Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

Link between mind and body is the immune system. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. . Thought.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing.

 Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.

.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  Emotions are private experiences.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Anger or joy.  Vary in intensity and quality.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Meaning and personal significance.

 Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation. .  Alert posture.  Autonomic and hormonal systems. clenched fists.  Body prepared for action.

.  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.  Social and evolutionary advantage.  Why people benefit from emotions.  Motivation to take action.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.

facial expressions make our emotions public. vocalizations. . Verbal and nonverbal communication. Helps us interpret the situation. How person reacts to event.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Postures. gestures.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

 Express accurate emotions for situation.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Foundation for other branches.  Non-verbal communication. .  Tell when someone is being authentic.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  ³Care enough to send the very best. .  Emotional component to motivation.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.  Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. .

) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . When his supervisor brought him an additional project. he felt ____.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. (Select the best choice. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.

 Stress coping strategies.  Productive ways to change mood.  Avoid over and under regulation.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol. tobacco or other drugs. .Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.  Use optimistic explanatory style.

..5..... Debbie just came back from vacation...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.2...4....2.......3.....1.2.........1. Very Ineffective... Very Ineffective..5..1. She was feeling peaceful and content.Very Effective       ..3..Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1..5.......... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do..... Very Ineffective.3...4..4.

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .

Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Positive moods boost the immune system. .S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA.

Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. . Contribute to illness.

Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing. Talk about illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. . release pent-up negative emotions.

It hurts. Negative states signal an alert. Something is wrong and must be corrected.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Function of pain. . get help.

Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.

Seek help. .Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.

 Belief that you will get well.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Do what you can to support recovery.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Creativity in thought and action.  Strength to confront illness.  Positive .

Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. 5 years post surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. optimists had healthier habits. (1989) .

Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others. . Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.

. Faster recovery from surgery. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Improved coping with illness.Social Support        With social support. Lower incidence of heart disease. Decreased levels of stress.

Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. . Only when needed.Affect on Health  1. depending on the nature of the stressor. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.  2. Not just under stress.  Both are possible.

Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network. .

.Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.  A topic for later discussion.

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