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An All-Inclusive Resource on Writing, Researching, and Delivering an Enlightening, Effective, and Entertaining Speech
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1: Mastering the ABCs of Public Speaking .......................................................... 5 Chapter 2: Overcoming Stage Fright ................................................................................ 17 Chapter 3: Developing Compelling Presentations ............................................................ 21 Chapter 4: Stand and Deliver ............................................................................................ 35 Chapter 5: Click Here for Technology.............................................................................. 44 Chapter 6: There‘s More… ............................................................................................... 50 More Public Speaking Resources ..................................................................................... 55 Epilogue ............................................................................................................................ 57
Believe it or not, most people would rather die than speak in front of an audience. That‘s right; one survey found that 65% of us are more afraid of speaking publicly than pushing up daisies. The stats should provide consolation to us, however. If the majority of folks are just as uncomfortable with public speaking as we are then we know that feeling anxiety before giving a speech is normal. In fact, even the best speakers in the world experience fear prior to speaking publicly, they‘re just able to overcome it so they can speak effectively. If knowing that other speakers are just as frightened as you are doesn‘t provide comfort, try uncovering the root of your fear. In most instances, people‘s fears about public speaking are based on misinformation as well as false expectations about the roles of the speaker and the audience. Once you understand the truth about public speaking, you‘ll be able to rise above your fears and deliver your next speech with style and grace. Just think, what would have happened if people like Martin Luther King, Jr., Ghandi, and J. Krishnamurti would have kept their wonderful ideas to themselves? The world would never have gotten the full benefit of their knowledge. The same is true for you.
Public Speaking has its Benefits
As you move in different circles, you‘ll notice that public speaking will become a necessity for the most basic social settings. At a chapter meeting, you may be asked to read the announcements or give an update on the projects you‘re involved in. If you can speak effectively in these and various other settings, you will become an example to others and foster the success of the movement. If you truly want to help spread the message of The Zeitgeist Movement and/or The Venus Project, then you will need to sharpen and ultimately perfect your public speaking skills. Giving way to your anxieties is no excuse for having a meltdown at the podium. It‘s not that your audience doesn‘t accept that you have fears; but they‘ll expect that you‘ll rise to the occasion. That said, there are a few things that you can do to prepare for your public speaking engagements. This e-book, focuses on the long list of factors that you should do to ensure that your speeches are consistently enlightening, effective, and entertaining (when necessary) speech.
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Public Speaking Tips and Techniques
The study of public speaking is interdisciplinary. To that end, you can expect this e-book to cover a wealth of subjects that go beyond the actual presentation of the speech. Much of your public speaking success will depend on what you do before and after the speech as well as what you do when you deliver your message. So don‘t be surprised if you come across some information that you don‘t immediately see as a means to improve your public speaking. It‘s all connected. Here‘s what you‘ll be able to do after reading this guide: Understand and appreciate public speaking basics; Develop presentations that are compelling and relevant to your audience; Improve your communication, confidence, and credibility; Conclude your speech in a memorable, positive manner; Respond to questions with competence and finesse; Use proven methods for developing a strong relationship with your audience; Use guides and sources to strongly support your speech; Fine-tune your speaking style so that it supports your message; Determine how technology and visual aids can be effectively used to complement—not overshadow—your presentation; Find additional resources to help you further improve your public speaking skills.
Talking the Talk
If public speaking has always been a challenge for you, there‘s good news. Few people are born with superior public speaking skills, most acquire them. As long as you are willing to learn and implement the techniques featured in this e-book, then you can and will be an effective public speaker.
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Chapter 1: Mastering the ABCs of Public Speaking
Use soft words and hard arguments. ~English Proverb The buzz words in the Real Estate profession are location, location, location! In the world of public speaking, the great orators are buzzing about preparation, preparation, preparation! If you think public speaking is mostly about your performance on stage, you‘re misinformed. If you don‘t properly prepare for your speech, you‘ll never effectively communicate and connect with your audience. And if you don‘t do that, you‘ve just wasted precious time—theirs and yours! Unfortunately, a lot of people take the phrase ―public speaking‖ and think that‘s essentially what oral presentations are all about—speaking in a public forum. But, that explanation is much too simple to include everything you need to know before you get in front of an audience. In fact, when you actually get on stage that‘s just the end result of everything else you‘ve done beforehand to prepare for that moment—it‘s really the climax. So how can you prepare for your public speaking finale? Master the basics and keep building. This e-book is organized in that fashion. It takes you from the planning page to the brightly-lit stage. In this chapter, we‘ll discuss some of the public speaking fundamentals so you‘ll be clear on your goals, understand the parts of your speech, organize your thoughts, familiarize yourself with the types of delivery methods, and implement some initial strategies for success.
Going for the goal!
Before you hit the stage, you need to identify your primary objective. What do you want to accomplish when you speak? What information is the audience expecting from you? What do you want to happen once your speech is over? What is the general purpose for your speech? Your responses to these questions and others will help you determine the type of speech you plan to deliver as well as what approach will be most effective in delivering your message. For our discussion, there are four general purposes for a speech: to inform, inspire, persuade, and entertain. Your speech may be designed to accomplish one or more of these purposes or all of them. For instance, a speaker‘s message may be to persuade an audience to accept a certain view but to accomplish this, he might provide extensive information on a topic as means to convince them. Similarly, you might add humor to an informative or persuasive message to make the speech equally entertaining.
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At the same time. or changed.com | www. the audience members are fired up then the speaker has done his or her job. While informative speeches can have several main points. and politicians are avid users of this approach. Motivational or inspirational speeches are sometimes designed to improve the lives of the listeners. Did they laugh? Did they cheer? Was there a standing ovation or a request for an encore? The answers to these questions will help determine the success of a speech in this category. As you might imagine. Lawyers. or other illustrations. persuasive talks should only have two.You can only shape your speech once you understand what you want your speech to accomplish and settle on one or more of the following objectives: To Inform: Informative speeches are designed to educate your audience on a particular topic. How does an entertainer know if his speech was successful? One way to determine this is to assess the audience‘s feedback. most experts suggest that your talk highlight no more than five main points. answered. To Motivate or Inspire: This speech is highly related to the persuasive speech but it can differ in that it‘s not necessarily a call to make a purchase. Depending on your subject matter. Though informative speeches can offer several main points. and compelling information.thevenusproject.com 6 . To Persuade: In persuasive speeches. salespeople. actors and other performers sometimes make speeches to entertain the audience. People who deliver these types of speeches have a deep passion for the subject matter and want to pass that enthusiasm on to the people in the audience. then the presenter failed to deliver. anecdotes.thezeitgeistmovement. you are trying to sway the audience to your point of view. a persuasive speech is only effective if you are able to convince the audience of your point of view and get them to act accordingly. www. Sometimes these celebrities use their platform and notoriety to also persuade or inform their listeners but their primary goal is to captivate their audience‘s attention through amusement. To Entertain: Comediennes. If after the speech. interesting. you can do this by using facts. The first point presents the issue that need to be solved. if listeners are no more inspired than they were before the speech. While the second point focuses on what you believe to be the correct response to the problem. The point to remember is that the primary objective of an informative speech is to provide the audience with some new.
To inspire my audience to get breast cancer screenings at an earlier age. always include your audience as part of your purpose. your specific purpose may change but at least you‘ll have a starting point. When it comes to creating a specific objective or purpose.Hitting the Bull’s-eye: From a General Purpose to a Specific One Once you‘ve established your general purpose. first review the categories above to select a specific type of speech and then combine it with a concept that you initially think will work for your speech. how can you do a speech on water? Sure. their reaction will be the ultimate test of whether your presentation hit the mark.com 7 . Just think. you need to make it more specific. You know your topic is too general if you have a hard time determining which details you need to include for a meaningful speech. remember that less is more. If you pick a topic that is too broad. Typically. www. notice that they integrate a specific topic with one of the general purposes from the prior section. you‘ll be able to cover three main points after speaking for roughly eight minutes.thevenusproject. They‘re the reason for the speech and you need to ensure that they‘re top of mind in every way. that‘s more specific and will allow you to develop a fascinating speech. water is a type of beverage but it‘s still too general. To entertain my audience with tales of a honeymoon gone wrong. Also. As you review the above examples. By the same token. As you read further. Now. Here are some examples of how you move a general purpose to a more specific one: To inform my audience about the most devastating time in my life. you‘ll be overwhelmed by the vast information that is available and you‘ll have a hard time trying to determine the relevant pieces that you need to include in your talk. To persuade my audience to purchase a life insurance policy for their newborn. you should be narrow in your approach. As you do this for your speech.com | www. how could you do a speech on beverages? That‘s way too broad. Once you deliver your speech. To inform my audience about the four-step process for making a window valence. To determine your specific purpose. if you wanted to do a speech on the benefits of bottled water. Think about how you can package the information you‘d like to convey in the timeframe you‘ve been provided.thezeitgeistmovement.
you should be willing to take the extra time and effort to organize your speech. And since you want your audience to believe you‘re a credible speaker and you want them to comprehend and remember your message. Organization requires that you arrange your ideas into a unified. Is there enough information available on my topic? 2. Those are two strong indications that you should move forward. Will this topic keep my interest as I take the necessary steps to properly prepare for my speech? 4.com 8 . Next.If you think you‘ve identified a specific purpose. Although there are several ways you can approach the task of organizing your speech. Is this a topic that will be of interest and relevance to my audience? A positive response to these questions indicates that you have a topic that you want to talk about to an audience that actually wants to hear it. ask yourself a few questions: 1. www. and 2) mapping. Many speakers don‘t have a clue about how to organize their thoughts and ideas. First. an organized speech will help your audience understand and retain your message. you make yourself appear much more credible to your audience when you deliver a well organized speech. Will the information that I want to present fit in the allotted time limit? 3. you‘re not alone. If you fail to do this.com | www. Both approaches allow you to determine your main topics and add your supporting evidence. More importantly. you‘re not going to feel comfortable speaking and you‘re not going to connect with your audience. these methods will enable you to write and deliver a well-organized speech. this chapter offers two options: 1) traditional outline.thezeitgeistmovement. There are important things you‘ll be able to accomplish by taking this early step.thevenusproject. Organizing Your Thoughts Have you ever attended a speech where the speaker seemed to be rambling on about nothing? Or. why didn‘t this speaker better package his thoughts for the audience? If that‘s the case. maybe you heard a speech that made you wonder. cohesive message.
Mapping If a traditional outline may be too restrictive for you. Then you draw a few spokes out of the circle (think about a bicycle wheel). The subheadings are key pieces of information that support the main headings and so on. you shouldn‘t have more than three supporting points per topic.Traditional Outline A traditional outline or topic outline contains a list of brief phrases or single words that are numbered or lettered to illustrate the importance of your ideas. then consider developing another heading with its own supporting points. The basic structure is: Thesis Statement: ____________________ I. you should either cover that information within another topic or eliminate it. the main headings are indicated by the roman numerals. You shouldn‘t have more than three subheadings for a particular main point because things get confusing. This organizing alternative will enable you to create a visual map of your key ideas. Heading (Main Heading)_________________ There are a few things you should note about topic outlines. These highlight the most important pieces of information that are the central points of your speech. The outline has a Thesis statement at the top followed by the topics in the speech. Subheading ______________________ 1.thevenusproject. Also. Just keep it simple. if you don‘t have at least two supporting points.com 9 . consider mapping. Second Subheading _______________ a. First. Unlike an outline. Third Subheading _________________ b. the map doesn‘t require you to immediately decide the importance of various topics. The main topic is placed in the center circle of the map. Subheading ________________________ II. The spokes represent key ideas which then have a series of supporting branches that have additional details. The map is pretty easy to use. Heading (Main Heading)______________ A. Third Subheading _________________ B. Second Subheading ______________ 2. www. This approach is used to group similar themes or ideas together along with their supporting points. only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the main heading and don‘t include punctuation because you‘ll only be writing phrases not sentences.thezeitgeistmovement. If you need more than three subheadings. As with traditional outlines.com | www. You simply plug them in as they come to your head and this allows you to work on various points simultaneously. On the flip side.
you need to consider each section and how you‘re going to connect them in a way that your audience can understand and appreciate.com | www. your main focus should be to grab the audience‘s attention and unveil the specific purpose of your talk. and the conclusion. chronological. spatial. causal. 2001) Parts of Your Speech Effective speeches can be divided into three basic parts: the introduction. The Introduction: As you open the speech. For your audience to appreciate the information in the body of the speech. There are six organizing speech patterns.0 (SCORE.Figure 1.com 10 . you need to use a specific organization approach that supports the subject of your talk. Be sure that the purpose of the speech is presented so that the audience can clearly see how the information that will be presented is relevant. and beneficial to them. and www. important. Chapter 3 discusses specific attention-grabbing techniques and offers other suggestions for introductions.thevenusproject. including: topical.thezeitgeistmovement. The Body: This portion of your speech is where the topic is discussed in depth and all of the supporting material is presented. As you construct your speech. problem-solution. the body.
thezeitgeistmovement. Spatial order provides a way to examine structures.com 11 . The speaker uses the causal pattern to present the problem. Then he points out the problem‘s harmful effects and the probable causes. the main points need to be supported more fully with sub-points and full detail. Causal order looks at the causes and effects of a problem or phenomenon. Problem-solution arrangement discusses the nature of a problem and the solution. such as buildings and objects.motivated sequence.thevenusproject. the speaker typically discusses events or conditions that occurred furthest away and works his way up to the present occurrences. Next. he may start with more recent happenings and then refer to things that happened earlier. Chronological order looks at ideas over time. In this structure. This approach is useful in accounting for historical events and understanding problems. Researchers say it‘s best to clarify the problem or need www. Once this is decided. several solutions may be presented along with their advantages. Spatial order may be combined with chronological order to explain geographical development or migration over time. On occasion. the speaker offers a solution that will either control or eliminate the effects. The approach discusses or examines the effects first and then presents the probable causes.com | www. you categorize your information by certain specific topics in your speech. Patterns of Speech Organization Topical Order: With this organizational pattern. Spatial order arranges ideas according to location or geography. Then you either arrange those topics in the order of most importance to least importance or by least importance to most importance. Speeches that focus on processes or demonstrations use a chronological speech pattern as well. though many speakers say they use this approach as a last resort when none of the other patterns work. The notable thing about the topical pattern approach is that the speech can be organized independently and be interconnected. You can refer to probable effects when you want to make predictions about the future. Here we‘ll look at each in more depth and later look at how to relate supporting ideas. This approach is used when the speech focuses on historical events or people. With this approach. Spatial order provides a way to analyze conditions in relevant locales.
2. This step can be supported with statistics. It‘s a good teaching or instructive technique. Visualization – Here you help the audience see themselves in the future. and then reminds the audience about your main idea.com 12 . Motivated Sequence Order is a technique used to organize the entire speech. Satisfaction – In the satisfaction phase. 3. your taking one more step to ensure your speech connects with your audience and delivers what they expect. read a book. the speaker describes the advantages of adopting the plan that was presented. This approach offers the bottom line first. Alternatives to Relating Supporting Ideas Which comes first. For the best response.before showing your preferred solution. By selecting the right pattern. and finally restate the main point. begin with the problem. Action – This final step is designed to move the audience to do something—apply the information. the idea or the supporting evidence? Here are two approaches to help you decide: The Didactic Method is where you state your idea first. sign up for a program. then show the support. quotations. then offer the solution.thezeitgeistmovement. It uses five steps: 1. www. This largely differs from the first five approaches which are used to arrange the main points or the sub-points under a main point. vote for a particular candidate. 4. or take some other action. The above organization patterns will help you systematically arrange the body of your talk. However. It can also be used for informative presentations. this step is designed to snag the audience‘s attention by using a means that relates positively to the rest of the speech. detailed plan that addresses the need as you anticipate and respond to any questions the audience has about the solution. it‘s highly effective when used for persuasive speeches. shows the audience how the idea came about.com | www.thevenusproject. The Motivated Sequence Order is really effective when you‘re trying to persuade people to your point of view. Attention – Like the Introduction part of the speech. 5. or other facts. The motivated sequence pattern is more complex than the others listed here. you present the specific. With positive visualization. Need – This step relates the problem to the audience.
Now what? It‘s time to help your audience cross the finish line. Be prepared to leave some areas of the outline blank until you read more information in this guide. This alternative is good for persuasive speeches. A Detailed Outline of Your Speech Now that you‘re familiar with the parts of speech. the three main part of a speech are the introduction. This helps listeners hear evidence that supports the validity of an idea before they tune out. You can use this outline as an aid when writing your full speech or as a speaking script when you‘re delivering your talk. including the process for developing an outline for the main body of your talk. and the conclusion. let‘s look at how you would form your entire speech outline.com 13 .With the Inductive Method (also referred to as the method of implication). the body. These three tasks are extremely important considering that most of your listeners will recall your conclusion first when they think about your speech.thevenusproject. provide a summary of the information that was presented in the speech. Use this method if you think your audience might initially reject your idea or position without even hearing you out. As discussed above. That means a simple thank you or that’s all for now just won‘t do. www. and leave them with a memorable last impression. The purpose of the conclusion is to offer a signal that the speech is about to close.com | www. the supporting points are presented first and then the speaker draws a conclusion from those points. The Conclusion: So you‘ve grabbed their attention and provided them with comprehensive information in the body of your speech.thezeitgeistmovement. you‘re still not ready to start writing your speech until you complete your outline because each of these parts can be further broken down as illustrated below. But even though you‘ve familiarized yourself with these main segments. Though your outline will vary depending on the type of speech you‘re delivering and the speech pattern you select. the information detailed here provides a comprehensive guideline for developing a successful speech.
This outline has four components: the header.com 14 . Introduction Greeting and Attention Getter: What strategy will you use to get the audience‘s attention? Think of a line that will cause them to listen up right from the gate. See Chapter 3 for details. Organizational Method or Pattern: You select your pattern based on the information you gather and the specific purpose you want to achieve. determine if you need to alter the topic to match their interest and needs. fill in the areas listed here to increase your chances for success. Audience: Analyze your listeners. and the conclusion. Thesis: Here‘s where you introduce the audience to the goal and topic of your speech. there are six organizational methods: Topical Chronological Spatial Causal Problem-Solution Motivated Sequence Order Now that you‘ve completed the parts of the ―Header. 2. Before you complete your speech. the introduction.com | www. Header – Title of Speech Topic: What is your topic? Determine what the audience will be expecting you to discuss and why you feel you‘re the right fit for this speech.thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject. the body. 1.‖ you‘re ready to proceed to the main three parts of the speech. You can change the focus or scale of the topic. www. Reformulate your topic: Based on your assessment of the audience. Determine how much knowledge they have about your subject matter and how receptive they‘re going to be. Purpose Statement: Clarify the specific purpose of the speech. Generally.
Credibility: In this section. Overview: Tell them what you plan to cover in your speech and why the information is important and relevant to them. The Body Transition: As you move from the introduction to the main part of your speech. Reinstatement of Main Points: Provide a summary of your main points and highlight the information that you want your audience to key in on. Main Points and Ideas: Main Points Supporting ideas Evidence Visuals What are the What information will Include examples or What visuals will you use to main points you you present to support details that you illustrate these particular points want to cover in this particular main have to support or views? your speech? point? these points? 4. you introduce yourself to the audience and include who you are and why you feel you‘re the ideal candidate to discuss the topic at hand. The Conclusion Transition: As you move from the introduction to the main part of your speech.thevenusproject. This is where you establish credibility. 3.thezeitgeistmovement. select a sentence or phrase that will let the audience know that you‘re moving into the body of the speech. www. Closer: Choose a memorable sentence that will make a strong lasting impression.com | www.com 15 . select a sentence or phrase that will let the audience know that you‘ve reached the conclusion of your speech.
Unless of course if you‘re dealing with stage fright. At the same time. and conclusion of your speech. So what’s the big idea? If you want to deliver a great speech. if you successfully fill in the areas above.Use the above outline as a guide. If you have all (or at least the majority) of the information above then you‘re ready to write a powerful speech. and understand how you‘re going to develop the introduction. effective message.com 16 . not a script. you can work on formulating the speech and delivering your message.com | www. you will have everything you need to deliver a strong. you need to have an objective. then refer to chapter 2 before you hit the stage. think about the type of information you plan to include. Once you do that. body. www.thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject.
You‘ll be less nervous if you expect that other people will help contribute to the success of the event as well. reframing it. Facing Your Fears Most people with a fear of public speaking either want to avoid the experience altogether or find some way to become fearless.com | www. Although we should mange the parts of our public speaking experience that are in our control we also need to realize that the audience—which may include. and the media—also contribute to the situation. That‘s not entirely true. you‘ll have little time for stage fright. You don‘t have to eliminate fear to be a great public speaker. And. Of course. you‘ll be less concerned about your fears and more focused on uncovering ways to better serve your listeners. you‘re probably placing unrealistic demands on yourself because you think you‘re totally responsible for the overall impression that people take from your speech. One approach suggests you can deal with fear by accepting it.thezeitgeistmovement. superiors. and controlling it. and your voice cracks—how do you lift yourself above the panic and deliver a calm. isn’t that the point? The biggest thing you can do to keep your stage fright at bay is to keep the situation in perspective. you just have to learn to manage it. friends. experts say that may not be possible or even necessary.thevenusproject. Ah. www. you should manage as many factors as you possibly can but your primary motivation should be tied to meeting your audience‘s needs. not your own vanity. family members. your palms begin to sweat. If you‘re a jittery speaker.Chapter 2: Overcoming Stage Fright How do you master presentation panic? When your stomach begins to churn. If you have this mindset. your hands shake. The fear of public speaking is often based on misinformation as well as false expectations about the roles of the speaker and the audience. Getting a Grip: How You Can Get Over Stage Fright Investor's Business Daily By Gerald A Achstatter What‘s the one thing you need to remember when you‘re giving a speech? It‘s not about you! If you take the focus off of yourself and put it on the audience. colleagues. Well. but let‘s say you‘re still having trouble getting a grip? This chapter offers suggestions that enable you to rise above your fears and deliver your next speech with style and grace. and poignant speech? …Get out from under your own internal microscope. collected.com 17 .
If you‘re fearful of public speaking. By accepting it. public speaking doesn‘t require you to be fearless. if your fear of public speaking is really based on your concern about what the audience members will think of you. So how can you do your best despite your fears? Use these tips: Make fear work for you: Instead of letting your fears hurt you.com 18 . Recognize that the butterflies in your stomach may be uncomfortable for you but don‘t let them paralyze you and prevent you from achieving your goal. Focus on your attributes and the benefits you can offer your audience—even if it‘s only one thing. and other www. you need to address it—not ignore it. try to think about what‘s making you fearful and deal with that. and controlling it.org) may help too. Participating in public speaking groups like Toastmaster‘s International (www. In fact. Control it: Your fear of public speaking can be greatly reduced with lots of practice. To do this. For instance.toastmasters.Accept it: If the thought of giving a speech makes your stomach do somersaults then you‘re not alone. you have three techniques that will help you use your fear to your advantage so your audience can still get the benefit of your message. Once you find an initial positive trait. the more comfortable you‘ll be in front of an audience. ―I can beat this‖ and do everything you can to meet the challenge ahead of you. fear is a normal response to a big event.com | www. Replace your negative emotions with positive ones or at least more realistic ones. Sometimes our overblown negative thoughts get the best of us and our fear is not even based on reality. you‘re bound to discover others. The more you speak. sweaty palms. then stop focusing on that because you can‘t control that anyway. reframing it. Again.thezeitgeistmovement. Giving the Best You’ve Got Again. When you‘re excited about something. use them to energize you. It requires that you give your best despite your fears. Many top executives have a fear of public speaking too. they‘ve just learned to accept it and work around it. Tell yourself. Instead of trying to eliminate it. acknowledge that fear is something that‘s going to be a part of the experience. Reframe it: Keep it real. studies suggest that having a ―fear‖ of public speaking is a common human characteristic. the sensation tells your body to release a burst of adrenaline which may cause an increased pulse rate.thevenusproject.
com) www.com | www. ―the point I‘m trying to make is. Try to predict the questions that your audience is going to have and develop clear responses to them. don‘t have a breakdown or draw your audience‘s attention to it. sometimes things go wrong. Whatever you do. Get help: If your public speaking fears really wreak havoc in your life or put your in instant panic mode. Unless you let them know by saying things like ―I‘m so nervous‖ or ―I‘ve really never done this before. practice speaking louder in your car or shower. That will make it easier to speak in front of them and may soothe your nerves. But the adrenaline boost has good side effects too.changethatsrightnow. you make your brain think you‘ve presented the speech already and you‘ll minimize some of your anxiety. Prepare yourself: You can help to releive some of the nervousness by adequately preparing for your presentation. Control Your Volume: Don‘t just practice the content of your speech.thezeitgeistmovement. They probably didn‘t even notice your error and even if they did—most audiences are pretty forgiving. Let‘s say you lose your train of thought or feel yourself rambling. Practice what you‘re going to say in front of a mirror and in front of other people. If you make a mistake. Make eye contact during your presentation: As you speak. it will make you feel like you know them and they‘ll feel like they know you. Realize that most of your nervousness is invisible: Even though we think the audience is clued in our nervousness that‘s usually not the case. If you notice that you speak too softly. It can inspire you to do your best. then maybe you need professional help.nervous symtoms. Make sure you‘re not reading the material.‖ the audience doesn‘t know how you really feel. Know that mistakes happen: No matter how much you practice or prepare for your speech. scan the audience but don‘t be afraid to hold the gaze on a few people as you deliver certain sentences. Greet your guests: If you meet and greet the audience members prior to your speech. Envision your success: Fear of the unknown largely drives our anxieties. pause and get yourself back on track by saying. but study it enough so that you know it from top to bottom. This will help you make a connection and it makes you feel better when you can see that people are paying attention to what you have to say.thevenusproject. You‘re probably doing better than you think. rehearse your delivery too. the best thing you can do is keep the presentation moving.com 19 . By picturing yourself delivering a successful speech.‖ If something else happens. don‘t wait until the last minute to prepare because that will make you even more nervous. You can start by speaking to a psychologist or consider one of the highly successful fearreducing approaches like: o 1) Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) which you can further research by contacting Change That‘s Right Now (www.
Though none of these methods work the same for everyone.thezeitgeistmovement.com.fearintopower. these suggestions will help you quell your fears the next time you need to give a speech.com | www. they do boast success rates as high as 97% and some programs offer money-back guarantees.com.speakingwithoutfear.thevenusproject. you‘ll become more comfortable and that your efforts to overcome your stage fight will be well worth it. www.com) in Los Angeles. In the meantime. Hopefully.in New York or Bright Life Phobia and Anxiety Release Center (www. Before you plunk down your cash. know that each time you speak in front of an audience. o 3) The Lefkoe Method (TLM) which offers a fear reducing program that specifically deals with public speaking on www. talk to other customers and conduct your research until you‘re convinced that a certain technique will work for you.emofree. o 2) Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) which has practitioners listed on www.com 20 .
an advanced survey to find out the group‘s overall needs. and knowledge of the subject matter www. Great speakers know that you can‘t use a cookie-cutter approach when presenting information. you know that you probably share some similarities and interests with your audience just based on the topic of the course. positive way.com | www. In fact. Or. and memorable. The students in a class are probably going to be much more homogenous than other groups you‘re going to face. Some straight-forward suggestions include understanding your audience. You need to tailor each of your presentations so that you meet the needs and expectations of your listeners and the only way you can do this is to get to know them—in advance. you may have had an exchange with your listeners at some point and could have some insight on what they need to get from the presentation. ~Laurence J. Knowing Your Audience Inside Out Understanding your audience is an essential part of developing an effective speech or oral presentation. and concluding your presentation in a memorable. you may already have been associating with these individuals throughout the semester or maybe you have access to their academic backgrounds. how can you ensure this doesn‘t happen to you? There are a couple of things you can do to develop memorable speeches and presentations. maybe you‘ll be presenting in front of people you‘ve never met. compelling. That‘s because most presentations are pretty forgettable. Peter Think of the last compelling speech that you heard? If you‘re like most people. So. That‘s really unfortunate since any speaker‘s primary goal is to make a lasting impression.com 21 . In a classroom setting. analyzing your information so you can include the key elements in your presentation. expectations.Chapter 3: Developing Compelling Presentations Speak when you are angry--and you will make the best speech you'll ever regret. you should have some insight about the makeup of your audience before you agree to speak. interests. challenges.thevenusproject. you may be having trouble recalling it. Getting to Know the Members of the Group How do you get to know your audience members? It depends. This chapter will help you confidently deliver speeches and oral presentations that are relevant. Regardless of how much you‘ve interfaced with your prospective listeners.thezeitgeistmovement. At work. In this case.
com 22 . you may consider directing a portion of your message to that person without making it too obvious to the other audience members. including age and culture. try to secure information on the group‘s background. Making Predictions: How Will They Receive My Message? You also need to understand what the audience‘s attitudes may be toward you.com | www.thevenusproject. If that‘s the case. Where possible. are you going to be discussing something they could care less about? Of course. This information will help you better prepare your presentation and ensure that the information you include will be useful to them. each listener will have his or her unique attitudes towards your subject so you can‘t predict each individual‘s responses. getting a general view of the audience at large will provide some distinct guidelines that will help you shape your presentation. will they be friendly and welcoming? Are they anxious to hear what you have to say? Or. find out the answers to the following questions: Where will the program or meeting be held? What is the purpose of the meeting? What is the reason for your presentation? How does your presentation relate to other parts of the program or other speakers? Where do you fit in the program? Will your presentation be competing with other activities? How accomodating is the room size for the number of people in the audience? How alert will the listeners be when it‘s time for your presentation? How much time will you have to present? Will a podium be available? Will a microphone be available? Is there audio/visual equipment available? www. You need to do this because the setting may also influence how open the audience is going to receive your message. Will they be suspicious or hostile? Or. To get a handle on the environment. Even still. Taking Stock of Your Environment As you continue to analyze your audience.couldn‘t hurt.thezeitgeistmovement. you do need to know if there are certain key people in the group that you need to win over. consider the occasion and the environment. That said. Some groups have members who operate as leaders and those people can shape how your message is received.
As long as you keep your focus on your audience. convince yourself that you are for the purposes of the presentation.Is the room properly lit so that you‘ll be able to read your notes? Is the room a comfortable temperature (Generally 68°F)? Will the room be exposed to outside noises? Once you get the responses to these questions and others you‘ll be able to eliminate as many unknowns as possible. Just apologize to your audience for the inconvenience and continue sharing the powerful information that they expect from you. for instance. It will also allow you to make last minute changes to your presentation if you find some major problem—such as a bad Internet connection. Although that might excite you. keep in mind that the focus should not be on what you need to say but what your audience needs to hear. Sometimes we get so excited about the topic we think we need to include everything but the kitchen sink. you‘ll never get off course.com | www. the environment. As you sort through the information to determine what elements actually make your presentation.com 23 . In other words. Getting to the Heart of Your Presentation Once you have a clear understanding of your audience.thezeitgeistmovement. and what information you can present that will best serve them. Clearly state the reason for your presentation and why you‘re the best person to deliver this message. Even if you don‘t initially think you‘re the best person to give this talk. this approach will probably bore your audience to www. Clarify the purpose of your presentation Write down a specific statement of purpose for your presentation. This is an important first step because you can‘t develop a presentation until you can clearly and concisely express the specific goal of your talk. you need to sort out the elements that you believe are absolutely necessary or just nice to include. Just know that even if you preview the space before your presentation.thevenusproject. Don‘t sweat it. you need to come up with a speech that will knock ‘em dead or at least make them feel that you actively tried to meet their expectations or fulfill their needs. there are still some things that are beyond your control. it‘s time to finalize the information that will be in your presentation. That will help build your confidence and get you in the right mindset to give a great speech. Once you‘re clear on the purpose of your speech. You should also check out the space prior to your talk so you can determine if the answers to your questions were accurate or discover if things have recently changed.
convincing. As you plug in the supporting evidence in the lines under each point. articles. If you can‘t find at least three supporting elements for a particular main point then you may consider combining it with another main point. less is more. A great speaker strikes a balance between what he wants to say and what the audience will be open to hearing. start by using your main points as the major headings in your outline. If you‘re clear on your purpose. using key supporting elements.tears. (keep it short and sweet) principle. it‘s time to complete your outline. and other means. focus on the elements that will be most meaningful to your audience. Refer back to the K. In the case of a speech. As a review. there are two categories of research: primary and secondary. and interesting while using as few points as possible. Forming the Skeleton of Your Speech Chapter 1 provides a great framework for outlining your speech. publications. Next.thevenusproject. points that drive home a strong message than a long list of points that aren‘t compelling. Your audience is more likely to remember fewer. Primary research is research you conduct yourself while secondary research is already available through books. helpful and even amusing details as you continue planning your talk. and the how you believe your audience will respond to you. you just need to reach out to them. study. Then think about the time that you have alloted for your presentation. Start by listing all of your key ideas. review the points to determine which ones you can realistically explain in the timeframe you have available. Interviews may be conducted by phone or face-to-face. Most organizations have a media or press office and will help you connect with the right person. Conducting Your Research This step is essential to developing an effective speech.S. consider what information would be interesting and compelling. You‘ll add other interesting.com 24 . your audience needs. shift the main points around to match the order you plan to present them. The process is similar to developing a preliminary table of contents for a written report. the evironment where the talk will take place. This will help you express and expand your central idea. This montra will help you design a message that‘s clear.S. More importantly. Leave at least five lines between each heading.I.com | www.thezeitgeistmovement. Here are some ways you can gather information for your speech: Interviews: Think of the person or organization that could offer the best insight on the topic of your speech and set up an interview. Essentially. As you organize your outline. Whether your interview www.
you should have at least 10 thought-provoking questions prepared. and Modern Language Association (http://www. They should be open-ended. keep good records of the information that you use and where you got the information. journals. the American Psychological Association . Use a variety of resources: You‘ll gain a broader perspective on your topic by using various resources. you should be wary of research you get off the Internet. Document your sources using a professional style guide: For guidance on citing your sources or other style questions.thezeitgeistmovement.org). Tips for Researching for Your Speech: Start researching your topic early. Your librarian has access to tons of information in the library but can also direct you to not-so-commonly-used sources on the Internet. e-zines.APA Style Guide (http://www. Also. magazines. and Other Publications: Magazines. Check the source to ensure that it‘s reputable and look at the site for clues on whether it‘s updated regularly. and other materials. Before the interview. including books. Become friends with your librarians.apastyle.mla. just check the source for accuracy. As with other sources.org/tools_citationguide. and newspapers have current information on a variety of topics.com 25 .thevenusproject. brochures. Again. newsletters.org). Periodicals—Newspaper.html). and reliability. challenging questions and you need to leave space for final comments. The information that they connect you with can be crucial for developing a powerful speech.chicagomanualofstyle. always cite where you got the information. Computer Searches: Though computer searches offer an easy and quick method for gathering information. www. get some background information on the company through pamphlets. If you develop your own survey.com | www. refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (http://www. The earlier you start the research process. they have the timeliest data.is by phone or in person. Research will probably take more time than you expect so it‘s important that you carve out enough time for the research as well as developing your speech. try not to make it too long or you won‘t get many responses. completeness. Surveys: These serve as primary research if you conduct them yourself or secondary research if you get them from the library or research company. Though periodicals may or may not be written by subject matter experts. Books take a more in depth approach and are often written by experts on a particular subject matter. and primary research. You should include mostly multiple choice questions that include an ―other‖ alternative so respondents can write in an answer. Magazines. newspapers. the more time you‘ll have to complete your speech.
You can slow down to emphasize a certain point or pause before or after a particular sentence then pick up the pace. With the aid of a tape recorder.com | www. replay yourself giving the speech. If you talk too fast. go back to the drawing board. In public speaking. use only as much time as you need to use to effectively deliver the information.Be Aware of Time Limitations We‘ve already discussed the importance of knowing how much time you have available to deliver your speech. You want to stop talking just before your audience begins to squirm. At the same time. Just remember that the pace of your speech should reinforce your message not detract from it. If not. you want to make sure that the audience has an opportunity to hear everything you planned to say and that you don‘t overshoot when you make that happen. that‘s probably around the 20 minute mark. Talking too slow or too fast could impact how receptive your audience is to your message.thevenusproject. As you develop your speech.thezeitgeistmovement. Then you can literally break your speech out into minutes. they can weaken your performance too. At the very least. If done properly. Using Visual Aids Visual aids can add interest and clarity to your speech or presentation. Remember your presentation time will be extended if you take questions at the end. Also consider the rate at which you speak when you practice your speech. At the same time. you don‘t allow your audience to process what you‘re saying and you may fail to effectively communicate to them. you don‘t want to speak too slowly because they‘ll begin to lose interest. But. incorporate things to keep the talk interesting and upbeat. how do you ensure that the speech you have in mind will fit into that timeframe? You practice it. your mission shouldn‘t be to wow your audience with fancy graphics but to www. you don‘t want to be too brief because your audience will feel cheated or won‘t have enough details to understand your message. The best speakers alter the pace of their delivery. but how much time you plan to spend on each point. That‘s why a comprehensive outline is such a helpful tool. The time factor is not just about how long you‘re going to speak overall. or seconds if necessary. However. Will you be able to complete the speech in the time you‘ve been alloted? Do you feel it contains the important elements? Is it interesting? It needs to serve the audience. If you need to run longer.com 26 . Don‘t just listen for content but assess your delivery too. It‘s important to remember that visual aids should only be used to supplement your words not replace or overshadow them. Think about whether you would be interested in listening to the speech yourself. you can see how many supporting factors you have for each of your main points.
Ask yourself. they shouldn‘t overshadow you either.choose words that effectively communicate your message.thezeitgeistmovement. stock photos have a more professional feel than clipart.com 27 . bring the point home. you might want to stay away from the art used in Microsoft word or the other popularly used sites because these overused illustations may be less impactful. It should add something. For charts and graphs. Ensure your visual aids are audience appropriate: Again. assess them from the audience‘s perspective. Here are some suggestions on how you can use illustrations to effectively illustrate or enhance your content: Ensure your visual aids are visible: As you develop your aids. don‘t pass around handouts while you‘re talking because your audience will be reading them instead of listening to you.thevenusproject. if everyone will be able to see the visual aid? If they can‘t. Any slide or illustration that needs extensive explanation will only detract from your speech and cause you to lose your train of thought. For instance. In most cases. In fact. Make your visual aid understandable: Your audience needs to be able to get the main idea of your visual aid at first glance. Use Visual Aids that are Relevant: Use the information you obtained about your audience to determine what visual aids would be relevant to them. using an illustration featuring a popular young rock band to drive home a point may be a big hit with high schoolers but would provide no payoff for senior citizens.com | www. have a limit of five to seven bullet points. not just echo what you‘re already saying in words. you should probably leave it out of your presentation. Use professional visual aids: In this case. The last thing you want to do is offend them by using illustrations that are offensive or just inappropriate. focus on the listeners and their expectations. Use meaningful and relevant visual aids: An aid should illustrate a point. Refrain from using distracting Visual Aids: Just like your visual aids shouldn‘t detract from your words. Explain Your Visual Aid: Make sure you refer to every visual aid you use in your presentation. professional doesn‘t mean fancy. use them to illustrate only one point. The last thing you need is disgruntled audience members who have tuned out your presentation because they can‘t see it. As an example. But you should ensure the aids you use are error-free and that the words you used are correctly spelled. So put yourselves in their shoes and come up with illustrations that will facilitate a connection. If you absolutely need graphics to make your speech interesting then there is probably a problem with the content. Also. www. For slides with text. your words and visiual aids should complement each other. Don‘t just assume they‘ll get it.
The most important thing you need to do when your selecting an opening is to keep your main goals top of mind. www. and visual aids—then you decide on your opening. Choose a color scheme that has distinct contrasting background and text. key elements. and Impact So when are you ready to decide on a powerful opener for your speech? You do it when you‘ve finalized nearly everything else.. Opening Your Speech with Style.thevenusproject. attractive.. Use Visual Aids with a Purpose: No matter how interesting. The audience didn‘t come to get the information from the visual aid—they came to hear you. save them to reinforce or illustrate a particular point. Provide supplemental notes after you‘ve completed your presentation. or colorful your visual aids are. Not good. body of the speech. B) Establish Rapport. Preview your visual aids before your actual presentation.. Use bold and italics sparingly. Use a format consistently. they will lose their impact if you use too many of them. Flair.com 28 . Use upper and lowercase letters for readability. Include one key concept per slide. Anything outside of that is putting the cart before the horse. Be consistent in how you transition your slides Include the source for copyrighted material.thezeitgeistmovement.. More Tips on Using Visual Aids: Select templates carefully by trying to match up the style with the type of presentation you‘re actually making. You‘re on a mission to: A) Grab Their Attention.com | www. Don‘t use these elements as a show and tell exercise.Talk to the audience not the illustration: Many speakers are so reliant on their visual aids that they direct their presentations to the screen. A black background and white text is a good choice. C) Introduce the Topic. Check the font size. outline. You settle on the content—your objectives.
you‘re not actually waiting for a response from the audience.com | www. shock.If you fail to accomplish any one of these elements then you‘re not going to connect with your audience. stick to the short words…‖ A Rhetorical Question: When you ask a question.thezeitgeistmovement. it‘s important that you use a wellknown person because the name of the person who actually said the quote is sometimes more attention grabbing than the actual quote that was said. you‘ll fade into the background in no time. I‘m going to show you some techniques that will allow you to remember things that you‘ve done twenty years ago as easily as you recall a recent meal. Instead. you‘re actually tapping into the credibility and likeability of the person uttering those words. and the old words are the best of all. At the same time. When a quotation is used. ―Do you remember what you had for breakfast this morning? Of course. prove to them that you‘re the right person to deliver that particular message—they‘ll eventually tune you out. That equates to 9 women a minute or 4.thevenusproject. jump into your presentation by grabbing their attention by using a compelling statement or statistic. the short words are best.‖ It‘s an engaging word that will draw the audience in and compel them to develop a picture in their www. let‘s say you manage to grab their attention and establish a rapport but you never introduce the topic. More specifically.‖ In most cases. If you really want to improve your written communication. What you want to do is find an opener that will distinguish you from the other people that they‘ve heard. humor.com 29 .4 million each year. If you do want feedback. You‘ll have time to thank the group for the invite just don‘t do that as your opener. or a powerful image. ―According to Winston Churchill. you do. if you grab their attention and introduce the topic but never establish a rapport with your audience—in other words. For instance. If you start with openings like these. consider these approaches: A Powerful Quote: If you use this technique.‖ The jolting statistic is typically followed a pause and then a source such as ―According to the National Center for Women and Children. then they‘ll stop listening after a while because they‘re unclear on the topic. So choose a person that has significant relevance to the audience. ―Every 7 seconds a woman is battered by an intimate partner in this country. So stay away from speech openers that simply thank the audience for the invitation or recaps the event‘s activities (they have a program for that).‖ An Anecdote/Story: Start your tale with the word ―imagine. you just want to get their thinking juices flowing. you immediately engage the minds of the attendees as they think of a response. simply raise one hand as your asking the question to indicate to the audience that you want a show of hands instead of a verbal response. A Bold Statement/Shocking Statistic: A bold claim or startling statistic can be a powerful way to set the stage for an informational or educational talk.
and tell them why the information is important to them. Images are more memorable than words. exhausted.‖ ―I got this invite at the last minute. Select quotations that are appropriate for your audience. Take charge! Dedicate only 30-seconds for your introduction for a 5-minute speech.com 30 . As with the opener.com | www. reread your old speeches too. With lightening speed. Keep your eyes peeled for interesting quotes. and insightful anecdotes. And once you do that. Also. don‘t forget a powerful close. It‘s no wonder why Patty Clark and her colleagues are on a mission to preserve the lifesaving staircase. and 3) make a lasting impression so your message sticks in their brains. pick an opener that‘s right for your presentation. Relate your topic to your audience. You can breathe new life into an old presentation by adding a bold new opener. ―Look to your left.thevenusproject. You‘re hot. Keep the sentence in your introduction short. More Tips on Developing Your Introduction: After getting your audience‘s attention. Don‘t open your speech with an apology or excuse such as ―I‘m so nervous. provide a preview of what you‘re going to talk about. ―Imagine racing down the staircase to escape Tower 2 on the infamous September 11th. and scared. you conclude that death is inevitable until a staircase summons you. you can improve your odds with a powerful opener and a memorable close.‖ that sets a poor tone. Do you realize that one of those people will not be walking down the aisle at graduation time?‖ Closing Your Speech with a Memorable Kicker Though people generally forget much of what they hear in a speech. Now that you have some options. As the building ferociously crumbles at your feet. sticky. look to your right. so it‘s essential that you: 1) provide your audience with clues so they know you‘re about to close.thezeitgeistmovement.minds. Use short sentences in your introduction. www. 2) CTA or Call to Action by telling listeners specifically what you need them to do or what actions you want them to take right now—this is especially important in a persuasive speech. The last 3 to 5 minutes are critical to how your speech is perceived. mind-blowing statistics. you need to close with a mission. Develop an outline that includes sentences and phrases to help you remember important information.‖ Humorous stories can be good openers too as long as their based on real-life relatable experiences and you don‘t fall into the trap of telling jokes. you and your co-workers follow the stairs down to the ground level where you‘re able to escape only moments before the tower collapses.
Let your audience know how you personally relate to the subject matter. Also.com 31 . You should never leave a captive audience without closing the deal.‖ It communicates to your audience that you‘re really lost for words and didn‘t think enough of them to develop a compelling close. go to the back of the room to buy a book. or sign up for the next seminar. She no longer relies on her friends and neighbors to carry her to school every day.com | www. By ending with a strong speech title. This approach is great for motivational speeches. 2) the body that‘s where you actually educate the audience on the three essential points.Whatever you do. The 3-part speech outline is a particular approach that enables the speaker to convey important information using three different occasions: 1) the opening is when you tell them what you‘re going to tell them or provide a preview.‖ Summarize Key Points or Bookend Your Speech: As you were developing your speech. Or worse yet. the girl born as a double amputee. for instance. You can summarize those points in the close to remind the audience of those important elements. That will help them see how the message can apply to them. Use Words that Echo or Repeat: Using words that echo or repeat can linger in the minds of your listeners. Personalize Your Message: If you really want to hit a homerun with your speech. Now. And miles to go before I sleep. whether it‘s cast their vote for a particular candidate. she can take the long walk herself with the help of the prosthetic leg that was made possible by contributors like you.thevenusproject. this approach requires that you do some advance thinking about what action you want your audience to take but it‘s worth the extra effort.‖ Refer to back to the title: Use the provocative title to memorably shape your message and unforgettably close it. ―And miles to before I sleep.thezeitgeistmovement. don‘t blurt out those two meaningless words: ―Thank You. Have you been in an abusive relationship? Did you lose someone close on 9/11? Did the information that you shared help you overcome a particular challenge? It‘s not too late to provide your personal insight even if that reveal comes at the closing. Of course. take it to home plate. And miles to go before I sleep. Challenge Your Audience or Call to Action (CTA): Ask your audience to apply what they heard in the speech to spur them to action. you might close by telling how the story turned out and hopefully relating that successful outcome to something you said in your speech. So if you began with an anecdote. ―Remember little Jessica. To give your close a little more pizzazz. be specific about what you want them to do. and 3) the Closing is when you tell them what you‘ve already told them. consider any of these techniques: Tie-in to the Opening: This type of closing circles back to the opening by referring to something that was said in the beginning of the speech. you wrote down the key points you wanted to cover. you‘ll www. don‘t run out of gas before you conclude your talk.
we discussed three areas. tie your conclusion to your introduction. Never read your close verbatim.thevenusproject. When President Barack Obama ran his campaign trail. Look for ways to develop a cohesive unit within the three sections of your speech. Essentially. he got Americans from coast to coast to call out ―Yes. write the closing first. here are 10 things you need to do to ensure your speech rocks the room: 1. just refer to an outline for brief phrases. Refer to a popular movie or book: You can refer to a book or movie that you believe is particularly meaningful to the audience and use examples or quotes from it to support your claims. As with the opener. Bringing It All Together This chapter focused on what you need to develop a compelling speech. This helps you connect with the audience and will get them to listen up as you illustrate the relevance of that book or production. the opening. Be heartfelt: If you don‘t believe what you‘re saying in your speech you shouldn‘t say it. www. the person saying the quote is at least as important as the actual quote you select because you‘re relying on that person‘s popularity and credibility to drive your point home. Use a quote from a well-known person. Invest time in your final remarks because that‘s your last time to make an impression on your audience. If possible. Don‘t approach it like you would an acting gig.com | www.get your audience to make the connection between the title and the speech and think more fully about the speech they just heard. mention that incident again when you close. Leave your audience with something memorable. To recap. To come up with great title for a speech. Close your speech by summarizing the points that you covered in the body of your speech—never introduce new information. For example. if you opened with an anecdote. When it comes to bringing your speech to a close you‘re the only one who can ensure that you leave your listeners with a lasting impression. More Tips on Developing Your Conclusion: Your eye contact should be powerful at the close of your speech. and the close. Call and Response: Get the audience to repeat a phrase that you used in your speech. the body of the speech or overall content.thezeitgeistmovement. talk from your heart. Giving a speech is not like performing a monologue. we can!‖ as a way to get them excited about his message and to remember it.com 32 . So use any of these suggestions to give your audience a speech they‘ll never forget.
and what problems you can help them solve. Focus on your audience—not yourself. it‘s easy to become scattered. think about the things that you can say to serve your listeners. the purpose for their attendance. All of this builds trust and will make it easier for you to speak to them. 4.thezeitgeistmovement. or frustrated but you have a better chance of success if you stay on task. plan to direct your talk to the crowd not your visual aids or anywhere else. Be natural: Don‘t try to imitate another person. then proceed to speak. You‘ll do a better job by being yourself. Instead of inserting these distractions in your speech. And don‘t try to memorize your speech verbatim because that will increase your anxiety and cause you more mistakes.com | www. anxious. Evaluate room setup: Check out the room where you‘ll be presenting your speech well in advance. you should rehearse your speech frequently so you don‘t have to read your speech but have committed it to memory. No matter which method you use. Also. They‘ll also be more eager to listen to you. Write it down: There are a couple of ways to approach your speech but you need to at least have some form of it on paper or index cards. *Room temperature for general human comfort ranges from 20°c (68°F) to 25°C (77°F). 6. 9. Also. practicing it.com 33 . Nix the zero words: ―Ums‖ and ―ahs‖ provide no informational value to your talk and they can keep your audience from really listening to what you have to say. Know your audience: Earlier we discussed the importance of understanding your audience demographics but also know how they believe you can best service them.thevenusproject. www. 7. More importantly. Find out who will be sitting in your audience. 5. Stay in the moment: Whether you‘re crafting your speech. Make sure the audio/visual equipment is in working condition and determine whether the room temperature* needs to be adjusted. When the pressure is on. People also learn from your mistakes or mishaps and will feel more comfortable sharing their own tales. Some people write out their speech word for word and others just put bullet points on 3x5 index cards. it‘s important that you completely focus on whatever activity you‘re working on. This may help you improve. 8. or actually delivering it. 3.2. Get personal: By sharing your personal stories with your audience you show them that you‘re like them and you can relate. Clarify and cover at least two or three objectives for your speech: Think about what you want your audience to know or do as a result of hearing you speak and work toward that goal. stop and pause. practice saying your speech in a mirror or with friends.
you‘ve completed much of the groundwork. now it‘s time to add the finishing touches. Close your speech with a bang: Now that you‘ve reeled them in with a powerful opening and maintained their interest during the bulk of your talk.10. At first glance. it may be a little overwhelming to think about all the things you need to do to prepare the speech and you haven‘t even delivered it yet.com 34 . www. you need to reinforce your message and complete your mission by leaving with a strong finish.thevenusproject.thezeitgeistmovement.com | www. Take heart.
as long as you maintain the essence of the speech. you‘re not going to connect with your audience in a meaningful way. You‘ve got the audience‘s attention. But first you need to understand your options. you can kiss your chances of receiving another invitation goodbye! Your speech may be organized. and writing your text. www. We‘ll look at verbal and nonverbal communication.com 35 . More importantly. rehearsed speeches. Consider these four speech delivery alternatives: Extemporaneous: These types of speeches have the look of a person speaking spontaneously but are actually very well prepared. However. In fact. well researched. and have great content but if you‘re unable to effectively deliver it. you can alter the actual spoken words to keep the speech fresh and spontaneous. ~Martin Fraquhar Tupper It‘s time for you to take center stage. you‘re not going to service them and if you don‘t do that. you would use speaker notes or an outline to remind you of the elements of the speech you‘re not reading it word-for-word. you‘re doomed. Special Deliveries: It‘s time for you to think about how you‘re going to deliver your speech. you really don‘t have all of the components of a compelling speech until you‘ve finalized the delivery as well as the message. Extemporaneous speeches involve researching your topic.Chapter 4: Stand and Deliver Well-timed silence hath more eloquence than speech. organizing your findings. and what things you can do to develop your own speaking style. All ears are tuned in.thevenusproject.thezeitgeistmovement. Research studies have found that your verbal delivery and body language can have a tremendous impact on your audience and may even win them over even if the content is weak. what are you going to do with it? When it comes to public speaking. enhances. your delivery is as important as your message. All eyes are on you. The bottom line is that your delivery emphasizes. This chapter examines the various elements involved in delivering an effective speech. Though. external factors that may affect your presentation.com | www. and reinforces your message. If you‘re not able to present your information effectively.
the better you‘ll get at giving an impromptu talk.thezeitgeistmovement. Just don‘t rob this presentation of its spontaneity. tone. and organized if you want to deliver an effective message. Memorized: These speeches can be the hardest to deliver because it requires a word-for-word presentation without the use of any aids. Also. You should be loud enough so that everyone in the room can hear you. There‘s no time to prep. People who memorize speeches frequently such as politicians or actors say the best way to deliver these types of speeches is to just practice. it‘s your responsibility to familiarize yourself with these areas so you can manipulate them for greatest effectiveness. or phrases. paragraphs. take some time to gather your thoughts so you can organize them as much as you can. pitch. The good news here is that the more proficient you become at delivering other types of speeches. To determine the appropriate volume and whether or not you‘ll need a microphone. and rate. Also. The message you deliver is based on what you have in your head. This delivery alternative is typically used when speaking on highly sensitive information or during a crisis situation where using specific words and terms are important. The voice has several elements that you can vary as a means to enhance your speech. Impromptu: If you think impromptu speeches sound the most natural. At the same time. clear. or preselect the right words you‘re going to use.com | www.Manuscript: Reading from a manuscript is the most formal type of delivery. As a good speaker. you may want to read from a manuscript when you‘ve taken the time to embellish your speech and want to ensure that you deliver it exactly as you wrote it. Practice this speech as much as you can so you sound natural and as you become more confident try adding a few spontaneous changes at the time of delivery. write down your thoughts. you still need to be coherent. Even with impromptu speeches. it‘s because they are natural. Sounding off about Verbal Communication Your verbal communication skills are of particular importance when you‘re delivering a speech. Volume: This determines how loudly your voice is projected throughout your presentation space.thevenusproject. It offers you the greatest control over the wording of your speech. they include volume.com 36 . you shouldn‘t sound as if you‘re shouting. Speakers can sometimes confuse words. practice. a memorized speech can sound overly rehearsed or canned. Even if you are asked to do a last minute speech or if you find yourself on the spot. consider the size of the room and the amount of people that will www. concise.
As long as you don‘t overdo it. www. confident. jittery. and the content. In conversation. strike a balance by selecting the tone that feels most natural to you. most people have a range of eight notes. the listener‘s expectations. hopeful. consider whispering when talking about a secret or private conversation and pump up the volume as you speak about a challenge or victory. You should also consider altering your voice according to your speech. At the same time. As with other elements in your speech. Tone: It‘s not what you say. convincing. For your speech. you can speak in a lower tone to draw the audience in or raise your voice to underscore a particular point. If possible.com 37 . Generally.be filling the space. People generally speak at a rate at 115 words per minute. Your speech is your own personal music and you have your own ―natural register‖ and that‘s the notes on the musical scale that you speak most comfortably. or inviting. You can have a tone that‘s positive. Sprinkling variety in your volume adds spice. A slow speech may be comforting or relaxing but can also be boring. Pitch: The high or low notes you produce when you speak is referred to as pitch. Your tone encompasses all of the elements that put a particular spin on your speech. or confusing. Pace: The rate or pace is the speed that your words are spoken. panicked. you raise your voice at the conclusion of a question and lower your voice at the end of statement. They also prefer upbeat or positive speeches over negative ones. using excessive pitch (speaking too high or too low) could be distracting. For example. The key here is to ensure your pitch varies enough to maintain your audiences‘ attention but only using those notes that are pleasing to the ear. A fast pace indicates a sense of urgency or may seem pushy. Slowdown if you have a strong dialect or accent so people understand you. joyous. you don‘t want to speak in monotone or in one pitch because you‘ll be considered boring and your audience with tune you out. Similarly. it‘s the way you say it. negative. You may also want to slowdown when you‘re delivering a story. try to rehearse your speech in your actual presentation or in a room like it. pessimistic. sarcastic.thevenusproject.com | www. As you determine your tone. During an exciting part of your speech. fearful. Research shows that an audience can better relate to positive tones than negative ones. speed up to draw attention to the point you‘re trying to make. varying is key.thezeitgeistmovement. a political speech should be more forceful and demanding than a speech on a child‘s daycare facility which should probably be pleasant and upbeat.
then assess your presentation for clarity.com 38 . If you‘re unclear. Be sure to get a handle on these two elements because errors in these areas can ruin your delivery.thezeitgeistmovement. Mumbling is an enunciation issue that occurs when the speaker closes his mouth and maintains a low pitch. look up the word in the dictionary to view the phonetic spelling or use your thesaurus to locate a friendly substitute. Pronunciation and Enunciation: There is no excuse to mispronounce a word during your speech. Enunciation has to do with how clearly you articulate each syllable in a word.Pauses also influence the pace. eh.thevenusproject. or just inexperience. and move his lips. Since pronunciation and enunciation are closely interrelated.‖ Nonfluencies such as like. always keep a dictionary and a thesaurus handy. unpreparedness. speakers often fill in the natural pauses with ―zero words. record yourself delivering the speech and then count the number of nonfluencies. As a remedy. here is a list of suggestions: Instead of da Bronx dancin’ dat fadda Febuary Gazinto Gonna How ya doin’ meetcha at the store ta go Whatcha doin’? Say The Bronx Dancing that father February goes into Going How are you doing? Meet you at the store To go What are you doing? www. um. or ah are a distraction and add nothing to your presentation. excitement. Just in case you want to start improving your enunciation and pronunciation right away. it‘s probably not as long as you think it is. problems arise when the speaker utters one or more syllables incorrectly. prepare your speech in advance. ya know. If you need help with this. Nonfluencies Use: Whether it‘s from nervousness. increase his pitch. settle for the silence. To ensure you pronounce and enunciate the words in your speech accurately. record your speech. regulate your pace (and prevent you from speaking too quickly). Instead of dropping in these space fillers. You can use pauses to highlight certain points.com | www. then redo it as much as you need to eliminate those unnecessary distractions. and add dramatic effect. A pause between words or phrases adds emphasis. the speaker should open his mouth.
Pause instead of dropping in influencies throughout your speech. posture. Pause for drama and emphasis. you could just record yourself. you know you need to pick up the pace of the speech or clarify a few of your points so your audience can better appreciate your content. facial expression. Eye Contact: This is extremely important when making a speech. Or. because our culture tends to rely on eye contact for clues on whether the person is being honest or providing valid information. More Tips on Verbal Cues: Vary your volume and rate to add spice to your speeches.thevenusproject. Once you review a video of yourself. play it back and analyze it for volume. and left. Sharpening Your Nonverbal Cues The nonverbal cues are the easiest skills to assess and improve. Get your entire audience involved and don‘t just focus on the people who appear interested or are taking notes.thezeitgeistmovement. Make sure you know how to enunciate and pronounce all of the words in your speech.com 39 . This is a very effective way to get instant feedback. This will enable you to hear your voice in the same manner as other people do. To do that. cup your hand over your ear and pull that ear slightly forward. This increases your credibility with your audience. and the nonfluencies. When you look people in the eye during a speech.Sometimes we aren‘t aware of the communication issues that we have because we don‘t actually hear ourselves speak. chest out. pace. Maintaining eye contact also allows you to gauge how you‘re doing? If you‘re met by droopy eyes or puzzled faces. stance. and appearance positively connects with your audience. Look directly into people‘s eyes as you‘re talking to them and if you can. and stomach pulled in. Stand with your shoulders back. movement. scan the room by making eye contact with people in different sections. gestures. Then cup your other hand over your mouth as you direct the sound to your cupped ear. Make sure www. you‘ll be able to ensure your eye contact. call some people by name. To connect with people during your talk. such as in the front. If you fail to look at a few choice audience members in the eye. you need to stand tall. Posture and Stance: If you‘re ready to deliver your speech. Enhance your verbal delivery using inflection. they feel as if you‘re talking to them and them alone. tone. you may appear to be dishonest or not fully confident in the information you are presenting.com | www. pitch. middle.
www. pal!‖ in Middle Eastern countries. twisting your hair. If you find your hands are just getting in the way. the same symbol has the same meaning as the middle finger does here in America. or use your fingers to coordinate the number you‘re currently talking about if you‘re discussing a rundown. coming from behind a podium helps you create a personal relationship with them. and doing anything that will draw your audience‘s attention from you to the object you‘re focusing on. those include scratching your head. There are some gestures you should never do when delivering a speech. If you‘re going to use gestures.com | www. For smaller groups. Use your body language to underscore excitement and passion for your subject matter. the ―Thumbs up‖ symbol means ―Up yours. You‘d be surprised how many common American gestures are insulting to other groups. Iraq. In Thailand. they need to be natural because your audience will be able to pick up on staged actions. you‘re removing the artificial barrier between you and them. Other random gestures like clicking your pen or crossing your arms can also interfere with your message. You may be ―naturally‖ moved to show a demonstration.thezeitgeistmovement. communicate the space of a particular item using your hands. If you can‘t move fully—maybe you have a microphone attachment and you‘re being videotaped—you still can make a connection from a podium by leaning forward from the waist and making a few gestures with your hands. and West Africa. As you move away from the lectern and closer to the audience. hand gestures can add interest and flair to your presentation. For speeches to an international audience. As long as you don‘t overdo it.com 40 . Make it a point to look at the audience and smile when appropriate. Gestures and Movement: Use gestures to emphasize an opinion or idea or express a thought. hitting the lectern. For example.thevenusproject. South America. Gestures add expression and interest and help maintain the audience‘s attention. Sardinia. Be conscious of your movements and avoid random pacing because unnecessary steps or sways just distract your audience. an erect posture demonstrates confidence and physically promotes an environment for a fuller voice. hold onto the podium or keep your hands in your pockets. find out if there are any offensive gestures to that particular culture. Make sure your movements are purposeful whether it be a turn of the head or a movement from a few steps from the lectern. According to research.your feet are shoulder length apart and that your weight is equally distributed on both feet. Body Language: Your body language is key to giving a successful speech. Be sure to put only one coin in your pockets so it doesn‘t jingle and so you can give your fingers something to hold onto while they wait for the conclusion of your speech.
dress neat.thevenusproject. ensure your expressions are appropriate for the content you‘re delivering. exit. So how do you keep external conditions in check? Stick to the plan. On the other hand. hand gestures in your speech to add interest and emphasis. if you expect your audience to take notes. You should also ensure that the room accommodates other activities too. Men did notice clothing when it came to other men. Though you can‘t control every single factor that may affect the success of your speech. Don‘t try to spruce up your speech with contrived gestures.com | www. the attendees will be distracted or cause a distraction due to the lack of seats. Be sure your hand gestures aren‘t going to be offensive to your audience— particularly you international attendees. then there needs to be appropriate desk space. Taking Care of External Factors: Murphy‘s Law says everything that can go wrong. A Roper Organization Study found that women notice the clothes that other women and men wear. the following guidelines may help: Ensure the size of the room accommodates the number of attendees: If the location is too crowded. Incorporate natural. Ensure there is sufficient light for you and the audience: Even if the you‘re going to be speaking in a room that only lights up the stage. It tells us that there are certain things out of our control.thezeitgeistmovement. Appearance: Clothing counts when it comes to public speaking. If the www. you can manage a large majority of them. people appreciate a pleasant facial expression throughout a speech. For a great impression. you should still ensure there is enough light for audience members to enter.com 41 . will go wrong. simply pause until the noise ceases. that‘s not exactly true. More Tips on Nonverbal Cues: Make eye contact with as many people as you can in the room. comfortable. as well as appropriate for the presentation. Dress comfortably and appropriately. For example. like a kid yelling down the hall. while men are more interested in checking out a woman‘s physique than the attire.Facial Expression: Your facial expression should be natural. But also. Deal with outside noises: If your speech gets drowned out by outside noises. Well. clean. unrehearsed. the attendees will feel disconnected and you‘ll spend a lot of your time trying to draw them in. In most cases. and find their seats. if the room is too big for the group.
Eliminate fidgeting or other nervous gestures through practice. talking on a cell phone. Also. be sure that the podium or lectern you requested is actually in place. let them know you‘d appreciate it if they reduced the noise or handled their business outside. it‘s okay to let your audience know you need to take a minute or so to address the distraction. Make eye contact with as many people as you can in the room. With a standard microphone. you‘re in charge. Adjust your voice so that it sounds pleasant to the human ear and so that everyone in the room can hear you. visually illustrate pieces or segments of information. Think about how you plan to deliver your speech to determine the type of microphone you plan to use. set up an anecdote or humor. If you‘re going to be moving around. If someone is making noise. or avoid using nonfluencies.situation is getting too out of hand. Let your personality shine during your speech and don‘t try to imitate anyone else. or do anything else to throw you off your game. you‘re responsible for ensuring that the atmosphere will facilitate successful communication between you and your audience. Conduct a sound check to determine whether your equipment is functioning.com | www. Add hand gestures to your speech to emphasize points. Plan ahead: Take a look at where you‘re supposed to stand before your talk.com 42 . Here are some of the highlights: Wear clothes that are flattering and appropriate but not distracting. use a clip on microphone called a lavalier. Can’t Miss Speech Delivery Tips This chapter was chock full of information to help you tighten your speech delivery skills so you can provide your audience with a powerful message and know that it was well received. Pace your speech effectively. When it comes to external factors. They‘re small and can allow you to move close to your audience. Pronounce and enunciate your words properly. Please check the amplification system to ensure it works. www.thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject. Pause in your speech to emphasize a point. Handle the disruption: As the speaker. you want to speak at a rate that‘s slow enough to be understood but fast enough to demonstrate your enthusiasm. maintain about six inches between your mouth and the piece you hold in your hand or have on a stand. collect your thoughts. Use a Microphone: If you‘re talking to more than 200 people you need a microphone. and show space.
Connect with your audience by ensuring your speech is 1) based on honest.com | www. The rest is up to you. 3) relevant to your audience‘s needs or interests.thezeitgeistmovement. Now that you know what it takes to develop an effective speech.thevenusproject.com 43 . 4) timely. thorough research. 2) interesting and engaging. and 5) delivered using a means they can understand and appreciate. take your place on the stage and deliver! www.
webinars. and communicates.com | www. If your talk is bogged down with too much information. Also. Audiences are more sophisticated today than they have been in the past. Technological toys range from the dinosaur-type ones like overhead projectors. charts.thevenusproject. you can go online to find the most suitable media for any speaking occasion and you don‘t have to break the bank to get it. slides. highlight. review. or add material to your speech. Computer technology has a wide range of uses and applications. digitized sound. Studies also show that interactive multimedia presentations provide audiences with a better understanding of the material and this is particularly useful in training settings. and master content quickly. When used effectively. video productions. This chapter offers tips for incorporating technology into your next speech and suggests a few tools you can use. studies show that these tools help audiences retain information. Fortunately. It‘s no wonder. consider the audience. The Internet has become an integral part of America's economic. including video. you may be looking for technological solutions to support your presentation. consider www. and flip charts to more modern day tools that facilitate conference calls. images.com 44 . They‘ve raised the bar for the presenter and you need to walk a fine line between content and entertainment.Chapter 5: Click Here for Technology Advances in computer technology and the Internet have changed the way America works. learn faster. think of ways that technology can complement your presentation. and online chats. You can use it to reinforce. political. As you incorporate technology into your speech. you could bore them. learns. Ask yourself a few questions: What does your audience want? How should you give the information to them? What do you want them to experience? Your choices are endless. As you think about what types of technological toys to add to your talk. and other computer solutions. At the same time.thezeitgeistmovement. and social life. As you explore your options. ~Bill Clinton For your next public speaking gig. make sure those tools don‘t outshine or overshadow the information you were charged to deliver. too many bells and whistles may confuse them. consider adding any of the multimedia choices that are available to you. Why You Need Technology for Your Next Speech If you want to revolutionize your next talk.
or announcements of upcoming speaking engagements. Or. On the flip side.thevenusproject. or become familiar with the subject matter before you actually hit the stage. As a bonus. sounds. The use of technology can facilitate active learning as well as exciting communicating possibilities. and visuals. words. multimedia can give life to complex concepts in a much more effective way than traditional communication methods. Rules of Engagement Ready to plug some technology tools into your presentation? Here are a few tips for using audio-visual aids: www. answer certain preliminary questions. Another benefit of using technology is that you can use animation. Technology is fast becoming the standard for public speeches and oral presentations. pictures. you can provide your audience with prep materials in advance so they‘ll know what to expect. That‘s the way you want people to perceive you. People like to be affiliated with and pay attention to presenters that they believe are in the know. this strategy may help keep your audience interested and aid in their comprehension. you can give audience members a DVD or CD that includes portions of your speech and send follow-up e-mails that include newsletters. If you don‘t start using technology. When compared to traditional talks. Just don‘t get too carried away with technology because you can‘t make the right statement if your tech tools are overstated. You can expect audience members to be jotting down notes on their laptop or Blackberry. As this occurs. Bells and whistles will also make your speech more memorable. you need to consider screen projection systems that interface with the computer and the Internet to support your speech. It‘s a dramatic way to present new ideas or concepts.various types of media. graphs. you‘re going to lose touch with the people you‘re supposed to communicate with. and simulations to illustrate complicated information.com | www. it behooves you to put your antiquated ideas aside and make room for modern-day multimedia. If you like. These days.com 45 . you can use technology to provide your audience with leave behinds. Technological tools can supplement your speech too. Sometimes people in your audience have a different way of absorbing information and a varied approach could ensure you connect with as many people as you can. maybe they‘ll be recording your talk by using their tape recorder or cell phone.thezeitgeistmovement. The time has passed for transparencies and chalkboards. As long as you use these options in moderation. Your level of technology use also communicates whether you‘re current with the latest trends. including graphs. additional resources.
Also. Conduct a sound check: As you review your visuals. check the audio as well. Also use the Excellence in Speaking Institute rule of 5s and 6s. Recheck handouts.Keep it Short and Simple: Limit the use of elements that don‘t specifically relate to your content. Also. including colors. Match the Media to the Audience: As you‘re developing your media. consider a sans serif font like Tahoma or Arial for easy on-screen reading. Proofread Your Slides: Ensure your slides are error-free by eliminating silly mistakes and typos. contact information. It suggests that you use no more than five lines on a slide with each line having no more than six words. and pictures. give them to someone else for a second look. Overall. Also. Since people read from right to left. The only exception applies to graphs or charts. www. Once you review them.com | www. Be Proactive: Avoid embarrassing or unpredictable situations by ensuring your equipment properly works before it‘s time for you to present. Do you a dry run so you can get comfortable with the presentation and identify any last minute changes. ensure the background colors are the same on every slide. flipcharts. place the screen to your left and your audience‘s right. and whiteboards: Ensure the information on these items is clear.thezeitgeistmovement. logos. and readable. Use Similar Styling: Each page on your presentation should essentially include the same font type and font size. Adjust your laptop so you can view it easily for clues but practice so you‘re not fully relying on it. such as a name. Be Consistent: Ensure the pages have the look and feel of one cohesive unit by featuring similar elements on each. or small logo. don‘t just think content think context.S. remember the K. which may require a font change for emphasis. Make sure the sound coordinates properly with the slides or video and ensure the volume and other controls are appropriately set. principle and strive to keep your slides as simple and as brief as possible by eliminating extra or unnecessary information.S. Take charge: Face the audience and not the screen. uncluttered.thevenusproject. Some technology choices may be overblown for a smaller intimate crowd and may be too overwhelming for the room size.com 46 .I. think for your audience.
The entire talk runs for a total time of 6 minutes and 40 seconds.Remember.thevenusproject.com | www. Make every slide count. disciplined. But how can you incorporate this new phenomenon in your upcoming presentations? As you develop your speech and choose to incorporate PowerPoint slides. your multimedia presentation should complement your speech not replace it. Public Speaking Tech Tools You Can Use So what are the types of technology tools (and toys) you can incorporate into your public speaking engagements? If you think PowerPoint is your only alternative. Or. rehearse your talk with moving slides so that you stay focused and know the message you want to convey. boring PowerPoint slideshows. Your choices are endless.pecha-kucha. Your primary objective should be to connect to your audience with your powerful message not with an overblown on-screen presentation. you‘re mistaken.youtube. Audience members enjoy concise punchy visually stimulating speeches on a variety of subjects while the person delivering the message is forced to be organized. And if the situation allows it. Your audience will probably appreciate it and if they need more information. which is a Japanese term that means ―chit chat. you can do a search on the web and watch actual presentations on YouTube (www. The subject matter has expanded beyond the architectural field and the social gatherings are beneficial for the listeners as well as the presenters. For more information on Pecha Kucha. but here are just a few options to consider: Video Conferencing: Use this option to bring in an expert that may be offsite or to connect you to a wider audience at another location. you can connect to the Pecha Kucha website (www. look for ways to be remarkable and different.‖ is a concept that was developed by architects Mark Dytham and Astrid Klein to help their younger colleagues give punchier presentations. In many cases. Gone are the days of long-winded. they can ask questions at the end. Pecha Kucha. you may be one of many speakers so you need to do something to standout. In addition. Also. The business owners started PechaKucha Nights in February 2003 in Tokyo as informal. Sites www.com 47 . remember that brief is better.thezeitgeistmovement. Use Pecha Kucha to make PowerPoint Presentations Pop! Pecha Kucha—pronounced pecha koocha—is a straightforward format where you speak about 20 images for 20 seconds each.org). Now PechaKucha Nights have gone global and are enjoyed by revelers in more than 230 cities worldwide.com/watch?v=9NZOt6BkhUg). and on point. deliver your own 20X20 Pecha Kucha slide presentation. fun gatherings where attendees stuck to the PechKucha20x20 format.
Amiando (www. Sites like Podcast Alley (www.com). You can give your talk via the web using various types of interactive software including DimDim (www. LinkedIn (www.com). and Free Conference (www. Videos: There are several sites that feature free movies.yelp.dimdim.com).com). Some sites to visit include MySpace TV (www.podcastalley. Metacafe (www. Check them out to see if they have any videos that include relevant material.com).com) feature a list of popular podcasts that may cover the topic of your speech.com). ooVoo (www. Online Event Management: Many of the options above will also help you manage your event by sending out online invitations or allowing you post announcements on your profile. This allows you to share your desktop with others or host a talk via phone for free or a nominal fee depending on the number of attendees. or see relevant postings. SightSpeed (www.com) or Live365.com).freeconference.liveleak.myspacetv. documentaries as well as short films.ning.aim.blogtalkradio. and Aim (www.com).amiando.com).thezeitgeistmovement.live365. Social Media: Use these sites to connect with other business professionals. Webinars: Public speeches don‘t always have to take place in a brickand-mortar institutions.com). and YouTube (www.such as Skype (www. Eventsbot www. web applications like Event Brite (www. Yelp (www.fastpitchnetworking.com).facebook.com).stumbleupon.com). and Twitter (www.com | www.com (www.com).com) as well as Stumble Upon (www.com). Goto Webinar (www.com 48 . You can also publicize your event on these sites to attract attendees.break. There are also internet radio sites like blogtalkradio (www.com).sightspeed.gotowebinar. Podcasts: Include relevant audio to underscore a point or supplement your presentation.com) that could have relevant audio for use in your presentation. Dailymotion (www.twitter.metacafe.com).skype.oovoo. Break (www.com). interview subject matter experts. videos.Dailymotion.linkedin.youtube.com). If you still need additional online event management help. In the meantime. and Fast Pitch (www. Ning (www. you can conduct your own search on the Internet or check out sites like Facebook (www.com) facilitate online video and audio exchange for a nominal fee or for free.eventbrite. but this can be tricky since members are typically bombarded with invitations—you should probably consult a social media expert to find out which sites are most relevant for your field and uncover ways to promote to that audience.com). LiveLeak (www.thevenusproject.
thevenusproject.(www.com).madeit. How? An interesting.com | www. adding technology will help you better serve your audience. Click Now that you know how you can use technology to support your speeches as well as the wide range of technological alternatives that are available—explore them! Internet technical tools can greatly enhance your speech and help you become a better speaker. Made It (www. and that. www.com) and others help you track attendees as well as ticket sales. More importantly.eventsbot. Skip. interactive visual can relieve some of your stress because it gives the audience another focal point plus it frees you up from relying on your notes or index cards as you take cues from your slides. after all. should be the primary reason you take the stage. Hop.com 49 .thezeitgeistmovement.
and performance—to keep your introduction on point: Preparation: Provide the person that will be introducing you with a onepage biography at least a few days in advance.Chapter 6: There’s More… Speak properly. This chapter will look at the true beginning of your speech (which is the part where someone else introduces you) and the true closing of your speech (which is really the Q&A or question and answer session). for the end of speech is not ostentation. If you‘ve followed the information outlined up until now.com | www. technological tools available. The focus here is the before and the after. Let‘s closely examine these areas so you can let your light shine as you enlighten your audience. purpose.thezeitgeistmovement. So what else is there? There are just a few extra tips that need to be covered to make this everything public speaking guide complete. It‘s nearly perfect. yet exciting.thevenusproject. don‘t mention them unless this will help you connect with the audience. Introducing… Unlike Johnny Carson. but to be understood. and in as few words as you can. you‘re able to deliver a powerful. there are a few things you can do to make it easy on the person who is going to introduce you. Try to keep it brief because people don‘t read long biographies anyway and you want them to be able to scan it again quickly www. You appearance is stellar and your deliver is so tight you couldn‘t unravel it if you tried. Your bio should include points that are relevant to the listeners. but always plainly. Even still. What you need to know is that your speech actually opens way before you hit the stage and there are really two presentations you need to prepare when you‘re going to speak: your main speech and the question and answer session. Even though your children and pets are important to you. compelling presentation that addresses your audience‘s needs and incorporates the most appropriate. Remember the 3ps—preparation. you probably won‘t have the benefit of being introduced by Ed McMahon who enthusiastically belted H-e-r-e-‗s Johnny! for more than 30 years.com 50 . ~William Penn At this point it seems we‘ve covered everything but the kitchen sink.
make sure your hair and makeup are already in place. made up. smile (if appropriate). you need to remember to keep your best face forward even after the audience thinks you‘ve officially closed. you can‘t afford to let get off your game just because the main part of your speech has concluded. That means you need to be conscious of everything you say and do as soon as you enter the premises. Although the title gives the impression of a let-yourhair-down segment. When you meet the introducer. and why you have the expertise to effectively deliver this message. include the phonetic spelling in brackets so the person knows how to properly pronounce it. Bios get misplaced all the time and you want yours to be readily available.com 51 . why the information is important and relevant to their audience. and look like you‘re ready for prime time before you even hit the stage. Performance: Remember. You can always add more in your actual speech. know that eyes may be on you and not the person making the introduction. There‘s a presentation after the presentation and you need to be ready for an action-packed Q&A session. and working.right before they introduce you. the microphone is always hot and the camera is always live.thezeitgeistmovement. If you need to cut your bio down. state your name again as you greet them so they‘ll be able to connect the bio with your face and so you‘re sure they know how to pronounce your name.thevenusproject. That brings us to the next tip. The same is true for you during the Q&A session of your speech. It‘s the presentation after the presentation and you‘re still on! www. Purpose: Don‘t forget why you‘re at the event. always reiterate the topic of your talk. The Q&A session is a very important part of your talk. In your correspondence to the organization.com | www. the truth is that Oprah is still dressed. just include facts that demonstrate your credibility for the purposes of this talk. the audience members are watching you and taking mental notes. The show is still being zapped to viewers. You’re Still On: Tips for Hosting the Q&A Talk show queen. Oprah. Oprah is still on. Even if the microphone isn‘t officially attached. Ensure the purpose is somehow highlighted in your introduction. If your name is hard to pronounce. When you‘re being introduced. Your job is to serve the audience—not yourself. Sit up in your chair. Now that you‘ve been properly introduced. always carry copies of your bio with you. has a segment of her show called ―After the Show‖ that‘s televised on her own network.
Don’t respond to loaded questions: If a question is phrased to put you on the defense. continue your sales pitch. let them know that you plan to take questions. Repeat the Questions: When you do get a question. As you repeat the question. If you want to perform as well during this presentation as you did during the main portion of your speech. Also. restate the question to give yourself better footing. During your speech. For these reasons. Instead. ―You might be wondering why…‖ or ―A question I‘m often asked is…‖ This should spark other questions. ask a question yourself and then answer it.com | www.thevenusproject. If you take too long to respond to a question. if someone asks ―What is your company doing with the extra money you‘re getting from the price hikes?‖ You respond by saying. As you conclude your answer. For you. the Q&A session is another opportunity for you to shine as it provides you with more time to reinforce your message. Stick to the point: Be concise and don‘t turn your answer into another speech. When you‘re ready to answer the question.com 52 . ask ―Who has the first question?‖ If no one responds. ―I understand your concern www.thezeitgeistmovement. use these suggestions: Prep the Audience for the Q&A: People are more likely to save their questions during your talk and then ask them. the audience will get bored. For example. ask the person that introduces you to let the audience know that you‘ll be available for questions. don‘t respond to it—at least directly.The Q&A session is key to your overall message because it affords benefits to your audience as well as yourself. if they know that there will be a Q&A at the end. When audience members ask questions to clarify certain points this minimizes the chances that anyone will leave confused or uncertain about your presentation. repeat it to ensure that the entire audience heard it. address the entire audience so they don‘t feel left out and make sure you include information that will benefit everyone even if the question is a specific one.‖ do that to keep the session moving and to maintain the audience‘s attention. Jumpstart the Q&A Session: When you‘re ready to take questions. and calm your audience‘s concerns. look at the person who asked it to see if you properly understood it. Say something like. the Q&A can be viewed as another important presentation. The enthusiasm around your presentation sinks if no one appears to have a question so you want to encourage audience inquiries during the Q&A. If you can keep your answer to a ―Yes‖ or ―No. look at the person who asked the question again to make sure that you fully answered the inquiry poised.
thevenusproject. I think you‘re asking why we found it necessary to increase the prices?‖ The difference between the two questions is subtle but the second option puts you in a better position to respond. does anyone have question?‖ By having a prepared closing. be honest. If the person is not happy with the way you rephrased the question then suggest that you see them after the Q&A session. let the person know that the question is ―outside of the context of our discussion. that‘s all. www.‖ Have a Conclusion After the Q&A: You can either develop a separate conclusion that you deliver after the Q&A or before ending your speech. professional way to end your talk versus ―okay. please‖ and turn your attention to the opposite side of the room. it gives you a crisp. If a question isn‘t relevant. let them know when you will deliver the response and keep your promise.thezeitgeistmovement. You should strive to make everyone feel good about asking questions by saying ―Thanks for asking that question. you can end the Q&A session once you‘ve reached the time allotted.‖ The bottom line is that you have to maintain your composure at all times and you can‘t get sidetracked by a bad question. You don‘t want to get into an argument with the person because you have more to lose than they do. you need to politely cut them off.‖ Keep Your Cool: As much as you try to predict your audience‘s questions.com | www. ask for questions by saying. ―Before I close.com 53 . ―good question‖ to one person and not the other you may stifle some people‘s willingness to speak because they feel you‘re placing a value judgment on the questions asked. It‘s important to manage speeches or extended comments because audience members sometimes use the Q&A as an opportunity to state their company name or effort (a free commercial) but more importantly they prevent other audience members from asking key questions. At that point. In the meantime. Also. If someone asks something that you can‘t answer. Manage Audience Comments: If someone makes an extended comment rather than asks a question. If you‘re able to get them an answer at a later time. move onto the next question as quickly as possible. One approach is to track their speaking rate and then when he or she pauses say.regarding the price increase. you should expect the unexpected. the person won‘t know if you cut them off or just thought that he or she was finished. well if there are no more questions. ―Thanks for your comment…Next question. Refrain from Praising Questions: When you say. To do the latter.
com | www.You Determine Your Success When it comes to public speaking. it happens to everyone.thezeitgeistmovement. an audience member makes a ridiculous comment. www.thevenusproject. Just remember that when your technology goes on an unexpected blitz. or some noisy high school students take an unplanned detour in front of your room—these are occurrences you can‘t control but you can always control your response to them and that may make all the difference.com 54 . the success of the presentation starts and ends with you. Sure there are things you can‘t control.
www. and hundreds of links.bartleby.com – Links to free magazines that are available online. www.com – A little bit of everything: news.loc. www. www. translators. encyclopedias. www. search engines. www. quotations.htm Harvard Kennedy School – a comprehensive list of public speaking resources for adults.hks.edu/degrees/oca/students-alumni/comm/online-resources/speaking Links to Entertaining and Historical Speeches Will Ferrell at Harvard History Channel – Site contains audio/video clips of great speeches in modern history.thezeitgeistmovement.kidsturncentral.com/speeches Kurt Vonnegut at Rice University Kurt Vonnegut at Syracuse Research Tools www. newspaper searches.quotationspage. including American history. www.harvard. and more on one site.More Public Speaking Resources Communication Websites Kid‘s Turn Central – a list of public speaking resources for kids.magatopia.com | www.itools. encyclopedias. www. A good place to start if you are doing online research.com – Contains dictionaries.com – Find quotations by topic or author.com – Features links to the websites for thousands of local newspapers nationwide www.refdesk.doaj.NewsVoyager.historychannel.gov – The Library of Congress website features on-line resources and materials for various topics.com/links/speakinglinks.org – A directory that feature searchable links to free online scholarly journals on a variety of topics. www.thevenusproject.com – Source for free online books. www.com 55 .
actden. Style Websites www. atlases.crlsresearchguide.stylewizard. speakfreak.richmond. and more.com | www.com – A website to help people overcome the fear of public speaking.org – Plug in your information in this free printable online outline generator. www. www.edu – Site presents an interesting discussion and exercise on how to eliminate clichés in your work. www.writing2. www. resources. The site includes articles. dictionaries. www.www.org/~tellswor – An archive of family jokes and humor that is searchable by keyword.com – Almanacs. thesauruses.com 56 .thezeitgeistmovement.slonet.com/pp – A kid-friendly free online PowerPoint tutorial.reference.com – This free site connects you to MLA and APA citations for your bibliography and other referenced sources. chat rooms and other resources.thevenusproject.
thevenusproject. You need to evaluate yourself and let others assess you too. entertain. Sprinkle in some humor to reduce the stress for you and your audience. how am I doin‘?‖ It was his way of finding out from his audience—the citizens of the big Apple—how well he was serving them. and more valuable for your audience. Once you‘ve read all of the feedback forms for a particular speech. file them. motivate. As you strive for public speaking perfection. you‘ll always discover new techniques that will set your presentation apart from the rest of the pack. keep these tips in mind: Speak whenever you can and join public speaking groups to improve your skills. As you read the responses. ask your audience to complete an evaluation form that you provide to them prior to your presentation. you need to determine how well your message is connecting with the people you are charged to inform. Not so! You should always look for ways to make your presentations more interesting.Epilogue A popular former New York City mayor used to start his speeches with ―So. Try your best to understand the comments that you receive and make sure you leave space so that the respondents can provide further commentary.com 57 . Critique other people‘s speeches so you‘ll know what things you should avoid and what techniques you need to incorporate into your own presentation. www. Be open to criticism and know that the feedback your receive is only a reflection of how you came across.com | www. Then incorporate your finding into your next speech so that you‘ll improve with every engagement. you may start to believe that you‘ve hit your peak. At some point. Audiotape and videotape your speeches and record where and when they were given as well as the audience‘s response so you can improve. the audience is often unaware or unconcerned about little mistakes or mishaps. If you want to be an effective public speaker. more exciting. don‘t get defensive. Remember. If you keep an open mind and constantly look for courses and reading material to update your skills. Conduct your own self-assessments for every speech. Maintain control and don‘t lose your cool when things go wrong. or persuade.thezeitgeistmovement. You should be grateful for all of the comments because they will ultimately help you become a more effective communicator and speaker. Then periodically review them to ensure that you‘ve taken steps for improvement and that you‘ve noted your progress. To get constructive feedback.
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