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Stress is a term that refers to the sum of the physical, mental, and emotional strains or tensions on a person. Feelings of stress in humans result from interactions between persons and their environment that are perceived as straining or exceeding their adaptive capacities and threatening their well-being. The element of perception indicates that human stress responses reflect differences in personality as well as differences in physical strength or health. This Stress meter allows to assess one’s emotional pain. If the stress is very high, it gives visual indication through LED display along with a warning yellow light.
Stress meter is based on the principle that the resistance of the skin varies in accordance with your emotional states. Resistance varies inversely proportional to the stress. If the stress level is high the skin offers less resistance, and if relaxed, resistance is high.
In an article “Stress and Mind Control”, 21/03/2008, Roberto Bonomi stated that “When we speak of the fabulous relaxation capacity that mind control gives us, the first thing that comes to our mind, is that we will be able to take off, the excesses of nervous tension, the stress; and this is a great benefit. Because suppose that you could measure stress in inches, and that you have stress zero when the meter is located in zero.” Based on this our project is aimed to give a visual indication of one’s stress through a light-emitting diode display along with a warning light.
LIST OF TABLES
1. Table 3.1: LED Color Vs. Potential difference…………………...13 2. Table 4.1: LED Vs. Threshold voltage…………………………...19
LIST OF FIGURES
1) Fig 2.1: Block diagram of stress meter………………………….… .. 6 2) Fig 3.1: Dot/Bar display driver……………………………….…. ..... 8 3) Fig 3.2: The piezo element ……………………………………….… .9 4) Fig 3.3: Piezo electric diaphragm……………………………….…. ..10 5) Fig 3.4: Touch pad……………………………………………..…… .10 6) Fig 3.5: Light emitting diode……………………………………… ...11 7) Fig 3.6: Inside a light emitting diode………………………………. ..12 8) Fig 3.7: Regulated power supply……………………………….….. ..14 9) Fig 3.8: Voltage regulator…………………………………………… 14 10) Fig 3.9: Circuit diagram of Stress meter……………………………. .15 11) Fig 4.1: Basic block diagram showing the operation of the circuit… .17 12) Fig 4.2: Role played by touch pads…………………………………. 18 13) Fig 4.3: Bridge Rectifier Circuit…………………………………….. 20 14) Fig 4.4: The Power supply generation………………………………..21
. providing a logarithmic 3dB/step analog display. and if relaxed resistance is high. The touch pads of the stress meter sense the voltage variations across the touch pads and convey the same to the circuit. The circuit is very sensitive and detects even a minute voltage variation across the touch pad. Using suitable circuitry we can convert the amount of stress a human being feels to a varying analog voltage. LCD’s or vacuum fluorescent displays. This increases the permeability of the skin and hence the conductivity for electric current. The low resistance of the skin during high stress is due to an increase in the blood supply to the skin.1 STRESS METER Stress is the very common condition of every human being. Stress meter is based on the principle that the resistance of the skin varies in accordance with your emotional states. If the stress is very high. Stress is nothing more than a socially acceptable form of mental illness. This property of the skin is used here to measure the stress level.4 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. it gives visual indication on a LED display along with a warning light. The LM3915 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives ten LED’s. Resistance varies inversely proportional to the stress. If the stress level is high the skin offers less resistance. This Stress meter allows to assess the emotional pain.
and this is a great benefit. The stress can cause hair to fall.” Based on this. acne to break out and many other problems. the first thing that comes to our mind. is that we will be able to take off.2 EVOLUTION In an article “Stress and Mind Control”. the excesses of nervous tension. the stress. Stress causes cortical levels to increase within the body.5 1. our project is aimed to give a visual indication of one’s stress through a light-emitting diode display along with a warning yellow light. 1. and that you have stress zero when the meter is located in zero. These manifestations of stress can cause even more anxiety. 21/03/2008. Because suppose that you could measure stress in inches. . which increases oil production. Roberto Bonomi stated that “When we speak of the fabulous relaxation capacity that mind control gives us. So this stress meter is to solve all the problems caused due to stress by checking the stress of an individual and taking care before any serious problem occurs.3 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT The purpose of stress meter is to assess the emotional pain of human being. which causes acne breakouts.
6 Chapter 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND PROJECT OVERVIEW 2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM: 230 volts AC power Supply Input through Touch Pads Regulated Transformer power supply Dot/Bar Display Driver Out Put Stress Lev Indication High Stre Indicatio . 2.1 PRINCIPLE OF STRESS METER: The stress meter is based on the principle that the variations in the resistance of the skin due to blood pressure of ones’ body can be directly converted and transmitted into analog voltage levels to give the visual indication of human stress using a proper circuitry.
This project is an essential part of the expandable analyzer and one meter circuit is used for each frequency band. The high stress detected from the dot/ bar display driver is indicated through a warning yellow light. There are many other uses for a simple LED meter.4 APPLICATION: Each LED in stress meter operates with a 3dB difference from the previous one. can be used with mixers (including the high quality mixer).The ten led’s act like the stress level indicators form zero stress level to high stress level on a scale of ten. The dot/bar display driver accepts the input through the touch pads which sense the small change in resistance the dot/bar driver gives the output stress level indication according the input.7 Fig: 2. and a jumper is provided to allow dot or bar mode. 2. The transformer steps down the input voltage line and isolates the power supply from the power line. A full wave bridge rectifier circuit along with a voltage regulator is used to give a regulated power supply to the circuit . They are ideal as power meters on amplifiers. The output is indicated on a led display . preamps and any other application where it is important to know the signal level.The input touch pads are used to sense the resistance of our skin and this input is fed to the dot/bar display driver.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION: The 230 volts ac power supply is given to the transformer.1 Block diagram of stress meter 2. .
LCDs or vacuum fluorescent displays. power. Replacing conventional meters with an LED bar graph results in a faster responding. One pin changes the display from a bar graph to a moving dot display. such as audio level. LED current drive is regulated and programmable. Audio applications include average or peak level indicators. The input buffer drives 10 individual . more rugged display with high visibility that retains the ease of interpretation of an analog display. The whole display system can operate from a single supply as low as 3V or as high as 25V. The IC contains an adjustable voltage reference and an accurate ten-step voltage divider. eliminating the need for current limiting resistors.1 DOT/BAR DISPLAY DRIVER: The LM3915 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives ten LEDs. LED current drive is regulated and programmable. Further.5V of the positive supply. providing a logarithmic 3 dB/step analog display. light intensity or vibration.8 LM3915's 3 dB/step display is suited for signals with wide dynamic range. it needs no protection against inputs of ±35V. Chapter 3 COMPONENTS OVERVIEW 3. power meters and RF signal strength meters. The high-impedance input buffer accepts signals down to ground and up to within 1. eliminating the need for current limiting resistors.
. It has the advantages of simple structure. Accuracy is typically better than 1 dB. but also used as shock sensors in many sensitive equipments. stable performance and high reliability. Fig: 3.9 comparators referenced to the precision divider. It is not only the core element of piezoelectric buzzers and the alarms.1 Dot/Bar display driver 3.2 THE PIEZO ELEMENT: Piezoelectric diaphragm is a basic electronic sound component.
A piezoelectric diaphragm consists of a piezoelectric ceramic plate which has electrodes on both sides and a metal plate (brass or stainless steel. A piezoelectric ceramic plate is attached to a metal plate with adhesives.C. etc. the sound source of a piezoelectric sound component is a piezoelectric diaphragm. voltage between electrodes of a piezoelectric diaphragm causes mechanical distortion due to the piezoelectric effect Design Considerations: These devices contain no electronics.).2 The piezo element Basically. and require external circuitry to produce an audible tone.10 Fig 3. Applying D. Presence of the feedback tab enables the designer to simplify the drive circuit. Voltage applied to the device produces mechanical .
The input impedance of the chip is fairly high (about 50k) but when you add a pull-down resistor (to prevent stray signals being detected by the chip). the resistance of the finger is reduced by a factor of about 100 .3 Piezo electric diaphragm The Touch Pad: The Touch Pad is two tinned pads on the PC board. Fig 3. The answer is to add the emitter-follower transistor. in alarms and sensors. among other applications. Fig: 3.400 by the gain of the emitter-follower transistor and this puts a HIGH on the input pin of the chip.11 distortions which are usable. When touched them with a finger.4 Touch pad . the impedance decreases.
Fig 3. emitting a pure color in a narrow frequency range.3 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES: A light emitting diode (LED) is a PN junction semiconductor diode that emits photons when electrical current passes through the junction in the forward direction. The color emitted from an LED is identified by peak wavelength and measured in nanometers.12 3. encapsulation.5 Light Emitting Diode LED’s are used in numerical displays such as those on electronic digital watches and pocket calculators. this energy is emitted in the form of light. it is a solid-state device that controls current without heated filaments and is therefore very reliable. the electrical carriers give up energy proportional to the forward voltage drop across the diode junction. LEDs are made from gallium-based crystals that contain one or more additional materials such as phosphorous to produce a distinct color. By definition. efficiency of . LED’s are highly monochromatic. LED light output varies with the type of chip.
not by the coloring of the 'package' (the plastic body)." and "ultrabright" to describe LED intensity. yellow. LED’s are current-driven devices. LED’s are specially constructed to release a large number of photons outward. exceeding the maximum current rating will produce excessive heat within the LED chip due to excessive power dissipation. amber. orange.6 Inside a Light Emitting Diode . Because LED’s are solid-state devices they are not subject to catastrophic failure when operated within design parameters. Additionally. The color of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material. they are housed in a plastic bulb that concentrates the light in a particular direction Fig 3. LEDs are available in red.13 individual wafer lots and other variables. Although drive current and light output are directly related. Several LED manufacturers use terms such as "super-bright. and blue and white colors. green. not voltage driven.
14 Design Parameters: Never an LED should be connected directly to a battery or power supply.5V Table 3. It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. LED Color Infrared red orange yellow green blue white ultraviolet Potential Difference 1.0V to 3.6V 3.8 to 2.4 volts (approximately) Voltage drop = 3.6 volts (typical for a blue or white LED) Desired current = 30 milliamps (typical value) .4V 2.5V 3.1 LED color vs.2V 2.6V 1.1V 2. otherwise it will burn out almost instantly and try to avoid connecting them in parallel.0V to 3. the following values are used: Source voltage = 13. An LED must have a resistor connected in series to limit the current through the LED. potential difference Equation to determine the required resistance: Resistance = (Source Voltage – LED Voltage Drop) / desired current To drive an LED from a system.5V 3.
Fig: 3.4 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY: In a typical linear power supply. 3. Then voltages from the opposite ends of the winding will be positive or negative with respect to this point .15 So the resistor we need is: (13.7 Regulated power supply To obtain a DC power supply with both positive and negative output voltages. where a third wire is attached to the middle of the secondary winding and it is taken as the common ground point. a center-tapped transformer is used. The residual periodic variation or ripple in this filtered signal is eliminated using an active regulator.4 – 3. AC line voltage is first down-converted to a smaller peak voltage using a transformer which is then rectified using a full wave bridge rectifier circuit. A capacitor filter is then used to smoothen the obtained sinusoidal signal.6) / (30 / 1000) = 327 ohms (Approximately 330 ohms).
the three leads are. and the second capacitor acts as a load balancer to ensure consistent output from the 7805. The first capacitor takes out any ripple coming from the transformer so that the 7805 is receiving a smooth input voltage. and output voltage (5 volts). Fig 3.5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF STRESS METER: . Voltage Regulator: The 7805 takes in a voltage between 7 and 30 volts and regulates it down to exactly 5 volts. The 7805 has three leads.8 Voltage regulator 3. ground.16 Care should be taken while connecting 78XX and 79XX ICs. If the 7805 is seen from the front (the side with printing on it). input voltage (7 to 30 volts). from left to right.
17 Fig 3.9 Circuit diagram of Stress meter Chapter 4 .
1 OPERATION OF THE CIRCUIT: This stress meter circuit uses just one IC and a very few number of external components.5V/R1) + (Vref/2.18 CIRCUIT OPERATION 4. LED brightness is easily controlled with a single pot. The input buffer drives 10 individual comparators referenced to the precision divider.2V to 12V independent of supply voltage.25 (1+R2/R1) + R2* 80UA I (LED) = (12. Accuracy is typically better than 1 dB. It displays the input level in terms of 10 LEDs. One more resistor programs the full-scale anywhere from 1. The LM3915 is extremely easy to apply. each of which is biased to a different comparison level by the resistor string. it needs no protection against inputs of 35V.2V fullscale meter requires only one resistor in addition to the ten LEDs. The signal is then applied to a series of 10 comparators. The following relations can be used to know the approximate values of current and reference voltages.5V of the positive supply. Further. A high input impedance buffer operates with signals from ground to 12V. and is protected against reverse and over voltage signals. The high-impedance input buffer accepts signals down to ground and up to within 1. The LM3915 IC contains an adjustable voltage reference and an accurate ten-step voltage divider. A 1. The suggested input voltage can vary from 12V to 20V.2K) . V ref = 1.
19 The outputs can drive LCDs.2 CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS: The pins 2. vacuum fluorescents and incandescent bulbs as well as LED’s of any color. Pin 9 and 11 are shorted to give a bar mode display. Pin 1 and pins 10 to 18 are connected to LED’s to be driven by the IC. 4. Multiple devices can be cascaded for a dot or bar mode display with a range of 60 or 90 dB. 6 and 7 pins are shorted and a resistor is connected across them which is grounded. LM3915s can also be cascaded with LM3914s for a linear/log display or with LM3916s for an extended-range VU meter. 4 and 8 of the LM3915 are grounded. . Pin 5 is used to connect the touch pads.3 pin is given the input voltage.
3 ROLE PLAYED BY TOUCH PADS: The touch pad which is a piezoelectric substance senses the skin resistance when touched with a finger and acts like the .1 Basic block diagram showing the operation of the circuit 4.20 Fig 4.
The following figure gives a clear idea of the principle behind the stress meter and the role played by the touch pads. The output stress level is indicated on the LED display. Conducting pad (upper) Resistance between the pads varies based on wetness and dryness of the skin of the finger Insulator strip (between the upper and lower pad) Conducting pad (lower) Side View sis Top view Fig 4.2 Role played by touch pads 4.21 input to the circuit.4 THE LED DISPLAY: . The high stress level is indicated by a warning yellow light.
The high stress detected from the dot/ bar display driver is indicated by a yellow light. When four diodes are connected as shown in figure. Threshold voltage 4.The ten LED’s act like the stress level indicators form zero stress level to high stress level on a scale of ten.5 POWER SUPPLY GENERATION: The 230 volts ac power supply is fed to the transformer and the transformer in turn is connected to a bridge rectifier circuit.1 LED Vs. LED 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 THRESHOLD 60mV 80mV 110mV 160mV 220mV 320mV 440mV 630mV 890mV 1. the circuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER.22 The output is indicated on a LED display . The input to the .25V Table 4.
With a resistive load. Most loads are inductive and the load current with these loads depends on the value of load resistance and load inductance so they do not conduct any current. supplying this voltage to the load. and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. . diodes D1 and D2 conduct. On the positive half cycle of transformer secondary supply voltage.The average output voltage is the same as that for the center-tapped transformer full-wave rectifier.23 circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network. It can be seen from the waveforms that the peak inverse voltage of the diodes is only Vm . the load current is identical in shape to the output voltage. On the negative half cycle of supply voltage. diodes D3 and D4 conduct supplying this voltage to the load.
D1 and D4 are forward biased.3 Bridge Rectifier Circuit During the negative half-cycle. including more power supply circuitry (such as the filter). electrons move through the resistor from left to right. the diodes keep switching the transformer connections to the resistor so that current always flows in only one direction through the resistor. the resistor. the top end of the transformer winding is negative. In this manner. and D4 in the direction shown by the blue arrows. Fig 4. The resistors can be replaced with any other circuit. As with the positive half-cycle. and D2 and D3 are reverse biased. Now. electrons move through D1.4 The Power supply generation . and still see the same behavior from the bridge rectifier. Therefore.24 Fig 4.
6 THE STRESS METER: . The capacitors are used as filters to smoothen the sinusoidal signals. 4.25 The output from the bridge rectifier is thus connected to voltage regulator 7805 to generate 5 volts regulated power supply to the circuit.
26 Chapter 5 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS .
On a scale of ten. .1 RESULTS: The stress meter thus detects the resistance of skin which is according to one’s mental stress and gives a visual indication on a LED display. where the LED 10 when on gives a warning yellow light high stress indication.27 5. it senses the skin resistance and hence the stress. The LED’s on the stress meter can be observed as stress level indicators form zero to ten stress levels on a scale of ten.2 ANALYSIS: Resistance varies inverse proportional to the stress. The low resistance of the skin during high stress is due to an increase in the blood supply to the skin. The high stress of a person is indicated through a warning yellow light. This increases the permeability of the skin and hence the conductivity for electric current. If the stress level is high the skin offers less resistance. The LED 1 glows by default when the circuit is on. When a person touches the touch pad of the stress meter with his finger. 5. and if relaxed resistance is high. stress levels from 0 to 10 can be observed.
Signal level indicator. A switch is used to ON/OFF the circuit.2 APPLICATIONS: Stress meter is widely applicable in various meters and indicators. . and power meters. 6. Multiple devices can be cascaded for a dot or bar mode display with a range of 60 or 90 dB. The regulated power supply used in the project gives an input voltage of 5V for the circuit to operate. The high stress level is indicated by a warning yellow light. audio.1 SUMMARY: In this project. The touch pad which is a piezoelectric substance senses the skin resistance when touched with a finger and acts like the input to the circuit. It is used as • • • • • A simple LED meter. The output stress level is indicated on the led display. In Peak detectors. The circuit uses the IC LM3915 which is a dot/bar display driver which can easily drive ten led’s with a suggested input voltage. Light.28 Chapter 6 CONCLUSION 6. is proposed a stress meter that indicates the stress level of a human being based on one’s skin resistance on a scale of ten.
• Can be used easily to regularly check one’s stress level.3 BENEFITS: • • • • The circuit is absolutely free from ambient light. LM3916s for an 6.29 • LM3915s can also be cascaded with LM3914s for a linear/log display or with extended-range VU meter. . . • Noise pulse do not have any effect on the circuit. • LED’s can withstand the voltage even if no resistors are connected across. . The components are easily available in the market and replaceable. It is economical and a low budget project. Not a complex circuit.
30 APPENDIX PIN DIAGRAM OF LM3915: .
com/dyn/resources/prod_documents/doc 0368.pdf .atmel. Comparator Gain: The ratio of the change in output current (ILED) to the change in input voltage (VIN) required to produce it for a comparator in the linear region. Adjust Pin Current: Current flowing out of the reference adjust pin when the reference amplifier is in the linear region. Specified and tested with 10V across the internal voltage divider so that resistor ratio matching error predominates over comparator offset voltage. http://www.31 DEFINITION OF TERMS: Absolute Accuracy: The difference between the observed threshold voltage and the ideal threshold voltage for each comparator.
Input Bias Current: Current flowing out of the signal input when the input buffer is in the linear region. Specified and tested with 10V across the internal voltage divider so that resistor ratio matching error predominates over comparator offset voltage. Most significant error when the voltage across the internal voltage divider is small.32 Dropout Voltage: The voltage measured at the current source outputs required to make the output current fall by 10%. As the forward voltage of an LED does not change significantly with a small change in forward current. Relative Accuracy: The difference between any two adjacent threshold points. . Load Regulation: The change in reference output voltage over the specified range of load current (IL (REF)). this is equivalent to changing the voltage at the LED anodes by the same amount. Line Regulation: The average change in reference output voltage (VREF) over the specified range of supply voltage (V+). Offset Voltage: The differential input voltage which must be applied to each comparator to bias the output in the linear region. Specified and tested with pin 6 voltage (VRHI) equal to pin 4 voltage (VRLO). LED Current Regulation: The change in output current over the specified range of LED supply voltage (VLED) as measured at the current source outputs.
Output current .33 LM3915 OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS: Output voltage Vs.
Stanley G Burns and Paul R Bond. 2008 . Roberto Bonomi. Schaum’s Outline. International Thomson publishing. 1997 3. “Stress and Mind Control”. Third Edition Errata. Principles of Electronic Circuits.34 BIBLIOGRAPHY Journals: 1. Joseph Edminster and Mahmood Nahvi. 2003 2. Electric circuits. Micro electronic circuit design. Richard C Jaegar and Travis N Blalock. dated 21/03/2008 Reference Books: 1.
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