Introduction

Earthquakes are a major geological phenomena. Man has been terrified of this phenomena for ages, as little has been known about the causes of earthquakes, but it leaves behind a trail of destruction. There are hundreds of small earthquakes around the world everyday. Some of them are so minor that humans cannot feel them, but seismographs an d other sensitive machines can record them. Earthquakes occur when tectonic plates move and rub against each other. Sometimes, due to this movement, they snap and rebound to their original position. This might cause a large earthquakes as the tectonic plat es try to settle down. This is known as the Elastic Rebound Theory. Every year, earthquakes take the lives of thousands of people , and destroy property worth billions. The 2010 Haiti Earthquake killed over 1,50,000 people and destroyed entire cities and v illages. Designing Earthquake Resistant Structures is indispensable. It is imperative that structures are designed to resist earthquake forces, in order to reduce the loss of life. The science of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Design has improved tremendously, and thus, today, we can design safe structures magnitude. The most destructive of all earthquake hazards is caused by seismic waves reaching the ground surface at places where human -built structures, such as buildings and bridges, are located. When seismic waves reach the surface of the earth at such places, they give rise to what is known as strong ground motion. Strong ground motions cause¶s buildings and other structures to move and shake in a variety of complex ways. which can safely withstand earthquakes of reasonable

Many buildings cannot withstand this movement and suffer damages of various kinds and degrees. Most deaths, injuries, damages and economic losses caused by earthquake result from ground motion acting on buildings and other manmade structures not capable of withstanding such movement. Experience in past earthquakes has demonstrated that many commo n buildings and typical methods of construction lack basic resistance to earthquake forces. In most cases this resistance can be achieved by following simple, inexpensive principles of good building construction practice. Adherence to these simple rules wi ll not prevent all damage in moderate or large earthquakes, but life threatening collapses should be prevented, and damage limited to repairable proportions. These principles fall into several broad categories:

(i)

Planning and layout of the building involvin g consideration of the location of rooms and walls, openings such as doors and windows, the number of storeys, etc. At this stage, site and foundation aspects should also be considered.

(ii)

Lay out and general design of the structural framing system with special attention to furnishing lateral resistance, and

(iii)

Consideration of highly loaded and critical sections with provision of reinforcement as required.

water supply facilities. A combination of these parameters will determine the extent of appropriate seismic strengthening of the building. ORDINARY . schools. This can cause a number of problems in the ground. which in turn becomes a hazard to all life and property. . clinics. monuments and temples. The importance of the building should be a factor in grading it for strengthening purposes. Hospitals. The effect depends on the geology of soil and topography of the land. etc. etc. meeting halls. cultural treasures such as museums. Housings. (ii) How important the building is. For categorising the buildings with the purpose of achieving seismic resistance at economical cost. (iii)How stiff is the foundation soil. offices. warehouses.and the following buildings are suggested as specially important: IMPORTANT .Earthquakes cause massive vibrations in the Earth¶s crust. communication buildings. fire and police stations. dormitories. hostels. three parameters turn out to be significant: (i) Seismic intensity zone where the building is located. factories.

This is a major objective of seismic design codes throughout the world. although they may get damaged severely but would not collapse during the strong earthquake.Severity of ground shaking at a given location duri ng an earthquake can be minor. and thereby a disaster is avoided. moderate shaking occasionally and strong shaking rarely. . safety of people and contents is assured in earthquake-resistant buildings. on average annually about 800 earthquakes of magnitude 5.9 occur in the world while about 18 for magnitude range 7.0-7. Thus. such buildings will be too robust and also too expensive. minor shaking occurs frequently.0-5. such buildings resist the effects of ground shaking.9. Thus relatively speaking. For instance. even though the life of the building may be 50 or 100 years Design Philosophy of Earthquake Resistant Structures Engineers do not attempt to make earthquake proof buildings that will not get damaged even during the rare but strong earthquake. Instead the engineering intention is to make buildings earthquake-resistant. So we should design and construct a building to resist that rare earthquake shaking that may come only once in 500 years or even once in 2000 years. moderate and strong.

you sacrifice some small parts of electrical circuit. called fuses. Earthquake resistant design is therefore concerned about ensuring that the damages in buildings during earthquakes are of acceptable variety. 3. but without collapse. Under strong but rare shaking. Likewise to save the building from collapsing you need to allow some predetermined parts to undergo the acceptable type and level of damage. and to withstand the earthquake effects with some damage. Under moderate but occasional shaking. the main members severe damage. the main members may sustain repairable damage. Such buildings have the ability to sway back-and-forth during an earthquake. but the building should not collapse. 2. these fuses are easily replaced after the electrical over-current.Design Philosophy 1. need to be built with ductility in them. while the other parts that do not car ry load may sustain repairable damage. This approach of earthquake resistant design is much like the use of electrical fuses in houses: to protect the entire electrical wiring and appliance s in the house. Earthquake resistant buildings. may sustain . and also that they occur at the right places and in right amounts. however buildings parts that do not carry load may sustain repairable damage. particularly their main elements. Under minor but frequent shaking. the main members of the buildings that carry vertical and horizontal forces should not be damaged.

(j) Breakdown of social order.Impact of Earthquakes Earthquakes do not kill people. Property. We are heavily dependent upon the civic amenities or life -lines like water supply. Livelihoods. Seismic code provisions require these buildings to be designed for higher levels of earthquake loads. Since healthcare buildings have to play a major role in case of catastrophe. (i) Disruption of marketing systems. Among all disasters that can take place. (l) Loss of industrial output. The healthcare center where everyone looks for healing. leaving a large mass of population shelte r less. Buildings as badly damaged as this require demolition. drainage. itself looking for health touch is the sad scene during earthquakes. Our heritage connects us with our ancestors and give a sense of pride and belongings. Earthquake can disturb civic amenities in a major way. health care centers have major role in natural catastrophe like earthquake. A severe earthquake can have very damaging consequences upon a region¶s development and economy. These type of facility needs to be given extra level of earthquake protection. especially buildings is caused. Tremendous loss of property. . (d) Civic amenities (e) Heritage (f) Loss of housing. additional care is needed in their design. (k) Loss of business. Since the reconstruction is difficult as well as the very sense of it being built historically is lost forever. but buildings do. Hence additional care while designing these structures is needed. The new structures can be often rebuilt but the loss of heritage is a huge loss. Lifeline like hospitals. earthquake has the maximum loss of life and limbs. electric power supply. (c) Losses to Lives. Its has its impacts on (a) Lifeline and society (b) Affects a Large number of People. (g) Damage to infrastructure (h) Disruption of transport and communication.

procedures for gauging the probability of these effects and for coping with them are outside the scope of the structural engineering discipline and so are usually not included in seismic-resistant codes. Nonetheless. These effects can be classified as µDirect¶ and µIndirect¶ (or Consequential) as follows: Direct Effects: 1. Thus the first step in the design procedure of a future structure should be the analysis of the suitability of the site selected with proper consideration for the potential of any one of the above types of damage. Although damage due to other effects may exceed that due to vibration. the following: Shaking and ground rupture . but are not limited to. Indirect Effects (or Consequential Phenomena): (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Tsunamis Seiches Landslides Floods Fires The seismic effect or damage that usually concerns the structural engineer.Effects of Earthquakes In a comprehensive design approach. it should be recognized that damage to structures and facilities may result from different seismic effects. The effects of earthquakes include. Ground failures (or instabilities due to ground failures) Surface faulting surface or fault rupture) Vibration of soil (or effects of seismic waves) Ground cracking Liquefaction Ground lurching Differential settlement Lateral spreading Landslides 2. Vibrations transmitted from the ground to the structure. is the vibration of the structure in response to ground shaking at its foundation. the structural engineer should be aware of the different seismic hazards and should advise the client of potential damage involved in locating structures at certain sites. and which is taken into account by code seismic -resistant design provisions.

can produce slope instability leading to landslides. Fires Earthquakes can cause fires by damaging electrical power or gas lines. This effect is called site or local amplification. to tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits. geomorphologic. a major geological hazard. which may be of the order of several metres in the case of major earthquakes. Soil liquefaction Soil liquefaction occurs when. because of the shaking. Specific local geological. it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started. This can be a devastating effect of earthquakes. coastal wave attack. It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits. principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. like buildings and bridges. and the local geological and geomorphologic conditions. . the distance from the epicenter. which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures. Ground rupture is a major risk for large engineering structures such as dams. and wildfires. water -saturated granular material (such as sand) temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to a liquid. The ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration. Landslides and avalanches Earthquakes. bridges and nuclear power stations and requires careful mapping of existing faults to identify any likely to break the ground surface within the life of the structure. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure. and geostructural features can induce high levels of shaking on the ground surface even from low intensity earthquakes. Landslide danger may persist while emergency personnel are attempting rescue. The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitude. volcanic activity.Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes. along with severe storms. Ground rupture is a visible breaking and displacement of the Earth's surface along the trace of the fault.

In the open ocean the distance between wave crests can surpass 100 kilometers (62 miles). Ordinarily. floods may be secondary effects of earthquakes. although some instances of this have been recorded. exceeds the total capacity of the formation. loss of life. and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future collapse) of buildings. lack of basic necessities. which then collapse and cause floods. Tsunamis can also travel thousands of kilometers across open ocean and wreak destruction on far shores hours after the earthquake that generated them. general property damage. Most destructive tsunamis are caused by earthquakes of magnitude 7. and the wave periods can vary from five minutes to one hour. Floods A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land.Tsunami Tsunamis are long-wavelength. higher insurance premiums. if dams are damaged. . Earthquakes may cause landslips to dam rivers. and as a result some of the water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body. Such tsunamis travel 600-800 kilometers per hour (373±497 miles per hour). such as a river or lake. Large waves produced by an earthquake or a submarine landslide can overrun nearby coastal areas in a matter of minutes. Human impacts Earthquakes may lead to disease. Earthquakes can also precede volcanic eruptions. long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or abrupt movement of large volumes of water.5 on the Richter scale do not cause tsunamis.5 or more. However. which cause further problems. subduction earthquakes under magnitude 7. road and bridge damage. depending on water depth. [34] Floods occur usually when the volume of water within a body of water.

Masonry can carry loads that cause compression (i. pressing together) but can hardly take load that causes tension (i.C. masonry is generally made of burnt clay bricks and cement mortar. Brittle and Ductile Building Materials I.Construction Materials In India. But now a day we are very familiar with R. pulling apart). Masonry Masonry is made up of burnt clay bricks and cement or mud mortar. most non-urban buildings are made in masonry. buildings. However in hilly areas.e. and a variety of new composite constructions materials. Thus infill walls act like sacrificial fuses in buildings: they develop cracks under severe ground shaking but they share the load of the beams and columns until cracking. Masonry is a brittle material. In the plains.e.C. stone masonry with mud mortar is more prevalent. these walls develop cracks once their ability to carry horizontal load is exceeded. .

earthquake-resistant construction techniques are as important as quality control and using correct materials. detailing of the members and their connections should be. sand. This composite material is called as reinforce d cement concrete. The properties of concrete critically depend on the amount of water used in making concrete. The destabilizing action of an earthquake on constructions may be direct (seismic motion of the ground) or indirect (earthquake-induced landslides.II. providing more steel in R. reinforcing steel can carry both tensile and compressive loads. Therefore. To achieve a good workmanship. Concrete is used with steel reinforcement bars. Steel Steel is used in masonry and concrete buildings as reinforcement bars of diameter ranging from 6mm to 40mm. The amount and location of steel in a member should be such that the failure of the member is by steel reaching its strength in tension before concrete reaches its strength in compression. This important property of ductility enables steel bars to undergo large elongation before breaking. The crucial fact is that. This type of failure is ductile failure. possibly. but again its behavior in tension is poor. and is preferred over a failure where concrete fails first in compression. retr ofitting or assembling of infrastructure given the construction materials available. III. buildings can be harmful even Earthquake Construction Typologies Earthquake construction means implementation of seismic design to enable building and non-building structures to live through the anticipated earthquake exposure up to the expectations and in compliance with the applicable building codes. Concrete is much stronger than masonry under compressive loads. for safety. A structure might have all the appearances of stability. cement and water mixed in appropriate proportions. too much and too little water both can cause havoc. Design and construction are intimately related. soil liquefaction and waves of tsunami). yet offer nothing but danger when an earthquake occurs. Moreover steel is a ductile material. simple.C. As any construction in general. Cement concrete is made of crushed stone pieces (called aggregate). Concrete Concrete is another material that has been popularly used in building construction particularly over the last four decades. . earthquake construction is a process that consists of the building.

Middle East and Southern Europe.To minimize possible losses. Adobe buildings are considered very vulnerable at strong quakes. The use of adobe is very common in some of the world's most hazard-prone regions. Each construction project requires a qualified team of professionals who understand the basic features of seismic performance of different structures as well as construction management. construction process should be organized with keeping in mind that earthquake may strike any time prior to the end of construction. Compact. Timber frame structures . Adobe structures One half of the world's population lives or works in the buildings made of earth. Key factors for the improved seismic performance of adobe construction are: y y y Quality of construction. are made of limestone. Africa. Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia. Limestone and sandstone structures Limestone is very common in architecture. Application of modern technology to seismic retrofitting can enhance the survivability of unreinforced masonry structures. including the pyramids in Egypt. However. Many landmarks across the world. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone and sandstone masonry. They are the long-lasting materials but their rather heavy weight is not beneficial for adequate seismic performance. Seismic reinforcement. multiple ways of seismic strengthen ing of new and existing adobe buildings are available. box-type layout. traditionally across Latin America. Adobe type of mud bricks is one of the oldest and most widely used building materials.

i. and connector/fastener values.e. . To achieve a ductile behavior of masonry. collectors. or drag struts.Timber framing dates back thousands of years. masonry units and mortar. it is necessary that the shear strength of the wall is greater than the tensile strength of reinforcement to ensure a kind of bending failure. Special provisions for seismic load-resisting systems for all engineered wood structures requires consideration of diaphragm ratios. Reinforced concrete structures Reinforced concrete is concrete in which steel reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibres have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. There are various practices and techniques to achieve reinforced masonry. if properly engineered. columns. In addition. Europe and medieval England in localities where timber was in good supply and building stone and the skills to work it were not. Light-frame structures Light-frame structures usually gain seismic resistance from rigid plywood shear walls and wood structural panel diaphragms. horizontal and vertical diaphragm shears. floors or bridges. The most common type is the reinforced hollow unit masonry. The effectiveness of both vertical and horizontal reinforcement strongly depends on the type and quality of the masonry. to distribute shear along a diaphragm length are required. Reinforced masonry structures A construction system is used where steel reinforcement is embedded in the mortar joints of masonry or placed in holes and after filled with concrete or grout is called reinforced masonry. and has been used in many parts of the world during various periods such as ancient Japan. It can be used to produce beams. The use of timber framing in buildings provides their complete skeletal framing which offers some structural benefits as the timber frame. lends it to better seismic survivability.

and numerous kinds of bridge system. on a prestressing. such buildings may be imme diately usable. the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) initiated development of repair techniques .A beneficial idea of prestressing was. Prestressing means the intentional creation of permanent stresses in a structure for the purpose of improving its performance under various service conditions. familiar to the ancient Rome architects. which looked earthquake -proof. Depending upon the methods used and the imposed seismic forces. primarily.. underground structures.g. or may have to be demolished. apparently. look. at the tall attic wall of Colosseum working as a press for the wall piers beneath. the concept of prestressed structure is widely engaged in design of buildings. a traditional reinforced concrete frame should have ductile joints. power stations. Naturally pre-compression is used in the exterior wall of Colosseum. floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete. TV towers. e. To prevent catastrophic collapse in response earth shaking (in the interest of life safety). stability and security depend. Steel structures Steel structures are considered mostly earthquake resistant but their resistance should never be taken for granted. otherwise. require extensive repair. surprisingly experienced brittle behavior a nd were hazardously damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. A great number of welded steel moment frame buildings. floating storage and offshore facilities. Rome. experience due to a bending load. with the own weight of a structure) Pretensioning with high-strength embedded tendons Post-tensioning with high-strength bonded or unbonded tendons Today. Prestressing tendons (generally of high tensile steel cable or rods) are used to provide a clamping load which produces a compressive stress that offsets the tensile stress that the concrete compression member would.Prestressed concrete is a kind of reinforced concrete used for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. Prestressed structures Prestressed structure is the one whose overall integrity. It can be applied to beams. nuclear reactor vessels. There are the following basic types of prestressing: y y y Pre-compression (mostly. After that.

to absorb energy and thus add damping to the system. A base isolated structure is supported by a series of bearing pads. but the building above does not move. The flexible pads are called base-isolators. it is very important to assess ability of a structure to develop and maintain its bearing resistance in the inelastic range. If the flexible pads are properly chosen. This helps in further reducing the seismic response of the building. if the same building is rested on the flexible pads that offer resistance against lateral movements. which may be observed in a material itself. Now. The main feature of the base isolation technology is that it introduces flexibility in the structure. simply. the rollers freely roll. The isolators are often designed.and new design approaches to minimize damage to steel moment frame buildings in future earthquakes. which are placed between the buildings and building foundation. For structural steel seismic design based on Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach. then some effect of the ground shaking will be transferred to the building above. in a structural element. known as base isolation. When the ground shakes. a robust medium-rise masonry or reinforced concrete building becomes extremely flexible. A measure of this ability is ductility. Base Isolation Technique The concept of base isolation is explained through an example building resting on frictionless rollers. Thus. The new provisions stipulated that new designs be substantiated by testing or by use of test verified calculations. All pre-qualified connection details and design methods contained in the building codes of that time have been rescinded. no force is transferred to the building due to the shaking of the ground. namely a fixed base building. or to a whole structure. Base Isolation It is easiest to see the principle at work by referring directly to the most widely used of these advanced techniques. the buildi ng does not experience the earthquake. whereas the structures protected by mean s of these devices are called base-isolated buildings. the forces induced by ground shaking can be a few times smaller than that experienced by the building built directly on ground. Many of the base isolators . As a result.

And in general. Acceleration is decreased because the base isolation system lengthens a buildings period of vibration. the time it takes for a building to rock back and forth and then back again. the bearing is fitted with steel plates which are used to attach the bearing to the building and foundation. The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical direction. In the middle of the solid lead ³plug´. but flexible in the horizontal direction.look like large rubber pads. During an earthquake the building is free to slide on the bearings. this property can be used to design bearings that also lengthen the buildings period of vibration . The building is supported by bearing pads that have a curved surface and low friction. Also. A lead rubber bearing is made from layers of rubber sandwiched together with layers of steel. base isolation is not suitable for all buildings. The base isolated building itself escapes the deformation and damage -which implies that the inertial forces acting on the base isolated building have been reduced. Also by adjusting the radius of the bearings curved surface. Since the bearings have a curved surface. Spherical Sliding Base Isolation Spherical sliding isolation systems are another type of base isolation. The forces needed to move the building upwards limits the horizontal or lateral forces which would otherwise cause building deformations. while those with shorter periods tend to increase or amplify acceleration. oncept of Base Isolation Lead-rubber bearings are the frequently-used types of base isolation bearings. Mostly low to medium rise buildings rested on hard soil underneath. the building slides both horizontally and vertically. high -rise buildings or buildings rested on soft soil are not suitable for base isolation. Experiments and observations of base-isolated buildings in earthquakes to as little as ¼ of the acceleration of comparable fixed -base buildings. Response of Base Isolated Buildings The base-isolated building retains its original. structures with longer periods of vibration tend to reduce acceleration. although there are other types that are based on sliding of one part of the building relative to other. rectangular shape. On top and bottom.

and regular in plan and elevation to prevent significant torsional forces. structural system. 2. The importance of a proper selection of the superstructure configuration will be discussed and illustrated for the case of building structures. 4. of course. Building (superstructure and nonstructural components) should be light and avoid unnecessary masses. 3. These basic guidelines are as follows: 1. there are certain basic or guiding principles of seismic-resistant design that can be used as guidelines in selecting an adequate building configuration structural layout. no universal ideal configuration for any particular type of building. strength and ductility. avoiding large heightwidth ratio and large plan area. Building and its superstructure should be simple. symmetric. However.Guidelines One of the most critical decisions influencing the ability of a superstructure to withstand earthquake ground shaking is the choi ce of its basic plan shape and configuration. avoiding formation of soft stories. Superstructure should have relatively shorter spans than nonseismic-resistant structure and avoid use of long cantilevers. Building structures may be of many types and configurations and there is. stiffness. Building and its superstructure should have a uniform and continuous distribution of mass. . structural material and the non-structural components.

9.5. it should be composed of different tough structural subsystems which interact or are interconnected by very tough structural elements (structural fuses) whose inelastic behavior would permit the whole structure to find its way out from a critical stage of dynamic response. 8. Superstructure should be provided with balanced stiffness and strength between its members. 7. and toughness with stable hysteric behavior (that is. the less sensitive it will be to effect of sudden failure of the interacting non-structural elements. The stiffness and strength of the entire building should be compatible with the stiffness and strength of . The stiffer the structure. The non-structural components should either be well separated so that they will not interact with the rest of the structure. or they should be integrated with the structure. and the tougher it is. it is desirable that the structure should have sufficient lateral stiffness to avoid significant damage under minor and moderate earthquake shaking. stiffness and deformability) under the repeated reversal of deformations which could be induced by severe earthquake ground motion. the less sensitive it will be to the effects of the interacting non-structural components. 6. On the latter case. that is. Superstructure should have the largest possible number of defense lines. connections and supports. stability of strength. Superstructure should be detailed so that the inelastic deformations can be constrained (controlled) to develop in desired regions and according to a desirable hierarchy.

28. under the combined effects of normal environments and extreme earthquake ground . 29]. Specific educational and integrated analytical and experimental research and development needs have been discussed in detail in several publications [12.the soil Research alone is not enough. analytical and experimental studies must be augmented by development work [27]. 13. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN THE LAST TWO DECADES Despite many unresolved problems in predicting the behavior of buildings and civil engineering structures in general.

A few example of the experimental research conducted in the Structural Laboratories of the University of California at Berkeley are illustrated in Slides J109-J113. Two-story column-deep girder assemblage after being subjected to severe hysteretic behavior. There is a significant body of knowledge regarding the problems caused by extreme earthquake shaking that has been gained through integrated experimental and analytical research conducted in different research institutions in the world. J110. The need for improving the behavior of short columns has been emphasized by the numerous failures of this type of column in recent earthquakes. Methods to improve the hysteretic behavior of the short columns have been developed. simulating the expected behavior of this assemblage in tall buildings subjected to severe ground shaking. By using the correct amount and detailing of longitudinal and particularly lateral reinforcement it has been possible to attain tough short columns capable of dissipating a significant amount of en ergy before resistance is lost [30]. Note the excellent behavior of the properly confined concrete [30]. Test set-up for studying the seismic behavior of short column-spandrel deep girder subassemblages. J109. our understanding has advanced significantl y in the last two decades. A series of integrated analytical and experimental studies has been conducted to investigate the behavior of this type of main assemblage that has been used frequently in buildings located in regions of high seismic risk.motions. .

From this study and similar integrated experimental and analytical research. 32]. J113. Weak column-strong girder assemblage of a steel moment-resistant frame.J111. . This is the 1/5 scale model of the prototype studied experimentally using a pseudo-dynamic technique at the large testing facility of the BRI at Tsukuka. These studies have been conducted as part of a comprehensive US-Japan Cooperative Research Program. J112. Note in this slide that all the inelastic deformations occurred in the beams in regions away from the face of the column. planned to improve the seismic-resistant design and construction of buildings [34]. a series of recommendations has been made regarding the compactness of steel structural shapes as well as the design of beam -column joints in steel moment-resistant frames subject to severe seismic shaking and requiring significant dissipation of energy through inelastic behavior (ductility). have shown that it is possible to achieve good stable hysteretic behavior [31. and therefore keeping the joint elastic. In the experiments conducted on subassemblages of ductile reinforced concrete moment-resistant frames it has been observed that there was significant degradation in stiffness and strength of frames with repeated cycles of deformation reversal. Slide showing the local buckling of a column of the subassemblage that has been subjected to high axial forces and shear reversals simulating the effect of seismic excitations. The design can avoid or minimize this problem by avoiding the formation of the critical regions (plastic hinges) at the faces of the columns. Berkeley. A 1/5 scale model of the US-Japan 2-story reinforced concrete test structure on the shaking table of the earthquake simulator facility at the University of California. Experiments conducted at Berkeley on subassemblages in which the plastic hinges have been moved away from the columns as illustrated in this slide. Strong column-weak girder assemblage of a ductile moment-resistant reinforced concrete frame. The main sources of this problem have been identified as high shear and/or high bond stress through the joint. the Science City of Japan.

edu/bertero/html/earthquakeresistant_construction.berkeley.architectjaved.The results of the tests conducted have indicated the importance of the three-dimensional interacting behavior of walls and surrounding frames and of the significance of rocking and growth of the wall at the base. Important recommendations for improving the states of the practice and of the art in seismic-resistant design and construction of reinforced concrete frame-wall systems have been made.html . References http://articles. and the consequential outriggering action that the surrounding frames will exert on the walls. based on the results offered in this cooperative research program. The results obtained have also indicated the need for considering the contribution of slab reinforcement to the negative moment capacity of the girders cast monolithically with the floor slabs.com/earthquake_resistant_structures/tag/ea rthquakes/ http://nisee.

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