Emotional States and Health
Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies
beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Affects on long-term health
Attitude towards illness can affect healing.
. Thought. Link between mind and body is the immune system.
The Immune System
that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis
.) run wild
Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS
Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)
Ex. Like a police force
Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.
Emotions are private experiences.What is Emotion?
Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.
Emotions are Multidimensional
Four components of Emotion
Significant life event
Sense of Purpose
Rooted in mental processes (labeling). Vary in intensity and quality. Meaning and personal significance. Anger or joy.Feeling component
are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way.
Body prepared for action.
. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.Bodily Arousal
activation. Alert posture. Autonomic and hormonal systems. clenched fists.
Motivation to take action. Why people benefit from emotions. Social and evolutionary advantage.
emotion its goal-directed force. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.
facial expressions make our emotions public.Social-Expressive component
Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Helps us interpret the situation. Verbal and nonverbal communication. vocalizations.
. Postures. gestures. How person reacts to event.
Emotions read in the face
The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence
Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT
Recognizing facial expressions. Tell when someone is being authentic.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)
needed to perceive and express feelings.
. Non-verbal communication. Express accurate emotions for situation. Foundation for other branches.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT)
Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)
emotions to facilitate thinking.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. Improve problem solving and boost creativity. Emotional component to motivation. ³Care enough to send the very best.
What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5
Emotions and behavioral consequences.
. Jealousy and envy are destructive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)
complex and conflicting
emotions. Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Read a situation and respond correctly.
he felt ____. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT)
Tom felt anxious. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery
. (Select the best choice.
. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Avoid over and under regulation. Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs. Productive ways to change mood.Managing emotions (Branch 4)
mood regulation skills. Stress coping strategies.
4..........2.5. She was feeling peaceful and content..5.Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway....2... Very Ineffective.3.1..Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation...5. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do...3.... Very Ineffective.3...Very Effective
...1........1..... Very Ineffective..Managing Emotions (Branch 4)
Debbie just came back from vacation.2..
Emotional States and Physical Health
Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000)
Healing through laughter
Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood
Emotional states and immunity
emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system
. Cardiovascular and immune systems. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.
S-IgA levels and emotion
Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA.
. Positive moods boost the immune system. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.
Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.
Healthy college students watching videos.
Talk about illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Coping styles could aid healing.
. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.Coping styles and illness
People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness.
Function of pain. get help. It hurts.Emotion and environment
Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Negative states signal an alert.
. Something is wrong and must be corrected.
Role in seeking help
Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic?
Processing health information
Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help. Seek help.
. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.
Belief that you will get well. Personal resources to seek solutions. Strength to confront illness.Optimistic outlook
emotional states provide resilience.
. Creativity in thought and action. Do what you can to support recovery. Focus on and plan for future outcomes.
Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. optimists had healthier habits. (1989)
.Healthy heart surgery
Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. 5 years post surgery.
.Role of health care worker
One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.
With social support. Lower incidence of heart disease. Faster recovery from surgery. Improved coping with illness.
. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Decreased levels of stress.
Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. 2. Only when needed. Both are possible. depending on the nature of the stressor. Not just under stress.
.Affect on Health
1. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times.
. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support
Mediated by emotional experience.
. A topic for later discussion.Spirituality
plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.