Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 
   

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 
    

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 
Stress

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

Thought. Link between mind and body is the immune system. . beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing.

Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.

 We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. .What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.  Emotions are private experiences.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way. .  Anger or joy.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Vary in intensity and quality.  Meaning and personal significance.

 Autonomic and hormonal systems.  Body prepared for action.  Alert posture.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. clenched fists. .Bodily Arousal  Biological activation.

 Why people benefit from emotions.  Motivation to take action.  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. .Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Social and evolutionary advantage.

Postures. facial expressions make our emotions public. How person reacts to event.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Verbal and nonverbal communication. . vocalizations. Helps us interpret the situation. gestures.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

 Foundation for other branches.  Express accurate emotions for situation.  Non-verbal communication. .  Recognizing facial expressions.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Tell when someone is being authentic.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

.  ³Care enough to send the very best.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.  Emotional component to motivation.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.

) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . he felt ____. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. (Select the best choice.

Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills. .  Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs.  Avoid over and under regulation.  Stress coping strategies.  Productive ways to change mood.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol.

....2.3....... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do...5.. Very Ineffective....Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.....Very Effective       ......2..1... She was feeling peaceful and content...4.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.........2.....Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation....1.. Very Ineffective.4.1.3. Very Ineffective.5.4.....5.3... Debbie just came back from vacation...

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Cardiovascular and immune systems.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.

Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. . Undesirable events suppress immune system.S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system.

Contribute to illness. .Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.

.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Talk about illness. Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions. Negative emotional states reduce immune function.

get help. Something is wrong and must be corrected. . It hurts.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Negative states signal an alert. Function of pain.

Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.

Seek help. Not seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).

 Personal resources to seek solutions.  Belief that you will get well.  Do what you can to support recovery.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Strength to confront illness.  Positive .  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Creativity in thought and action.

Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. optimists had healthier habits. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. (1989) . 5 years post surgery.

´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. . Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others.

Improved coping with illness. .Social Support        With social support. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease. Faster recovery from surgery.

Affect on Health  1.  2. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. depending on the nature of the stressor.  Both are possible. Not just under stress. Only when needed. .

. Develop and maintain social network. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Know that help will be provided if needed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support.

Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .  A topic for later discussion.

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