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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
Thought. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. . beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.
) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .
We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. Emotions are private experiences. .What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Rooted in mental processes (labeling). . Vary in intensity and quality.Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Anger or joy. Meaning and personal significance.
Autonomic and hormonal systems. clenched fists. Body prepared for action. Alert posture. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. .
Social and evolutionary advantage. Motivation to take action. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. . Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force.
How person reacts to event. Helps us interpret the situation. gestures. . vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Postures. facial expressions make our emotions public.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Non-verbal communication. Foundation for other branches. Tell when someone is being authentic. Recognizing facial expressions.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Express accurate emotions for situation. .
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
³Care enough to send the very best. Improve problem solving and boost creativity. Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. .
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. . Read a situation and respond correctly. Emotions and behavioral consequences. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Jealousy and envy are destructive.
When his supervisor brought him an additional project. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery .Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. (Select the best choice. he felt ____.
Avoid over and under regulation. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Productive ways to change mood. Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs. Stress coping strategies.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. .
.1........1..3..........Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway......... Very Ineffective...2..5.. Very Ineffective. Debbie just came back from vacation..4. Very Ineffective.... She was feeling peaceful and content.....4..5.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.......2.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.4.Very Effective ...3.2...Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.3...1.5.
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. Cardiovascular and immune systems. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.
. Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA.
Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos. . Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.
Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Talk about illness. release pent-up negative emotions. . Coping styles could aid healing. Negative emotional states reduce immune function.Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness.
Something is wrong and must be corrected. get help. Function of pain. Negative states signal an alert.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. It hurts. .
Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.
Seek help. .Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Not seek help.
Belief that you will get well. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Do what you can to support recovery. Personal resources to seek solutions. Creativity in thought and action. Positive .Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Strength to confront illness.
5 years post surgery. (1989) . optimists had healthier habits.Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.
´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.
Faster recovery from surgery.Social Support With social support. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease. Improved coping with illness. .
. 2.Affect on Health 1. Only when needed. Both are possible. depending on the nature of the stressor. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. Not just under stress. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.
Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Develop and maintain social network. Know that help will be provided if needed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. .
A topic for later discussion.Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .
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