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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
Thought. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. .
The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. Emotions are private experiences. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. .
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Vary in intensity and quality. . Anger or joy. Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Meaning and personal significance.
Autonomic and hormonal systems. clenched fists. Body prepared for action. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. Alert posture.Bodily Arousal Biological activation. .
Motivation to take action. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. . Social and evolutionary advantage. Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force.
facial expressions make our emotions public. vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Postures. gestures. How person reacts to event. . Helps us interpret the situation.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Non-verbal communication.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Express accurate emotions for situation. Foundation for other branches. Recognizing facial expressions. Tell when someone is being authentic. .
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. Emotional component to motivation. Improve problem solving and boost creativity.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. ³Care enough to send the very best.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. . Jealousy and envy are destructive. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Emotions and behavioral consequences.
(Select the best choice. he felt ____. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery .
Use optimistic explanatory style. Seek natural means rather than alcohol.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Stress coping strategies. . tobacco or other drugs. Avoid over and under regulation. Productive ways to change mood.
1...2.4.2.Very Effective .5............... She was feeling peaceful and content.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.........5. Very Ineffective..... Debbie just came back from vacation..3.. Very Ineffective....Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.1...3..3....... Very Ineffective....2.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.5..Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.4.....1.4..
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system . Cardiovascular and immune systems.Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.
.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Positive moods boost the immune system.
Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .
Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. . Coping styles could aid healing.
. Function of pain. It hurts.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. get help. Something is wrong and must be corrected. Negative states signal an alert.
Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.
Not seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Seek help.
Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Strength to confront illness. Positive . Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Belief that you will get well. Do what you can to support recovery. Creativity in thought and action. Personal resources to seek solutions.
Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. optimists had healthier habits. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. 5 years post surgery. (1989) .Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery.
Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure. .Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.
. Lower incidence of heart disease. Improved coping with illness. Decreased levels of stress. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Faster recovery from surgery.Social Support With social support.
Both are possible.Affect on Health 1. Only when needed. depending on the nature of the stressor. 2. Not just under stress. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. . Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times.
Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. .
Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. . A topic for later discussion.
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