Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Thought. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.

Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.

 We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.  Emotions are private experiences.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. .

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

.  Vary in intensity and quality.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Anger or joy.  Meaning and personal significance.

 Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.  Body prepared for action.  Autonomic and hormonal systems.  Alert posture. .Bodily Arousal  Biological activation. clenched fists.

 Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.  Social and evolutionary advantage.  Motivation to take action. .Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Why people benefit from emotions.

. facial expressions make our emotions public. vocalizations. Helps us interpret the situation.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Postures. How person reacts to event. gestures. Verbal and nonverbal communication.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

 Tell when someone is being authentic.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Recognizing facial expressions. .  Express accurate emotions for situation.  Foundation for other branches.  Non-verbal communication.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 ³Care enough to send the very best.  Emotional component to motivation.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .´  Using emotion to help make decisions.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. .  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.

(Select the best choice.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . When his supervisor brought him an additional project. he felt ____. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.

 Avoid over and under regulation.  Stress coping strategies.  Use optimistic explanatory style. .Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills. tobacco or other drugs.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol.  Productive ways to change mood.

.4..3....1.1....5..2.5.5.... Very Ineffective..... She was feeling peaceful and content.......Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1....2.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation....... Very Ineffective..... Debbie just came back from vacation. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.4.Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.......Very Effective       .1...4....3....3. Very Ineffective...2....

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .

Positive moods boost the immune system. Undesirable events suppress immune system. .S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.

.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.

Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. .Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Talk about illness.

Negative states signal an alert. .Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. get help. Function of pain. Something is wrong and must be corrected. It hurts.

Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.

Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Seek help. Not seek help. .

 Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Do what you can to support recovery.  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Creativity in thought and action.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Strength to confront illness.  Belief that you will get well.  Positive .

(1989) . optimists had healthier habits. 5 years post surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.

Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .

Lower incidence of heart disease. Faster recovery from surgery.Social Support        With social support. Decreased levels of stress. Improved coping with illness. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. .

Only when needed.  2.  Both are possible.Affect on Health  1. . Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. depending on the nature of the stressor. Not just under stress. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times.

Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Know that help will be provided if needed.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. . Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Develop and maintain social network.

 A topic for later discussion.Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .

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