Speaking with the Perfect Tongue

(A Module on British Accent Training)

Speaking with the Perfect Tongue (A Module on British Accent Training)

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Contents Effective Communication Introductory Questionnaire What to listen for on tape Reviewing previous Vocal experience Right guidelines to determine which syllable to stress Shifting Stress patterns Dynamics of English Correcting Vowel sounds Pronouncing consonants correctly Say it out loud (Proper British Pronunciation) Exercises fort relaxation and breathing Is your voice an asset? Voice Modulation Techniques Increasing resonance Varying the Pitch Dropping the pitch How to read lists effectively How to recite numbers effectively Using Pauses U.K. Counties – Pronunciation (RP) Common Mistakes and Solutions Vocal Quality Test Vocal Quality Checklist

Page No: 4 6 7 8 9 14 16 20 23 35 37 42 43 44 45 47 48 49 50 53 57 63 64

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Reading aloud exercise Test Your Skill What do you know about listening Tips for active listening

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Effective Communication

- Verbal? Vocal? Visual?

There

are only three elements that are communicated each time we speak.

The

Verbal is the message itself - the words that you say. Vocal element is your voice - the intonation, projection and resonance

The

of the voice that carries those words.
The

Visual element is what people see - basically what they see of your

face and your body.

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Research has found that the degree of inconsistency between these three elements was the factor that determines believability.

Write your estimate of which element carries the most believability when you are speaking (interpersonal communication) to persuade a listener.

VERBAL_________________________% VOCAL__________________________% VISUAL__________________________%

TOTAL = 100%

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INTRODUCTORY QUESTIONNAIRE
Use this questionnaire to interview another person in the group.

Questions
1. What is the name that you prefer to be known by? 2. Where do you live? 3. What is your former job? 4. What are your feelings about being in this course? 5. What do you hope to learn from it? 6. What are the two things in life that you are the most proud of? 7. What is one other thing that you would like the group to know about you?

Answers

8. If you could change something about yourself, what would it be?

What to listen for when you hear yourself on tape.
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1. Is your voice high-pitched? 2. Is your voice too loud or too soft? 3. Do you talk too fast - or too slowly? 4. Do you sound nasal - as if you are talking through your nose?

5. If you had to describe your voice to someone else, would you use any of the following words? - shrill, raspy, squeaky, rough, whiny, monotonous
6. Do you say your words clearly, making them easy to understand?

7. Are your words complete? (For example, do you drop your "g's" and
say "goin" for "going". Do you cut off the end of words and say "lef" for "left"?) 8. Do you salt your speech with fillers like "you know" and "okay" and "uh…."? 9. Do you frequently clear your throat or make other noises that interrupt your speech? 10.Do you sound confident or uneasy? 11.Do you sound interested or bored? 12.Does your voice trail off at the end of sentences? 13.Do you sound like someone with authority? 14.When you make a statement, does it sound like you are asking a question? 15.Imagine you are someone else. Would you enjoy listening to the person on the tape? Reviewing your previous Vocal Experience

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1. When you talk do people frequently ask you to repeat yourself? 2. Is it an effort for you to project your voice in a large room? 3. Do you frequently finish talking earlier than you had intended - or do you frequently run out of time? 4. Do you tell people that you have an accent? 5. Do others frequently interrupt you or talk over you?

6. Does your voice ever quiver when you are nervous?
7. Do you get hoarse after you have talked for a while? 8. Do you have a hard time getting and keeping your listeners attention? 9. Do you worry about how you will sound before you begin a call or a meeting or a presentation? 10.Do other people seem to enjoy talking with you and hearing you talk to them - or do you have the feeling that they try to avoid those experiences?

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RIGHT

GUIDELINES

TO

DETERMINE

WHICH

SYLLABLES TO STRESS While it’s true that English Grammar doesn't provide hard and fast rules to determine which part of a word should be stressed, there are a few guidelines that can help. Here are some pointers worth remembering. Keep in mind that these are just guidelines; some of them have exceptions.

• When a noun ends in "tion", stress the syllable before the "tion" ending. Examples: Locátion Solǘtion Imaginátion petǐtion imitátion resolǘtion

globalisátion

communication

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• When a noun ends in "ity", stress the syllable before the "ity". Examples: Abílity responsibílity Reálity capabílity personálity availabílity insánity

• When an adjective ends in "ical", stress the syllable before the "ical" ending Example; polítical analýtical rádical económical práctical psychológical

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• When an adjective ends in "ic", stress the syllable before the "ic" ending. Examples: Fantástic democrátic realístic optimístic futurístic económic

• When an adjective ends in "ial", stress the syllable before the "ial" ending. Examples: Ánnual indǘstrial intelléctual mǘtual controvérsial editórial pǘnctual Unǘsual fináncial indivídual

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• When a verb ends in "ify", stress the syllable before the "ify" ending. Examples: Rátify símplify quálify idéntify módify clárify spécify

• In a compound noun (an noun consisting of more than one word), stress the syllable that would normally be stressed in each word, but stress the first word harder than the second. Examples: Stockbroker Policedepartment musicdirector Shareholders healthcare pressrelease

• In capital letter abbreviations, stress the last letter.

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Examples: I.Ď. U.S.Ă. C.E.Ŏ. U.Š. I.R.Š. R.B.Ĭ. F.B.Ĭ. C.I.Ă.

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Shifting Stress Patterns
Here are some examples of shifting stress patterns. Notice how the stress of a syllable can shift depending on the form of a word, Pŏlitics Děmocrat Analŷtical Confĭde polĭtical demŏcracy ănalyse confidĕntial politĭcian democrătic anălysis confidentiălity

COMMON WORDS THAT CAN GIVE YOU TROUBLE: ălternate Prŏceeds (noun) ĭnventory Exěcutive Stratěgic Ŏrigin Specĭfic ăctivism Cŏrporate ĭnstinct Cătegory Effěct Trustěe rĕtailing enginěering měchanism stăbilize děcade ĭndicate priŏrity ĭnfluence compărable distĭnct categŏrically ěfficacy ĭntrigue(noun) curtăiling proprĭetary ěxecute strătegy ŏriented spěcify contrăctual influěntial ŏperating sevěrely excěl rěgulatory prŏspect

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Prospěctus Sŭbsidy Expertĭse ăuthorize Intervĕne Annŭity Dĭvidend Něcessary Cŏmpetent

cŏnstitutes subsĭdiary lěgislative authŏrity sŭbsidy ĕxcess sĭmulate necěssity ĭnventory

constĭtuency děsignate offĭcial ĭnterview subsĭdiary succěss cŏlleague dělicacy

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DYAMICS OF ENGLISH

English is considered a stressed language, while many others are considered syllabic. What does this mean? It means that in English, we give stress to certain words while other words are quickly spoken (some people say eaten!). In other languages, such as French, Italian, Hindi and other Indian languages, each syllable receives equal importance (there is stress, but each syllable has its own length). Many speakers of syllabic languages don’t understand why we quickly speak, or swallow a number of words in a sentence. In syllabic languages, each syllable has equal importance, and therefore equal time is needed. English, however, spends more time on specific stressed words, while quickly gliding over the other, less important words.

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So what does this mean for my speaking skills? Well, first of all, you need to understand which words we generally stress and which we do not stress. Basically, stress words are considered CONTENT WORDS such as

EMPHASIS “POWER” WORDS • Nouns e.g. kitchen, Peter (PERSON, PLACE, THING) • Principle (most) Verbs e.g. Visit, construct

• Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting –
• (WHICH, WHAT KIND OF, HOW MANY?) • Adverb e.g. often, carefully (HOW, WHEN, WHERE)

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LESS EMPHASIS
“FUNCTION” WORDS

Non-stressed words are considered FUNCTION WORDS such as • Determiners e.g. the, a, some, a few • Auxiliary verbs e.g. don’t, am, can, were • Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite • Conjunctions e.g. but, while, as • Pronouns e.g. they, she, us

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HOW DOES THIS AFFECT SPEECH?
EXAMPLE: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. (14 syllables) He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn’t have to do any homework in the evening. (22 syllables) Even though the second sentence is approximately 30% longer than the first, the sentences take the same time to speak. This is because there are five stressed words in each sentences, from this example, you can see that you needn’t worry about pronouncing every word clearly to be understood. You should however, concentrate on pronouncing the stressed words clearly. Tips:
Remember

that non stressed words and syllables are often

“swallowed” in English
Always

focus on pronouncing stressed words well, non stressed

words can be glided over.
Don’t

focus on pronouncing each word. Focus on the stressed

words in each sentence.
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CORRECTING VOWEL SOUNDS TO IMPROVE YOUR SPEECH

Many non-native speakers of English have trouble distinguishing among certain groups of vowel sounds. For example, say the following sentence out loud: “What colour was the caller’s collar?” DO “colour”. “Caller” all sound the same? If you answered “yes” then you’re not alone. The fact remains, however, that all three words should be pronounced differently. If you’re confused about what the difference is, just imagine how confused your listener is going to be! Fortunately, there are some guidelines that can help. There are three key questions you should always ask yourself when comparing and contrasting vowel sounds.
Is

the vowel pronounced with tense muscles (like the word “I”) or with the vowel sound made with a wide open or partially closed mouth your tongue positioned towards the front, middle, or back of your in mind that many times foreigners make the tense vowed sounds too

relaxed ones (like the “i” in “Bill”)?
Is

position?
Is

mouth?
Keep

short and the lax vowel sounds too long. Also most non-native speakers don’t open the mouth wide enough on the more open vowel sounds.

Differentiating Between Sounds Like:

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“Collar” vs. “Colour”. What’s the difference? The “ah” sound in collar is a long vowel sound. It’s the same “ah-h-h” sound you make when the doctor examines your throat. The mouth is wide open and the tongue is down. The tongue is positioned onwards the middle of the mouth. The “U” sound in colour is a short vowel sound. The mouth is relaxed and only partially open. The tongue is positioned towards the middle of the mouth. “AH” sound calm stock cot cop shot doll not fond rob hot “U” sound come stuck cut cup shut dull nut fund rub hut

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Check out the following vowel sounds:

Saying Saying

Long “EE” and shot “I” Correctly: “Reach” vs “Rich” “OO” and “UU” correctly. “Pool” vs. “Pull” Between “Odd” vs. “Add”. “Mat” and “Met” Correctly “Her” and “Hair” Correctly “Firm” and “Farm” Correctly

Differentiating Saying

Pronouncing Pronouncing

PRONOUNCING CONSONANTS CORRECTLY TO SAY

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WHAT YOU MEAN Practicing the “s” and “z” sounds “Ice” Vs “eyes” What’s the difference? The “s” sound in ice is a hissing sound (like a tea kettle) with no vibration. The “z” sound in eyes is a buzzing sound (like a bee) made with the vibration of the vocal cords. With your fingertips against the front of your throat, feel the aloud “S” race loose sink cease face place loss price rice precedent difference between the “s” and “z” sounds as you read each word from left to right: “Z” raise lose zinc seize phase plays laws prize rise president

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PRACTICE WORDS AND SENTENCES. Here is a list of words where letter “S” is pronounced as “Z”. Because Those Enclose Dessert Easy These Resolve was choose is physician transition Ms. chosen has lose reason does deposit acquisition News his whose confuse proposal phase dissolve positive

Visa Resort Design Reserve Exercise Tuesday

please busy resume residential invisible Wednesday

observe museum result cleanse residual advertise Thursday

wise compromise franchise represent feasible surprise

Designate poison

“SH” Words

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Precious Pressure Social Chef “ZH” Words Pleasure Decision Visual Asian Prestige

militia issue sure

machine conscious Chicago

anxious commercial Pension

measure revision casual message

usually occasion confusion treasurers

division leisure

Here are some sentences contrasting the “sh” and “zh” sounds:
All

the visual aids were sent to Chicago transfer has a good pension plan. precious metals is a tough decision.

The

Buying

Pronouncing “Y” and “J” Correctly

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What’s the difference? To make the “y” sound in yellow, spread the lips apart and raise the back of the tongue. Then, using the voice, glide into the vowel as in “yeh” for “yellow.” To feel the back of the tongue moving up and down on the “y” sound, practice saying the expression “ahee yahee yahee.” Remember, the “y” sound is a gliding sound. The “j” sound in “jell-O” is a much more abrupt sound with no gliding effect; to make it, you have to begin by touching your tongue tip to the bony ridge just behind your upper teeth. Your tongue never does this when you say “y”. “Y” (Tongue stays down) yet yolk year mayor yell you use (noun) juice joke jeer major gel jew “J” (Tongue touches top of mouth in back of teeth) jet

Practice sentences:

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The new jet wasn’t ready yet. Soon you’ll have a new jewel. The mayor won a major victory.

Pronouncing “R” and “L” Correctly:

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“Rate” vs. “Late” To make the “r” sound in rate, move the tongue back and let the sides of the tongue touch the sides of the upper teeth. Don’t let the tongue tip touch the roof of the mouth until you say the final “t”. Make a vibrating sound similar to a growl. To make the “I” sound in late raise the tip of the tongue so that it touches just behind the upper front teeth. Keep the back of the tongue down. Make a vibrating sound as the air escapes over the sides of the tongue.
Read each word aloud from left to right: “R” read right red wrong crime praise fright store appear corroborate long climb plays flight stall appeal collaborate lead light led “L”

Practice sentences:

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Make

a right at the second light.

The

crew didn’t have a clue what was wrong.

It

doesn’t appear that they’ll be making an appeal.

Pronouncing “R” and “W” Correctly: “Run” vs. “Won”
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Some non-native speakers substitute “w” for “r”. To prevent “r” from sounding too much like “w”, make sure that you don’t push the lips out when trying to form an “r” sound. The tongue should be doing all the work.

Practice these contrasting sounds: “R” ride rent rare rest rye raid right rate ring roar wing war white wait “W” wide went wear west why weighed

Practice Sentences

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Don’t

wait for a low interest rate.

The

rest of them went out west. one person can run the company.

Only

Pronouncing “V” and “W” Correctly
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What’s the difference? To make the “v” sound in “vest,” touch your upper front teeth to your lower lip and make a buzzing sound. (If you don’t buzz, “v” will sound like “f”. For example, “view,” without the vibration sounds like “few.”) To make the “w” sound in west, round your lips slightly and make a voiced gliding sound. Don’t let your bottom lip touch the teeth. Concentrate on your lips and teeth as you read each word aloud from left to right. “V” (Teeth touch lip) vine verse veal veer vault visor vain vet vow vent Practice words and sentences wow went “W” (Teeth and lips don’t touch) wine worse we’ll we’re walt wiser wayne wet

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Vague Voucher Volume Invest We Won’t Wednesday Away Waste
Make

void verity avoid divide watch world warning someone waiting

valid veto advise convince week work always sandwich

vacant virtual convey November want win women awkward

reservations a week in advance

The

vice president wanted to vote.

I

wasn’t aware of the investment’s value.

Pronouncing “B” and “V” Correctly:” Boat” vs. “Vote”
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What’s the difference ? “B” is made with the tips only while “V” is made with the lower lip and upper teeth. “B” berry bent beer best base bolt bail marble curb Practice sentences
We I

“V” very vent veer vest vase volt veil marvel curve

think the vent may be bent. all marveled at the beautiful marble statue

found the best place to invest.

We

SAY IT OUT LOUD! (Proper British Pronunciation)

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In the first quote, pay particular attention to the pronunciation of “s” and “z” In the 1970s…Roger Schank outlined a theory of artificial intelligence known today as case-based reasoning. Schank....explains what this is: “Case-based reasoning organizes information on the bases of concepts, not exact answers.”

It’s part of my challenge to make sure complacency doesn’t set in, to maintain a sense of urgency as we pursue excellence.

In the following quotation, pay particular attention to the “w” sound: The key question every successful manger has to ask is not “why did we win?” but “Why did the other guys lose?” this may seem a bit like rain on your victory parade, but it’s the only way to be sure you’ll get to march in another one.

Here’s a good quotation to help you practice the “I” sound:

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When an overseas visitor arrives late at night at the Lego hotel, a Lego executive calls to make sure he is comfortable. The next day the visitor’s national flay is snapping from a corporate flagpole… only the most churlish customer could resist such strolling. The biggest mistake a coach or an executive can make after beating the competition is to assume that the best team or company won…as often as not, losers beat themselves and hand the victory to their opponents.

Exercises for Relaxation and Breathing
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Learn to Tone and Relax Your Head and Neck

1. Relax your jaw so your mouth is slightly open. 2. Slowly drop (don’t push) your head to your chest-bring it back to the centre-drop it to your right shoulder, then back to center-drop it to your left shoulder, then back to center-drop it to the back, return to center. 3. Beginning at center, do two head rolls slowly to the right. Return to center and do two head rolls slowly to the left. 4. Monitor your breathing throughout; make sure you are not holding your breath. Keep your jaw loose.

Tone and Relax Your Shoulders
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With your hands at your sides, clench your fists.

Lift your shoulders to your ears (or try to!)

Drop your shoulders and release fists with a thrust, sighing as you exhale.

Tone and Relaxing Using Shoulder Rolls • Do six slow shoulder rolls to the back, keeping your jaw loose. Feel your chest expand; sigh as you exhale. • Do six slow shoulder rolls to the front. Sigh as you exhale.

• For improved Breathing, Breathe from the Diaphragm
• Place your hands on your lower rib cage. • Inhale deeply through your nose. Your diaphragm muscle expanding and dropping as the air pushes against it causes the expansion you feel in your lower rib cage. Your shoulders should not move. • Exhale, allowing the air to slowly escape through your slightly open mouth. You will feel a depression around you lower rib cage

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as the diaphragm rises like a trampoline to support and propel the air. • Repeat steps 1-3 several times until you find your rhythm where breathing is effortless. There should be a sensation of being calm yet full of energy.

• Do the exercises one more time, moving one hand form the side
of your lower rib cage, when you inhale, your breach should push your hand away from the abdominal area. If this does not happen, you are not breathing deeply for the diaphragm to do its job. • Remember: while inhaling, the abdominal area should fill up first and more fully than your chest.

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Exercises for Facial Expression
To loosen your lips try saying WWW WWW WWW BBB BBB BBB WBW WBW WBW To loosen your jaw draw hands down face and let jaw relax easily. Open and close mouth easily as you repeat FAH FAH FAH FAH. BLAH BLAH

Then repeat SAH KAH SHE RAH RAH PAH KAH SHE FAH RAH WAH KAH SHE FAH RAH BAH KAH SHE FAH RAH DAH KAH SHE FAH RAH

To loosen the tongue tongue tip to behind upper teeth and then to behind lower teeth (keep jaw open and still) LLD DDD LLL DDD LDL LDL LDL

Combination loosening (lips and tongue !) LLL LDL WWW LDL WLWD

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Tone and relax your face (“The Prune”)

• Make the tiniest face you can. Pucker your lips, close
and tighten your muscles. • Open into the widest face you can make.

your

eyes

• Return to the tight position, and then try to move your entire face to
the right-hand side. • Then try to move your face to the left-hand side. • Return to the wide position and repeat the exercise.

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IS YOUR VOICE AN ASSET?

CHECKLIST

DETERMINE AN ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION LISTED BELOW.

• Does your voice project to others or do you simply speak? • Do you know if you have a high nasal or low resonant voice, or
somewhere in between?

• Are you aware when your voice goes into a monotone, and for
what reasons? • Has anyone ever complimented you on your nice voice? (if so, why?, if not, why not?) • Does your telephone voice differ from your speaking voice?

• Are you aware of what impact your voice has over the phone? • When you hear a person answer the phone for an organization,
what do you think about what kind of image is conveyed?

• Do you know what impact of the tone your voice has compared to
the content of your message?

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Voice Modulation Techniques Variety in the voice can be achieved by variation in volume, pitch, speed and pause and in the use of emphasis, inflection. These exercises are designed to increase awareness of your own speech rhythm and sound pattern. Speak them aloud, varying your volume, pitch and speed. Volume Loud, Louder, shout, quiet, Quietest, whisper, silence. Crash, bang, clatter, smash, Hush, plush, slush. Creep, peep, asleep, Hit, bit, grit. Speed Fast, faster, fastest, quick, lighting, flash, slow, slower, cease. Run, jump, leap, stop, slink, drawl crawl, elongate, lengthen, hiss, buzz, jab, insinuate, prod glide, float, dream. Varying the Pitch Centre, high, low, deep, deepest, highest. Up and down, awake, asleep, sky-high, ocean-deep. When I speak the pitch gets lower and lower and lower.

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Increase Your Resonance (“King Kong” and “Yawning”) Drop your jaw and allow it to hang loosely. Inhale deeply through your nose allowing your belly to fill up first and more fully than your chest. As you exhale, say “KING KONG, DING DONG, BING BONG,” lowering the tone each time so that the final “BONG” gently eases down into a lower and lower range, until you reach bottom. Do this gently and avoid pushing on your throat muscles.

As you exhale, relax your jaw. Open your mouth wide and allow your throat to open: Start on a high note, then allow your pitch to gradually lower until you reach bottom- as when yawning. Do this gently. Avoid pushing on your throat muscles.

Imagine you have a large Chinese gong and you are beating it, bong, bong, bong. Say out aloud the words “Chinese gong, Chinese gong gong, gong, bong, bong.” On each “ong” sound, elongate the sound so that you can feel the vibrations

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in your throat.

Varying the pitch to emphasize certain words One effective technique to increase the impact of your message is raising the pitch of the voice on important words For example, the inflection pattern for the statement “we have a unique opportunity” might look something like this: Unique We Have a Opportunity

Notice how the pitch goes way up on the key word “unique” and then ends down on the final word “opportunity.” Make sure the pitch of your voice shoots up high on the key word “unique.” If you’re not used to speaking with a lot of inflection, you’ll really need to exaggerate the amount of pitch change to get the desired effect.

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In the following examples, let your voice rise quickly on the underlined words. Use a tape recorder to monitor your reflection pattern. We want you to be completely satisfied. They use an innovative approach. This meeting is extremely important. It’s a complex and sensitive issue. The management will make that decision. Better teamwork is the answer. You have to focus on quality and productivity. They want to encourage diversity. We need to research and develop new technology. She’s trying to control spending, not increase it.

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Dropping the pitch on key words for emphasis On the other hand, you can make the key points of your message stand out by dropping your voice down on important words. This helps to give more weight to your message. For example, using the “drop down” technique, the sentences, “she wants that promotion” might look something like this: She Wants that promotion

Make sure your voice really drops down on the key word “wants,” Keep in mind that you have to start high enough, so you have enough room left to make a dramatic drop in pitch. In the following sentences, drop the pitch of your voice down on each underlined word.
I can’t comment on that. This never should have happened. You have to earn our trust. They know it was a mistake. He always respected you.

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Whether you raise or lower the pitch isn’t what matters: changing the pitch is what counts. It’s the difference between being a dull or dynamic speaker.

How to Read a List Effectively It’s easy to lapse into a monotone when running down a list of items. Too often, speakers sound as if they’re reading off a shopping list when they list particulars. To avoid a flat delivery, vary the pitch of your voice on each item, For example, the inflection pattern of the statement “We have offices in New York, L.A., Chicago, and Dallas” might look something like this: We Chicago, Have Offices In LA New York, and

Dallas.

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Notice how the pitch changes on each city. It doesn’t matter which item goes up or down, as long as you keep the pitch jumping. Say the above sentence out loud and tape record it, making sure you do something a little different with your voice as you say each item. Remember, modulation the voice on key items helps listeners better retain important information.

In the following examples, vary the pitch of your voice on each underlined word, using a tape recorder to monitor your inflection pattern. We’re accepting applications for sales, marketing, accounting, and banking position. She speaks French, Spanish, German, and English.

How to recite numbers effectively Numbers can sound extremely dry and dull if they’re not handled properly, situations where financial figures are quoted, such as annual shareholder meetings, don’t have to be a crashing bore if you use a lot of inflection. Changing pitch on key figures also makes it easier for listeners to compare and contrast information. Observe the inflection pattern for the statement “Profits increased by 5% in 1997, 10% in 1998, and 15% in 1999.”

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Change the pitch of your voice on each number and/or item in the following sentences: The new ad campaign will cost between $50 and $75 million. Of the 1000 people surveyed, 55% said they drive, 42% said they use public transportation and 3% said they walk to work. We fly to over 20 countries in 4 continents, 365 days a year.

Using pauses to make your speech easier to understand Use pauses after phrases that begin with prepositions and adverbs. For example:
By

the time you get to New York, (pause) the meeting will be underway. all our efforts, (pause) we were unable to get the account. if we had the resources, (pause) it wouldn’t make sense to go ahead

Despite Even

Use pauses when running down a list of items. To help you listener better absorb information, it’s a good idea to add a short pause after each item in a series. For example:
We

need to relocate our offices, (pause) open two new branches, (pause)

interview qualified job applicants, (pause) and hire 20 additional employees.
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I

want to review the research and development process, (pause) the new

marketing strategy, (pause) as well as the distribution system

Use pauses before connecting words such as “but,” “or,” “and,” “because,” “however,” and so on. For example: Diane is basically a good employee; (pause) however; she does have a lateness problem. I told them to put their money in bonds, (pause) because they wanted a low-risk investment. “One small step for man (pause) one giant leap for mankind.” NEIL ARMSTRONG “The only thing we have to fear (pause) is fear itself.” FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT If I hear another word // the deal is off.
When The Our

we say reliable / / we mean reliable.

issue is not about / / it’s about job security. policy is / / the customer is always right.

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How Slowing Down key words gives them Importance Slowing down on important words gives them more weight and significance. In the following sentences, notice how the first three words get stretched out to create additional emphasis. “N-O O-T-H-E-R C-O-M-P-A-N-Y has this technology.” Say this sentence out loud and record it. Make sure you are slowing down on “No other company.”

Take extra time to emphasize the elongated words in the following sentences. There’s only o-n-e m-o-r-e t-h-i-n-g we can do. E-V-E-R-Y-B-O-D-Y needs to get involved. We noticed a s-i-g-n-i-f-i-c-a-n-t-d-i-f-f-e-r-e-n-c-e in their management style. Only a-u-t-h-o-r-i-z-e-d p-e-r-s-o-n-n-e-l can enter. We provide the h-i-g-h-e-s-t l-e-v-e-l of service. She has an u-n-u-s-u-a-l a-b-i-l-i-t-y to bring people together.

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UK Countries - Pronunciation (RP)
State COUNTRY NAME Sounds like

Scotland Scotland Scotland England Scotland Scotland England England England Scotland England England Scotland England Wales Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland England Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland England England England England

ABERDEENSHIRE ANGUS ARGYLL AVON AYRSHIRE BANFFSHIRE BEDFORDSHIRE BERKSHIRE BUCKINGHAMSHIRE CAITHNESS CAMBRIDGESHIRE CHESHIRE CLACKMANNANSHIRE CLEVELAND CLWYD COUNTY ANTRIM COUNTY ARMAGH COUNTY DOWN COUNTY DURHAM COUNTY FERMANAGH COUNTY LONDONDERRY COUNTY TYRONE CORNWALL CUMBRIA DERBYSHIRE DEVON

Abba-deen-sha Ang-giss Ar-guile A-von Air-sha Bamff-sha Bed-fd-sha Bark-sha Bucking-h’m-sha Caith-ness Came-bridge-sha Chesh-a Clack-mannin-sha Cleve-I’ve Cloo-w’d County An-trim County Ah-ma County Down County Dur’m County Fer-man-a County Lun-d’n-derri Cornty Tie-roan Corn- w’l Come-bree-a Dar-b’sha Dev’n 53

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England Scotland Scotland Wales Scotland England England Scotland England Wales Wales England England England Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland

DORSET DUMFRIESSHIRE DUNBARTONSHIRE DYFED EAST LOTHIAN EAST SUSSEX ESSEX FIFE GLOUCESTERSHIRE GWENT GWYEDD HAMPSHIRE HEREFORDHIRE HERTFORDSHIRE ISLE OF ARRAN ISLE OF BARRA ISLE OF BENBECULA ISLE OF BUTE ISLE OF CANNA ISLE OF COLL ISLE OF COLONSAY ISLE OF CUMBRAE ISLE OF EIGG ISLE OF GIGHA ISLE OF HARRIS ISLE OF IONA ISLE OF JURA ISLE OF LEWIS ISLE OF MULL ISLE OF NORTH UIST ISLE OF ORKNEY

Door-s’t Dum-freesh-sha Dun-Bart’n-sha Duff-ed East Low-thee’n East Suss’x Ess’x Fyfe (like five) Glosta-sha Gwent (went with a g in front) G-weth Ham -sha Herra-fd-sha Heart-fd-sha I’ll of Arr’n I’ll of Ba-ra I’ll of Ben-ba-coola I’ll of Bute I’ll of Canna I’ll of Coll I’ll of Col’n-say I’ll of Cum-bray I’ll of Eeg I’ll of Gee-ga I’ll of Harr-iss I’ll of I-own-a I’ll of Jew-ra I’ll of Loo-iss I’ll of Mull I’ll of North Wist I’ll of Awk-nee

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Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland England England England Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland England England England England England Wales England Scotland England Scotland England England England England England England Scotland Scotland

ISLE OF RHUM ISLE OF SCALPAY ISLE OF SHETLAND ISLE OF SKY ISLE OF SOUTH UIST ISLE OF TIREE ISLE OF WIGHT ISLES OF SCILLY KENT KINCARDINESHIRE KINROSS-SHIRE KIRKUDBRIGHTSHIRE LANARKSHIRE LANCANSHIRE LEICESTERSHIRE LINCOLNSHIRE LONDON MERSEY SIDE MID GLAMORGAN MIDLOTHIAN MIDDLESEX MORAYSHIRE NAIRNSHIRE NORFOLK NORTH HUMBERSIDE NORTH YORKSHIRE NORTHAMPTONSHIRE NORTHUMBERLAND OXFORDSHIRE PEEBLESHIRE PERTHSHIRE

I’ll of Room I’ll of Scal-pay I’ll of Shet-l’nd I’ll of Sky I’ll of South Wist I’ll of Ti-ree I’ll of White I’lls of Silly Kent Kin-car-dinna-sha Kin-ross-shy-a Ker-koo-bree-sha Lann’k-sha Lang-ka-sha Lester-sha Ling-k’n-sha Lun-d’n Mer-zee-side Mid Gla-morg’n Mid-loath-ee’n Middle-sex Murry-sha Nern-sha (like there) Nor-f’k North Humber-side North Your-k’sha North-hamp-t’n-sha Nor-thumba-l’nd Ox-f’d-sha Peebl’sha Perth-sha

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Wales Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland England England Wales England England England Scotland England England Scotland England England Wales Scotland England England England Scotland England England

POWYS RENFREWSHIRE ROSS-SHIRE ROXBURGHSHIRE SELKIRKSHIRE SHROPSHIRE SOMERSET SOUTH GLAMORGAN SOUTH HUMBERSIDE SOUTH YORKSHIRE STAFFORDSHIRE STIRLINGSHIRE SUFFOLK SURREY SUTHERLAND TYNE & WEAR WARWICKSHIRE WEST GLAMORGAN WEST LOTHIAN WEST MIDLANDS WEST SUSSEX WEST YORKSHIRE WIGTOWNSHIRE WILTSHIRE WORCESTERSHIRE

Pow-iss Ren-froo-sha Ross-Shy-a Rox-burra-sha Sell-kerk-sha Shorp-sha Summer-set South Gla-morg’n South Humber-side South Your-k’sha Staff’d-sha Ster-ling-sha Suff’k Surry (sorry with a u) Suther-l’nd Tine (like line) & Wee’a Worrick-sha West Gla-morg’n West Loath-ee’n West Mid-l’nds West Suss’x West-Your-k’sha Wig-t’n-sha Wil-cha Woosta-sha

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COMMON MISTAKES & SOLUTIONS

INCORRECT 1. He took troubles to do his work. 2. I spent the holidays with my family members 3. He is a tall gentleman 4. I saw the two females. 5. He was wearing a new dress. 6. The front/back side of the house. 7. Both did not go.

CORRECT He took lot of trouble over his work I spent the holidays with my family He is a tall man. I saw two women. He was wearing a new suit (some new clothes) The front/back of the house. Neither went. None of us went. ‘Is he coming?’ Yes I think/ believe so.’

8. We all did not go. 9. ‘Is he coming?’ ‘Yes, I think.’

10. I and he are brothers. 11. These all mangoes are ripe 12. I have no any friends

He and I are brothers All those mangoes are ripe. I have no friends.

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13. Check six page. 14. He is more better than I. 15. A dedicated line is use fuller. 16. Of the two plans this is the best. 17. He had leave of four days.

Check at page six He is better than I. A dedicated line is more useful. Of the two plans this is the better. He had four days’ leave. He had leave for four days.

18. I mean London in USA. 19. I live in the Bengal 20. Man is a member of the Society 21. The mankind should love the nature 22. He got an employment there. 23. I have an urgent business.

I mean the London in the USA I live in Bengal Man is a member of Society. Mankind should love nature He got employment there I have urgent business or some urgent business

24. Ganges is a river. 25. Each and every person wore a hat.

The Ganges is a river Each person wore a hat. Everybody wore a hat.

26. He does not care for him work.

He takes no care over his work.

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27. since

This was going on a This long had time. been

going on for a long time. 28. If I did this I shall be wrong. If I shall do this I shall be wrong. 29. I take my food. 30. I take your leave. 31. I came to know as to how he did this. 32. In the noon I took rest. 33. I came to know why he was sad. 34. He went to college to know computer Science. 35. He knows to make it work. 36. Later on he knew his mistake. 37. I want that I should get leave. I have my food. I must say goodbye/time to go. I learnt how he did this. I had a rest in the middle of the day. I found out why he was sad. He went to college to study computer Science. He knows how to make it work. Later on he realized his mistake. I want to get leave/ I want to take time off 38. I like to play cricket. I want to play cricket. I should like to play cricket. If I do this I shall be wrong.

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39. He is troubling his co-workers. 40. He is troubling me.

He is oppressing his subjects. He is giving me trouble. He is giving me trouble

41. Please see my book. 42. He would not hear me. 43. I cannot pull on with my work. 44. Keep this on the table. 45. I stood second in my group. 46. Open the light. 47. Shut the light. 48. When he comes you must wish him.

Please look at my book. He would not listen to me. I cannot manage my work Put this on the table. I was second in my group. Turn on/ Switch on the light. Turn off/ Switch off the light. When he comes you must greet (or welcome ) him

49. He is very much sorry. 50. To tell in brief. 51. This book is too interesting 52. Really speaking it is not easy.

He is sorry. In short… This book is very interesting. As a matter of fact }

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To speak the truth } it is not easy In truth In fact 53. I am ill since three months. } }

I have been ill for three months. I have been ill since July

54. This is different to that. 55. He wrote me. 56. He suggested me this. 57. He told to me to go. 58. There are many advantage from this. 59. There is no harm to do this. 60. They are called with different names. 61. We discussed on the matter. 62. He is angry to me. 63. He is pleased on me. 64. No mention. 65. In my opinion I think it is wrong.

This is different from that. He wrote to me. He suggested this to me. He told me to go. The advantages of this are many. There is no harm in doing this. They are called by different names. We discussed the matter. He is angry with me. He is pleased with me. Please do not mention it. In my opinion it is wrong

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I think it is wrong. 66. Excuse for the troubles. 67. No. please. context) Forgive my troubling you. No, sir. } (depending on the

No, thank you. }

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VOCAL QUALITY TEST PARAGRAPH Providing great service over the telephone is a tough job. I know the telephone has an impact on how I communicate my message. But even without nonverbal communication, I can still use the telephone as a powerful tool for communicating with my customer. To do this, I carefully craft my message – paying close attention to the words and explanations I will use. I work hard to let my personality show through my voice quality, and to keep my tone upbeat and my pronunciation clear. Sometime I wonder how my voice actually sounds to my customers. Do I sound bored? Aggressive? Sincere? Friendly? To find out, I listen to myself and I ask friends and co-workers to critique my telephone voice. When my voice sounds tired, they let me know. That helps me put the spark back. And when I’m doing great well, it is nice to have someone to tell me so.

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Check the appropriate boxes in order to identify your strengths and areas for improvement. Rate Slow (over 80 seconds) Good (1 minute) Fast (under 50 seconds) Volume Too soft Just right Too loud Clarity Over enunciated, sounded mechanical Enunciated well, each word was clear Mumbled, slurred words or dropped endings Pitch Too high, sounded whiney Too low, sounded gravelly Monotonous, no variation Good, sounded natural and varied Tone Friendly Sincere Overly enthusiastic READING ALOUD EXERCISE Pushy Timid
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He came into the room, looked at the disorder and was perplexed. How it came to be like this he could not imagine. The silence was unbroken. He waited anxiously for some sign for form sign of life. READING ALOUD EXERCISE He came into the room, looked at the disorder and was perplexed. How it came to be like this he could not imagine. The silence was unbroken. He waited anxiously for some sign of life. Nothing at all. His eye moved furtively from wall to door, from floor to… corner… there in the corner, slumped between overturned chairs was a man, face drained to a pallor, and still as a lifeless creature. There was not a phone in the house, no means of contact with the outside world. There was nothing to be done but leave immediately and run, run as fast as he could away from the disorder, away from the chaos, away from responsibility. Tell no one, tell no one, get away, far away, run, run, fast, faster: feet moving, feet, feet, feet… out of step, not my step; step, other step, louder, nearer, quicker, thus, thud. Stop.

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IF
If you can keep your head when all about you are losing theirs and blaming it on you. If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, but make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, or being lied about, don’t deal in lies. Or being hated, don’t give way to hating. And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise. If you can dream-and not make dreams your master: If you can thin- and not make thoughts your aim: If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And tread those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools. Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken. And stoop and build ’em up with worn- out tools: If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and –toss. And lose, and start again at your beginnings And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and never and sinew

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To serve your turn long after they are gone. And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue. Or walk with Kings – nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty second’ worth of distance run. Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And – which is more – you’ll be a Man, my son!

By Rudyard Kipling

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TEST YOUR SKILL
Once you’ve learned to correctly pronounce every word in the following poem, you will be speaking English better than 90% of the native English speakers in the world. If you find if tough going, do not despair, you are not alone. Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, horse, and worse. I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy. Tear in eye, your dress will tear. So shall I! Oh hear my prayer. Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind that latter, how it’s written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;

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Cloven, oven, how and low, Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.

Hear me say, devoid of trickery, Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore, Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles, Exiles, smiles, and reviles; Scholar, vicar, and cigar, Solar, mica, war and far; One, anemone, Balmoral, Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel; Gertrude, German, wind and mind, Scene, Melpomene, mankind. Billet does not rhyme with ballet, Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet. Blood and flood are not like food, Nor is mould like should and would. Viscous, viscount, load and broad, Toward, to forward, to reward. And your pronunciation’s OK When you correctly say croquet, Rounded, wounded, grieve, and sieve, Fried and fiend, alive and live. Ivy, privy, famous; clamour
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And enamour rhyme with hammer. River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,

Doll and roll and some and home. Stranger does not rhyme with anger, Neither does devour with clangour, Souls but foul, haunt but aunt, Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant, Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger, And then singer, ginger, linger, Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge. Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age. Query does not rhyme with very, Nor does fury sound like bury. Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth. Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath. Thought the differences seem little, We say actual but victual. Refer does not rhyme with deafer. Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer. Mint, print, senate and sedate; Dull, bull, and George ate late. Scenic, Arabic, Pacific, Science, conscience, scientific.

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Liberty, library, heave and heaven, Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven. We say hallowed, but allowed, People, leopard, towed, but vowed. Mark the differences, moreover, Between mover, cover, clover; Leeches, breeches, wise, precise, Chalice, but police and lice; Camel, constable, unstable, Principle, disciple, label. Petal, panel, and canal, Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal. Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair, Senator, spectator, mayor. Gas, alas, and Arkansas. Sea, idea, Korea, area, Psalm, Maria, but malaria. Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean. Doctrine, turpentine, marine. Compare alien with Italian, Dandelion and battalion. Sally with ally, yea, ye. Eye, I, ay, aye, whey and key. Say aver, but ever, fever, Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.
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Heron, granary, canary. Crevice and device and aerie.

Face, but preface, not efface. Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass. Large, but target, gin, give, verging, Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging. Ear, but earn and wear and tear Do not rhyme with here but ere. Seven is right, but so is even, Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen, Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work. Pronunciation – think of Psyche! Is a paling stout and spikey? Won’t it make you lose your wits, Writing groats and saying grits? It’s a dark abyss or tunnel: Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale, Islington and Isle of Wight, Housewife, verdict and indict. Finally, which rhyme with enough – Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough? Hiccough has the sound of cup. My advice is to give up!!!
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WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT LISTENING
Write T for true and F for false next to each of the following questions about listening in order to check your present awareness of this important communication skill. 1. 2. 3. 4. Skill in listening improves your self - confidence. People like you when you listen to them. Careful listening helps to settle disagreements before they escalate. More decisions are made by “shooting from the hip” than by listening to the opinions of others. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Learning to listen to clients helps you respond more quickly to their needs. Good listeners are not often embarrassed by unnecessary mistakes. Listening involves more than your ears. Hearing is the same as listening. You can listen well and do other things at the same time. Posture affects listening.

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11. 12.

Listening is a passive activity. Good listeners never interrupt.

LISTENING ASSESSMENT EXERCISE
To help you start to be more aware of your listening habits, complete the following listening self- evaluation. It will give you an idea of which listening habits you can be happy about and which ones you may need to reshape. Answer each question thoughtfully.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATING SELF-EVALUATION

Communicating Knowledge and Attitudes. Put an “x” in the appropriate column DO YOU:

Most of the

Frequently Time

Occasionally

Almost Never

1. Tune out people who say something You don’t agree with or don’t want to hear? 2. Concentrate on what is being said even if you are not really interested? 3. Assume you know what the talker is going to say and stop

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listening? 4. Repeat in your own words what the talker has just said? 5. Listen to the other person’s viewpoint, even if it is differs from yours? 6. Learn something from each person you meet, even if it is ever so slight? 7. Find out what words mean when they are used in ways not familiar to you?

8. Form a rebuttal in your head while the speaker is talking?

9. Give the appearance of listening when you aren’t? 10. Daydream while the speaker is talking? 11. Listen to the whole message – what the Talker is saying verbally and nonverbally? 12. Recognize that words don’t mean exactly the same thing to different people?

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13. Listen to only what you want to hear, blotting out the talker’s whole message? 14. Look at the other person who is talking? 15. Concentrate on the talker’s meaning rather than how he or she looks? 16. Know which words and phrases you respond to emotionally. 17. Think about what you want to accomplish with your communication? 18. Plan the best time to say what you want to say? 19. Think about how the other person might react to what you say? 20. Consider the best way to make your communication (written, spoken, phone, bulletin board, memo, etc.) work? 21. Think about what kind of person you are talking to (worried, hostile, is interested, rushed, shy, stubborn, impatient, etc.)? 22. Interrupt the talker while he or she is still talking?

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23. Think, “I assumed he or she would know that”?

24. Allow the talker to vent negative feelings toward you without becoming defensive? 25. Practice regularly to increase your listening efficiency? 26. Take notes when necessary to help you to remember? 27. Hear noises without being distracted by them? 28. Listen to the talker without judging or criticizing? 29. Restate instructions or messages to be sure you understand correctly? Paraphrase what you believe the talker is feeling?

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TEN TIPS FOR ACTIVE LISTENING
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Prepare to listen Focus on the Customer - Not on Yourself Know when to Interrupt Use Listening Responses Avoid Being Judgmental Listen Between the Lines Concentrate Stay Clam Fill in the Knowledge Gaps Take notes

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Which three listening skills do you need to improve? 1. _________________________________________________________________ _ _________________________________________________________________ _

2. _________________________________________________________________ _ _________________________________________________________________ _

3. _________________________________________________________________ _ _________________________________________________________________ _

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FIVE COMMON BARRIERS TO LISTENING
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. We Think We Already Know Jumping to Conclusions Daydreaming Preferential Bias Lack of Practice

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