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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Thought. . Link between mind and body is the immune system.
) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex. Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.
We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. . Emotions are private experiences. We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
. Vary in intensity and quality. Rooted in mental processes (labeling).Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Anger or joy. Meaning and personal significance.
Bodily Arousal Biological activation. . Alert posture. clenched fists. Body prepared for action. Autonomic and hormonal systems. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.
Motivation to take action.Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. . Social and evolutionary advantage. Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. Why people benefit from emotions.
. Postures. vocalizations.Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. How person reacts to event. Verbal and nonverbal communication. Helps us interpret the situation. gestures. facial expressions make our emotions public.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
Foundation for other branches. Recognizing facial expressions. Tell when someone is being authentic. Express accurate emotions for situation. .Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Non-verbal communication.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .´ Using emotion to help make decisions. Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking. ³Care enough to send the very best.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Emotions and behavioral consequences. Jealousy and envy are destructive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions. Read a situation and respond correctly. . Some emotional responses are maladaptive.
When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery . he felt ____. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. (Select the best choice.
Stress coping strategies.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Avoid over and under regulation. Productive ways to change mood. Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs. .
.1. Very Ineffective..3...........3.. Debbie just came back from vacation..Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway....Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1.. Very Ineffective..2..2...Very Effective . Very Ineffective...4.......5.3..5.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.5....1..........2.4.4.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.... She was feeling peaceful and content.1......
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Cardiovascular and immune systems.Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system . Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.
Negative moods lower SIgA levels.S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Positive moods boost the immune system. . Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Undesirable events suppress immune system.
Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos.
Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions. .Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. Talk about illness. Negative emotional states reduce immune function.
get help. . Negative states signal an alert. Something is wrong and must be corrected. Function of pain.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. It hurts.
Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Better to be pessimistic? .
. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. Seek help. Not seek help.Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).
Strength to confront illness. Do what you can to support recovery. Personal resources to seek solutions. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Creativity in thought and action. Positive .Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Belief that you will get well.
Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. optimists had healthier habits. (1989) . 5 years post surgery.Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery.
´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. . Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others.
Lower incidence of heart disease. Faster recovery from surgery. Improved coping with illness. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. . Decreased levels of stress.Social Support With social support.
Both are possible. Not just under stress. 2. depending on the nature of the stressor. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times.Affect on Health 1. . Only when needed. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.
Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. . Develop and maintain social network. Know that help will be provided if needed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support.
A topic for later discussion.Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. .