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Published by: mira18jan on Oct 20, 2010
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Total Quality Management


Ergonomics Definition
‡ The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.

Ergonomics/Human Factors Engineering
‡ Science of fitting tasks to man ‡ Derived from two Greek words ergon & nomos (work & natural laws) ‡ Areas of Anatomy , Physiology ,Psychology , Physics , Mathematics , Material Science & Design ‡ Consists of 2 groups of specialist (i) machine & processes (ii) human capabilities ‡ Hence, ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands

The Ultimate Goal



The goal of ergonomics is to design the job to fit the worker, NOT fit the worker to the job.

At Bethlehem Steel." ‡ Wojciech Jastrzebowski created the word ergonomics in 1857 in a philosophical narrative. "based upon the truths drawn from the Science of Nature" ‡ Scientific Management. Frederick W. Taylor dramatically increased worker production and wages in a shoveling task by matching the shovel with the type of material that was being moved (ashes. coal or ore). "De Morbis Artificum (Diseases of Workers).Roots of Ergonomics ‡ Bernardino Ramazinni (1633-1714) wrote about work-related complaints (that he saw in his medical practice) in the 1713 supplement to his 1700 publication. Taylor was a pioneer of this approach and evaluated jobs to determine the "One Best Way" they could be performed. became popular. . a method that improved worker efficiency by improving the job process.

is now widely attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrell who led the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. ‡ World War II . still crashed. materials and the job process. a lieutenant in the U. ‡ The growing demand for and competition among consumer goods and electronics has resulted in more companies including human factors in product design. flown by the best-trained pilots. the number of motions in bricklaying was reduced from 18 to 4. however. Army.S. . it was observed that fully functional aircraft. ‡ The coining of the term Ergonomics. By applying this approach.‡ Frank and Lillian Gilbreth made jobs more efficient and less fatiguing through time motion analysis and standardizing tools.5 allowing bricklayers to increase their pace if laying bricks from 120 to 350 bricks per hour. Alphonse Chapanis. showed that this so-called "pilot error" could be greatly reduced when more logical and differentiable controls replaced confusing designs in airplane cockpits. In 1943.

Principles of Ergonomics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Safety Comfort Ease of use Productivity and performance Aesthetics .

decisionmaking and other mental workloads. ‡ Cognitive Ergonomics Cognitive Ergonomics relates to the way the mind processes information it is presented with and associated motor functions. everything from teamwork to assessing tele working and quality management.Types of Ergonomics ‡ Physical Ergonomics Physical ergonomics is concerned with the way the body interacts with the workers' tools (anything from shovels to chairs to personal computers) and their effects on the body such as posture. workplace layout and workplace health and safety. ‡ Organizational Ergonomics Organizational Ergonomics is concerned with optimizing the workplace. musculoskeletal disorders. repetitive disorders. memory usage. .

information sciences) Human output characteristics (biomechanics. engineering.) Organisational restructuring (organisational theory) Culture & motivation (psychology. graphic design) Working practices & business processes (design. sociology) Systems design (systems engineering principles. OR. management.Ergonomist s Consideration ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Physical size and shape (anthropometry & biomechanics) Physical needs (physiology & biology) Body rhythms (chronobiology) Human input characteristics (physiology. psychology. psychology. business methods. psychology. physics) Information and decisions (graphic design. sensory psychology. psychology. physiology. forensics) Data capture & analysis (statistics. disaster studies) . communication studies) Environmental tolerances (biology.

) . a switch on a control board is switched on accidentally it may mean the switch should be moved to prevent accidental operation. for example.Why Ergonomics? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduces the potential for injury and ill health (therefore costs) Increases efficiency Saves time Improved Quality Improves employee morale Reduces absenteeism Improve productivity and performance Accidents can be reduced through better design of controls(If. This is ergonomics in action.

Applications ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Aerospace Aging Health care IT Product Design Transportation Training Nuclear and Virtual environment .

Other areas being Explored ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ergonomics for Children Ergonomics for Women Extraordinary Ergonomics Light Ergonomics Phone Ergonomics .

as the one who takes action . as a reader of display from the machine ‡ Man.Role in Product & Equipment Design ‡ Man . as an occupant of space ‡ Man .

but in some extreme cases its could go upto 2.05m. but ranges ‡ Eg most adults range between 1. 50th and 95th percentiles ‡ Use of manikins for design .Man .50m 1. as an occupant of space ‡ Anthropometry ‡ Not averages . ‡ 5th .85m tall .

. a quantitative speed reading would show that you are driving at 30 miles per hour. a spot moving across a map representing the position of an aircraft. as a reader of display from the machine ‡ Pictorial Display direct representation of the real situation.can provide information the general situation rather than numerical (e. For example.A quantitative display provides information in terms of numerical values. For example a light indicating low oil pressure rather than units.g. on or off). ‡ Quantitative Display .Man . For example . ‡ Qualitative Display .

as the one who takes action ‡ A control is a device that enables an operator to change the state of momentum ‡ Converts output of operator into the input of a machine (connecting links) ‡ Handwheel ‡ Crank ‡ Thumbwheel ‡ Knob ‡ Toggle Switch ‡ Joystick ‡ Lever ‡ Footpedal ‡ Treadle ‡ Handle ‡ Note Which limb to be used for which purpose (Eg foot best for provision of powerful continuous force and hands speed and precision .Man.



height and slope of seats .Design Implications ‡ Small variations of all postures should be made possible ‡ Appropriate location of controls and display ‡ Provision of back rest ‡ Provision of arm rest and placement of hand controls ‡ Size .

Ergonomic Risk Factors Static Loading Repetition Force Risk of injury increases with:  Prolonged exposure to any of these ergonomic risk factors  Presence of multiple risk factors within a single job task .

Space key . muscles. such as those affecting the spinal discs. Eg.Musculoskeletal Disorders/Repetitive Strain Injuries ‡ MSD is a term that refers to a broad range of soft tissue disorders. blood vessels. tendons or ligaments. 1000 mouse clicks per day . joints. ligament damage. routine activities. Carpal tunnel syndrome ‡ RSIs represent the accumulation of many small injuries suffered during daily.669 times per hour of active computer use. which can cause nerve compression. nerves. cartilage. muscle strain and joint damage small injuries that begin to add up. These injuries result from decreased blood flow or strain to the affected areas of the body.

Facts study by Microsoft ‡ Average desktop computer use rate of 5.8 hours per day. Worse.500 for worker s compensation costs ‡ Worker productivity and effectiveness have also been shown to diminish ‡ 632 newly hired computer users for up to three years and found that over 50 percent of them reported repetitive strain symptoms during the first year of their new job. accounting for 69 percent of their total working hours ‡ Injury leads to an average of 12 lost days of work ‡ Costs on average $38. 68 percent of the reported RSI symptoms were deemed to be severe enough to be classified .


Shoulder height ‡ Control panels should be placed between shoulder and waist height. ‡ Keep frequently used materials and tools close to and in front of the body.Ergonomics For Workspace Design Head height ‡ Position displays at or below eye level because people naturally look slightly downward. . ‡ Avoid placing above shoulder height objects or controls that are used often. Arm reach ‡ Place items within the shortest arm reach to avoid over-stretching while reaching up or outward.

Elbow height ‡ Adjust work surface height so that it is at or below elbow height for most job tasks. Hand size ‡ Hand grips should fit the hands. Leg length ‡ Adjust chair height according to leg length and the height of the work surface. Hand height ‡ Make sure that items that have to be lifted are kept between hand and shoulder height. with enough space for long legs. . Body size ‡ Allow enough space at the workstation for the largest worker. ‡ Provide an adjustable footrest so that legs are not dangling and to help the worker change body position. ‡ Allow space so that legs can be outstretched.

Workstation .

The job should be designed to allow the worker to keep the arms low and the elbows close to the body .

Position of Back and Legs ‡ Lift the object close to your body otherwise the muscles of the back and the ligaments stretch and the pressure in the intervertebral discs increases ‡ Tense your stomach and back muscles so that your back stays in the same position all the time you are lifting .

Appropriate Hand Position .

Position of the arms and grip ‡ Try to grasp the object firmly using your whole hands at right angles to your shoulder .

one foot pointing slightly in the direction of the lift.Lifting to the side ‡Lifting a weight and twisting the body at the same time increases the risk of back injury. . ‡Place your feet in a walking position. Lift the object and then shift the weight of the body onto the foot in the turning direction.

Position of the Legs ‡ Keep your feet apart to maintain your balance well ‡ Stand close to the object. the safer it is to lift . The closer you can get to the object.

‡ First raise the object to chest level.Lifting Upward ‡ Place your feet in a walking position. ‡ Then begin pushing upwards by moving your feet out in order to get the object moving and shift the weight of your body onto the front foot. .

‡ Women: . . . . . repeatedly 35 kg. . . . .. . . . . . occasionally 55 kg. . . . . . . . repeatedly 20 kg. . . . . . . . . ‡ The maximum weights recommended by the International Labour Organization are: ‡ Men: . occasionally 30 kg. . . . . . . . .. . .Lifting with others ‡ The lifting movements must be made at the same time and at the same speed.

.Carrying ‡ Carry objects close to your body ‡ Spread the weight evenly over both hands.

Clothing .

On some jobs arm supports and rests may reduce arm fatigue .


Good Ergonomics .

Bad Ergonomics .

. Red is a hardcore understanding of stop/danger.Ergonomic Issue the design of the product is away from standard norms.

they do not stand out as they are nicely integrated. they are almost invisible! Moreover. all of them including the on/off button .‡Black controls on a black background.

(ii) obstructs gear movement .‡ Ergonomic Issue The placement of the cup holder is bad because .(i) hinders access to the music player .

‡ Design suggestion . For example .This picture shows the inside of one of the main doors in a large commercial jetliner.have a sign or signal (red light) that automatically occurs when the slide is activated. the attendant attaches this red strip across the window. it would be better to have an automatic way of doing that step. the flight attendant attaches the emergency slide on the inside of the door. .When there is a strong likelihood of forgetting a critical step in a hazardous procedure. Opening the door could be deadly since the emergency slide would automatically inflate. It is meant to signal to a person outside to not open the door. After closing the door.‡ Ergonomic Issue . After attaching the slide.

Kitchen Ergonomics Consider the current ergonomics of your kitchen. Ensure you incorporate the classic triangle rule. where the sink. when designing the layout of your space. oven and refrigerator sit in a triangular formation. .

BMW X6 Ergonomics .

Head-Up Display in the BMW X6.Upon your Level. ‡ Information can be read faster. easy-to-read image. adjusted for ambient light conditions. and the driver's attention is never distracted from the road ahead. ‡ The height of the display can even be adjusted so that information is always projected in the driver's optimal field of vision. . with a focal point just above the bonnet. ‡ Presents important information directly in the driver's viewing field. ‡ A unit in the dashboard projects the data onto the windscreen as a clear.

‡ The Control Display. The iDrive control concept on the BMW X6. and your thoughts. ‡ Frequently used features can be assigned to one of the eight favourite buttons. free to focus on the pleasure of driving. informs and guides you with ease leaving your gaze.Information at your fingertips. . optimally situated above the central console.

Adaptive Headlights of the BMW X6. ‡ Sensors constantly monitor the car s speed and steering angle. the low-beam settings complement the Adaptive Headlights by activating an extra reflector in the inner fog lights to light up the road ahead. then calculate curve progressions accordingly. ‡ When you turn left or right. .All-round vision.

offer not only additional comfort when manoeuvring. one on the left and one on the right. ‡ The images obtained. Camera systems in the BMW X6. transmitted to the Control Display. the driver is also able to monitor the side area of the vehicle making it easy to check their distance to the curb when parking. ‡ Two additional front-end cameras are integrated in the front bumper.Giving you eyes where you need them. ‡ And thanks to the Top View. but also give the driver an immediate overview of traffic conditions around the car when driving through a narrow gate or leaving a car park. .

. thanks to an infrared camera that transmits images to the Control Display. BMW Night Vision ‡ This optional system reveals objects up to 300 metres ahead of the vehicle.Identifying danger.

‡ The company also purchased adjustable chairs.Textile manufacturer Fieldcrest Cannon Case ‡ A drop of more than 80% Ergonomic Solutions Adopted ‡ Engineering controls such as springs for the material-handling boxes. 150 100 121 50 21 0 1993 1996 MSD . ‡ An improved bagging system.

Bagging Systems Eng. Spring Adjustable Chair .

824 $61. ‡ Job rotation. Workers Compensation Costs Workers Compensation Costs $103.Woodpro Cabinetry Inc ‡ Decrease of almost 40 in % workers' compensation costs Ergonomic Solutions Adopted ‡ Dropping the conveyor belt so workers had easier access to the tops of cabinets ‡ Installing conveyors to minimize manual lifting ‡ Angled tables to reduce bending and reaching.000 Before After .

Adjustable Table Conveyor Belts .

It Costs Less to Be Safe Average cost of common WMSDs*: Low back: $6. 40-4a-2000 .500 Average cost of common controls: Hydraulic lift: $600 Adjustable height workstation: $800 Powered screwdriver: $100 Assembly work positioner: $75 * Source: SHARP Report No.000 Wrist: $5.000 Shoulder: $7.000 Elbow: $4.

com http://www.com/resources/reference/history.search.yahoo.osha.ergoweb.org http://www.itcilo.cfm http://docs.hfes-europe.gov http://www.asp?c=21 http://southernstar.ergonomics4schools.com http://www.Bibliography ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ http://www.com www.org/badergo/bad29.com http://www.co.com .yhs4.ergoweb.whereilive.htm http://us.safetynewsandreviews.in http://actrav.uk/article.bmw.google.

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