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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
. Thought.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Link between mind and body is the immune system. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.
The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis . Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. . We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. Emotions are private experiences.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Meaning and personal significance. Anger or joy.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. . Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Vary in intensity and quality.
Body prepared for action.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. clenched fists. . Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. Autonomic and hormonal systems. Alert posture.
Social and evolutionary advantage. Motivation to take action. . Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force.
facial expressions make our emotions public. Postures.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. . gestures. vocalizations. How person reacts to event. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Helps us interpret the situation.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Tell when someone is being authentic. Recognizing facial expressions.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Foundation for other branches. Non-verbal communication. Express accurate emotions for situation. .
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
´ Using emotion to help make decisions. Emotional component to motivation. Improve problem solving and boost creativity. ³Care enough to send the very best.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. .
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Emotions and behavioral consequences. . Jealousy and envy are destructive. Read a situation and respond correctly.
Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. he felt ____. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . (Select the best choice.
Stress coping strategies. Avoid over and under regulation.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. . tobacco or other drugs. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Productive ways to change mood. Use optimistic explanatory style.
...... Very Ineffective.....2.1...5....4..1...5.Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.Very Effective ...Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation..4.3.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.3..4..2...2... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do..... Very Ineffective.... She was feeling peaceful and content... Very Ineffective.........3...1..... Debbie just came back from vacation...5...
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Cardiovascular and immune systems. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.
Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. . Negative moods lower SIgA levels.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Positive moods boost the immune system.
Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .
Negative emotional states reduce immune function.Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. . release pent-up negative emotions. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Talk about illness. Coping styles could aid healing.
It hurts. Something is wrong and must be corrected.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. . Negative states signal an alert. get help. Function of pain.
Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.
Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Seek help. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Not seek help. .
Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Belief that you will get well. Strength to confront illness. Personal resources to seek solutions. Do what you can to support recovery. Creativity in thought and action. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Positive .
Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. optimists had healthier habits. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. (1989) . Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. 5 years post surgery.
Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.
Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease.Social Support With social support. . observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Improved coping with illness. Faster recovery from surgery.
Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. Both are possible. depending on the nature of the stressor. Only when needed.Affect on Health 1. 2. . Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. Not just under stress.
Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. . Develop and maintain social network. Know that help will be provided if needed.
Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. . A topic for later discussion.