Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 
   

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 
    

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 
Stress

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing. Thought. .

 Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc. Rheumatoid arthritis .The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.

.  Emotions are private experiences.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

 Meaning and personal significance.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).  Anger or joy.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way. .  Vary in intensity and quality.

Bodily Arousal  Biological activation. .  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. clenched fists.  Body prepared for action.  Alert posture.  Autonomic and hormonal systems.

 Cope with emotion-causing circumstances. .  Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Motivation to take action.  Social and evolutionary advantage.

Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Helps us interpret the situation. gestures. Verbal and nonverbal communication. . vocalizations. Postures. How person reacts to event. facial expressions make our emotions public.

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Foundation for other branches.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Express accurate emotions for situation.  Tell when someone is being authentic.  Non-verbal communication. .

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 Emotional component to motivation. .  Improve problem solving and boost creativity.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.  ³Care enough to send the very best.´  Using emotion to help make decisions.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Emotions and behavioral consequences.  Read a situation and respond correctly. .  Jealousy and envy are destructive.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive.

he felt ____.Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. (Select the best choice. When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     .

 Avoid over and under regulation.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.  Stress coping strategies. .  Use optimistic explanatory style. tobacco or other drugs.  Productive ways to change mood.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol.

2..4...Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1......1...... Debbie just came back from vacation.5..........3..5...4.......2.... Very Ineffective.5.3...4...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.. Very Ineffective.2. She was feeling peaceful and content.. How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do....1..3....1... Very Ineffective.Very Effective       .....Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation..

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.

Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. . Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Positive moods boost the immune system.

Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos. Contribute to illness. Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. .

. Talk about illness. release pent-up negative emotions. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Negative emotional states reduce immune function. Coping styles could aid healing.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness.

Something is wrong and must be corrected. . Function of pain. Negative states signal an alert.Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. get help. It hurts.

Better to be pessimistic? .Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help. Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.

Not seek help. Seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis).

 Positive .  Do what you can to support recovery.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Personal resources to seek solutions.  Belief that you will get well.  Creativity in thought and action.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Strength to confront illness.

optimists had healthier habits. 5 years post surgery. (1989) .Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals. Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al.

Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others.´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. .

Lower incidence of heart disease.Social Support        With social support. . Decreased levels of stress. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease. Improved coping with illness. Faster recovery from surgery.

depending on the nature of the stressor. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. Not just under stress. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event. .  Both are possible. Only when needed.  2.Affect on Health  1.

Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support. Develop and maintain social network.Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. Know that help will be provided if needed. .

.Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.  A topic for later discussion.

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