Emotional States and Health

Mind and Body 
   

Can the body affect the mind? Example? How about the mind affecting the body? Example? Two-way communication between mind and body

Psychosomatic Medicine 
    

Psyche (mind) Soma (body) Butterflies in the stomach Anxious before giving speech Indigestion, nausea Stress may contribute to getting an ulcer.

Reducing the effects of stress 
Stress

is less harmful if  Have some control (even if just belief).  Predictable (³going to feel a little pinch´).  Know the duration.  Coping mechanism.  Some way to relieve stress.  Positive attitude.  Active participant in process.

Relieve stress      Meditation Listening to soothing music Taking a quiet walk Reduce stress Eliminate butterflies .

Thought. . beliefs and emotions have major impact on physical health. Link between mind and body is the immune system.Affects on long-term health    Attitude towards illness can affect healing.

Rheumatoid arthritis .  Like a police force  Too weak and criminals (viruses etc.The Immune System  Cells that protect the body against intruders such as viruses and bacteria.) run wild  Ex: Opportunistic diseases seen with HIV-AIDS  Too strong and it attacks law-abiding citizens:  The body¶s own cells (Autoimmune disease)  Ex.

 Emotions are private experiences.  We infer observable behavior associated with emotion. .  We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings.What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others.

Emotions are Multidimensional .

Four components of Emotion Feelings SocialExpressive Emotion Bodily Arousal Significant life event Sense of Purpose .

.  Anger or joy.  Vary in intensity and quality.  Meaning and personal significance.Feeling component  Emotions are subjective feelings  Make us feel in a particular way.  Rooted in mental processes (labeling).

 Body prepared for action. clenched fists.  Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion. .  Alert posture.Bodily Arousal  Biological activation.  Autonomic and hormonal systems.

 Why people benefit from emotions.Purposive component  Give emotion its goal-directed force.  Social and evolutionary advantage.  Motivation to take action. .  Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.

facial expressions make our emotions public. Postures. gestures.Social-Expressive component      Emotion¶s communicative aspect. Helps us interpret the situation. vocalizations. Verbal and nonverbal communication. How person reacts to event. .

Emotions read in the face The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database .

Aspect of Emotional Intelligence      Peter Salovey (Yale) John Mayer (U of NH) Four branch ability model of emotional intelligence Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test MSCEIT .

.  Recognizing facial expressions.  Foundation for other branches.  Non-verbal communication.  Tell when someone is being authentic.Identifying Emotions (Branch 1)  Skills needed to perceive and express feelings.  Express accurate emotions for situation.

Identifying Emotions (MSCEIT) .

 Emotional component to motivation.Facilitating Emotions (Branch 2)  Using emotions to facilitate thinking.  ³Care enough to send the very best.  Improve problem solving and boost creativity. .´  Using emotion to help make decisions.

Facilitation (MSCEIT) What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?  Not Useful Useful a) Tension 1 2 3 4 5  b) Surprise 1 2 3 4 5  c) Joy 1 2 3 4 5 .

 Read a situation and respond correctly.  Emotions and behavioral consequences.Understanding emotions (Branch 3)  Understanding complex and conflicting emotions.  Jealousy and envy are destructive.  Some emotional responses are maladaptive. .

When his supervisor brought him an additional project.) a) Overwhelmed b) Depressed c) Ashamed d) Self Conscious e) Jittery     .Understanding Emotions (MSCEIT) Tom felt anxious. (Select the best choice. he felt ____. and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do.

 Stress coping strategies.  Use optimistic explanatory style.  Seek natural means rather than alcohol.  Avoid over and under regulation.Managing emotions (Branch 4)  Developing mood regulation skills.  Productive ways to change mood. . tobacco or other drugs.

.......4.4...Very Effective Action 3: She decided it was best to ignore the feeling since it wouldn't last anyway.Very Effective       .Very Effective Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she would go on her next vacation.. Very Ineffective...... Very Ineffective.........Managing Emotions (Branch 4) 1..3...5...1..3. Very Ineffective.....5.1.5..2....4.... How well would each action preserve her mood? Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.... She was feeling peaceful and content...2..1....2.... Debbie just came back from vacation...3.

Emotional States and Physical Health Salovey et at American Psychologist (1/2000) .

Healing through laughter        Norman Cousins Anatomy of an Illness (1979) Life-threatening inflammatory disease Cartoons and Marx Brothers 10 mins of laughing gave him 2 hrs of pain-free sleep Laughter reduced inflammation Healing power of positive mood .

 S-IgA = secretory immunoglobulin A  First line of defense in the immune system .Emotional states and immunity  Negative emotional states associated with unhealthy physical states.  Positive emotional states associated with healthier states.  Cardiovascular and immune systems.

S-IgA levels and emotion      Increased occurrence of desirable events predicts higher S-IgA. Negative moods lower SIgA levels. Positive moods boost the immune system. . Undesirable events suppress immune system. Negative moods increase susceptibility to illness.

Humorous video enhanced immune function ( S-IgA) Sad video suppressed immune function ( S-IgA) Not clear how long these changes persist. . Contribute to illness.Manipulating Emotion      Healthy college students watching videos.

Negative emotional states reduce immune function.Coping styles and illness      People dealing with severe stressors more susceptible to illness. . Coping styles could aid healing. release pent-up negative emotions. Pennebaker: helping people process and confront traumatic life events improves health. Talk about illness.

Emotion and environment      Positive emotional states signal a safe environment. Negative states signal an alert. It hurts. get help. . Something is wrong and must be corrected. Function of pain.

Better to be pessimistic? . Unhappy people more vigilant and seek help.Role in seeking help     Some believe that: Happy people less likely to recognize signs of distress and less likely to get help.

Seek help. . Negative outlook may cause a person not recognize new symptoms as threatening.Processing health information      Other evidence that: Positive outlook may make it easier to process threatening information (diagnosis). Not seek help.

 Personal resources to seek solutions.Optimistic outlook emotional states provide resilience.  Positive .  Strength to confront illness.  Focus on and plan for future outcomes.  Belief that you will get well.  Creativity in thought and action.  Do what you can to support recovery.

optimists had healthier habits.Healthy heart surgery      Men undergoing cardiac bypass surgery. (1989) . Diet and exercise programs Scheier et al. 5 years post surgery. Optimistic men better able to focus on postoperative goals.

´ Positive mood comes from a renewal of hope. Freud: patient¶s expectations ³colored by hope and faith and an effective force in all our attempts at treatment and cure.Role of health care worker    One who inspires hope in others. .

Improved coping with illness. .Social Support        With social support. Decreased levels of stress. Lower incidence of heart disease. Faster recovery from surgery. observe: Lower mortality More resistant to disease.

Not just under stress.  Both are possible. Only when needed. Direct effect:  Social support promotes well-being at all times. . depending on the nature of the stressor. Buffering hypothesis:  Social support buffers individual from stressful life event.Affect on Health  1.  2.

Role of Social Support      Mediated by emotional experience. . Know that help will be provided if needed. Less likely to feel lonely and depressed. Develop and maintain social network. Positive outlook on life more likely to get social support.

.Spirituality  Also plays a role in wellness and recovery from illness.  A topic for later discussion.

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