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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. . Thought.
) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis . Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.
We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. .What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. Emotions are private experiences.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
. Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Meaning and personal significance. Vary in intensity and quality. Anger or joy.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way.
.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Body prepared for action. Autonomic and hormonal systems. clenched fists. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. Alert posture.
Why people benefit from emotions. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. . Motivation to take action. Social and evolutionary advantage.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force.
facial expressions make our emotions public. gestures. How person reacts to event. vocalizations. Helps us interpret the situation.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Postures. . Verbal and nonverbal communication.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Express accurate emotions for situation. Recognizing facial expressions. Tell when someone is being authentic. Foundation for other branches.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. . Non-verbal communication.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
Improve problem solving and boost creativity. Emotional component to motivation.´ Using emotion to help make decisions.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. . ³Care enough to send the very best.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Emotions and behavioral consequences. . Jealousy and envy are destructive. Some emotional responses are maladaptive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. Read a situation and respond correctly.
) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. he felt ____. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. (Select the best choice.
Seek natural means rather than alcohol. tobacco or other drugs. . Avoid over and under regulation. Use optimistic explanatory style. Productive ways to change mood.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Stress coping strategies.
.......4.....5... Very Ineffective.. Debbie just came back from vacation..3....3.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do..Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.5...Very Effective .2. Very Ineffective..1. She was feeling peaceful and content..Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.....4.2....3.......1.....5.2. Very Ineffective....1....4......Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Positive emotional states associated with healthier states. Cardiovascular and immune systems.Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .
S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. .
Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos. . Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.
Coping styles could aid healing. Talk about illness. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. .Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.
Something is wrong and must be corrected. It hurts. .Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Function of pain. Negative states signal an alert. get help.
Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .
Not seek help. Seek help.Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. .
Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Do what you can to support recovery. Positive . Belief that you will get well. Personal resources to seek solutions. Strength to confront illness. Creativity in thought and action.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.
Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. (1989) . Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. optimists had healthier habits. 5 years post surgery.
. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.
Decreased levels of stress. Improved coping with illness. Lower incidence of heart disease. . observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.Social Support With social support. Faster recovery from surgery.
Not just under stress. depending on the nature of the stressor. Only when needed.Affect on Health 1. Both are possible. . Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. 2.
Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. .
A topic for later discussion.Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .
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