Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

. Thought. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Link between mind and body is the immune system.

The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.

 We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. .  Emotions are private experiences.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Anger or joy.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Meaning and personal significance.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Vary in intensity and quality. .

 Alert posture.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation. .  Autonomic and hormonal systems. clenched fists.  Body prepared for action.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.

 Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.  Motivation to take action.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Social and evolutionary advantage. .  Why people benefit from emotions.

.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. facial expressions make our emotions public. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Postures. How person reacts to event. Helps us interpret the situation. gestures. vocalizations.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Tell when someone is being authentic.  Foundation for other branches. .  Express accurate emotions for situation.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Non-verbal communication.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 Emotional component to motivation.  ³Care enough to send the very best.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Read a situation and respond correctly.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Emotions and behavioral consequences. .  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.

When his supervisor brought him an additional project. (Select the best choice.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     . he felt ____. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious.

 Use optimistic explanatory style.  Productive ways to change mood.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol. tobacco or other drugs.  Stress coping strategies.  Avoid over and under regulation. .

..Very Effective       .5....1.........1.Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.5.. Debbie just came back from vacation... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do. Very Ineffective.....2...5........Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1..........3.4.4..Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.... Very Ineffective.3..3....2....1..... She was feeling peaceful and content.. Very Ineffective.2.4.

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .

S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Positive moods boost the immune system. . Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.

Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .

Talk about illness. . Negative emotional states reduce immune function. release pent-up negative emotions. Coping styles could aid healing.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.

Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Negative states signal an alert. Function of pain. get help. It hurts. . Something is wrong and must be corrected.

Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help. Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.

Not seek help. Seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).

 Positive .  Do what you can to support recovery.  Belief that you will get well.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Strength to confront illness.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Creativity in thought and action.

5 years post surgery.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. optimists had healthier habits. (1989) . Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.

Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others. .´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.

Lower incidence of heart disease.Social Support        With social support. Improved coping with illness. Decreased levels of stress. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. . Faster recovery from surgery.

Only when needed. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. . Not just under stress.Affect on Health  1. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.  2. depending on the nature of the stressor.  Both are possible.

Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Know that help will be provided if needed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. . Develop and maintain social network.

.  A topic for later discussion.Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.

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