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Mind and Body
Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body
Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.
Reducing the effects of stress
is less harmful if Have some control (even if just belief). Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´). Know the duration. Coping mechanism. Some way to relieve stress. Positive attitude. Active participant in process.
Relieve stress Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .
. Thought. Link between mind and body is the immune system. beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health.Affects on long-term health Attitude towards illness can affect healing.
Like a police force Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.The Immune System Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria. Rheumatoid arthritis .) run wild Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens: The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease) Ex.
What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. . We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. Emotions are private experiences. We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.
Emotions are Multidimensional .
Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .
Feeling component Emotions are subjective feelings Make us feel in a particular way. Vary in intensity and quality. Rooted in mental processes (labeling). . Anger or joy. Meaning and personal significance.
Body prepared for action. Alert posture. .Bodily Arousal Biological activation. clenched fists. Autonomic and hormonal systems. Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.
Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. Motivation to take action. .Purposive component Give emotion its goal-directed force. Why people benefit from emotions. Social and evolutionary advantage.
gestures. vocalizations. How person reacts to event. Helps us interpret the situation. Postures. Verbal and nonverbal communication. .Social-Expressive component Emotion¶s communicative aspect. facial expressions make our emotions public.
Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .
Aspect of Emotional Intelligence Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .
. Express accurate emotions for situation.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1) Skills needed to perceive and express feelings. Recognizing facial expressions. Foundation for other branches. Tell when someone is being authentic. Non-verbal communication.
Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .
. ³Care enough to send the very best. Emotional component to motivation.´ Using emotion to help make decisions. Improve problem solving and boost creativity.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2) Using emotions to facilitate thinking.
Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5 b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .
Jealousy and envy are destructive. . Some emotional responses are maladaptive. Emotions and behavioral consequences. Read a situation and respond correctly.Understanding emotions (Branch 3) Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.
he felt ____.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project. (Select the best choice.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery .
tobacco or other drugs. . Seek natural means rather than alcohol. Stress coping strategies. Avoid over and under regulation. Productive ways to change mood.Managing emotions (Branch 4) Developing mood regulation skills. Use optimistic explanatory style.
...1.....4..1....Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway. Very Ineffective....5....3. She was feeling peaceful and content.. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.....2.. Debbie just came back from vacation........3...Very Effective ........2...3.... Very Ineffective.Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.4..2.Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1..5. Very Ineffective.......1.4..5..
Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .
Healing through laughter Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .
Cardiovascular and immune systems. Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.Emotional states and immunity Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states. S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A First line of defense in the immune system .
Positive moods boost the immune system. .S-IgA levels and emotion Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness. Undesirable events suppress immune system.
Manipulating Emotion Healthy college students watching videos. Contribute to illness. . Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist.
Coping styles and illness People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Talk about illness. Coping styles could aid healing. . Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health.
Negative states signal an alert. . Something is wrong and must be corrected. Function of pain. It hurts.Emotion and environment Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. get help.
Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.
Not seek help. Seek help. Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening. .Processing health information Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).
Strength to confront illness.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience. Personal resources to seek solutions. Positive . Belief that you will get well. Focus on and plan for future outcomes. Creativity in thought and action. Do what you can to support recovery.
Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.Healthy heart surgery Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. (1989) . 5 years post surgery. optimists had healthier habits. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.
.Role of health care worker One who inspires hope in others. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope.
Lower incidence of heart disease. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Improved coping with illness. Faster recovery from surgery. . Decreased levels of stress.Social Support With social support.
Only when needed. Both are possible. Not just under stress. Direct effect: Social support promotes well-being at all times. Buffering hypothesis: Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. 2.Affect on Health 1. . depending on the nature of the stressor.
. Know that help will be provided if needed. Develop and maintain social network. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed.Role of Social Support Mediated by emotional experience. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support.
Spirituality Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness. A topic for later discussion. .
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