EIIITOMO EKAA·I·KEYMENO

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EnlTOMO

EHnn'iHEYMENO

A4ItIEPO%lH TOY "KEcltAAAIOY .. AnO '.l'ON KAPA MAPS

. A41IEPQMENO

~TON A:a:EXA~TO ~IAO MOr, TON 8APAAEO, llI~TO KI' ErrENII TIPQTOllOPO TOr llPOAET APIATor

BIAXE.AM BO.A<I>

nor rENNH8HKE ~TO TAPNAor ~Tl~ 21 lorN lor 1809

KAJ IIE8ANE E:a:OPI~TO~ ~TO MANT~E~TEP ~TI~ 9 MA'I'or 1864

-

IIPOAOrOIJ TOY KAOYTIJKY

~TH nArKO~MIA eptAOAoy1(t AE1'1tEt &.x0!1"fj EV(t 6t6A10 'ltOU v~ auvo~l~'l tt~ ob!.Ov0!1"te~ 9EwplE~ 'tou Ma.p~, v~ 'tt~ h9it'l ')(.(tt v~ 'tt~ E'ltE~"fjyij [I.e 'tPO'ltO ')(.(t't(tVO"fj'tO a'tou~ 'ltOAAOU~. 'A'It(tpxe~ yt~ !1t~ 'ti'tt(t &py~al(t aytv(tv 'ltOAAi~, !1~ E!1EtV(tV &'ltoa'lt(ta[l.(t'tt')(.i~.

To fMA(o 'tou'to E!V(tt !1t~ 'ltpOa'lta.9Et(t yt~ v~ YEp,Ca"fj 'to xa.a~ 'ltOU lma.pXEt ~ 'tOUAa.XtO'tO yt~ v~ aU!1oa.A'Y) a' (tU'to 'to lpyo.

~'t'Y)pC~E't(tt epUOt')(.~ E'lta.VW ato ')(.UptwtEPO EpyO 'tau Ma.p~, 'to «KEepa.A(ttO», ')(.(tt (tU'tO &xOAou9EL at~v ')(.(tta.t(t~"fj 'tij~ UA"fj~. T~ tiAA(t ot')(.ovo[l.t')(.~ auyypa.[I.[l.IX't(t tou Ma.p; X(1)at!10'ltotlj9'Y)')(.O:v !10VO ae [l.tpt')(.il. O1J[l.ELO: yt~ 't~v Oto:epwtta1) ouo')(.oAwtepWv xwplwv, ~ yt~ 'ltAIX'tutE(1) tXva.Aua'Y) tW'I lOEWV 'ltOU e!v(tt Ot(ttU'ltW!1iVE~ atO «KEcpa.AI1.to» •

~'l<.O'lt0~ tOU otOA10u eLv(tt 'ltPO'lta.v'twv v~ ')(.a.v'Y) yvwa'te~ tt~ toie~ 'ltOU 'ltEptiXOVt(tt ato «KEcpa.A(ttQ» ae 1500u~ oev aXou'l 'tOv. ')(.(ttPO l) t~ [l.ia(t v~ !1EAetljaouv 'to LOtO 'to «KecpcXA(ttO». '0 auyyp(tcpi(t~ 0!1w~ &A'ltl~Et 'ltoo~ ')(.(t1 1500u~ EXOUV 'to «KerpcXA(ttO» 9~ 'tou~ eU'l<.OAUvYJ at~ !1EAEt'Y) tou ')(.IXt 'ltoo~ &m'tiAou~ 'ltonou~ 9~ a1tpw;1) v~ to ot(toa.aouv ato 'ltPWtOtU'ltO, 'ltOU oav 'to ota.6aa(tv, ehe yt(ttl axouv !arp(t),p.iv'Y) tXvtlAYJ4YJ yt' rxu'to, eL'tE yt(t'tt o! oua')(.oA1E~ 'tou 'ltpw'tou 'tp.ljp.(t'to~ 'tou tou~ EtpO!1IX;IXV x(ti 'tou~ EXO:VIXV v' &.rpljoouv t~ [l.EAitYJ DAOU tOU lpyou.

Tl'1to't(t oev e!v(tt mo &acpo:Ap.EVO eX.'ltO t~V toi(t 'ltoo~ ta.X(t to ucpo~ tOU «KEepIXA(t10u» E!VIXt ;EPO xIX1 oua')(.oAO'101)tO. '0 auyypIXrpiIX~ oa yvwpl~Et ')(.(tvivIX 0(;(,0- Yop.t')(.o EpyO 'ltOU 6~ [I.'ltopouae va. p.E'tp"fj6ij p.e 'to «KErpa.AIXtO» ae aO:'PljvEt(t ')(.(tt ~wYJPot'Y)'ta tij~ h6EOYJ~ tWV lOEWV, 'ltOAAe; rpope; ae &}'YJ9tv~ ')(.Aaaat')(.~ o[l.oprpt~ tOU uepou;.

K(tt op.w; e!VlXt 'tOOO OUO'l<.OAO'lO'Y)'tO!

~a p.ept')(.a. 'tou p.ipYJ eX.ocplX),li)~. Tou'to, O[l.W;, oav orpelAEtlXt ato urpo~.

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(VulgarOkonomie) , OE XP£ta.~OVtctt 'ltEptaOO'tEp£; yvwaEt~tX'It' oa£~ eX.'ltOX't1l ')(.a.6e ay9pw'lt0~ att; auYIXAA(tyi~ 'tou ')(.a.ge llipct.

rt~ 't~Y ')(.(t'tctvo'Yja"fj 0!-Lw. 'tou «Ke<paAct£ot»)'tou Ma.p;, Evo; apyou O'Y)I..IXO~

IIPOAOrOI TOT KAPA KAOTTIKT

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"O'ltOLO~ oay ~EPEL, a.~ e!YIX.L ,)(IXL Alyo 110'10, ta. YEYOYOtlX &''lt0 ta. O'itorIX. (; Ma.p~ lOYIXAE tou~ ot,)(Oyo(.Lt')(ou~ tOU yO(.LOU~, YL' IXUtOY ~ ~YYOLIX. tWY yO(.LWY tOUtWY 9a. (.LElY1) a')(OtELY~. Moyo lXutO~ O~ oLlXati'j ya. (.LLA~a1) YL~ (.LuatL,)(La(.LO ,)(IX.1 !y')(eALIX.YLa- 1-'-0 tOU M6.p~. Autoy O£ O~ tOY w~eA~(1) aa t('ltOtlX OUtE ~ alX~Eate(1) ~')(gea1) toO ')(oa(.Lou.

KIX.L toOtO &.,)(PLOW~ E!YIX.L ,)(lXta. ~ yvwl-'-1) ~IX.~ to mo E'ltL')(lyouyo E(.L'ltOOLO "(La. ')(6.ge 'ltpoa'lt1igeLIX. 'ltOU Y(YEtIXL ya hAaL,)(EUtij to «KE~IiAIXLo». '0 Mlip~ lypIX.4e 15- ao ll'ltOpOUaE y~ Y(Y1) 'ltEpLaaOtEpO hAlXt,)(Eu(.LEylX. "O'ltOU EtYIXL oua,)(oAoyo1)tO~, lxet oa ~tlX£EL ~ yAW a a IX, ~ 'to 9EI1IX. ')(al (; &. 'I IX. Y 'I W a't 'Y) ~. "AY 'ltpoa'ltIX9~(1) ,)(IX.yEylX~ Ya v-e'tIX.~plia'Y) a'ta. a'f}(.Le!1X IX.tha. tij «oua')(oAOyo1)'t1)) "(AwaalX toO Ma.p~ O'a aAA1) Oij9EY mo ethOAOYO"IJ't1) yAwaaIX., 9~ x6.(1) 'tote 'ltOAU ~ bp!oeLIX t1l~ ~')(- 9E'j1)~. 'R hAlXt,)(E41) oYjAlXoij XLYOUYEOEL Ya hxuolXt(1) 't1) (.LIXP~LXij 9EWpllX.

'0 auyyplX~EIX~ EtOE 'ltOAU ,)(1X9IX.pa 'liOY ')(lyouYo IXUtO. To ~~t1)1..I.1X YL' IX.thoy Oay ~'tay 'I' &;AAIi~1) &'ltAW~ 'tij yAwaaa. '0 Mlip~, l3'1tw~ EL'ltIX[.Le, EXEL ypli4EL toao AIX.Lxa ,)(1X1 'too'o AIX')(WYLXa ,)(1X1 &;,)(PLOOAOYIX., 'ltOU auxya yL~ 'I' &'lt01l1X')(puy9ij ,)(IX.yEYIX~ &'lt0 'tl~ rOLE~ 'tOU 'tl~ AE~EL~ 'ltE~tEL ae &YlXxpl6ELe~. I'r' IX.u'to (; auyypIX.~EIX' 'ltona &'ltoa'lt6.alllX.'tlX. &''lt0 't~ lpylX 'toO M6.p~ 't~ IlE'tIX.~apeL a'to OLOA(O tOO'tO ,)(1X'ta AE~1). E!YIX.L IlEalX aa e£O'IX."(WyLXa. ,)(IX.l, l3'1tou Oay &.YIX~EPE'tIX.L an1) 'lt1)y~, 'lt6.p91l')(IXY ebo 'to «KE~IiAIXLO».

~,)(01tO~ 'toO oLoAlou E!YIX.L &''lt0 to EyIX. (.LEpO~ Ya tPIX.O~~1) 't1JY 'ltpoaOX1J toO 4- vIX.yywO''t'Yj a'ta YEYOYOr.IX. 'ltOU EtVIX.L ~ oa.a'Yj 'tWY 9EWP'YP:LXWY &YIX.AUIlEWY. KIX.L 'tou'tO ~'tIX.Y &YIX.yxlXro ')(uplw~ ato 'ltpw'to IlEpO~. Kt' (; LOLO~ (; Mlip~ &YIX~E(91)')(e 'ltOAAE~ ~OpE~ a'ta yeyovo'tlX. IX.utli, auxv~ Ollw~ 1l0VO tJ.E u'ltIX.Wtyl-'-0u~ 'ltOU tl~ 'ltepLaO'o'te?e~ ~OpE~ 0 &vIX.YYwa't'Y)~ tl~ 'ltlXplioAE'lte. ~! IlnIX. (.LEp'Y) 'lt6.At 0 auyypIX.~EIX.~ xpet~at1)'X.E v' &VIX.~Ep'Y) WPLO'IlEVIX. yeyovo'tlX. ,)(lXt 'lt1X.?IX.OEtYIlIX.'t1i OL,)(a. 'tou.

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~ta IlEp'Y) 'ltOU 'ltpIXYl-'-lXteOov'tIX.L YLa tij YEWte(1) 6LO(.L'YlXlXvlcx. cpcx.!YEtcx.L 'ltOAU

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ru-oxoro s TOT KAPA KAOTT~KT

xwpt~ ')ta.llt~ 'ltpo')ta.'t~PX'ttl<.~ yvwaYj. ~'t~ IlEpYj a.u't~ 'to l<.a.()ijl<.OV 'tou auyypa.'PEa. ~'ta.v &no. '0 IltXPO~ xwpo~ "Cou 6t6A£OU 1l0VO "C~ a'ltouoa.tO'tEPa. &''It' a.u't~ 't~ 'ltP~Ila.ta. ~'ltE'tPE'ltE v' &'va.'PEp()OUV. 'Eow 'ltt~ 'to ~~'tYjIl~ ~'t~V 'ltw~ 1l0AOV'tou't0 ()ar. xpa.'touaE 'to 6t6Alo 'tov to'tOPlXO XIXPIXX'tijplX 'twv 8EWpYJ'tt')twv &'VIXAU'lEWV, W'l'tE v~ I.L~V 'ltCl.po!JOt&.~wv'ta.t £axuptal'-0t &.a't~ptx'tOt xa.t xwpt~ 't~ ta'topt')t~ yEYOVO't1X 'Ito,) EXOUV '\'t~ o&.aYj 'to')~.

'H ~pya.a(a. 'tothYJ oav EtVlXt 1l0VO Ilt~ lx()EaYj 'twv ()EWptWV 'tou M&'p~. E!vlXt E'ltlaYj~ gvCI.~ oO'r),\,o~ yt~ 't~ IlEAE'tYj 'twv EpyWV 'tou M~p~ a'to 'ltpw'to'tu'lto.rt' IXU'to 0 auyypa.'PEa.~ o£v ~o(a'tlXaE a'r)llEt~ 'ltOU ')t(X."C~ 't~ yvwll'r) 't(1) E!Xa.V )'lyo 'ltpOaEX'tat Yj E!X~V 'ltIXPE~Yjy'r)OEt, v~ 't~ z~E't~aYJ 'ltt0 OtE~OOtX~ &''It' ~ao ()~ l'ltpE'ltE crUll'PWVIX Ila 't~ a'r)lllXa£1X 'ltOU dXIXV IlEaa. a'to auvoAo 'tij~ ()EWP'YJ'ttXij~ &.V~Al)aYj~. 'A'ltEVa.V't(IX~ oav E'ltEIlEtVE 'ltOA,) aa a.na a'r)llEta 'ltOU ~a~v &.pXE't~ yvwa't&', Yj 'ltOU oay ll'ltopoOOC1.V v~ yEVV~IJOI)V 'It~pE~'YJy~aEt~. rt~ 't~v X~AU'tEP'r) ot~ppu8Ilta'r) 'tou ~toAlou &''lt0 't~v 'ltpC1.X'ttX~ &7tOcfYj, 't~ ta'toptx~ YEyovo'ta, 't~ axE'ttX~ 'It.X. f.La 't'ijy !PYIX'ttX~ vOllo()Ea(a, E~c:'t&.IJ't'r)xG(.V 'ltOAU 'ltAIX'tt~ x~t &.Va.~EpOV'tlXt ')ta.t aa ')ta.tpo,)~ 'ltOAU 'lttO ')t1X'tO'lttVOu~ 'tou Map;.

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K.KAorT~Kr

MEPor npOTO EMnOPEYMA XPHMA KECDAi\AIO

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TO EMnOPEYMA

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18

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nUQUaELY!lU: To vli!1u nov YVEOEL Weo AL'VclQL fJ xonEAu 0' EVu nQorroyO'Vo xroQLunxo on:Ln, YL(l val'cpu'V1} UOTEQU !l' ulrro nuvl YLa to o:rdl"L EIVaL U v 't' LX E L~1 E V 0 Y L a x Q i] 0 'r} ()EV EtVaL E!A. n 0 Q E V !A. U. "O't'UV O!lror; EVU; xMr O't"l'}r; YVE8'1'} AL'VUQL ytU v'av.uAMS'I'} .0 vli!!u !A.E 't'0 yd'tOVcl 't'OU 'to XroQLclT'I'} xut va naQ'I'} &:t' uu.Ov (maQL, 1\ &XO!A.'I'} O't'uv £Vur; 6w!A.i]xuvor; gya.~'I'} OTIJ cpa!lnQLXa. 't'OU XLALaaEr; oxuasr; vli!!u XUOE!!EQU YLa va nouAi]o'l'} 't'0 :rq;?O'COV 'tOU, 'to'tE law .0 vii!!u ELVaL E!l n 0 Q E U !! n, KL' EM'> 6E6aLU nclAt EtVaL EnLO'l'}r; %al aVl"LXd!lEVO YLa ,wi]O'l'}, avnXEi,!A.EVO o!lror; YLU XQi]O'l'} nov ea nULs'I'} EVUV WQLO!!EVO XOLVroVLXO QOAO, a'l'}Auaij nove' aVTu)"'1,ux'tli. To vli!lu aE <pULVE't'CtL MO 't'0 ESroTEQLXO 't'OU <Xv EtVUL E!lnOQEU!!U fI OXL. 'H qJUO'Lxi] roo !lOQ<P1} !J.nOQEL va dVaL o/"{J)OaLOAOU fJ taLU, EL't'E 0.0 onLn 't'0 EYVEOE 11 XroQLUTOJtOVf"U yLU nQoLxLo 't"I'}r;, EL't'E o't'ij cpa!J.nQLxu 't'0 EYVEOE fJ lQya.TQLU, fJ XAWO't'QLU, :reou toror; O:UTE !lLa XAroO't'i] 't'OU <>E Oa XQ'I'}OL!!oJtOLi]a'l'} fJ taLU YLa 't'OV EUU'tO 't"I'}r;. Movo MO 'tov 'X.OLVroVLXO rou QOAO, MO 't'ijv X ° L V co v L x ij )." E L 't' ° U Q Y L U Jtou XUVEL .0 vli!lu, !lOVOV MO XEL !J.n0- Qoii!A.E va 't'0 XU't'UM()ro!lE <Xv ElVaL E!J.nOQEU!lu 11 0XL.

~.ijv xu,"'tt'(U'kLO''t'LXij XOLVroVLU 'ta n(,lo'Cov't'U EQYUOLar; nUlQVow OAOEVU 'ltal nEQwao't'EQo 't'ij !lOQ<Pi) E!lnoQEUflcl't'rov. "Av VJtclQXOUV aijflEQU oTlr; XOLvroVLEr; !lur; JtQoi:ovm EQyuaLur; nov <>EV EXOW YLVEL UXO!l'l'} E!J.nOQEV!!U't'U, UU't'O OU!l6ULVEL YLu't'l vJtaQXouv aXO!l'1 UJtO!lELvaQLU UJ'tO nUf...Lo'E(,lU OUo.i]!lU't'U nUQuyroYiir;. "A v 'ta :TCflQu6A£1jJro!!E uU.u, aq>oii UAf...roO'tE EtVUL xul EV't'Ef...Wr; aorllJ.av.u, !A.J'tOQOV!lE va nOV!!E on 0 i] !A. E QUO A U 't' a n Q ° 'C 0 v '( U E Q Y U 0 I. U r; nUL Qv 0 1) V 1:' ij !A. ° Q rp 1) E!l Jt ° Q E U !A. cl '( to v, Mv !J.nOQoii!lE va xu'tuvoijoro!A.E 't'0 Ol]!!EQL'VO OVOT'l'lf.lU nUQuyroYii;, <Xv as aLU<pronoTOii!A.E yta 't'0 't'L EIVUL E~Ln6- QEU!A.U. IIQEJtEL AOLJtOV v' aQXLoroflE TijV ESE'taaij !lur; M' UV't'O 't'0 t;i]'t"I'}[tU:

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"000 !lUXQLa XL <Xv YUQLOro!lE :reLOW O't'ijv tOTOQLU 'toii aveQwmvou yivour;, 6M:reo!lE Jt(l>r; ol liVeQtOJtOL r UJ'tUQUL't"I'}TU YLa 't'ij ouvTi]Q'I'}O'l'} riir; t;wli; 'tour; r' anox't'ooouv :taV't'o'tE !lEOU os !lLXQO't'EQEr; i'J !lEyUAVTEQEr; XOLvroVLEr;, :rewr; 1] JtUQUYWY11 EtXE Jta.VTU XUQuxTTjQU X ° LV W V LX o. Tijv i.Mu uu'tij {) MaQs Tijv Exa EXeEOEL oUq>Eom.u ola uQ6Qu rou «MLoeWTIJ EQYUOLU xul xEq>af...uw» anflOOLEU!lEVa. oTIJ 'Neue Reinische Zeitung (1849)*,

«~.ijv Jtu(>uyw'{ij ol uVOQWJtOL f(>XOV'taL OE oXioELr; 0XL !lOvO !lS TIJ <puo'YJ. lluQayow OWEQyut;O!1E\IOL xul av.uAMto'V't'ur; 't'Lr; EVEQYELEr; 'tour; 0 EVUr; flE 't'0'V o.Af...O !lE EVuv WQLoflZVO 't'QoJto. na va nUQuyuyOUV EQXOV't'UL OE WQLOflEVEr; 0XE-

(.) Byijx(1v XU.! o~ ;exroQLcn1) J.UtQOOOUQIl, Ilno.q>QaGJ.LEVI) xnL mcl nA'I'lVLxcl dno 'tOY II. IIo.uALtlT], 9£00(1AOVLX'I, 1920.

TO EMIIOPETMA

19

,gEL~ XULO'UVa.q>ELE; !!Etu~U roue, xul flOVO flEOU OtL~ XOLvwvLxe; UVT£; 0XEGa; 'XUL O'UVa.CPELE~ yLVEtaL f] bacp~ rou; ~t£ t119t'(})1, 11 JtaQuywy1l.

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20

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TO EMIlOPETMA

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'ExELVO 1COV fla; EvilLU(j)EQEL O"flEQa areo flLa. 'tEna XWQto.nx'I'] XOLVOt'l']ta. 1CC-J i)Ev rnEOE aXOfl'l'] 6UflU oti]v a1Coouv6E'tLxlj E:n:LQQOlj ril' a.yyA.Lxil; xa"Ca.x't'l']O'l'];. ·oro tpOQOA.OYLXO t'l']; XUQlW; OVO"C1']fla, dvaL {) xaQaxrilQa; 1COV 1CaLQVEL flEoa 0" uV"Clj 'tly.! XOLVO"C1']Ta 0 . x u r U fl E Q L 0 fl 0 ; E Q Y U 0 La;. "Evcv "CE'tLO XutaflEQLO!lO EQyaOta; ouvav~ouflE XLOA.a; o'tov; 'Ivilov;. l1oAl! aVO)tEQO; 0- flW; ElvaL {) Xa'tC1!lEQt(f!lO~ fQyaoLa; 1COV EXEL 1i Mhxlj XWQLo.nX'I'] XOtv6"C1']ta.

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(.) «'H IlOQlp1] lQyaoW.~ noAAi.iiv dv6Qoomov nov ~O"Aeoouv O'Ucrt'lllla'tL)(a b eva~ 'Ila~t xat nM.t ~tt: 'tov liAAO, crtov [~tO )(Aci~o naQayooyij~ ii C1t: IltalpoQE'tL)(OV~ )(M.aou~, 'p.b. <1\lValpELt;;, ovolla~e'tat <1\lVEQYaC1La.>-«·O Lng u e t ~EV eXEL [C100~ li~L)(O AEYOV'ta~ C1'to EQYO 'tou «8EOOQLa 'ti.iiv ltOAi:tl.xi.ii" ,,61l00v> nch~ 'to )(UVrlYt elVaL iJ nQoo't'll IJ.OQlpft

. 'tij~ O'UveQYaC1La~> (MciQl;).

( •• ) ~Ayy')..o~ )(u6sQ'VIi't'll<;; 'tij~ BOIl6ti'll<;;. wEYQa'IjJe «A History of India» (1779).

22

TO EMIIOPETMA

"03tQOO'ClmO, t\ navr~ <lila ElvaL O'\iiJ"oYL'ltO, ')«1\ Weo'tEAEhaL WtO 3tE"'tE 'to 3tOAu. j.lEA'Yl, 6QlO'XOllE &XOIl''l XL EVU aOOQo U3taAAt1AOu~ rile; LVI)LXii' uYQO'tLxii' XOIlIl0U"U~: Tov Kat"'IIUIl 1\ Ma'toa"'tL, 'to AOYLO'tl), mrU E:rM'tU'teL xall)LEu6wEL 'tie; OLXO"OIlLXEe; aXfO'EL~ rile; XOLVO'tfl'tue; IlE 'ta IlEA'Yl 't'Yl~ xat IlE Ut..AE~ XOLVO'tfl'tE~. Tov 'I'cAlQ, 3toU 1)0UAELa rou EtVaL v' uvuxaAvlt't'Yl 'tov~ EyxA'Yllla't(E~ xal va ltQoa'tutEVr), 'tove; 'tUSLI)LW'tE~ ~)e; 3tOV va <ptaaouv O''ta oWOQa ril~ XOLVO'tfl'tue;. Tov Ton, <PQouQo 'tWV O'uvoQoov (uxQltu) xal YEooIlE'tQ'Yl, 3tOU 1)0uAELa 'tou EtvUL va 3tQOOEX'Yl ILl}ltoo~ ol YEL'tOVLXEe; XOLVO't'Yl'tE~ smEgaoouv xal xa'ta3ta,;t)oouv 'ta oWoQa. rile; XOLvo'tLxii~ 3tEQL<PEQElU~, 3tgiilla 3tOV ouxva YLVO'tUV O''tl)v MAALEQYELa 'tOlf QL~LOU. To vEQoxQa'tl1, 3tOU xaeiixov EIXE va xQuril 3tav'ta aE 'KUAij xa'taotua'll 'ta Ul)QUyooYELU, v' UVOlY'll xcl va 'KAelV'Yl xavovLxa 't' uvt..a.xLa YLa 'to 'KaAV't'EQ(} 3tO-rLOIlU 'tWv XooQU(j'iLO>V, 3teiillU 3tOAV O'3tOUI)ULO YLa 'tijv QL~OXUALEQYELU. To 6QuXfLava YLa 'tlJV E'K'tEf.EOfj 'tii~ Au'tQdue; 'tOU BEOU. T <> Mo'KUA.o. ltOV <)ll)aaxE 'teX. 3taLl)La yeacpij xal uvuyvooo'Yl. To 6eUXIlavu 'tOU tJllEQoMyLOU t\ UO''tQOAOYO, 3tW EtI'axvE va 6Qii 'tie; tuXEQEe; 'Kal 'tle; UWXEe; tJILEQEe; YLa 'tij O'3toQa, 'to 6E(lLaILU" 'to UAWVLO!lU 'Kul YLa OI.Ee; 'tle; mtoOOuLft; €(!yaa£f~ ril~ 'KOLvol"l'}'ta~. To ml)fQa, 't& IlUQUYXO, uv'tO'll 3tOV S<p'tLUVE QOI)E~, 'to'll 'taou'Kut..a., 'tov 3tI..Val"l'), 'tov 'KOUQEU, 'to" TOOltav'Yl, 'to YLU'tQO, 'tlJ N'tE6uv'taaL ('tlJ XOQEV't'QLU), xU3tOl'E p.aI..Lo'ta xal EVu" TQuyou~')L(J'ti).

"OAOL umol 1)0uAEvouv yta OA'Yl 'tl)V 'KOLVOTfl'tU 'Kat Ta flEA'Yl Tfle; 'Kal yLU'tY) 1)0UI..ELa TOU~ 3tUlQVOW IlEe(I)Lu EhE Weo 'ta X<ilQa<pLa £i'tE MO 'tl)V EO'oI)E(a. K .. EI)W AOLltov. IL' um<> tOV rooo ESEALYILEVO 'KU'tUIlEQLO'IlO EQyuolae;, 6A£3t0!lE 0' o" E (l Y U 0 l U 'Kul I) La" 0 Il 1) 'tWv 3t Q 0 L 0 V T 00 V.

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Kcl O'tl)V UYQO'tL'X.ij a\rtiJ OL'KOYEVELa bodo'll' I)Ev EXO!lE We0ILovooILEVOU, uv- 6Qw3tou~. "EXOf,lE XL' ~I)G) f,lla 'KOLVooVLX11 a'UVEQyuolU 'KL' EVu owl)uuollo EQyuaLwv 31:0V dVaL ()LU<pOQEl'LXEe; uvaAoyu IlE 'tijv f]t..L'X.lU, TO YEVO~ 'X.ai 't1]V EltOXij 'tOU E'tOU~. Ta f,lEA'Yl ril~ OtXOYfVELU~ OQYWVOUV, eEQl~OUV, <pgOV'tl~OUV YLU 'ta ~WU, UQf,lEYOUV, flU~E6ow ~{,AU, yvi6ouv, U<pUlVOUV, ga6ouv, 3tA.€xouv, O'KaI..~ouv. 'Kavow 'to fLClQUY'X.O 'K/.Jt.

at mo i)LU<pOQE'tLxE~ fQYUOlEe; ouvl)uatoV'tUL f] ILLa f,lE 'tl)V UI.A'Y). Ta ltQOLmu 'tWV EQyuaLwv u{rrwv. Oltoo~ xal a'ta 3tuQaJtavoo 3tuQul)dYflU'tU, I)Ev U VTau'. a t 0 v T U L Uno ToU~ EQyaTEC;, UAAa Il 0 L Qat 0 v T U L UVaf,lE'tUS'" T~ ')«1TU Tt~ 3tEQLOTaOELI;.

TO EMllOPETMA

23

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24

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32

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'E()w ta. 3tQallata E!Vat oAocpavEQa. "EtO"L OIlW~ fXOUV 'Xal o'to ~~t'YIllu tou fl EyE 8 ° u ~ 't1'\<; a~ta<; 0XEnxa. IlE tl) Il ° Q <p l} TI'j; aSLa~.

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/),.f Oa. !l3toQouOaf.lE va. CPEQWflE O"fWQlOllEVO O"UO'X,EnollO Ot()fQO xal saxaQ11 we; a W fl a "C a, UV ()fV fLXav xal "Ca. ()UO tOU<; flLa. XOLVl) <P U 0" L'X Yj L()lOt'l'}to.: "Cl} 6 a Q 11 r 11 1: a. "EtO"L xal to oa'XaxL 'Kal to J'tavl bE Oa. flJ'tOQouoallE va. 1:a. <pEeWflE Of W\!lllflEVO OUOXEtlOflO w<; E Il 3t ° Q E 11 flO. t a, UV ()EV dXav flla. 'XOLVYj x 0 L V W V l X Yj L()Lot11ta: to on ElVaL xal. ta. ()UO J'tQo'Covta av8Qwmv'l'}<; EQyaola<; EV 'YEVEL, to on ELVUL a S [ E ;.

~ L()fQO 'Xal Saxu(l'l'} 01:11V J'tQW't'l'} ESLO"WO"'l'} J'taLSOUV ()UO ()LacpOQEtLXovr;: (>0- ).OU~: Eva XOfA.flan suXaQ'l'} dVaL t600 tJaQu, 000 xal Mxa AhQE<; OL()E(lO. 'H taXaQ'l'} E()W M(lOuolaSE'taL oa. saxaQ'l'}, 1:0 O"L()EQO o[1w<; Mv J'taQouoLatEtaL oa. O"(()EQO, J'taQa. oa.v EvoaQ'Xw0'YI tlj<; tJuQut'l'}ta<;, oa. flOQ<P~ t'l'}<;. ~tl}v ESLOW0'YI a1Jtl1 ()fV MQatJAE3tOllE 'de; l()LaL-rEQE<; oWllanxf~ L()LOt'l'}tE<; tlj;;; saxaQ'l'}~, tlr; 3taeatJM3tOflE 0IlW<; OtO O[()EQO.

IIa(loj..lOw <paLVOflEVO flU; M(lOUOUlSEL xal. i] EStOW0'YI: Eva oaxaxl-20 J'tljXE; J'tavL. Kol ta. buo. craxclxL xal J'taVL, EiVaL EIl3tOQEullata, ErCOflEVW<; aSlEr; XQ~O'l'}<; xal astE<; fla~L ~tYj flOQ<Pl} O!!W~ TI'j~ as[a~, OtYjv .a. v t a A. A. a X t LX Yj a X E a 'YI, 1l0VO to oaxaXL 3taQouoLatEtcu we; aSLa :x.Q~O'YI<;, to J'tavl. aJ'tEvaVtLa<; J'taQouoLa~EtaL w<; ExcpQaa'l'}, We; f.LoQ<PYj as tar;.

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TO EMIIOPE'rMA

35

poa xal poE pooi..u6Evux, IlltQ01Jv't~LVa XA.lt. "Eroi xaL 'tljv a.SLa "'OU aaxaxwu !-trwQW va ri)v EX<pQuaw OXt f.C.OVO af ltaVe, f.C.a xai. af XU8E (J).)"o Ef.C.ltOQEtJ!la. ~TljV i~LaWa'l'] I..omov: Eva aaxa.xt=20 mjXE~ ltaVL, ltaQa6A.Eltw OAWa('>LoAou 'tljv t.(haLTEQ'I'] <P U a L x lj Il 0 Q cP lj 'tou ltavwU. Ai'!T11 atb CJuaXETLa!lO tOUtOV LaXVEL, xaew~ ELrca(.tE, [,lOVO w~ a s l. a, w; €VmJ)fla.tWa'l'] a.V8QWltLV'l']~ €(!yaaLu~ Iv yEvEL. To ltUVL yiVEtaL (.toQCP~, (.tE 'tljv OltOLU €(.tCPUVL~EtaL fJ a. s (a tOU aaxaxwu af. a.v'tW£a1'] n!!o~ to a W (.t a tOU ccxcxtoii, 'R a.VtWW'l'] a~La~ XQ~o'l']~ xal a~La~, ltOU x(ru(ktaL !lEaa ato auxuxL, OltW~ xUL aE XU8E aAAo €llltOQEUpoa, aVi'Lxa8QEcptLsEtaL atljv fX'CpQao'l'] t1l~ a~La~, YLatL IlEoa a' autljv fJ otoucn:xlj IlOQ<Plj tOU aaxaxLOu ltaLQvEtat aa IlOQCPlj t1l~ aSl.a; XQ~a'l']~ !lova.Xa, €VW 'fJ aW(.taTLxlj IlOQCPlj toli ltaVLOU ltaLQvE'taL (.tovo aa !loQ<Plj t1l~ a. S ( a ~ 'tou if.C.ltoQEu(.ta'to~.

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MltoQw va EX<PQMW tljv aSLa 'tou aaxaxLOu 0XL IlOVO aE ltaVL, fla xaL af.

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36

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TO EMIIOPETMA

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.'It ~ Kat 11 0 v a ~. ~ "" J.toQ~ til~ as La;, <il;'i) YEVL'It~ 'It 0 L V c.o 'V t " " ivO'aQw.c.oat) av6Qw1tL~ EQyaOLa~ tv yEVEL. Amo Kat J.tOvov amo Elvat -rwQa

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38

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TO EMl10PETMA

39

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H METATPOllH TOT XPHMATO ~ ~E KEollAAAIO 57

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HMETATPOIIHTOTXPHMATO~ ~E KEiPAAAIO 61

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H METATPOIIH TOT XPHMATO}: }:E KE~AAAIO

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H METATPOIlH TOT XPHMATOl: l:E KE~AAAIO 63

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BAE3tOP.E on f} L'X.av6't'l']'ta 'tfj; EQyaaLa;va () L a -r 'l'] Q ij fl va IJ. E -r a-€I' E Q 'l1 :n:aALf.; USLE;. O't'lIQL~E-rat of. I-'La o.AA'l'] l~ho't'l'j'ta 'tfj; EQyaOtar; &no XelV'l1. a'tT)v o:n:oLa o-r'l1QLSE'taLrl l'X.aVO't'l']TU ''l']; va ~ 'l'] !-L LOU Q y ft VEE; USLE;.

Mla nou flEVI-':n:OQEl va v:n:UQS'l'] :n:aQaywy1) XWQl; p.Eoa naQaywyfie;, 'X.UOE EQvaaLa:n:aU :n:aQuY£L E[lJtOQEv!-La-ra 0XL I-'0VO 8 'l']1-' LOU Q Y e L (lSLa, p.a ML 8 La r 'l'] Q E i: aSLa, 'X.aL '(1) ()WTl)Q£L 0XL !-LOVO !-Lf. '(1)V EVVOLa on [tETa<pEQEL aLo :n:Qo-LOV TL~ aSLEr; 'tCllV naQaywYLxwV !-LEOWV JtoV xaTavaAwvovTaL O't1]V 3taQa-ywyi}, !-La xal I-'f. I-'La [{i.A.11 fvvoLa, on ()'l']Aa()1) 7tQOr.pUMYEL '(1)V uSla TWV !-LE- orov amwv &no '(1) <pOOllu. KaOETl yi}lVO EivaL <pOaQTo, haL Ml Ta !-LEaa :n:aQaywyftc; aQya fl YQ~yoQa <petLQovTaL 'X.L o.v UXOI-''l'] !-Ldvouv aXQ'l']Ol!-L07tOl'l']-ra. ME-QLxa !-LUAlo.a &:n:' ainu, 03tW( ol ()La<poQE; !-L'l']x.avf.; Esacpva, <pOElQov-ral YQ'l']yoQW'tEQa el!-La !-LEVOUV U()OVAEUn:e;, :ltflQa (l'tav ()ouAEVWVTaL. Must !-L£ T1)V aSla XeilO'l']:;;-

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1-'(\ lj <pOoQa. yh'ETaL y.avOVLy.a. !-LEOU o'tT)v :n:ueuywyi}, 'tOTE f} aSla :n:ou XUVOUV Ta. :n:aQaywYLXa. !-LEOa SaV(L'taQoVOLU~E.at !-LEOa (JT1)V asLa TOU :n:Qo·':OVLO:; ... A!-La 0- p.wr; .0 3tuQaywYlXO !-LEIJO XaAUO'l'] E"COL !-LOVUXO .OU, XWQtr; va. XQ'l']aLl-'o:n:OL'l']Oij an1\" naQaywyi} •• 6'tE 1) USla 'tOV f.Sa<pavll;E~aL YLa. :n:UVTa xat bEv SaVUQXE.aL :n:La JtOU8EVU. ~U'Vi}Owr; 0 xan:nai..lOTI1c; bEv JtQOOEXEL '~V M£1JQa. .o-U.'l'] -eft; fQya-aLa;, !-La. £Qxov.aL oUY!-Lf.<; :n:Ot •• oli Y.LvrL tWYjQo.a-ra .1)v :n:Qoooxi}, o.uv :n:.X. oe XatQo Y.QlO'l']C; avayxUSf.1:CI.L va. ()Lax0'l''l'] TIjv :n:aQuywY11 O.1]V E:n:LXe£Q'l']O~ rou, '() MUllS avac:pEQEL 'to :n:aQu~fLY!-La £vo<; o.YYAOV EQYOO'tUOLUQX'l']. 0 oJtoi:or;a.a 1862:

H TllEP ASIA - KE~AAAIO KAI AHMIOTPrIA A8IQN 75

1..0yaQLa~E of. 120.000 l-LuQ'lta 'tl~ ~'I'}I-LLE~ EVO~ x.Q6vou o'tal-La'ti)l-La'to~ 'tou 0..(0- OTi)QLOU rou, 'ltaL &'1'[' aura 24.000 ~'tav aJto XELQOtEQE'ljrrj 'tiiw l-L'I'}xavciw.

~x.Enx.a 0I-Lw:; I-Lf 'r11I-LE'tacpoQa 'tll~ aSLa~ tou~ OtO JtQo'Lov 'ta ~LacpoQa I-LEa« JtaQaywYii~ JtQf.Jtf:t va ra SEXWQ(~WI-L£, YlaTI. 1taQo'Uota~ouv atacpOQE:; TO Eva I-L~ to 0.1.1.0. "Al.l.a btavw onlv EQyaoLa xavouv 'tftV av'to't£I.i) 'to'U~ l-LoQCPi), oJtw:; ot JtQclm~ {)I.E~ %al 'ta t)O'l'}EJ'Yj'tl'ita uALxa. '" AUa MAt xQatoUvE 't11V Hhahf.Qi) 'tOUt; I-L0QCPi). To 6aI-LJtuxt Jtov yv!\Of.'taL OtOXI.WOti)QLO xat YLVEtat viif.La xava 'tft I-L0Qq>i) roo, to a~QaxtL 0I-LWt; Jtov YVEOEL Mv -rftV XavEL. Ta JtQcirra Mvouv o'to JtQo'Lov ~ A a x a L Q 'I'} T 11 vas £ a 'tou~, 'ta al.l.a TOU Mvouv 1-L6vo x 0 I-L I-L a 't t a &no 'tftV aSLa roue, "Av I-LtU I-L'YjXuv~ i!Xa 1.000 3Qaxf.Lf.~ as£u %at ~a'tw &no xuVOVLXOV:; OQO'll:; cpOELQET!.U Of 1.000 ~I-LEQ£~, 't6'tE xalk !lLa EQYU<JL!t'Y) ~!tEQU 6al1E'taq>EQ'I'} aSLa 1 3QuXf1T)~ o'to JtQo'Lov Jtov Oa JtuQaYE'tUt 11f. -rftv 60i)EJEta -rii~ 11T}xavii~ av'tll:; !lEOa 0' aV-rft 't11V fJ~lEQU.

Kt' E~oo 6MJtoI-LE 'to aL1tM XUQax'tllQa tti~ JtaQaywyi)~. IIoo~ dVUL auva'to .,. l1'1'}Xavft v' aq>i)v'Y) 'to 1/1000 'tT):; as(u~ 't'Y)~ Of EVu <l>QL0I-LEVO JtQo'L6v; na va %ataoxEUa0'tll 'to JtQOlOV au'to M XQELaO't1')xE 6€6ata va ~T) OE XLV'l'}O'l') 'to 1/1000 'tll~ l-L'I'}xavii~, I-La OMxatQrl fJ I-L'I')Xavi). Kat JtQaYl-Lu'tLxa av'tL'tuX't't1xE I-Lta 'tETI.a. av'tL(>(>'I']O'l'). 'A1taVtOu!tE: oMxat(>'Y) fJ !l'Y)Xavtt !tJtaiv£t otitv 1t a Q a Y w Y 1,; a!ta JtaQWI-LE 'tTJV JtaQaywY11 <I> ~ A E t r 0 U Q Y ( a E Q Y a a £ U ~. 'AJtEvav'tLa:; 1-L6vo Eva xo(lf.Lun tll:; JtalQvEt (lEQO~ o'tftV 1taQaywYft JtUQI-LEV'l'} <I>:; ~'I'}I-LLOUQyCa as(u:; 'Kat U1t£Qa~(a:;. <I>:; Jt a Q a y W yL X TJ £ x I-L ETa A I.E'll a 1). 'Q~ aS ( a X. Q i) 0 'I'} ~ fJ I-L'Y)XaVTJ (lJtU(VEL 0 A a ~ a L Q 'I'} of. xaeE JtaQuywYLX11 EVEQYELa. 'Q~ a ~ l n O(lW:; 1-L6vo EVu x 0 (l I-L a 't t 't'Y)~ WWlvEt.

, AV'tlOtQocpa tWQa ElVaL 3uvato OtO JtQo'Lov va JtEQvii 0 A 6 x A 'I'} Q 'I'} r. & s ( U EVO~ JtuQaywytxou I-LEOO'U, Eva 11 £ (J 0 ~ 0I-Lw:; 110VO MO to Oool1u ro». ,. Ar; WrOEJEOWI-Lf. ml>~ yLcl va JtaQuXtoUv 100 I.LtQ£~ VT)(lU, XQELa~ov'tat 115 I.hQ£~ 6u!Lnaxt, Jtw:; fJ avaJtoq>wYII q>OoQa dvat 15 I.LrQ£:;. Tors 110VOV 100 l.ltQ£~ 6a,maxL Oll (lJtaLvoUV l1EOa o'tt:; 1 00 f..Li'(JE~ vii!La, o'tftV a;La O!LW~ Jtov Oa i!Xovv ol 100 AhQE~ viil-Lu Oa i!X'l'} JtEQUOEL '1 asta 115 AttQooV 6a(lJtuXLOu.

Ta JtaQaywytxa !lEoa (l£tacpEQo'Uv o'to JtQO'LOV 'to(1) asia 0(1) xuvovv 'ta taLU EJtUVW O'tftV EQyaata Mv !lJtoQoUv JtOtE va JtQOOOEOOVV o'to JtQo'tOV a;la 1tE()L(JOOtE(J1) &n' 0(1) EXOVV aha 'ta L~La, 000 l1EyUI.1) XL' UV Etvat fJ aSLa XQl}o'l'):; tOu~. Etvm 1..0L1tOV Ot.WO~L6f..O'U a6Uotl-Lo~ {) lOX'UQLO(lO:; trov ao'toov OLXOV0I-L0I..Oywv 1tW:; taXa fJ V1tfQa;la xal ol alaq>OQE~ !tOQq>E:; 't'Y):;, 'tI)XO:;, XEQaO~, i!YYELa 1tQ600~o:;, JtQOEQxov'taL uJto 'tllV a S L a X Q i) 0 'I'} :; 'toov 1tuQa'fU}ytXoov I-LEOWV. WtO t1:; «UJt'l'}QEOL£:;» Jtov aVTa 1tQOOq>EQOVV Otou:; avOQwJto'U:;.

'R a;[u tooV 'X(!1:avaf.W~lfVWV (lEOa OtftV JtaQaywYTJ JtUQaYWYLXOOV !LE(Jwv savcuta(lo'Uota~£taL 11 'L3ta 'XL' MaQUl..l..axt'l'} (.!EOU OtftV asia tOu JtQo'Lovto:;.

'R E(lyuoLa o!tw; ox,t (16vo titv JtUl.la asia ~taT11QEi,!la 'Kat vEa aSLa ~1)j1lO'UQYEi. 'Q~ Eva WQLO(lEVO XQO'VL'XO o'l'}(l£W fl EQYUOLa WtI..W; av'tL'Karao'taLvE'

:'16 H TIIEP ASIA - KE~AAAIO KAI AHMIOTPrIA ASIQN

Tllv a;La 1tOV ;o~e'ljlE 0 'Xa1tLt'ai..L(1n1;, y..a. v' ayo(>aa'Y) t'l}V E(>yat'LXl} ~Vvallll t'ou EQyat"Y) • ., Af.la f] EQyaaLa E;axoi..o,,61]a'Y) xal1tEQa Uno 'to a'Y)f.lEio'a:frto, 'to't£ ~'Y),"uo"Qy£i 1taQa1tavLat'l] a;la, U 1t E Q a ; ( a.

«To f.lEQO; EX£i:vO 'toii xEcpai..aLo,,» 1..iY£L () MaQS, «noV f.lEt'at'QE1tEt'a~ (1E f.l t(J a 1t a Q a y 00 y ii ;, ~'Y)Aaal} ae 1tQom:;, UI..E;, ae 60'Y)6'Y)'tLxa. UI..LxU xat f.lEaa tQyaaLa;, ~ E v a i.. I.. ate L t' 0 f.l EyE 6 0 ; t ii ; a; ( a ; 't 0" f.lE-o'a at'l}v 1taQayooy1]. rL' a\''tOv t'0 l..6yo t'0 OVO!latc.u a t' a 6 e Q 0 (af.l£'ta6i..'Y)'t0, :1ot0VL!lO) lot E Q 0 ; t' 0 U Yo ecp a i.. a ( 0 'U, 11 a'UVt'ol.L<UuQa: a t' a a e Q 0 x E«p a I.. a L o. 'An£vavt'La; t'o IotEQD; 'toii x£cpai..aLov Jtov !lEt'at'QE1tet'aL aE ~ v v a lot 'Y) E Q y a a La; a i.. i.. a ~ s L 'tl}V a;(a 'to" f.lEaa a't11v 1taQayooy1]. ITaQayeL 'to ~L:')(0 'to" ta05Vvaf.lo xaLEva 1t£QLaaEf.la, f.lLa. U 1t EQ a S L a, 1tOV XL' au'tl} f.l1tOQEi v' .a.I..M~'Y), va. elVaL f.lLXQO'tEQ'Y) 1\ f.lEyal..mEQ'Y). 'Ano at'a6EQO f.lEye60; 1tOV "i'tav t'O f.lfQO; aut'o t'oii xEcpai..atOV ~lEt'aMI..i..Et'aL l)LaQ'XW<; ae f.l£'ta61..'Y)t'0, ai..M~EL a'Y)Aa~l}

'(1t'o,...£y£60;. rL' amo xcl t'o OVOf.la~oo f.l E t' a 6 i.. 'Y) t' 0 f.l E Q 0 ; t' 0 U X E;.cp a i.. a L 0 'U 11 a'UVt'Of.l(u'tEQa: f.l e r a 6 i.. 'Y) t' 0 X E cp a i.. a L o. Ta taLa ouorot'LxU f.lEQ'Y) 1:O'U xecpa/,aLO" 1tOV Uno t'l}V Uno'ljl'Y) t'ij; EQyaa(a; ;exooQ(~ovt'm ae dvt'lXELf.lEVLXOU; xat U1tOXELf.leVLXOV; 1taQayovu;, a'Y)Aa~l} ae 1taQuyooYLXa. f.lEaa xat aVvaf.l'Y) EQyaata;, 'ta. laLa au'ta. Uno t'l}V MO'ljl'Y) t'ij; a'Y)f.lLOVQy[a; a;LO>V ')((1t V1tE;ea;£a; sexooQ(~OVt'aL aF at'1l6EQO xEcpaAaLO 'KaL ae f.lE'ta6i..'Y)'t0».

To f.lEye60; t'OU a'ta6EQou xEcpai..aLo'U 1tQE1tEL va. t'o 6eooQoUf.lE a'taaeQo cpu-oma f.lOVO Uno t'l}V lbw\j."Y) t'ij; ,a; (a; ')((1t VnEQaSLa; 1tOV a'Y)!lLOQyeit'aL !lE t'l}v 1taQayooy1]. ME 'tl}V Jt a Q a y 00 y L X l} EVE Q y s L a, a'tl}v 01tOLa XQ'Y)a4101tOLEi'taL ';0 a'ta6eQo xEcpai..aLO, ~E f.lE'taMi..I..Et'aL 'to f.lEYEaO; t'ijt;a;(a~ 'to". f.l1toQEL 0f.lW; 6a"f.laaLa va. f.l£'ta61..'Y)6i'j Uno &Uo,,; l..6yo,,;. '&tLa'Y); xa1 tj aXEa'Y) f.l£'ta;v orofle(lOU xcl f.lE'ta6i..'Y)'tou 'XEcpai..uLo" f.l1toQei: v' ai..w;'Y). ea. ;avaQaoolle a.o 6Efla aut'O 3tLO ,wt'oo.

KE<l>AAAIO TPITO

o BA0MOI THI EKMETAAI\EVIII TOY EPrATH

"At; naQW!lE Eva xEcpuf,aw 5.000 aQaXf.t€t; n. x,. AlJ't'o X,wQL~E'CaL C1S auo !lE(7), lva 1tOOO 1tOV aa ~oowtfj yta v' &yoQaGToiiv !lEC1a 1taQaywyijt;, TO C1TaeEQO 'Kfcpo.Aaw a nov TO {mOeETOfLE 4.100 aQax,!lEt;, XL' Eva lfAA{)$.OC1O nov ea X,(1)C1L!lE'IjI1) YLa v' &yoQaC1-rij TJ MvafL1) EQyaa(at;, 'to !lE'ta6A1)'to x£cpaAaw ,J.I" LaO!lS 90G aQax,fLEt;. To C1'taeEQO XEcpo.l..aLO Xt' au'to naAL X,diQ(~E'taL C1S aub fLE(1): nQro'tEt; 1)-

- AEt; XAn. noV TJ &s(a 'tOUt; OMxaL(1) SavU3CaQO'OOLo.~f.ttAL a'to nQo'Lov, xat EQyaAEia xM. noV 'toma Eva !lovax,a !lEQOt; &no t1}v &SLa 'tOUt; a(vouv xa6EcpoQa C1'tO nQo'LOv. To aE'lJ'tEQO 'tomo X,WQLC1fLO 'tov naQa6AEnOfLE EOO> at1}v ESEtaC1Tl coii aEfLa't6t; p.at;, ytcl v' &n0CPVYW!lE a.."tArot; !lEyaAVTE(1) nEQmAOXT]. tAnAonOtWvtat; AOLnOv 'ta nQaj.la'ta mxQa&Ex,o~Laa't'E Earo mOt; 6f..axaL(1) TJ &SLa 'tOU xEcpa1..aWu ooU' X,(1)CJLfLonoLELtaL a'tl)v 1taQaywY11 Sava1taQO'OOt6.tE'taL a'to 1tQo'.:bv.

to 'KML'taAWtl)t; &yoQaC1f. !lEaa 1taQaywyij<; 'Kat MvafL1) EQyaC1La; ')((1t 'ta l(1)CJLf.t01tOLEi 'Kat 'ta aub C1n)v btLX,€L(1)CJT] rou, "'AIL« 'tEAEtW(11) TJ EQyaC1La C1'tO EQyoo'taC1tO 'tOU EX,EL t1}v &sLa 'tOU 1tQO'l!.a'ta6A1)!lEVOU X£~Lou 'tou aUS1)fLEV1) 11· J1La lntEQaS£a" 1toV dvaL 900 aQaxJ1€t;. tE4to!1EVWt; b 'KML'ta).Wt1}; ea EX1) C1+J1+ ,,=410+900+900=5900 aQax,fLst;. 'An' amst; ot 4100 dvaL naAtcl fLE'tacpEQ!1Ev1) &s(a,900+900 60. dvaL vEOMQaYJ1EV1J <isLa.

EtVaL cpaVEQO l)n 'to J1EYE60t; 'tOU C1'ta6EQou xEcpaAaWu asv EXEL 'KafLtcl E1t(~Qa(1) bt6.vw a'to !1EydJo<; ri)t; 1taQaYJ1EV1)t; -UnEQaSLat;. XWQlt; !lEaa naQayw~ ~tv J11tOQEL 6E6aLa va YLV1J naQaywYT], xal 000 mo no)." aLaQX£L iJ naQaywyT], 'tooo 1tEQwaMEQa !lEaa naQaywyijt; UnaL'toiivraL • ., AQa, yw va MQaxri) fLtcl 0>-QWJ1EV1J lntEQaSLa, dvaL <ivo.YX1) va XQf)CJLJ101tOL7)6ij gVa roQLC1J1EVO noao J1Eaa M-Qaywyijt;, noao ooU t:;aQ'tc:i't'aL &no 'to 6aaJ10 ri)e; 'tEX,VLXijt;, nQoOOou ri)e;, EQyaC1Lat;.'II <isLa 8fLWt; amou 'tou nooou 'trov J1EC1WV Meaywyij<; aSV EXEL 'KaJ1W E1tLQQoT) ytcl 'to J1EYE60e; ri)e; lnt€QasLae;.

"' A!la Unaax,oAro 300 EQya'tEt; nov 11 <iSLa ri)<; TJJ1EQT]C1Lat; EQyatLxijt;MvaJ11)t; 'to~ 'Ka6Evot; dVaL 3 aQaX!lEC;, xol TJ <iSLa no" a1)!lWUQYEL b 'Ka6EVac; 'tOUt; af. J1tcl TJfLEQa ElVaL 6 aQaXfLE<;, 'to'tE ot 300 EQyo.'tE<; C1t J1ul TJJ1EQa Ua naQayouv <isLa 1.800 aQaX!lst;--&3t' aUri]v 900 aQaXfLst; ea €tvaL lntEQaSLa-&toLa XL· a" dvaL fJ <isLa 'trov fLEC1WV naQaywyijc; nov 6a x,(1)aLfLOnOLT]C1OUV at1} aO").E..a 'to\Jt;, EL'tE 2.000 dvaL aUrlj d'tE 4.000 EiTE 8.000 aealJ1Et;. 'II a 1) J1 L 0 " Q Y ( a

',78 H TIIEPAEIA - H EKMETAAETl':H TOT EPrATH

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"Orcv :n:Q(J)'tOelQ'X.LOE v' o.va:n:'tvooE'taL 'to xa:7tL'talLcJ'tLxo ovo't'l'}[.La, 'to XE<pel/..aLO f)'tav o.XO[.L'I'} :n:OA.v o.Mva'to 'Kat Mv [.L:7tOQOUOE IJ.E 't~ 6ta fJ.OVO 'toov ObWVO!LL~v otJV6'1'}xWV va oyal'l'} MO 'tov~ €Qyel'tE~ JLEYello :n:ooo v:n:cQa~ta. To 180 aLii>"'V(y, ija'l'} o.'X.oOOvtav :n:at_)el:n:ova. YLa'tt ol oWfJ.'I'}xavL'X.ot €Qya'tc~ tij~ • Ayylta~ aov/..E'Uav fJ.OvO 'tEOOEQL~ illA.EQE~ ~v £6l)oJLclaa, o.<po;; o'to aLelO't'l'}fJ.a au'to E:n:aLQvav ,uQXE'ta YLa va ~{lOOtJV 01..'1'} ~v EOaO!Lell)a. Tov xaLQo €XELVO YLa va xal'c6cioOtlV <fa ilflEQOJLLofha xal. v' aus~ootJV l'l~ CDQ£~ €Qi'aota~, :n:ollol :n:Qo'tELvav va. fla~E",otJV o.lii'tE~ 'Kat t'l'}nelvo'U; 'Kat va 'tov~ Xl..btOOtJV OE o:n:LTLa o:n:o'U va Esavayxa't(J)v'taL va EQyao'toiiv. !l'l'}Aaai} OE «o:n:hLa 'tOU 'tQOJLO'U:.. l";' au'ta 'ta o:n:Lna 'tOO "'tQOfJ.OtJ EQyaOL!LE~ IDQE~ 'Ka6EJLEQa 6a ElvaL I) w a E x a I

'Exa'to XQOvLa aQyo'tEQa 'to 1863, JLLa €SE'tOO'tLX~ €:n:L'tQO:n:~ aLa:7ttO'tO>VS «)''t~v «'E'X.a'toVTaE't'l'}QLaa tij~ 'Av6Q(J):n:o't'l'}'ta~ on o'ta xEQafJ.0JTOLF:La 'to;; Staffordshire :n: a L a L a a E 'X. a E :n: 't a It Q 0 v Ol v I) 0 v A e u a v a E 'X. a:3tEV'tE roQE~ Xa6EJLEQa.

To XE<pelAaLO bEv ElitE 'twga ma o.vay'X.'I'} MO €Savayxao't'L'X.ov~ VOJL~ xal ;(JltJAa'X.E~, YLa va ESavay'X.elo'l'} 'toU~ €Qya'tE~ va 'tOU oyaSOtJV JLE ~ 1)0tJI..Etcl 't0~ U:n:EQaSLa. E[XE YLVEL :n:w Mva!L'I'} ot'X.OVOJLL'X.~ 'tE'tLa :n:oU [.L:7tOQOUOE va V:7tO'taST} "'tov~ :n:QOAE'taQLO'U~ O'ta OtJ!L<PEQov'ta rou, 'A:n:o 'to 'tEA.EtJ't'aLo 'teho 'taU 180tJ atwva .llQXLoE gva~ o.l'l'}eLVo~ o.yoova£ l)eOJLOtJ YLa V:n:EQaSLa; 0 Eva~ xa:7tL'talLo~~ )tOL<fabE :n:oo~ ea SE:n:EQaO'l'} 'tov~ lillo,,~ OE v:n:EQoOALXll :n:aQel'too'l'} tij~ EQyaOLJL'I'}~ il'fLEQa~ 'too.v €Qya'toov roo.

'H EQya'tL'X.~ 'tas'l'} liQXLOE OeJL'I'}'t'Lx<l va SE:7tE<p't''I'} <plJOL'X.oo~ xat iJ6Li«i'>;. 'Ex;(Jl"lLso'tavE OAO<pavEea MO XQovo of. XQOvo. OmE xat il o.vavE(J)O'l'} 'tOU at!J.<l'to;

(*) AL£;oIlLxW'tEQa ltQaYJ.l.a't£Ut1]xa 'to ti]'t1]J.La, hovtac; tIlLaL'tEQroc; Ulto'IjJ1] 'tTjv ltQO(1- cpa't1] E;£)..L;1] 'tijc; VOJ.l.06Eo(ac;, O'tO 6L6i.LaQa.xL J.l.OU: «'H ltQOO'tMLa 'toov EQYo.'tOOV %at Et&eel " 61.16v1j; EQyo.·UXi) 'VOj.L06emaxal. 'to 0X'tclcoQO>. Wiimber, 1890.

100

H TIIEPABIA - H EPrAl:IMH HMEPA

mru E«P£QV£ '" J1£ycU1l (J\lQQoTJ <tta 6LOJ11)xaV~xCx ~Qyoo'taa~ ~Qyatrov Wtb 'ta XO)Q&4 bEv J13toQ£(J£ va (J'WJ1an1<11) ri)v xata<1'tQ£cp't~XT] b£L\I1) t;Et..LS'I'j. "'Eva~ QTrtOQa~ ari) BouI..T] 'tOrv Kowotllt(J)\l, b Ferrand, cp<iwa~£ to 1863: c'H oof.lM'XO'UQYLXT] 6LOJ11)xa'VLa WtUQ:x.£L tOO'> xal. t'V'V£vf]vta XQ6'VLa. l:E .~ L 6. a 't "1 J1 a. 't Q L 00 V Y £ V £ 00 v ril~ dyyt..LXil~ cplJt..il~ T} BLOJ11):x.a'VLa aUti] xa't'£Ii>Q6:x.6L- CJ6 l v v E a y s V £ E ~ ()aJ13taXO'UQyOrv·lQya't'~.

Ama l)J1C.O~ M6£ llUo 3taQa· 'Va 'tQOJ1USO\l\I 'toU~ 6LOJ1~:x.av~ J13toQoOOav.

ME 5t..o 'tOv {)QJ11)'t~xO J1aQa<1J1o 't'i}~ ~wij~ 'toov £Qya'toov M t..Lyoon'l'av xa66Aov ot bLaeE<1LJ1~ tQya'tLx£~ bwuJl£~: Ka1:a Jlel~£~ E'tQ£xav ol JlEUo6elVa'toL Wto. 'ta Xc.oQw, Wto ri) l:xw'tLa. ri)v 'IQt..avbLa, ri) r£QJ1avLa a't~ 6LOJl1):x.avLx£~ a'U'YOLXL£~ 'tOU AovM,vO\!. T~ EbLO>Xv£ WtO ri)v na'tQL()a 't~ '" naQaxJlT] t'i}~vt6- nLa~ 6LOn::x.VLa~, iI Jl£ta'tQonT] -ril~ xaUL£QY~LJl1)~ Yil~ at t..£L6ci6La xA:t.

"Av a~ o\Tt£ xa" b <p66~ am~ 'toli 'tEt..£LO\l tXcplJt..LOJloli 'toli nt..'I16\l(J~ ~ 'AYYALa~ ()EV lJ13tOOL~£ ri)v 'tels") 'tOrv 6LOJlTIXel'V(J)\I xanL'taALO'tOrv Uno ri)v a~'I'J01) 'trov lQyaaLiJ.C.tIV wQOrv, Wa'tooo {) ~ am~ ()£V J13tOQooo£ MQa vei Xtvf]<11) ri)v nQO<10XTJ 't'6w llyyi.cuv 3tOALTLxOrv MU atv &vijxav orl)v TaS'I1 rOrv 61.0- I'TlXel'Y(J)\l xan~'tat..wT6w, xai. ~1) va 6ciA.1) aE axt'l'£~ Ta ntO s\l3tVa ~1) t'i}~ m~ a\rril~ 'tas~. IIoli Oa xaTavtoOO£ i} 'AYYALa, 'tl. Oa yL\lCnav'" &YYALXT] 61.0- I'TlXavLa, o.v bnA1)e\l(Jl1~ ~ l;axoAov6oiia£ oo'tQJ.tcl'tT)'ta ltaL va QO'U<pL£'taL ano 'tOY xan~'talLO~;

"'C>mo; ~ ~ xmtL't~ xOOQe; XQ£&O.CJ't"r)X6 va MAouv n£QLOQLCJ.~ arl) 41}AaaLa xat ~Q~f.U.OO'I 'trov ooaoov WtO TOY xan~TaALOJ.L6, E'ta~ xal. 00) lyL\I£ b~'ta:x.'tLXT] nw T} &vaYX1) va 3t£QLOQLOt'i} iI A'I'j(J'tQLXT] bqL£tcUl..£ua1) t'i}; lQyanxil~ ()UvaJ1~ 'tot; E6v~. at 3tOA"fLXOl. noU EvOLO>CJav TfJv avaYX1) a~ cmQOOXt'1)'XQv J13tQ~ WtO 'to &YYA~xO lQya'tLxO xL\I1)}1a, 't 0 n Q 00 't 0 I't a a. a't~v la'toQ(a X(V1)l1a at~ou 'tou Et()O\l~

, Ana 't~ &Qxt~ xL6A~ 'toli Mxa'tO\! E'V'Va'tO\! aUi'wa b P ° 6 £ Q 't 0 C; "'0- 6 6 'V ()LaX~Q\lS£ ~ elvaL &VelYX1) va 3t£QLOQLOt'i} '" lQYelaLJl'l i1JJiQa, xal. 3tQUYllUtLxCx lcpclQI1O<1£ p.E bL't'\lXLa b ~~ ari) cpclJ13tQLxcl rou 'tb ()£Xelc.oQO.'H lQyatLxT] XL\I1)<11) noU Wto TO 1820 llQXL06 v' dv<l3tniaa£taL uQciana xal. p.E rltv oQYelVCl)(J1) 'toli K611J1a'to~ 'tOrv XaQ'tLO'tOrv (WtO 'to 1835) Wt003taa£ WtO 't~ X\lQLaQX£~ 'telS£~ t'i}; , A YYALa~ 'too£~ 3taQaxc.oQ~a£~ ri) I1W Vo't£Q' Wto rl}v llU1), E6at..s J13tQoo'ta 't'Y~ yw XUQLO axonO t'i}~ MA~ ri)v xaOoALX1) 'l'TIcpo<pOQLa xat 'to ()£xcic.oQo. "Ono~ OEA£L va yvc.oQ£<11) p.E nooo 3t£WIlU xat 11£ noo1) l1aVLa ~LV£ iI nclA'l atri}, ~ xanL'taALO'tE~ xal. ()Lx'ly6QOL 'toue;; EsavtA~<1aV£ aA'I1 't~ t1)v txav6'tT)'ta, YLa 'Va 6QoW 'tQ6n~ va hl11)()£vWO\l\I 't~ xa'taXt"r)I1EvE~ Wto. 'toU~ lQya't£~ naQaxc.oQ~aE~, 11£ rl 6aQQ~ xat n£wf.Ul0t lnL6£Cl)Q1)'t£~ tQyaaCa; avtL'taaaOVtaV xal. a£ {mouQYoU~ &xOl11). yw va Wt£QaanwO\l\I ri)v lQyanx1) 'ta~1) nQOOt~ Wt' ~ b Leonhard Homer, noU T' OvOJ1U rou 3tQE3t£L 'Va JlE{,. 'Y'r) y&4 M6£ lQYel't'r) ci~LOI1\11)J.L6v£VtO , ~ ol OnaOOL 1'00 U£u6£Qou CJ'U\I(Jy<i)'\ILO!1O;; Wt6aXOVtav a1'~ iQya~ 1'0 a£xcic.oQo 000\1 xaLQO 't~ XQ£uitOVtav.

H TDEPASIA -H EprA~IMH HMEPA

101

j'ui va ~a60Uv a£ A.lyO ti)v mooXEa" 't~ ~ 'tOv xuv~xcfrr£QO 'tQMo tWA.~ lj'~v£ 'it xa'taQ'Y")<JTl 't00v £1(JayCJ)y~xrov bJUi)v. xat ~ m~'t~ ot ~Qya't~ ~ -rirv M£Il1'l't~xit 't~ O'taOTl xa'troQ6CJ)(Jav va m..oo.A.ouv 'to ~£xO.CJ)QO. 'to'UA.axw'to yui O>Qw}Jiv£c; xa't'f\yoQ{£c; lQYoo~ aina ~OQ£L xavEva~ va tM} O't~ ~l£SOO~X£~ xat tOOTlQMa't£; n£q~YQa~ 'tOii cK£cpa)..alcM, &tou auvoo£~ :ml. ~ lva aCJ)QO 3wcp<.Otw't~xa o .. tO~X£i.a xat V'toxoul-'ma.

'A1tO'tO 1850 xal 00) 'to tQya't~xO XL'YT)I-'« atitv'AyyA.La lyLV£ oftQ£j.I.c.O't£Qo. !l£v f.UtOQooo£ va 1-''' l)ox~j.I.claTl X~' aino 'tOY dV'tlXTtmO Til~ t\'t'ta~ Til~ ~Qyat~xi\~ "tas~ a'to IIaQ£a~ xat1~ xa1 Til~ an YI-'LaLa; xa'tWtvLSTl; Til; 'Enavao'tOOTl; a' -O).Tl 't"Ilv ijn£LQCJ)tLxi) Evero3tTl. 'A1tO 'to aUo I-'£Q~ 0 oxonO; 'toli x~vitl-'a't~ 'tiirv XaQ'tw'tWv o'ta xUQLc.Ot£Qa 'to'U aTll-'£La £lX£ ma Jt(?aYI-'«'t03tOLTl6i\ xal oUYXQOv~ il dyyA.~')(i) 6~I-'Tlxav£a n:i}Q£ t£QcXa'tLa dvWt't"USTl xa1 clv6w£ O£ MQo~ Til; 6~I-'''' -xavUx; If)..).ow XCJ)Qiirv xa11J.£oa o,",v clv6T)OTl ainT) naQaouQ8'Y}X£ xal il ayyi.~xTa tQyanxi) 'taSTl a£ 'tQMo n:oU q><lV'tao't'Y}X£ ~ tmaQXEL 'taxa lJ.ui &QI-'OVLa f.L£"ta~u 'tWv aUj.l.q>£QOvtCJ)V 'tot; dyyA.LXOU XEq><lA.aLou xa1. Til~ dyyA.~xii~ tQYoo~ d~vaV't~ o'to XEcpcXAa~ ')(a1 a-rT)v tQyoo£a 'toli ~SCJ)t£QLXOU •

MoA.ov'toVto 1) dYYALXi} EQya'tLxi} VOl-'06EOLa xal a' ainT) titv t\aUXTl n:£QLo& ExaVE OUVEXEL; nQ06OOu<;. '0 VO~ Til~ 27 MaWu 1878 cin:A.o3tOLTlO£ xa1 xc.OO~-xon;o{1}G£ OATl -rT) VOIlOtJE'tLxi) £Qyoo£a dn:O 'to 1802 ~ 'to 1874 n:oU nEQIl6.6aw8 .l)f')((l£~~ l)wCPOQ~ EQya'tLxoo; vO)lO~. 'H 03tO'Ul)aw'tEQTl 31:Q6000; n:oU 0Tlj.l.£..ro. :OTlXE IJ.£ 'to vOtJ.ov aino ~tav 5t:L xa'tclQ'YT)OE ti)v l)uXXQLOTl j.l.£'taSu <patJ.3tQL~ 1«1t £QYOO't'f\QLou. 'A1tO 'to't£ oft 31:Qoo'tOOLa 'tou ~Qya'tTl Mv LOXU£L tJ.6vo yui 't~ 1pCitJ.3tQLXE~. tJ.ci xal yui tJ.LxQOtEQa EQyoo'taaLa, ~ lva 6a8tJ.o j.I.clA.w'ta xa1 yui -rT) anmxi) 6~tJ.TlxavLa dx6tJ.Tl. 'H nQOO'tooLa 'toU vOfWU n:cXV'ta a£v aLV£'ta~ as

-lvitA.LXOU~ £Qya't£~. tJ.a O£ ML~ui tJ.0v0, o£ dvi}Atxou~ xat ot yuvaix£c;. '0 vO-

110~ otJ.(j); 'toU 1878 6fA.'tLw6TlXE tJ.£ tJ.EQLxOO; xa'tOn:LvoU; VO~ n:oU ol oTlI-'«V't1.-xWtEQOL 'to'U~ Etva~ 'tot; 1891 xa1. 1901. IIa~Lci xa'tw dn:O OOl)Exa XQOvCJ)V dn:omLovtaLOA.ooal)WA.O'U dno 6L0tJ.TlxavLX£; ~QyaoL£c;. IIa~Lci dn:O ,Ml)Exa ~ l)Exa't£OOEQCJ)V XQOvCJ)V £n:LTQ£n:Et'aL va £Qyato'Vt'aL tJ.ovo T1~ tJ.wE~ <i>Q~ MO oo~ .tQyato'Vt'aL tJ.EycU,U1:'EQOl 't~ dvi}A.LXOL (dn:O l)Exa't£OOEQWV ci>c;l)EXClOXTW XQO"vCJ)V) xat yuvaixe;. 0t 't£A.£\1taWL 'tMOL ~£v mL'tQ£n:EtaL va EQyatCl)'Vt'aL En:cXVCJ) .Qn:O 60 cr,QE~ -rT)V lMo!Lal)a ESCJ) dn:O titv tJq>av'tO'UQYLa. 3tO'U EQyatOV'taL tJ.ovo .58 illQE;. Ti)v KUQLaxi), 'ta XQwToUyEVVa xal ti) MEyai..Tl IIaQaoxEuT) MayoQE{,£"ta~ va £QyatCJ)'Vt'a~ 'ta nQoo'ta'tEUOp,E'V1l nQoac.on:a. 'E'Sov M' Ilina nQ£n:Et; "Va EXO\JV llx'tw tJ.wE; xal dOOEQ~ OA.axa~eE; y~Q'taa~tJ.E; fJtJ.leE; 'to XQOvo (OXL ~a66ata). MO 't1; onoiE; 'toui..6.XLa'to ol tJ.La£; Jt(?£n:EL va n:£q>TOUV j.l.£'tIlSU 16 "toli Mae'tTl xa1 1 'toU ·OX'tro6QTl.

ME TOO; VOIJ.~ amoil; .q>uaLxtl G1:~ n:EQwaMEQ£C; nEQL3t'tc.OaEL; n£Q~Qa;e. 'taL xal 'tci)v dV'tQWv of) El!ycXaLtJ.Tl of)tJ.lQa ot l)E')(a.c.oQTl, &rou clvt'QE; EQyatOV'tIlL 1-'«ti. tJ.£ yuvllixE~ xat Mtl)W. II6ao otJ.(j); £lVaL avayxaLa of) m£Xt'ooTl Til~ nQoo'tll.()'La; xa1oToU; clV'tQ£C;,aino tJ.C% 'to aeiXV£L of) tA.££Lvi) xa'tcXa'tOOll 't'Wv lDJ..orv lQ-

102

H TnEPA8IA - H EPrAl:1MH HMEPA

"(a:cOw o'toU; xMlOOug ~xdvou~ ~{}YaOLa~, O:1tOU Mv tOX:UEt xaJlui. :1tQoo'tao(a xat lS:1tou aEV 't'UxaLVEl va ·~:1tUQXO'UV EUVO'(xE~ O'UV8i)XE~ "(ui. va OX'l'}!1a't'to'ti) Jlui. :1tQova. JlLOVXa 'tas'l'}, Jltb. EQyanxij UQtaTOXQaTLa.

Ol O'UVf.:1tELE~ TOU v0!108E'tLXOU XCt60QL0!10U Trov WQWv ~Qyao(a; (xavov~x~ ~QyaaLJl'l'} 1j,.tf.(>a) OTuOf)xav G' tx:n:ArIX't'lXO 6a6Jlo EUVOLXf.;. 'H €(>yanxij TaS'l'} 'ti)~ , Ayyf...La~ !1E TO !1ETQO Ctmo OW8'l'}XE :1tQaY!lCt'tLXa a:n:o TijV XCt'taOTQoq>i} xat JLat£ 't'f)~ o"W8'l'}XE xaL 1j &yyALXij 6LOILm:Ctv{a a:n:o 'tijv MO'tEAl'a't'.Cl)01'J. 'H xat:ltEQO>O'l'} 'taU ~ExaO>QOu x<l8E lJ.Uo :1tCtQa EfJJtOaLOE Tijv UVM't'US'l'} 'ti)~ 6LOJL'l'}xav£a~. "loa, Laa dXE ,,(to. OWE:1tELa rou !1ta xOAoooLaLa xat :1tQO>"to<pav"t'l'} ~ 'to"tE avtnvroo1'J 'ti)~ ayyf...Lxi)r; 6L0!1'l'}xaV£a~. 'R xaVOVLXi} T]JlEQa. £QyaOLCtr; EYLVE ma Evar; t8VL'X.Or; 8E0!10r; G"t~ XWQa "tOU MCtYXEo"tQLaVLo!1aU, Eva~ t8vLXOr; 8E<J!10r; :1toV OUTE va OXE<p'ti) xaVEVCtr; va "tOY l'tEL(>U;'l'} Mv Jl:1toQEi~ Ki' aU"to1. ol L~LOL 6LO~L'llxavoL l'toU (mlv uQxij ElXav uv'tLflQaoEt JLE Of...a "to. JlEO(l. o't'ijv xathf.QO>O(1) ~ XL' votE(la O"'t'ijv E<paQJlOY1) "t'l'}r;, UQyotEQa lJ.Q'X.taav va :1tEQL<pCtVEVronaL xatva ~1'Jf...WVO'UV :1tW~ T] xaVOVL')(,~ EQYUOLJl'l'} 1]JlEQa dvat JltU MO 't1.r; at'C£E~ 'ti)~ U:1tEQOXij~ 't~r; 6LOJl1'JxaV£ar; "tour; MEvav"tL 't'ijr; i):1tEtQCJ.l'tLxij;.

To :1tQO't'U:1tO "to Uyy',LXO xa1. T] ~SEf...LS1'J tOU xML"taf...L0!10U JlE "tl.r; O'UVE:n:EtEr; "tW OTt; 11:1tELQO>'t'LXE; XroQE; E'X.CtltCtV XCtt OE TOmEr; E:n:LTCtxnxij 't'ijv uvayx'l'} TOU VOJlO- 6En'X.oU XCt60QLO"JlO\i "trov chQWv tQyaaLa~. Kol :1tQCtYJlCtnXa b xa60QLOJlOr; aUTOr; XCt"toQ6w6'l'}XE va xa6LEQ0>8ii oe JlLX(>OtE(>O 1j f.lEyaAvtEQo 6aOflo uvuAoya JLg -m ~waJl'l'} TOU EQyanxou XlV1)flatOr; xal 't'ij OWEO'l'} "trov :1tOAL"tL'X.rov XOJlflU'tOOV, a'l'}f...a~ij uvawya (.tE n)v i.xavo't'l'}'ta :1tOV eaEL;av va uljI0>80iiv :1tLO :1tuvo> a:n:o 't'ij'V a:n:01jl'l'} 'trov O"tEvrov O"'\Jfl<pEQOv"tO>V "trov 6wJL'l'}Xuvo>v.

'H xaAV'tEQ'l'} a:n:o "tir; EQyanxEr; VO(.t08E<JLEr; 'ti); 11:1tELQCJ)"tLxi)r; EUQW:1t1'J~ dvat aLxo>r; lJ.Uo T] VOlA08EalCt 'ti)r; ~flo'X.Qa"tLXiir; 'E A 6 e r La r;. '0 b(.too:1tovaLaxOr; VOJlOr; 'ti)r; 23 rof !\1uQ't'f) 1877 :1tOV UV'tLxa'tEO"t'l'}OE "tov~ taLaL"tEQour; vOJLour; "trov flLa<poQoov s/.6E'tLxrov 'X.aV'tovLrov,xCt8oQLtEt 'to Ev'tExUCJ)QO We; xaVOVLX.q. EQYUOLfl'l'} T]flEQa ytb. olour; 'tovr; EQyU'tE~ :1tOV aOUAEVO'UV OE <pUfJJtQLXEr;. IIQoXO>QEi: mo :1tEQa a:n:o 'tov UYYALXO vO(.to :1toV bEv :1tQoo"tatEvEL "toU~ EV1)AtXOUr; EQYU"tEr;. MEVEt 1tLaCJ) a:n:' amov o'tov xa80QLOJlO "trov wQrov, yLCl"t1. b aYYAtXOr; aEXEtaL "to bEx<lO>QO, xa8clJr; xal. o"tijv eX"ta<J'l'} 't'ij~ 1tQOO'tCtOLCtr;, YLa"tL 0 £f...6E"tLXOr; Mv 1tE QLf...a6aLVEL xol 'to. !1LXQa EQYCto"(1)QLa xaL "tij 01tL'tL'X.ij 6LOJl1'JxavLa, 01tCJ)r; x<lVEL b uyyI..LXO~. IIaLatb. x<lTCJ) a1to 14 XQOvCJ)v bev E:n:L'tQE:n:E'taL va EQyusoov"taL a£ <PU!!- 1tQLXEr;, ytb. l'taL~tb. Mil 14 w~ 16 XQOvoov ol <DQE~ 'ti)r; GXOALXii~ bLbaaxai..£a~ !!atL JL£ dr; <DQEr; EQyaa£ar; bev EnL'tQE1tEtaL va ;E1tEQvoiiv -d; 11 IDQE;.

'R r a A A (a 'tOY 1tQcino 't'l')~ EQya'tLXO vOJlO tOY MOX't'f)aE 'to 1841. '0 V0!10~ amo~ OQ£tEL YLeI 'to. 1tClL~LeI Me> 8 wr; 12 XQovCJ)v 8 <DQE~ EQyaa£a 't'ijv ij!U~(la, MO 12 We; 16 XQOvCJ)v 12. KL' ClutO~ o~O>~ 0 EAE£tvOr; vo(.tar; EJLELVE ata x,aQ'two To tbw 'X.aL 0 6.]J..0; VOflO~ 1tOll W(lL~E 'to 3CJ)3EXUCJ)QO Y L a. 't 0 U r; £ Q"( U "t E r; a' 0 A E r; "t L r; <p U f.I. 1t Q L X E r; X a 1. a"t a E Q y a 0" "t 1)(l La xat 1toU 'l"l'J<PLO't'l'}XE xa."tCl> Mil 'tijv 1tLEa'l'} 'ti); E1tava.ataa'l'}~ 'tou 1840. "EAEL-

H TllEPAEIA - H EprA~um lUmPA

103

MV ot bn6E(1)QT)'t£~ EQYOOW; :n:OlJ va. btt6f.i'll'O'U'II yw rl)v Ec:paQJ.loyi) 'tOw VOJ.lWV Exdvow. M6)'..; &:n:O to VOllo til; 19 'tot; Mat) 1874liQXLO's O''tl) raU(a J.lLa. o06aQij ec:paQlloyij xa:n:oLa; Eeya'tLxij; :n:eoo'too~. to v61l~ a.frto~ MayoQs"s rl)v EQyaow MLbu'iw 'ltu'too MO 12 xeOvoov yw WQLOIlEVOV~ 6LOIlT)xaVL'lt~ xM,. ~, xa" m'too MO 10 XQOvoov yLb. mOE xt.aOO YEVLXa. KaOLEQOOO'E 'to EsaOOQO yw MLbw MO 10 0,; 12 XQOvwv xat Ow()EmooQO MO 12 W\; 16 XQ6vwv. r..a 'tijv £.:pClQ!10yij 'tou VOJ.lov blooQLa'tT)'ltaV E:n:LtlEooQ'rJ't€~ 6LOJ.l'l'lXavLxij; EQyaOLa~ xal aQJ.looLE~ 'tomx€~ t:n:L'tQO:n:Ec.;.

To 1892 () VOIlO; £ULVO~ 6EA.'t..wt}T)'ltE. 'A:n:aYOQE'I1rr)U it £QyaaLa MLbu'iw ?C<l'tOO MO 12 XQOvc.ov, 'to avw'ta1'o OQLO EQyao(a; yw :n:aww MO 12 ~ 16 XQOvoov 'K<ltlooQU1't'rJ'ltf: o€ 10 cUQE;, yw 3taL()La. &:n:O 16 (~ 18 XQOvwv o€ 11 cI>Qs~ 'tijv itJ.lEQa xat 60 TiJv MOOJ.laoa, yLb. £VlJA.LXE; yuvaLu; at 11 roQs;.

IIoU£~ :n:Qoo:n:atJELE~ €YLvav YLa. va. xaOLEQoo6ii -co ()ExUoo(lO, J.la. oXOv'ta'll'aV orl)v aV'tLataat) til; J 'EQooo(a;. ~tO 'tEA.o; 0 Millerand xatwQ600CJE va. E:n:L6w..T) Eva aUJ.l6L6oo~. '0 VOlLO; Ti); 30 'tou MaQ'tT) 1900 xaOIiQooOE 'to aE,w.- 00(>0 yLb. 'ta. EfnOO'taC:JLa o:n:ou ()OUA.EUaV 3taL()W xat y'U'llaL'ltE; J.la~t 1L€ aV'tQE;, fa :n:Q60bo; o~ airri) £~ayO(la.O'tTJXE ~ lLl!X XEL(lO'tEQE'IjlTJ til~ OtaT)~ 'twv :n:awu'iw. Kat -como yLa'tt 'twea it EQyaoLlLt) it!iEQa ea. "itav it ~La yw 0 A S ~ 't l ~ x a 't T) Y 0 Q L E ~, a')(ol-'T) Mt yw ()ooOEXUXQova :n:aL()tU, 'ta. ()OO :n:(lwta XQOvLa MO rl)v ex()ooT) tOu VOlLOU 11 cI>QE;, 'ta. Mt03tLVa. aua ()OO 10¥.! xat lLOA.L; vo'tEQa &.:n;' ama. tJa YLVOtaV 10 cI>QE;. rw Eva ()tUa'tTJlLCl A.oL3tOv ol cI>QE; EQyaaw~ 'tOw MWL6>v aUSlJt1T)X«v.

~rl)v A" a ~ Q £ a &:n:O ri)v 11 'IO'U'IILov 1885 tOX:UEL 'to E v 't £ X a(s) Q 0 yw 'tt;<P&J.Io3tQ\U~ Il€ rl)v EL()LXij QlJ'tQa (S~ (Sn E:n:L'tQ£:n:E'taL o'tov {,. 3tO'UQYo Ti)~ Ej.IJtOQi.a~ v' a"MoT) 'tt~ EQyaO'LfLE; cI>QE~ as bWOEM yw o,QLOlLEV~ 6LOlLT)xa'YLxoU~ xM,~ (*). IIaLow :n:Qtv Me, 'to OO>OEM'tOV e"co; Ti)~ itl.Lxta; ()€V t:n:LtQoo'taL va E(lya~o.>V'tClL af. 6LOlLT)xavLxa. EQYOO'tc:iaLa (oVtE xol of. IlLXQO'tEQa EQyao-riJQLa). "OX'tw roQE; dvaL 'to avcb'ta'to OQLO EQYClOW; XCl6ElLEQCl y..a «YEOV9> 60T)eT)'tLxoU~ EQya't£~ (yw 'toU~ Cl\Ja't()L(lxoU~ XClI. auo~ aXOJ.lCl a~ xat XOLV06ovA.EU'tL)wv~ QTrtOQE; it 3taWLXij itA.LXLa 'tEA.ELcOVEL ~ to 12 XQOvo xal va'tEQa 'to 3taLOt Y(VE'tat «YE~~).

Mv EtvaL xaA.Un:llll MO 'tt~ :n:Qoavac:pEQJ.lhl£~.Tj EQYCl'tl'X1} 'VoJ.lo6£aLa em. r E Q J.l a v £ u, 'H vOllol:lE'tLxij ()L(l'taST) :n:ou xaOwQLO"E 'ta. :n:Qoo'ta'tSU'tLxa. J.lE'tQa 'tOw EQYCl'tWV ooa taxoo'U'll OlJJ.lEQa, XQOVOA.oYLE"Cm Me) 'to MaT) 'tou 1891. ~uJ.l<p(J)\la J.l' aurl) MClyoeEvnClL it EQyaOLa 3taLOLWV m"C(s) 'tOw 13 XQOvwv a£ EQYOOtUOLa, dva!. ~saCJ)QT) it EQyaaLa 'twv :n:ClL()u'iw Me, 13 0,; 14 XQ6vwv, ~EmooQT) MO 14 ~ 16. "'EV'tsy.~ roQE; EQyutOV'tClL EQyU'tQLE~ t:n:uvCJ) MO 16 XQ6voov. '0

(.) Ked cr-a(V8't(U 1Ui>; !in' IIlov "(0 v6J.1O J.IO'VaXT) Qt1'tQa. a.im) dV(U MV J.Urii'll.l! aJ ilp(lQJ.LOYt1.

104

H TIIEPABIA. - H EPrAl:DIH HMEPA

'V6~ Til~ 20 'toii hsxtu.6QTJ 1908 xafhiQOXJE 'to l>sxciooQO y..a 't~ It>'Ya'tQ~. I'..a 't~ livtQ~ ~Wl! 'to ~I.O xa8w't~.

l:'ti.~ ~ xooQ~ fI lQya'tLxTt nQOO'ta'tEVnXTt 'YOf.I.06wta Elva1. MTtf.l4'V'f11.

Ot &1.a'taSE~ Tr}4; Elva1. .,wvo y..a 'ta naih..a.

l:'t~ 'E V 00 .... EVE ~ IT 0 A 1. 't e i: E ~ ~ B. '~1.xii; 1tOlli~ nob't£i:I!~ EXO'UV vo .... ou; nQoo'ta'tWt'1.~ y..a 't~' yuvai:x~ noU OOuuUovv ena tQYOoTacna. 01 nEQwOOt£eOl ci1CO 't~ vQ~ a-crcoix.; xa81.EQOOvO'UV 'tft l>sxciooQl1 ll?yaOLJ.lTJ fJ .... iQa y..a civ&ta'to oQI.O, J.L6v0 a'tftv KaAI.<p6Qv1.a, N'tEAa6aQl1. 'Iv-taxo, MWO'UQL taXUE1. 'to EVLaroQO. o'to' nL'V6~ .... mw'ta oX'taOOQo (y..a 'toU~ civtlA.L'IW'UC; 14 ~ 16 XQOvrov, 0X1. y..o. yuvai:x~). k't~ nEQ1.C10OtEe~ 60QE1.VE~ rrOA.L'tE'i~ Elva1. cinayoQE'UJ.LE"1l T} lQyaaLa naihi.OOv xa'tOO ano 14 XQ6vrov, o'tt~ vOtLE; 'to 3- QI.O Elva1. fJ fJA.1.XLa't&v 10 XQ6vrov xat OE (IUE; IIoA.1.'tEi:E; Mv vMQXE1. 't£1Co'ta voJ.L06ET'l1I.lEVO. l:'t~ VOt1.E; ITOA1.'tEi:I!~ fJ lQya'tLXT) 1CQoo'tCtOLa ElvaL cixOlll1 1C..o n~.v1.XQi). ot d)Q~ EQyaOta; y..a 'toU~ liV'tQ~ YEWKO. ~EV Elva1. cixol.lTJ vOJ.L06E't1.xa xaVOVLO .... EVE; o'tt~ ·EVoo .... EVE; IIoAL'tEi:E~. To ~LO xai. o't~v A \J 0 't Q a ). ( a. 'II B L X 't 6 Q 1. a xat f) N E a Z 11 A a v l) £ a xa8LEQroaav 'tOOX'tclroQO y..a 't1; ywai:xE~ xat 'ta nal~..a.

l:'tcl . 'tE)..Wt'a'ia XQ6v1.a £ywav 1CQoo1Ca8E1.E; va Q"a .... w'til 'to ~i)'tTJJ.La 't00v cDQoov 'til; EQyaOta; £;00 ci:rcO. 'ta o'tEva E6vLxa oQ1.a, C1E l>Ld)vi] xl£J.Laxa, xal. va yl"1l 'to ~i)'t'I')J.La aUro xal. Wt66eo'l1 X01.vT) 8i..c.ov J.La~1. 't00v xQa'tOOv. l:rl)v ciQX~ xT}QUx't'l')xa'Y U:rcEQ .... ..a; 'tE't1.~ AUaTJi; ol EQya'tE; 'til; 'EA6E'tla;, rall(a:;, rEQf.I4- vla; xat Aoo'tQLa~, ciQYOtEQa civayx.-lC1't'1')xav xal ot XOOEQVi)C1E~ va C1'tQE'\jJO'UV Tilv 1CQoooXi) 't0~ C1'tO 1CQo6).TJ .... a roilro. To ·OJ.LOO1COV~1.aXO l:" .... 60u)..LO 'til; 'Fl.- 6E'tLa~ fJ'tav 'to nQOO'to noU U:rcOO't'i)QLSE 'tft'Y civaYKTJ 'to;:; l)LE6v~ xa8oQw,....oii .... ..a~ XOLvi]; nQoo'ta'tEutLxijc; EQya'tLxijc; vOIl08EC1Lai;. To tirnlJ.La amo 3tQoxaA.oUC1E 'tft CPQLXl1 C1'tOv M3tLaJ.LaQx. 'H 1C'tc.OO'l1 'to;; C1L~EQEV1.O'U xayydaQLO'U liVOLSE 'to ~Q6 .... 0 O"CftV 1CQoo'ta'tWt'LxTt vOJ.L06wta xal .... ioa o'tft rEQJ.LaVLa. 'H xawouQYI4 nEQLoOO; yLci Eva ~1.aC1tTJJ.La xaQaX't'I')QLto'tav ano .... ..a 'tclaTJ y..a anocpaC1w'tLxE~ XOWroVLxE; IlE'taQQ,,6 .... (O'E~. KOV'ta or' li)).a fJ rEQJ.LaVla 'tOtE cioMC1'tTJ'X.E XI.' a~ 'tT)V t~Ea IlLci~ ~LE6v~ EQya't'Lx11~ VOllo8wta~. "0 Kai.'tEQ rO'UAtiA:~ II O"yxa)..EOE O'tO BE(_)O).{VO 'to MaQ't'I') 'to;; 1890 .... ..a aw~~ &.:reO ciV'tL1CQOOro- 1t~ 'tWv EUQrona'Lxoov xQatoo'Y y..a va autTJ't'i)aO'UV 'tftv ~Ea aU't'i). Elva1. yvroa'to mL fJ OW~..aaXE'I\JTl tXel"1l £J.LELVE lOOQi.; ci1tO'tEUOJ.La'ta.

, A1CEvaVtta; fJ ~LEavTt; ~QaoTJ 'til~ t Q y a 't 1. X 11 ; 't a S TJ; y..a 'to 3x'taOOQo 1COV 'Ui.06Eti)6'l1,)(E ano 'to ~LE8vE; l:Wi~QLO 'to;; ITaQ1.C1LO;; 'to 1889, EXEL nLci MQEL t~ o'l1ll(l(Jla ~vo; XOOJ.LOLa'tOQLXO;; XLvtlJ.La'to;."H II Q 00 't 0 .... a y L ci, .... ..a ~La~t1l..roo'l1 tooV tQyatii>v 5).ou 'to;; xOallO'U y..a 'tftv ~LE8vT) EQyatLX~ 1CQoo'taOLa xal YLcl 'to o;(,'taOOQo, £XEL YL'YEL 1CQaYllanxa Il..a IlEYaMmQ£1C'l') tnL~ELSTJ 't00v 1tOA.EIlLY.WV ~wallErov 'tWv tQya'tWv xal IlLa VLX'l1't'i)QLa YLOQ'tT) 'taU ciywvLtoIlE'YO'U ~LEaVO;;~ 1CQo).E'taQI.Cl'tO'U.

KE~AAAIO EXTO

H VnEPA:IA TOY MIKPOY"MAITOPH" I(AI H yn':PA:IA TOY KAnlTAAIITH

.. Alla lx.ollE yvc.oorl) rl)v asm 'ri\~ lQya:nxij; Myall'l~ xat'tOv avda'toLXo XQOvO lQYOOLw; 'tOv avayxaio y..a -ri) atl'Y't'f)Q'lG'l 'tOO lQyatfl, lxollE xa6ooQw!UVI) Ila~t iJl 'to noooo'to 'ri\~ WtEQasm~ xal. Ti} a" v 0 A LX" n 0 a 0 't 'l 't a 'ri\~ UltEQasLw; 1tOU 6yatEL (:, xcl6E l'na~ ... Av 1) asm Tll~ leya'tLx% MvaIJ.~ dvaL 3 ~QaXIl~' xai 'to noaoo'to til~ WtEQaSLw; 100 'toLe; h.a'to, 1) WtEQasm mriJ ea 6ya~'l '" lQyaa(a alrrij 6a ElvaL 3 ~Qax!li~. IIoo'l o~ WtEQa;m owoa.L,w nt}yalvEL 0' lvav. xanL'taA.w-rit xcltOO &no chQwllEv~ OUV6ijXE~; "A~ into6tGOOIlE ml><; WtaaXOA.EL 800 lQya'tE~ xcltOO &no 't~ MQan:civoo oUV6ijXE~. To lJ.E'ta- 6brro XEq>QAa1.O 1tOU SOOEUEL at IlW illlf.Qa dvaL' 900 ~QaXIlE~, 'to noeJoo'to til~ WtEQa!;Lw; 100 'toLe; tKa'to. "OA'l WLnOv 1) WtEQasm nail 6a 6ya~'l aVto~ dvaL 900 ~Qax!Jl~ Ti)v 1iIlEQa. «11 n:ooo'tt}'ta til; naQaYIlEVt}t;; WtEQaSLw; £tvaL 'Car) pt 'to nQoKa'ta6A'lIlEVO IlE'ta6),'l't0 XEq>UA.aLO noU.altA.a(JLoo!livo j.t.S 'to noeJOO'to

~ UnEQa;m~. .

"'A v lva~' &nO 'tail~ aUV'tEA.EG-r£~ aUt~ lA.anro6ij 'tOTE '" noa~a 'ri\~ u. mQasm~ IlMQEL va J1ELV'l 1) t~ta. liv aUS'l6ij (:, liUo~ OUV'tEA.EGniS. 'AV'tLa'tQOCPa 'it avS'lG'l 'tOU hbs ouv'tEAEa1:i) In:L'tQtnEL Ilta aV1:La'toLX'l lMnO)(J1) 'tOU aUou .. xooQt~ au'to v' cW.a~'l rl)v OA.LXi) ltooOnrta 'rij', UnEQasm~. ME(,)L,w M{la~dyp.a"aea q>EQOOIlE. "Ev~ xwnraA.wTit~ &n:aaxoA.ei a-ri)v In:LXELQ'YJOTt TOU 300 tQya'tE~. '0 &vayKa~ XQOvoc; lQyaam; £lvaL 6 d)QE;, 1) aSla til~ lQyimxij~ ~waf.l.t}; 3 ~QaXIlE;. 'R EQyaaLIl'l "'IlEQa12 d)QE~. <lOA'l '" WteQasm 1tOU MQayttaL at J1w TtIlEQa 900 ~QaXIlE;. at lQyatE; dvaL \nto1:ax·tLXOL Kat E'tGL 0 xanL't«U.LG* IJ.3tOQEL xaL aVE6a~£L 'ti; d)QE~ lQyaGm~ Gt 15. TWQa ltW TO nooOO1:o til~ \13'CE(,)aSm; 6a ElvaL (liv 6Et)ata lIM>L ot al.WL OQOL J1EVOUV ol ~LOL) 150 'toLe; ~')((J' 'to 9 ibQEC; \ntEQO.;~C; '. rw va 6YaA'l ·rwQa Ti}v tata WtEQasm (900

6 d)QE~ o.Va.yXUUl ~Qya(J[a.

~QaXIlE;) ~ Kat nettv. () XML't«U.LO-ri); ~E XQELU~EtaL nw va MA'l !,LEta6At}t'o

'KfcpaAaLO 900 l)QaXIlE;, p.Ct p.6vo 600; 'A Vt't yw 300 tQy(l'tE; 'too q>tavouv 'tW-

(Ht 200 Ilovaxa. .

.. Av 01J.OO; ol ~Qya-rE~ Mv ElvaL -unorax-rLxot )taL 'tOOXEQI.OU 'tOU, liv &n:E'VaVt'm; pA J1w nEtuX'rlIlEVt} 't~ amQY&a xa'twQacooav va btLMWuv"",,v Ucit-

106 H TTIEPAE:IA - MIKPOT cMA:l:TOPH, KAI KATIITAAUTH

'tCO<1't') 'tOw ~Qy(l(J(flCIW wQoov Weo 12 a~, 9, 't6-c£ 3t..a 'to 3tooocnb Tij~ UmQas~

e' 6-' 50 -.t J. 3 mQ£; m£Q£Q'YacJW. r- 1. '6'~ " ,

u xa'tE 'I") a'ta 'tOLe; l.xa'tv -6 T. d ' ~ -'_ IoU va ya",'I") xm 'tooQa 't'l")v

wQ€1; VQ'YXQta "Q'YQu ....

WLa 03tooC; xol 3tQLV iJ3tEQaSLa, () 'X.a1tL'taA.Lari)c; flac; ea XQ£Laa'rij va miQ'I") an.

~ouAEUl rou 600 EQyo:n:c;, va 3tQoxa'ta66:t..'I") 1.800 ~QaXfl£C; flE'ta6t..'l")'t'0 xE<pO:t..aLo.

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