2

a - ~

Slope of water surface

6(Z - y)

Sw = - -----'-~

I\)(

Slope of enet gy line

( v21 ( v2 J

I z, ~- Y1 .. - I- Z; - h + _2

S _~ _I~ ~__ 2g ) 2g

L

Welled perzmeter

P = B -r- 2D (rectangular channel) 80

m ...:: -- (rectangular channel)

8+20

Vertical dlstnbutlOl1 orvelautt Uniform, Laminar

DgS( 1 \

V = s: - vv __ y2)

~ '" m n

p L.

Uniform, Turbulent

c=: ( /) V = 575 "0/ 1001 y/

, V / p ~ \/ Yo

Spec {fie CIlU.!0:

o Itlwl depth V2

Yo := _c_

9

CntlGaf,OO'.v In non-recranglliar channels

~)

q -rIOY = \1 9 1\ i E I

ChC:::1'

V;;;;;. CJRhSO

where

DATA SHEET

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XliI

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

Kutter

Manntng

Powell

C "'- - 4210g (_£ r _::._J RE R~

Bazin

Manning

1 2;.: 11

V = _R,3 Sil n t)

DATA SHEET

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'(IV

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

3 CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Constants and Conversron Factors

CONVERSION FACTORS
1 '\ 10-' Pd."; = I cP 254 mm 1 inch
4448 N I lb, 12 Inch = 1 ft
1055 J I BTC 03048 m ltl
L1 187 J "" J kal 1 609 krn = I mile
07457 k\V = I hp
4 1868 kJ/kg "C I BTU /Ib OF 04536 kg llbm
,It 1000 kg
i I Ibm 1602
1 atrn 14 696 ps:
339] ft H2O
760 mm JIg
I 101 325 kPJ.
101325 b.n
I
j J 785 hues = o 8327 Imp gallon
1 US gallon
/1 bbl (011) 42 US gall
i 1 mJ - - 1000 htres
I 7 I dm3!s
11000 cmrs
i 1000 dm3/s 1 m'/s
I
I
I I 1 h

I[ min

3600 s "" 60 s

DATA SHEET

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xv

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

.....

4 Exnerimental Values...for Manning's n factor

.\ \ eraae mustiness hell!,iH E

II
Arnflcial lmed channels
Glass () 010:t: 0 OO~
Brass I) () II -= (J uO:
Steel, smooth 00[::::: 000:::
Painted () I) 14 .!; 0 00 J
Riveted r) () 15 !. 0 00:
Cast Iron () o J 3 -:: I) OO~
Cement, finished 001:::fJ (JIJ:
LJ nfirushed 0OI .. L::OOO:
Planed wood o ()I:::.!:.{J (J()2
Clay nle o () 14 ± 0 003
Brickwork U 0 [5 1: (l uo,,:
Asphalt o 01Q 1: 0 DO::.
Corrugated metal () 0:22 ± 0 Of)5
Rubble masonry o 025 ± I) 005
Excavated earth channels
Clean 0022 ± 0 004
Gravelly () 025:t0 005
Weedy 0030 ± 0 005
Stony cobbles 11 035 =0010
Natural channels
Clean and straight 0030:::0005
Sluggish. deep pools o {l4(J±O 010
Major rivers 0035::0010
Floodplams
p ,15OOe, tarmland 0035±0010
LIght brush U05,±OU2
Heavy brush 0075::: 0 0:::5
frees I) 15':: () 05 tt mm

--_

00011 00019 00032 00080 0012 00051 00032 00080 00032 00080 0012

0018 o 12 026

03 00 1 0 2-t 37 16 I 0 2.J. I 0 2-t J 7 5 4 37 SO

012 026 OS 1 5

37 80 240 500

os

3

240 q00 500

1 5

1 5 6 15

500 2000 5000

Considering the uncertainty in n l-=17 p ercent) It would be more realisuc to report this estimate as Q '"

600:: 100 fi3/s An alternate estimate U~Ulg the Moody formula With E = 00032 fl from the Table .lbOVL would give () '" 540 fillS

5 Lammar frictIOn factors for a Concentric Annulus

b/a fRee D<1T IDr,= I Is
"
000 640 1000
000001 7009 0913
00001 7l7R 0892
0001 ",~4 68 0857
Q 0) 80 11 0799
005 8627 07-+2
0) 8937 0716
02 9235 () 693
04 9471 0676
06 9559 0670
08 9592 0667
I 0 960 0667 DATA SHEET [TURN OVER]

'\ VI

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

6 Lockhart-Martinelli Parameter

r= x, ~r~~~~(-t>-~~='-~~-X-t-t ~~~o;-=--=~ I

L 0 01 128 ~ 2 3 1 I

I 0 02 68 4 I 4 2 38

il:i =--=--=-~-_-~-~-~----;---~-, !-~-') ----11--- To--- --I : ;~ -~

_ 0 1 185 I 20 L 1 48 ~

L__ 02 j 11 2 ~ 4f) 1 1 29 ~

r······ ~~ __ ---+----I )_~_~~_- __ ~I-----O---_t_I~---~~ ~--~

~----l-- . __ .... 1 __ ~4_~._0 __ =_: _ _L__0~ _

Values for n, a and b for turbulent non-Newtonian flow

-
i n a b
r--- 0) 0064-6 0349
l - -03 00685 0325
~-- ~: 00712 0307
00740 0281 I
I 08 0076] 0263
t 1 0 007.,79 0250~
1 4 00804 0231
I 20 00826 0213 DATA SHEET

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\.VII

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

7

Flow RegIme Map

Relation between qlG, q:tL and ~

DATA SHEET

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\. viu

CEM4M1-C October/November 2009

8 Value for f for laminar flow of Bingham materials

Ny

----------- -

o

16

.._ I
I 1 -. 1867 I
I I
r------ 2 21 32 1
3 , 2397
I
5 2920 1
---- 10

41 94

I 20 6642
I 30 9009
50 136 1
I ~--~
100 ! 2475 I
I 4638 r 1000 2133
2000 I 4186
I
3000 I 6226
5000 I 10290 I
I j
-- 10000 I 20410
- 9. Hurdrsatron

Flurdrzed bed force acting upwards on particles equals to the effective weight of the particles

~ (!V)A = g L{Jj(J ~ emf ~",j.-l ~ p(l- em} )1)", - L\P "" g(l- e"" Xf<'1- p)Lm,

u ~ 1 (cJ]y r(- L\P)

'"I - k S{(l-=-:;,,,, Y~/L",r

(di2

47T -I 2;

So ~"'-4<1l(!_~)1

/ _) 2

The Carmen-Kozeny equation the velocity IS

lIt, 1 (--tlP)

u "" - -- -'----'.-

K S' 2 (1 - e Y ,I{ L

G = pu

© UNISA 2009

DATA SHEET

: ,,_ +-,

~ I 1

- -~

.1

°2069