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History and Evolution of Architecture

History and Evolution of Architecture

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Published by: Blog_royaltyuniverse on Oct 20, 2010
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History and Evolution of Architecture

Posted by admin On December 10, 2009 6:07 AM The professional service rendered by architects is known as architecture . It is basically the science and art of conceptualizing, designing, and constructing buildings and other structures either for human shelter or for other purposes such as storage, production, entertainment, or exhibition. In the wider sense, the scope of architecture ranges from the planning and design of the entire building environment of a place or town to the detailed designing and entire construction details of a single structure even to the minutest detail. Often, famous works of architecture have been identified as cultural symbols and also as works of art. Many historical civilizations have also been made famous due to their architectural uniqueness.
Origin And History The earliest known form of architecture evolved from the interaction between the basic survival needs and the available resources. Through the process of trial and error and gradual technological evolution and progress with the help of improvisation and replication, architecture took the form of a craft. This formed the basis of vernacular manner that can be witnessed even today. The gradual progress from rural living to the urban arena saw the magnificence of architecture as in Catal Huyuk in Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro in undivided India. The early civilizations saw the splendid architecture of the Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Persians, Greek, and Romans, each with its own distinct style. In Asia, architecture , sometimes, was developed along religious lines with different characteristics. The Roman Colosseum and the Egyptian Pyramids are examples of their cultural symbols. The medieval period saw the emergence of Islamic architecture which also influenced European styles of that period. The Renaissance period emphasized on the individual and humanity instead of religion and buildings were dedicated to the architects such as Michelangelo, Palladio, Alberti, and Brunelleschi. The early modern and the industrial age saw the emergence of new materials and technology and the architects started to get formal education and training starting from the drawing board. The industrial revolution at this stage helped the production of better quality materials for construction purposes. The modern age viewed structural design as a convenient blend of art, craft, and technology. Emphasis shifted from historical styles, which were reminiscent of the declining aristocratic order, to a new style that focused on the aspirations of the middle and working classes. The modernist architects reduced buildings to pure form with functionalist details based on everyday needs of people and creating a livable environment. Architecture in the modern times has become more multi-disciplinary, and it needs a team of specialists with the architect as the leader of the team. In the past three decades, specialization has split up the architectural field into design and project arenas. The concept of environmental sustainability has now pervaded architectural thought and most modern architects like Ian McHarg of US and Brenda and Robert Vale of the UK and New Zealand have pioneered the integration of green building sustainable design principles into their architectural projects. The Dynamic Tower is an example of a green building that will have wind turbines and solar panels for its power needs. The famous architects from the nineteenth century till date include Adolf Loos, Albert Kahn, Aldo Rossi, Alvaro Sizza, Carlo Scarpa, Frank Gehri, Henry Hobson, Charles Eames, James Stirling, ario BottaRichard Meier, Paolo Soleri, and Tadao Ando among many more.

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