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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
Thought. .Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Link between mind and body is the immune system. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.
Rheumatoid arthritis .The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. .What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. Emotions are private experiences.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Meaning and personal significance. Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Vary in intensity and quality. . Anger or joy.
Autonomic and hormonal systems. Alert posture. . clenched fists.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. Body prepared for action.
Social and evolutionary advantage. Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Motivation to take action. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. .
gestures. Verbal and nonverbal communication. vocalizations. Helps us interpret the situation. facial expressions make our emotions public.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. . Postures. How person reacts to event.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Non-verbal communication. Express accurate emotions for situation.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Foundation for other branches. Recognizing facial expressions. Tell when someone is being authentic. .
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
Emotional component to motivation. ³Care enough to send the very best.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. Improve problem solving and boost creativity.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. .
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Emotions and behavioral consequences. . Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Jealousy and envy are destructive.
and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. he felt ____. (Select the best choice. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery .Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.
Stress coping strategies.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Use optimistic explanatory style. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. . tobacco or other drugs. Productive ways to change mood. Avoid over and under regulation.
.3... Very Ineffective.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1. She was feeling peaceful and content.4...5....2.2....3........4... Very Ineffective..5.........5.........1.1...1. Debbie just came back from vacation. Very Ineffective. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation....3.4..Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.....2...Very Effective ......
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Cardiovascular and immune systems. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .
Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Positive moods boost the immune system.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. .
. Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos.
Coping styles could aid healing. Talk about illness.Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. . Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. release pent-up negative emotions.
Something is wrong and must be corrected.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Negative states signal an alert. . It hurts. Function of pain. get help.
Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? .
Not seek help. Seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).
Belief that you will get well.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Strength to confront illness. Personal resources to seek solutions. Positive . Creativity in thought and action. Do what you can to support recovery. Focus on and plan for future outcomes.
Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. optimists had healthier habits. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. (1989) . 5 years post surgery.
´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.
Improved coping with illness. Lower incidence of heart disease. Decreased levels of stress. Faster recovery from surgery.Social Support With social support. . observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.
Both are possible. Only when needed. depending on the nature of the stressor. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. 2. Not just under stress. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. .Affect on Health 1.
Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. .
.Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. A topic for later discussion.