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Public Speaking 101v1

Public Speaking 101v1

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Sections

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: Mastering the ABCs of Public Speaking
  • Chapter 2: Overcoming Stage Fright
  • Chapter 3: Developing Compelling Presentations
  • Chapter 4: Stand and Deliver
  • Chapter 5: Click Here for Technology
  • Chapter 6: There’s More…
  • More Public Speaking Resources
  • Epilogue

–THE ZEITGEIST MOVEMENT– Public Speaking 101

An All-Inclusive Resource on Writing, Researching, and Delivering an Enlightening, Effective, and Entertaining Speech
[v1.0]

Contents
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter 1: Mastering the ABCs of Public Speaking .......................................................... 5 Chapter 2: Overcoming Stage Fright ................................................................................ 17 Chapter 3: Developing Compelling Presentations ............................................................ 21 Chapter 4: Stand and Deliver ............................................................................................ 35 Chapter 5: Click Here for Technology.............................................................................. 44 Chapter 6: There‘s More… ............................................................................................... 50 More Public Speaking Resources ..................................................................................... 55 Epilogue ............................................................................................................................ 57

Introduction
Believe it or not, most people would rather die than speak in front of an audience. That‘s right; one survey found that 65% of us are more afraid of speaking publicly than pushing up daisies. The stats should provide consolation to us, however. If the majority of folks are just as uncomfortable with public speaking as we are then we know that feeling anxiety before giving a speech is normal. In fact, even the best speakers in the world experience fear prior to speaking publicly, they‘re just able to overcome it so they can speak effectively. If knowing that other speakers are just as frightened as you are doesn‘t provide comfort, try uncovering the root of your fear. In most instances, people‘s fears about public speaking are based on misinformation as well as false expectations about the roles of the speaker and the audience. Once you understand the truth about public speaking, you‘ll be able to rise above your fears and deliver your next speech with style and grace. Just think, what would have happened if people like Martin Luther King, Jr., Ghandi, and J. Krishnamurti would have kept their wonderful ideas to themselves? The world would never have gotten the full benefit of their knowledge. The same is true for you.

Public Speaking has its Benefits
As you move in different circles, you‘ll notice that public speaking will become a necessity for the most basic social settings. At a chapter meeting, you may be asked to read the announcements or give an update on the projects you‘re involved in. If you can speak effectively in these and various other settings, you will become an example to others and foster the success of the movement. If you truly want to help spread the message of The Zeitgeist Movement and/or The Venus Project, then you will need to sharpen and ultimately perfect your public speaking skills. Giving way to your anxieties is no excuse for having a meltdown at the podium. It‘s not that your audience doesn‘t accept that you have fears; but they‘ll expect that you‘ll rise to the occasion. That said, there are a few things that you can do to prepare for your public speaking engagements. This e-book, focuses on the long list of factors that you should do to ensure that your speeches are consistently enlightening, effective, and entertaining (when necessary) speech.

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Public Speaking Tips and Techniques
The study of public speaking is interdisciplinary. To that end, you can expect this e-book to cover a wealth of subjects that go beyond the actual presentation of the speech. Much of your public speaking success will depend on what you do before and after the speech as well as what you do when you deliver your message. So don‘t be surprised if you come across some information that you don‘t immediately see as a means to improve your public speaking. It‘s all connected. Here‘s what you‘ll be able to do after reading this guide: Understand and appreciate public speaking basics; Develop presentations that are compelling and relevant to your audience; Improve your communication, confidence, and credibility; Conclude your speech in a memorable, positive manner; Respond to questions with competence and finesse; Use proven methods for developing a strong relationship with your audience; Use guides and sources to strongly support your speech; Fine-tune your speaking style so that it supports your message; Determine how technology and visual aids can be effectively used to complement—not overshadow—your presentation; Find additional resources to help you further improve your public speaking skills.

Talking the Talk
If public speaking has always been a challenge for you, there‘s good news. Few people are born with superior public speaking skills, most acquire them. As long as you are willing to learn and implement the techniques featured in this e-book, then you can and will be an effective public speaker.

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Chapter 1: Mastering the ABCs of Public Speaking
Use soft words and hard arguments. ~English Proverb The buzz words in the Real Estate profession are location, location, location! In the world of public speaking, the great orators are buzzing about preparation, preparation, preparation! If you think public speaking is mostly about your performance on stage, you‘re misinformed. If you don‘t properly prepare for your speech, you‘ll never effectively communicate and connect with your audience. And if you don‘t do that, you‘ve just wasted precious time—theirs and yours! Unfortunately, a lot of people take the phrase ―public speaking‖ and think that‘s essentially what oral presentations are all about—speaking in a public forum. But, that explanation is much too simple to include everything you need to know before you get in front of an audience. In fact, when you actually get on stage that‘s just the end result of everything else you‘ve done beforehand to prepare for that moment—it‘s really the climax. So how can you prepare for your public speaking finale? Master the basics and keep building. This e-book is organized in that fashion. It takes you from the planning page to the brightly-lit stage. In this chapter, we‘ll discuss some of the public speaking fundamentals so you‘ll be clear on your goals, understand the parts of your speech, organize your thoughts, familiarize yourself with the types of delivery methods, and implement some initial strategies for success.

Going for the goal!
Before you hit the stage, you need to identify your primary objective. What do you want to accomplish when you speak? What information is the audience expecting from you? What do you want to happen once your speech is over? What is the general purpose for your speech? Your responses to these questions and others will help you determine the type of speech you plan to deliver as well as what approach will be most effective in delivering your message. For our discussion, there are four general purposes for a speech: to inform, inspire, persuade, and entertain. Your speech may be designed to accomplish one or more of these purposes or all of them. For instance, a speaker‘s message may be to persuade an audience to accept a certain view but to accomplish this, he might provide extensive information on a topic as means to convince them. Similarly, you might add humor to an informative or persuasive message to make the speech equally entertaining.
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As you might imagine. Depending on your subject matter. To Motivate or Inspire: This speech is highly related to the persuasive speech but it can differ in that it‘s not necessarily a call to make a purchase. www. People who deliver these types of speeches have a deep passion for the subject matter and want to pass that enthusiasm on to the people in the audience. if listeners are no more inspired than they were before the speech. To Persuade: In persuasive speeches. and compelling information. To Entertain: Comediennes. The point to remember is that the primary objective of an informative speech is to provide the audience with some new. actors and other performers sometimes make speeches to entertain the audience. then the presenter failed to deliver. answered. Sometimes these celebrities use their platform and notoriety to also persuade or inform their listeners but their primary goal is to captivate their audience‘s attention through amusement. you are trying to sway the audience to your point of view. you can do this by using facts. If after the speech. Though informative speeches can offer several main points.thezeitgeistmovement. salespeople. a persuasive speech is only effective if you are able to convince the audience of your point of view and get them to act accordingly. most experts suggest that your talk highlight no more than five main points. or changed. Motivational or inspirational speeches are sometimes designed to improve the lives of the listeners. While the second point focuses on what you believe to be the correct response to the problem. Lawyers. anecdotes. or other illustrations. persuasive talks should only have two. the audience members are fired up then the speaker has done his or her job.com | www. At the same time. How does an entertainer know if his speech was successful? One way to determine this is to assess the audience‘s feedback.thevenusproject.com 6 .You can only shape your speech once you understand what you want your speech to accomplish and settle on one or more of the following objectives: To Inform: Informative speeches are designed to educate your audience on a particular topic. The first point presents the issue that need to be solved. Did they laugh? Did they cheer? Was there a standing ovation or a request for an encore? The answers to these questions will help determine the success of a speech in this category. and politicians are avid users of this approach. While informative speeches can have several main points. interesting.

that‘s more specific and will allow you to develop a fascinating speech.com 7 . Here are some examples of how you move a general purpose to a more specific one: To inform my audience about the most devastating time in my life. you‘ll be able to cover three main points after speaking for roughly eight minutes. remember that less is more. To entertain my audience with tales of a honeymoon gone wrong. their reaction will be the ultimate test of whether your presentation hit the mark. you‘ll be overwhelmed by the vast information that is available and you‘ll have a hard time trying to determine the relevant pieces that you need to include in your talk.Hitting the Bull’s-eye: From a General Purpose to a Specific One Once you‘ve established your general purpose. first review the categories above to select a specific type of speech and then combine it with a concept that you initially think will work for your speech. As you do this for your speech. Think about how you can package the information you‘d like to convey in the timeframe you‘ve been provided. If you pick a topic that is too broad. your specific purpose may change but at least you‘ll have a starting point.com | www. To inspire my audience to get breast cancer screenings at an earlier age. Now. They‘re the reason for the speech and you need to ensure that they‘re top of mind in every way.thevenusproject. notice that they integrate a specific topic with one of the general purposes from the prior section. When it comes to creating a specific objective or purpose. Just think. if you wanted to do a speech on the benefits of bottled water. You know your topic is too general if you have a hard time determining which details you need to include for a meaningful speech. By the same token. To determine your specific purpose. To inform my audience about the four-step process for making a window valence. As you review the above examples. As you read further. Also. you need to make it more specific. you should be narrow in your approach. how could you do a speech on beverages? That‘s way too broad. To persuade my audience to purchase a life insurance policy for their newborn.thezeitgeistmovement. always include your audience as part of your purpose. how can you do a speech on water? Sure. Typically. Once you deliver your speech. water is a type of beverage but it‘s still too general. www.

Although there are several ways you can approach the task of organizing your speech. an organized speech will help your audience understand and retain your message. More importantly. you make yourself appear much more credible to your audience when you deliver a well organized speech. Next. www. you should be willing to take the extra time and effort to organize your speech.If you think you‘ve identified a specific purpose. If you fail to do this. Organization requires that you arrange your ideas into a unified. this chapter offers two options: 1) traditional outline. Those are two strong indications that you should move forward. Both approaches allow you to determine your main topics and add your supporting evidence. ask yourself a few questions: 1. and 2) mapping. Organizing Your Thoughts Have you ever attended a speech where the speaker seemed to be rambling on about nothing? Or. Will the information that I want to present fit in the allotted time limit? 3. There are important things you‘ll be able to accomplish by taking this early step. these methods will enable you to write and deliver a well-organized speech. Is this a topic that will be of interest and relevance to my audience? A positive response to these questions indicates that you have a topic that you want to talk about to an audience that actually wants to hear it. Will this topic keep my interest as I take the necessary steps to properly prepare for my speech? 4. cohesive message. maybe you heard a speech that made you wonder.com 8 . Many speakers don‘t have a clue about how to organize their thoughts and ideas. you‘re not alone. Is there enough information available on my topic? 2. you‘re not going to feel comfortable speaking and you‘re not going to connect with your audience. And since you want your audience to believe you‘re a credible speaker and you want them to comprehend and remember your message.com | www.thezeitgeistmovement. First. why didn‘t this speaker better package his thoughts for the audience? If that‘s the case.thevenusproject.

the main headings are indicated by the roman numerals. This organizing alternative will enable you to create a visual map of your key ideas. only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the main heading and don‘t include punctuation because you‘ll only be writing phrases not sentences. Third Subheading _________________ b.com 9 . if you don‘t have at least two supporting points. As with traditional outlines. Subheading ________________________ II. Also. You shouldn‘t have more than three subheadings for a particular main point because things get confusing. The subheadings are key pieces of information that support the main headings and so on. Just keep it simple. Mapping If a traditional outline may be too restrictive for you. The map is pretty easy to use. The spokes represent key ideas which then have a series of supporting branches that have additional details. Third Subheading _________________ B. Then you draw a few spokes out of the circle (think about a bicycle wheel). www. the map doesn‘t require you to immediately decide the importance of various topics. The outline has a Thesis statement at the top followed by the topics in the speech. On the flip side. If you need more than three subheadings. You simply plug them in as they come to your head and this allows you to work on various points simultaneously. The basic structure is: Thesis Statement: ____________________ I. Unlike an outline. then consider developing another heading with its own supporting points. you shouldn‘t have more than three supporting points per topic. The main topic is placed in the center circle of the map. Second Subheading _______________ a.thezeitgeistmovement. These highlight the most important pieces of information that are the central points of your speech. Second Subheading ______________ 2. This approach is used to group similar themes or ideas together along with their supporting points.Traditional Outline A traditional outline or topic outline contains a list of brief phrases or single words that are numbered or lettered to illustrate the importance of your ideas. you should either cover that information within another topic or eliminate it.com | www. Subheading ______________________ 1. First.thevenusproject. Heading (Main Heading)_________________ There are a few things you should note about topic outlines. consider mapping. Heading (Main Heading)______________ A.

your main focus should be to grab the audience‘s attention and unveil the specific purpose of your talk. you need to consider each section and how you‘re going to connect them in a way that your audience can understand and appreciate. and the conclusion.0 (SCORE. the body. Be sure that the purpose of the speech is presented so that the audience can clearly see how the information that will be presented is relevant. Chapter 3 discusses specific attention-grabbing techniques and offers other suggestions for introductions. There are six organizing speech patterns.com | www. The Introduction: As you open the speech.thevenusproject. spatial. For your audience to appreciate the information in the body of the speech.Figure 1. including: topical. chronological. 2001) Parts of Your Speech Effective speeches can be divided into three basic parts: the introduction. important. causal. The Body: This portion of your speech is where the topic is discussed in depth and all of the supporting material is presented. you need to use a specific organization approach that supports the subject of your talk.com 10 . As you construct your speech. problem-solution. and www.thezeitgeistmovement. and beneficial to them.

With this approach. Next. Chronological order looks at ideas over time. Then he points out the problem‘s harmful effects and the probable causes. Spatial order provides a way to analyze conditions in relevant locales. This approach is used when the speech focuses on historical events or people. he may start with more recent happenings and then refer to things that happened earlier. Once this is decided. Spatial order arranges ideas according to location or geography. several solutions may be presented along with their advantages. the speaker typically discusses events or conditions that occurred furthest away and works his way up to the present occurrences. Problem-solution arrangement discusses the nature of a problem and the solution. Spatial order may be combined with chronological order to explain geographical development or migration over time. Causal order looks at the causes and effects of a problem or phenomenon.com | www.com 11 . Researchers say it‘s best to clarify the problem or need www. The speaker uses the causal pattern to present the problem.thezeitgeistmovement. such as buildings and objects. you categorize your information by certain specific topics in your speech. On occasion. This approach is useful in accounting for historical events and understanding problems.motivated sequence. Then you either arrange those topics in the order of most importance to least importance or by least importance to most importance.thevenusproject. In this structure. though many speakers say they use this approach as a last resort when none of the other patterns work. Spatial order provides a way to examine structures. Patterns of Speech Organization Topical Order: With this organizational pattern. the speaker offers a solution that will either control or eliminate the effects. Speeches that focus on processes or demonstrations use a chronological speech pattern as well. The approach discusses or examines the effects first and then presents the probable causes. Here we‘ll look at each in more depth and later look at how to relate supporting ideas. The notable thing about the topical pattern approach is that the speech can be organized independently and be interconnected. the main points need to be supported more fully with sub-points and full detail. You can refer to probable effects when you want to make predictions about the future.

The motivated sequence pattern is more complex than the others listed here. This largely differs from the first five approaches which are used to arrange the main points or the sub-points under a main point. For the best response. then offer the solution.thezeitgeistmovement.com | www. it‘s highly effective when used for persuasive speeches. then show the support. This approach offers the bottom line first. vote for a particular candidate. begin with the problem. This step can be supported with statistics. By selecting the right pattern. Motivated Sequence Order is a technique used to organize the entire speech. quotations. Visualization – Here you help the audience see themselves in the future. Need – This step relates the problem to the audience. It uses five steps: 1. Satisfaction – In the satisfaction phase. or other facts. detailed plan that addresses the need as you anticipate and respond to any questions the audience has about the solution. However. the speaker describes the advantages of adopting the plan that was presented. and then reminds the audience about your main idea.before showing your preferred solution. Alternatives to Relating Supporting Ideas Which comes first. your taking one more step to ensure your speech connects with your audience and delivers what they expect.thevenusproject. www. you present the specific. 4. 5. 3. It‘s a good teaching or instructive technique. and finally restate the main point. shows the audience how the idea came about. the idea or the supporting evidence? Here are two approaches to help you decide: The Didactic Method is where you state your idea first. With positive visualization. The above organization patterns will help you systematically arrange the body of your talk. 2. The Motivated Sequence Order is really effective when you‘re trying to persuade people to your point of view. or take some other action.com 12 . sign up for a program. read a book. Action – This final step is designed to move the audience to do something—apply the information. Attention – Like the Introduction part of the speech. It can also be used for informative presentations. this step is designed to snag the audience‘s attention by using a means that relates positively to the rest of the speech.

The Conclusion: So you‘ve grabbed their attention and provided them with comprehensive information in the body of your speech. provide a summary of the information that was presented in the speech. the three main part of a speech are the introduction.com | www. That means a simple thank you or that’s all for now just won‘t do. the body. This alternative is good for persuasive speeches. This helps listeners hear evidence that supports the validity of an idea before they tune out. and leave them with a memorable last impression.With the Inductive Method (also referred to as the method of implication). Though your outline will vary depending on the type of speech you‘re delivering and the speech pattern you select.thevenusproject. the information detailed here provides a comprehensive guideline for developing a successful speech. the supporting points are presented first and then the speaker draws a conclusion from those points. But even though you‘ve familiarized yourself with these main segments.com 13 . As discussed above. and the conclusion. These three tasks are extremely important considering that most of your listeners will recall your conclusion first when they think about your speech. www. Now what? It‘s time to help your audience cross the finish line. Use this method if you think your audience might initially reject your idea or position without even hearing you out. you‘re still not ready to start writing your speech until you complete your outline because each of these parts can be further broken down as illustrated below. Be prepared to leave some areas of the outline blank until you read more information in this guide. A Detailed Outline of Your Speech Now that you‘re familiar with the parts of speech. You can use this outline as an aid when writing your full speech or as a speaking script when you‘re delivering your talk. The purpose of the conclusion is to offer a signal that the speech is about to close. including the process for developing an outline for the main body of your talk. let‘s look at how you would form your entire speech outline.thezeitgeistmovement.

Introduction Greeting and Attention Getter: What strategy will you use to get the audience‘s attention? Think of a line that will cause them to listen up right from the gate. See Chapter 3 for details. Generally. Header – Title of Speech Topic: What is your topic? Determine what the audience will be expecting you to discuss and why you feel you‘re the right fit for this speech. Audience: Analyze your listeners. the body. there are six organizational methods: Topical Chronological Spatial Causal Problem-Solution Motivated Sequence Order Now that you‘ve completed the parts of the ―Header. Determine how much knowledge they have about your subject matter and how receptive they‘re going to be. Reformulate your topic: Based on your assessment of the audience.‖ you‘re ready to proceed to the main three parts of the speech. the introduction. Purpose Statement: Clarify the specific purpose of the speech.com | www.This outline has four components: the header. and the conclusion. 2.thevenusproject. You can change the focus or scale of the topic. Organizational Method or Pattern: You select your pattern based on the information you gather and the specific purpose you want to achieve. www. fill in the areas listed here to increase your chances for success. determine if you need to alter the topic to match their interest and needs. Before you complete your speech. Thesis: Here‘s where you introduce the audience to the goal and topic of your speech.com 14 . 1.thezeitgeistmovement.

you introduce yourself to the audience and include who you are and why you feel you‘re the ideal candidate to discuss the topic at hand. Closer: Choose a memorable sentence that will make a strong lasting impression.com 15 . Overview: Tell them what you plan to cover in your speech and why the information is important and relevant to them. select a sentence or phrase that will let the audience know that you‘re moving into the body of the speech.com | www.thezeitgeistmovement. The Body Transition: As you move from the introduction to the main part of your speech. 3. select a sentence or phrase that will let the audience know that you‘ve reached the conclusion of your speech. The Conclusion Transition: As you move from the introduction to the main part of your speech. This is where you establish credibility.Credibility: In this section. Main Points and Ideas: Main Points Supporting ideas Evidence Visuals What are the What information will Include examples or What visuals will you use to main points you you present to support details that you illustrate these particular points want to cover in this particular main have to support or views? your speech? point? these points? 4. www.thevenusproject. Reinstatement of Main Points: Provide a summary of your main points and highlight the information that you want your audience to key in on.

If you have all (or at least the majority) of the information above then you‘re ready to write a powerful speech. At the same time.thevenusproject. think about the type of information you plan to include. you need to have an objective.thezeitgeistmovement. you can work on formulating the speech and delivering your message. effective message. if you successfully fill in the areas above. body. Once you do that. www. you will have everything you need to deliver a strong. and conclusion of your speech.com | www. not a script.com 16 . and understand how you‘re going to develop the introduction.Use the above outline as a guide. then refer to chapter 2 before you hit the stage. Unless of course if you‘re dealing with stage fright. So what’s the big idea? If you want to deliver a great speech.

collected. If you‘re a jittery speaker. Well. friends.thezeitgeistmovement. experts say that may not be possible or even necessary. One approach suggests you can deal with fear by accepting it. you‘ll have little time for stage fright. superiors. but let‘s say you‘re still having trouble getting a grip? This chapter offers suggestions that enable you to rise above your fears and deliver your next speech with style and grace. you just have to learn to manage it. and your voice cracks—how do you lift yourself above the panic and deliver a calm. family members. you‘re probably placing unrealistic demands on yourself because you think you‘re totally responsible for the overall impression that people take from your speech. isn’t that the point? The biggest thing you can do to keep your stage fright at bay is to keep the situation in perspective. colleagues. your hands shake. You don‘t have to eliminate fear to be a great public speaker. and poignant speech? …Get out from under your own internal microscope. The fear of public speaking is often based on misinformation as well as false expectations about the roles of the speaker and the audience. Facing Your Fears Most people with a fear of public speaking either want to avoid the experience altogether or find some way to become fearless. not your own vanity. you‘ll be less concerned about your fears and more focused on uncovering ways to better serve your listeners. And. your palms begin to sweat. If you have this mindset.Chapter 2: Overcoming Stage Fright How do you master presentation panic? When your stomach begins to churn. www. You‘ll be less nervous if you expect that other people will help contribute to the success of the event as well. Of course.thevenusproject. you should manage as many factors as you possibly can but your primary motivation should be tied to meeting your audience‘s needs. Ah.com 17 . and controlling it. Although we should mange the parts of our public speaking experience that are in our control we also need to realize that the audience—which may include. Getting a Grip: How You Can Get Over Stage Fright Investor's Business Daily By Gerald A Achstatter What‘s the one thing you need to remember when you‘re giving a speech? It‘s not about you! If you take the focus off of yourself and put it on the audience. and the media—also contribute to the situation. reframing it. That‘s not entirely true.com | www.

acknowledge that fear is something that‘s going to be a part of the experience. For instance. The more you speak. if your fear of public speaking is really based on your concern about what the audience members will think of you.com | www. ―I can beat this‖ and do everything you can to meet the challenge ahead of you. Tell yourself. Participating in public speaking groups like Toastmaster‘s International (www. Once you find an initial positive trait.com 18 . By accepting it. the sensation tells your body to release a burst of adrenaline which may cause an increased pulse rate. studies suggest that having a ―fear‖ of public speaking is a common human characteristic. you have three techniques that will help you use your fear to your advantage so your audience can still get the benefit of your message. public speaking doesn‘t require you to be fearless. Again. It requires that you give your best despite your fears. When you‘re excited about something. Giving the Best You’ve Got Again.thevenusproject. then stop focusing on that because you can‘t control that anyway.Accept it: If the thought of giving a speech makes your stomach do somersaults then you‘re not alone. To do this.thezeitgeistmovement. reframing it. fear is a normal response to a big event. Control it: Your fear of public speaking can be greatly reduced with lots of practice. Recognize that the butterflies in your stomach may be uncomfortable for you but don‘t let them paralyze you and prevent you from achieving your goal. the more comfortable you‘ll be in front of an audience. Many top executives have a fear of public speaking too. Replace your negative emotions with positive ones or at least more realistic ones. and other www. In fact. and controlling it.org) may help too. If you‘re fearful of public speaking. Sometimes our overblown negative thoughts get the best of us and our fear is not even based on reality. Instead of trying to eliminate it. they‘ve just learned to accept it and work around it. you‘re bound to discover others.toastmasters. you need to address it—not ignore it. Reframe it: Keep it real. sweaty palms. Focus on your attributes and the benefits you can offer your audience—even if it‘s only one thing. So how can you do your best despite your fears? Use these tips: Make fear work for you: Instead of letting your fears hurt you. try to think about what‘s making you fearful and deal with that. use them to energize you.

don‘t have a breakdown or draw your audience‘s attention to it. the best thing you can do is keep the presentation moving. Envision your success: Fear of the unknown largely drives our anxieties. rehearse your delivery too. then maybe you need professional help. don‘t wait until the last minute to prepare because that will make you even more nervous.com 19 . Control Your Volume: Don‘t just practice the content of your speech. Know that mistakes happen: No matter how much you practice or prepare for your speech. If you make a mistake. You‘re probably doing better than you think. Try to predict the questions that your audience is going to have and develop clear responses to them. You can start by speaking to a psychologist or consider one of the highly successful fearreducing approaches like: o 1) Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) which you can further research by contacting Change That‘s Right Now (www. This will help you make a connection and it makes you feel better when you can see that people are paying attention to what you have to say.‖ the audience doesn‘t know how you really feel.changethatsrightnow. you make your brain think you‘ve presented the speech already and you‘ll minimize some of your anxiety. Make eye contact during your presentation: As you speak. it will make you feel like you know them and they‘ll feel like they know you.com | www.com) www.‖ If something else happens. Practice what you‘re going to say in front of a mirror and in front of other people.nervous symtoms. Prepare yourself: You can help to releive some of the nervousness by adequately preparing for your presentation. Get help: If your public speaking fears really wreak havoc in your life or put your in instant panic mode. but study it enough so that you know it from top to bottom. Unless you let them know by saying things like ―I‘m so nervous‖ or ―I‘ve really never done this before. By picturing yourself delivering a successful speech. If you notice that you speak too softly. practice speaking louder in your car or shower.thevenusproject. ―the point I‘m trying to make is. It can inspire you to do your best.thezeitgeistmovement. Greet your guests: If you meet and greet the audience members prior to your speech. That will make it easier to speak in front of them and may soothe your nerves. scan the audience but don‘t be afraid to hold the gaze on a few people as you deliver certain sentences. Realize that most of your nervousness is invisible: Even though we think the audience is clued in our nervousness that‘s usually not the case. Make sure you‘re not reading the material. They probably didn‘t even notice your error and even if they did—most audiences are pretty forgiving. But the adrenaline boost has good side effects too. Let‘s say you lose your train of thought or feel yourself rambling. pause and get yourself back on track by saying. Whatever you do. sometimes things go wrong.

thezeitgeistmovement.com. talk to other customers and conduct your research until you‘re convinced that a certain technique will work for you. o 2) Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) which has practitioners listed on www.speakingwithoutfear.thevenusproject. Before you plunk down your cash. Hopefully.in New York or Bright Life Phobia and Anxiety Release Center (www. Though none of these methods work the same for everyone. www. o 3) The Lefkoe Method (TLM) which offers a fear reducing program that specifically deals with public speaking on www. you‘ll become more comfortable and that your efforts to overcome your stage fight will be well worth it.com | www. In the meantime. know that each time you speak in front of an audience.com) in Los Angeles.fearintopower. they do boast success rates as high as 97% and some programs offer money-back guarantees.com.com 20 . these suggestions will help you quell your fears the next time you need to give a speech.emofree.

you may already have been associating with these individuals throughout the semester or maybe you have access to their academic backgrounds. That‘s really unfortunate since any speaker‘s primary goal is to make a lasting impression.thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject. you know that you probably share some similarities and interests with your audience just based on the topic of the course. So. At work. expectations. ~Laurence J. you should have some insight about the makeup of your audience before you agree to speak. you may have had an exchange with your listeners at some point and could have some insight on what they need to get from the presentation. and knowledge of the subject matter www. Knowing Your Audience Inside Out Understanding your audience is an essential part of developing an effective speech or oral presentation. The students in a class are probably going to be much more homogenous than other groups you‘re going to face. challenges. interests. Great speakers know that you can‘t use a cookie-cutter approach when presenting information. Regardless of how much you‘ve interfaced with your prospective listeners. analyzing your information so you can include the key elements in your presentation. and concluding your presentation in a memorable. In a classroom setting. Peter Think of the last compelling speech that you heard? If you‘re like most people. maybe you‘ll be presenting in front of people you‘ve never met. an advanced survey to find out the group‘s overall needs. and memorable.com 21 . You need to tailor each of your presentations so that you meet the needs and expectations of your listeners and the only way you can do this is to get to know them—in advance. Or. In fact. In this case.Chapter 3: Developing Compelling Presentations Speak when you are angry--and you will make the best speech you'll ever regret. Some straight-forward suggestions include understanding your audience. you may be having trouble recalling it. This chapter will help you confidently deliver speeches and oral presentations that are relevant. positive way. how can you ensure this doesn‘t happen to you? There are a couple of things you can do to develop memorable speeches and presentations. Getting to Know the Members of the Group How do you get to know your audience members? It depends.com | www. compelling. That‘s because most presentations are pretty forgettable.

To get a handle on the environment. That said. This information will help you better prepare your presentation and ensure that the information you include will be useful to them.thezeitgeistmovement. will they be friendly and welcoming? Are they anxious to hear what you have to say? Or. Taking Stock of Your Environment As you continue to analyze your audience. You need to do this because the setting may also influence how open the audience is going to receive your message. Will they be suspicious or hostile? Or.com 22 . getting a general view of the audience at large will provide some distinct guidelines that will help you shape your presentation.com | www. If that‘s the case. including age and culture. consider the occasion and the environment.thevenusproject.couldn‘t hurt. you may consider directing a portion of your message to that person without making it too obvious to the other audience members. Some groups have members who operate as leaders and those people can shape how your message is received. are you going to be discussing something they could care less about? Of course. you do need to know if there are certain key people in the group that you need to win over. try to secure information on the group‘s background. find out the answers to the following questions: Where will the program or meeting be held? What is the purpose of the meeting? What is the reason for your presentation? How does your presentation relate to other parts of the program or other speakers? Where do you fit in the program? Will your presentation be competing with other activities? How accomodating is the room size for the number of people in the audience? How alert will the listeners be when it‘s time for your presentation? How much time will you have to present? Will a podium be available? Will a microphone be available? Is there audio/visual equipment available? www. Even still. each listener will have his or her unique attitudes towards your subject so you can‘t predict each individual‘s responses. Making Predictions: How Will They Receive My Message? You also need to understand what the audience‘s attitudes may be toward you. Where possible.

thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject.com 23 . Clearly state the reason for your presentation and why you‘re the best person to deliver this message.Is the room properly lit so that you‘ll be able to read your notes? Is the room a comfortable temperature (Generally 68°F)? Will the room be exposed to outside noises? Once you get the responses to these questions and others you‘ll be able to eliminate as many unknowns as possible. it‘s time to finalize the information that will be in your presentation. and what information you can present that will best serve them. Don‘t sweat it. This is an important first step because you can‘t develop a presentation until you can clearly and concisely express the specific goal of your talk. As long as you keep your focus on your audience. convince yourself that you are for the purposes of the presentation. keep in mind that the focus should not be on what you need to say but what your audience needs to hear. this approach will probably bore your audience to www. you‘ll never get off course. You should also check out the space prior to your talk so you can determine if the answers to your questions were accurate or discover if things have recently changed. for instance. Just know that even if you preview the space before your presentation. there are still some things that are beyond your control. As you sort through the information to determine what elements actually make your presentation. Even if you don‘t initially think you‘re the best person to give this talk. Although that might excite you. the environment. you need to come up with a speech that will knock ‘em dead or at least make them feel that you actively tried to meet their expectations or fulfill their needs. Getting to the Heart of Your Presentation Once you have a clear understanding of your audience. In other words.com | www. It will also allow you to make last minute changes to your presentation if you find some major problem—such as a bad Internet connection. Sometimes we get so excited about the topic we think we need to include everything but the kitchen sink. That will help build your confidence and get you in the right mindset to give a great speech. Once you‘re clear on the purpose of your speech. Just apologize to your audience for the inconvenience and continue sharing the powerful information that they expect from you. Clarify the purpose of your presentation Write down a specific statement of purpose for your presentation. you need to sort out the elements that you believe are absolutely necessary or just nice to include.

A great speaker strikes a balance between what he wants to say and what the audience will be open to hearing. Interviews may be conducted by phone or face-to-face. (keep it short and sweet) principle.I. consider what information would be interesting and compelling. You‘ll add other interesting. Leave at least five lines between each heading.com 24 . convincing. and other means. As you organize your outline. Forming the Skeleton of Your Speech Chapter 1 provides a great framework for outlining your speech. Next. shift the main points around to match the order you plan to present them. and interesting while using as few points as possible. Here are some ways you can gather information for your speech: Interviews: Think of the person or organization that could offer the best insight on the topic of your speech and set up an interview.tears. using key supporting elements. focus on the elements that will be most meaningful to your audience.com | www. the evironment where the talk will take place. points that drive home a strong message than a long list of points that aren‘t compelling. your audience needs. review the points to determine which ones you can realistically explain in the timeframe you have available. The process is similar to developing a preliminary table of contents for a written report. Refer back to the K. Whether your interview www. Then think about the time that you have alloted for your presentation. you just need to reach out to them. In the case of a speech. start by using your main points as the major headings in your outline. If you‘re clear on your purpose.S.thezeitgeistmovement. publications. articles. Essentially. it‘s time to complete your outline.thevenusproject. This montra will help you design a message that‘s clear. and the how you believe your audience will respond to you. less is more. If you can‘t find at least three supporting elements for a particular main point then you may consider combining it with another main point. As you plug in the supporting evidence in the lines under each point. Your audience is more likely to remember fewer.S. study. there are two categories of research: primary and secondary. Most organizations have a media or press office and will help you connect with the right person. Conducting Your Research This step is essential to developing an effective speech. This will help you express and expand your central idea. As a review. More importantly. helpful and even amusing details as you continue planning your talk. Primary research is research you conduct yourself while secondary research is already available through books. Start by listing all of your key ideas.

they have the timeliest data.html). always cite where you got the information. Before the interview. get some background information on the company through pamphlets. and Modern Language Association (http://www. brochures.thezeitgeistmovement. Use a variety of resources: You‘ll gain a broader perspective on your topic by using various resources. Also. and newspapers have current information on a variety of topics. magazines. just check the source for accuracy.is by phone or in person. Become friends with your librarians.mla.org). Research will probably take more time than you expect so it‘s important that you carve out enough time for the research as well as developing your speech. Magazines.APA Style Guide (http://www. and Other Publications: Magazines. As with other sources. and reliability. challenging questions and you need to leave space for final comments. If you develop your own survey.com | www.apastyle. journals. Computer Searches: Though computer searches offer an easy and quick method for gathering information. Books take a more in depth approach and are often written by experts on a particular subject matter.com 25 . the more time you‘ll have to complete your speech. Check the source to ensure that it‘s reputable and look at the site for clues on whether it‘s updated regularly. and primary research. including books. newspapers.org/tools_citationguide. Though periodicals may or may not be written by subject matter experts. you should be wary of research you get off the Internet. Again. try not to make it too long or you won‘t get many responses. The information that they connect you with can be crucial for developing a powerful speech.chicagomanualofstyle. They should be open-ended. www.org). e-zines. Document your sources using a professional style guide: For guidance on citing your sources or other style questions. You should include mostly multiple choice questions that include an ―other‖ alternative so respondents can write in an answer. Tips for Researching for Your Speech: Start researching your topic early. refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (http://www. newsletters. Surveys: These serve as primary research if you conduct them yourself or secondary research if you get them from the library or research company.thevenusproject. and other materials. Your librarian has access to tons of information in the library but can also direct you to not-so-commonly-used sources on the Internet. The earlier you start the research process. you should have at least 10 thought-provoking questions prepared. completeness. keep good records of the information that you use and where you got the information. the American Psychological Association . Periodicals—Newspaper.

You can slow down to emphasize a certain point or pause before or after a particular sentence then pick up the pace. Will you be able to complete the speech in the time you‘ve been alloted? Do you feel it contains the important elements? Is it interesting? It needs to serve the audience.com 26 . If you need to run longer. or seconds if necessary. Talking too slow or too fast could impact how receptive your audience is to your message. If done properly. your mission shouldn‘t be to wow your audience with fancy graphics but to www. In public speaking. At the very least. you want to make sure that the audience has an opportunity to hear everything you planned to say and that you don‘t overshoot when you make that happen. As you develop your speech. If you talk too fast. you don‘t want to speak too slowly because they‘ll begin to lose interest. you don‘t allow your audience to process what you‘re saying and you may fail to effectively communicate to them. With the aid of a tape recorder. Also consider the rate at which you speak when you practice your speech. Using Visual Aids Visual aids can add interest and clarity to your speech or presentation. At the same time. However. But. that‘s probably around the 20 minute mark. Remember your presentation time will be extended if you take questions at the end. If not. you can see how many supporting factors you have for each of your main points. how do you ensure that the speech you have in mind will fit into that timeframe? You practice it.thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject. At the same time. The time factor is not just about how long you‘re going to speak overall. you don‘t want to be too brief because your audience will feel cheated or won‘t have enough details to understand your message. You want to stop talking just before your audience begins to squirm. they can weaken your performance too. That‘s why a comprehensive outline is such a helpful tool.Be Aware of Time Limitations We‘ve already discussed the importance of knowing how much time you have available to deliver your speech.com | www. Think about whether you would be interested in listening to the speech yourself. Don‘t just listen for content but assess your delivery too. It‘s important to remember that visual aids should only be used to supplement your words not replace or overshadow them. use only as much time as you need to use to effectively deliver the information. go back to the drawing board. incorporate things to keep the talk interesting and upbeat. replay yourself giving the speech. but how much time you plan to spend on each point. Just remember that the pace of your speech should reinforce your message not detract from it. Then you can literally break your speech out into minutes. The best speakers alter the pace of their delivery.

they shouldn‘t overshadow you either. Explain Your Visual Aid: Make sure you refer to every visual aid you use in your presentation. you might want to stay away from the art used in Microsoft word or the other popularly used sites because these overused illustations may be less impactful. So put yourselves in their shoes and come up with illustrations that will facilitate a connection. In most cases. Here are some suggestions on how you can use illustrations to effectively illustrate or enhance your content: Ensure your visual aids are visible: As you develop your aids. stock photos have a more professional feel than clipart. have a limit of five to seven bullet points. if everyone will be able to see the visual aid? If they can‘t. you should probably leave it out of your presentation. don‘t pass around handouts while you‘re talking because your audience will be reading them instead of listening to you. The last thing you need is disgruntled audience members who have tuned out your presentation because they can‘t see it. using an illustration featuring a popular young rock band to drive home a point may be a big hit with high schoolers but would provide no payoff for senior citizens.choose words that effectively communicate your message. focus on the listeners and their expectations. www. bring the point home. Use Visual Aids that are Relevant: Use the information you obtained about your audience to determine what visual aids would be relevant to them.thezeitgeistmovement. For slides with text. not just echo what you‘re already saying in words. But you should ensure the aids you use are error-free and that the words you used are correctly spelled. As an example. Any slide or illustration that needs extensive explanation will only detract from your speech and cause you to lose your train of thought. It should add something. Ensure your visual aids are audience appropriate: Again. If you absolutely need graphics to make your speech interesting then there is probably a problem with the content. use them to illustrate only one point. The last thing you want to do is offend them by using illustrations that are offensive or just inappropriate. Make your visual aid understandable: Your audience needs to be able to get the main idea of your visual aid at first glance. assess them from the audience‘s perspective.com | www. Ask yourself. For instance. In fact. Also. Refrain from using distracting Visual Aids: Just like your visual aids shouldn‘t detract from your words. Use professional visual aids: In this case. For charts and graphs. Use meaningful and relevant visual aids: An aid should illustrate a point.thevenusproject. your words and visiual aids should complement each other. Don‘t just assume they‘ll get it.com 27 . professional doesn‘t mean fancy.

and Impact So when are you ready to decide on a powerful opener for your speech? You do it when you‘ve finalized nearly everything else. or colorful your visual aids are. Don‘t use these elements as a show and tell exercise. Flair.. Choose a color scheme that has distinct contrasting background and text. body of the speech. A black background and white text is a good choice.. Use a format consistently. C) Introduce the Topic. You settle on the content—your objectives. www..Talk to the audience not the illustration: Many speakers are so reliant on their visual aids that they direct their presentations to the screen. You‘re on a mission to: A) Grab Their Attention. attractive. B) Establish Rapport.com 28 . and visual aids—then you decide on your opening. outline. save them to reinforce or illustrate a particular point.com | www. Use upper and lowercase letters for readability. More Tips on Using Visual Aids: Select templates carefully by trying to match up the style with the type of presentation you‘re actually making. Anything outside of that is putting the cart before the horse. Use Visual Aids with a Purpose: No matter how interesting.thevenusproject. The audience didn‘t come to get the information from the visual aid—they came to hear you. Check the font size. Preview your visual aids before your actual presentation. they will lose their impact if you use too many of them. key elements.. The most important thing you need to do when your selecting an opening is to keep your main goals top of mind. Provide supplemental notes after you‘ve completed your presentation. Opening Your Speech with Style.thezeitgeistmovement. Not good. Include one key concept per slide. Be consistent in how you transition your slides Include the source for copyrighted material. Use bold and italics sparingly.

For instance.‖ In most cases. you‘re actually tapping into the credibility and likeability of the person uttering those words.‖ The jolting statistic is typically followed a pause and then a source such as ―According to the National Center for Women and Children. More specifically. simply raise one hand as your asking the question to indicate to the audience that you want a show of hands instead of a verbal response. Instead. ―Every 7 seconds a woman is battered by an intimate partner in this country.‖ It‘s an engaging word that will draw the audience in and compel them to develop a picture in their www. you‘re not actually waiting for a response from the audience. shock. If you start with openings like these. So choose a person that has significant relevance to the audience. What you want to do is find an opener that will distinguish you from the other people that they‘ve heard.4 million each year. When a quotation is used. That equates to 9 women a minute or 4. So stay away from speech openers that simply thank the audience for the invitation or recaps the event‘s activities (they have a program for that). A Bold Statement/Shocking Statistic: A bold claim or startling statistic can be a powerful way to set the stage for an informational or educational talk. You‘ll have time to thank the group for the invite just don‘t do that as your opener. At the same time. If you really want to improve your written communication. humor. If you do want feedback. consider these approaches: A Powerful Quote: If you use this technique. let‘s say you manage to grab their attention and establish a rapport but you never introduce the topic. it‘s important that you use a wellknown person because the name of the person who actually said the quote is sometimes more attention grabbing than the actual quote that was said. stick to the short words…‖ A Rhetorical Question: When you ask a question.com 29 . ―Do you remember what you had for breakfast this morning? Of course. prove to them that you‘re the right person to deliver that particular message—they‘ll eventually tune you out. or a powerful image. if you grab their attention and introduce the topic but never establish a rapport with your audience—in other words. and the old words are the best of all.‖ An Anecdote/Story: Start your tale with the word ―imagine. you immediately engage the minds of the attendees as they think of a response. I‘m going to show you some techniques that will allow you to remember things that you‘ve done twenty years ago as easily as you recall a recent meal.com | www. you‘ll fade into the background in no time. the short words are best. you do.thezeitgeistmovement. then they‘ll stop listening after a while because they‘re unclear on the topic. you just want to get their thinking juices flowing.If you fail to accomplish any one of these elements then you‘re not going to connect with your audience.thevenusproject. jump into your presentation by grabbing their attention by using a compelling statement or statistic. ―According to Winston Churchill.

exhausted. As the building ferociously crumbles at your feet. look to your right. and tell them why the information is important to them. reread your old speeches too. and insightful anecdotes. Also. provide a preview of what you‘re going to talk about. www. mind-blowing statistics.‖ ―I got this invite at the last minute. You can breathe new life into an old presentation by adding a bold new opener. Do you realize that one of those people will not be walking down the aisle at graduation time?‖ Closing Your Speech with a Memorable Kicker Though people generally forget much of what they hear in a speech. Images are more memorable than words.minds.thezeitgeistmovement. and scared.com | www. pick an opener that‘s right for your presentation. ―Imagine racing down the staircase to escape Tower 2 on the infamous September 11th. don‘t forget a powerful close. Use short sentences in your introduction. you and your co-workers follow the stairs down to the ground level where you‘re able to escape only moments before the tower collapses. and 3) make a lasting impression so your message sticks in their brains. sticky. Develop an outline that includes sentences and phrases to help you remember important information. Select quotations that are appropriate for your audience. It‘s no wonder why Patty Clark and her colleagues are on a mission to preserve the lifesaving staircase.‖ Humorous stories can be good openers too as long as their based on real-life relatable experiences and you don‘t fall into the trap of telling jokes. you can improve your odds with a powerful opener and a memorable close. And once you do that. 2) CTA or Call to Action by telling listeners specifically what you need them to do or what actions you want them to take right now—this is especially important in a persuasive speech. As with the opener. You‘re hot. you conclude that death is inevitable until a staircase summons you. Don‘t open your speech with an apology or excuse such as ―I‘m so nervous. More Tips on Developing Your Introduction: After getting your audience‘s attention. Take charge! Dedicate only 30-seconds for your introduction for a 5-minute speech. ―Look to your left. Keep the sentence in your introduction short. Keep your eyes peeled for interesting quotes. Relate your topic to your audience. you need to close with a mission. Now that you have some options. so it‘s essential that you: 1) provide your audience with clues so they know you‘re about to close. With lightening speed.‖ that sets a poor tone. The last 3 to 5 minutes are critical to how your speech is perceived.thevenusproject.com 30 .

go to the back of the room to buy a book. Or worse yet.com | www. this approach requires that you do some advance thinking about what action you want your audience to take but it‘s worth the extra effort. be specific about what you want them to do. Also. you wrote down the key points you wanted to cover. Of course.‖ It communicates to your audience that you‘re really lost for words and didn‘t think enough of them to develop a compelling close. This approach is great for motivational speeches. don‘t run out of gas before you conclude your talk. she can take the long walk herself with the help of the prosthetic leg that was made possible by contributors like you. The 3-part speech outline is a particular approach that enables the speaker to convey important information using three different occasions: 1) the opening is when you tell them what you‘re going to tell them or provide a preview.‖ Summarize Key Points or Bookend Your Speech: As you were developing your speech. That will help them see how the message can apply to them.thevenusproject. Now. or sign up for the next seminar. for instance. Have you been in an abusive relationship? Did you lose someone close on 9/11? Did the information that you shared help you overcome a particular challenge? It‘s not too late to provide your personal insight even if that reveal comes at the closing. and 3) the Closing is when you tell them what you‘ve already told them. the girl born as a double amputee. So if you began with an anecdote. Let your audience know how you personally relate to the subject matter. By ending with a strong speech title. ―And miles to before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep. To give your close a little more pizzazz. you might close by telling how the story turned out and hopefully relating that successful outcome to something you said in your speech. take it to home plate. Challenge Your Audience or Call to Action (CTA): Ask your audience to apply what they heard in the speech to spur them to action. consider any of these techniques: Tie-in to the Opening: This type of closing circles back to the opening by referring to something that was said in the beginning of the speech.thezeitgeistmovement. Use Words that Echo or Repeat: Using words that echo or repeat can linger in the minds of your listeners. Personalize Your Message: If you really want to hit a homerun with your speech. She no longer relies on her friends and neighbors to carry her to school every day. ―Remember little Jessica. And miles to go before I sleep.com 31 .‖ Refer to back to the title: Use the provocative title to memorably shape your message and unforgettably close it. don‘t blurt out those two meaningless words: ―Thank You. You should never leave a captive audience without closing the deal.Whatever you do. 2) the body that‘s where you actually educate the audience on the three essential points. whether it‘s cast their vote for a particular candidate. you‘ll www. You can summarize those points in the close to remind the audience of those important elements.

here are 10 things you need to do to ensure your speech rocks the room: 1. Giving a speech is not like performing a monologue. When it comes to bringing your speech to a close you‘re the only one who can ensure that you leave your listeners with a lasting impression. and the close. To come up with great title for a speech. Look for ways to develop a cohesive unit within the three sections of your speech. When President Barack Obama ran his campaign trail. the opening.com | www. Bringing It All Together This chapter focused on what you need to develop a compelling speech. Don‘t approach it like you would an acting gig. tie your conclusion to your introduction.get your audience to make the connection between the title and the speech and think more fully about the speech they just heard. This helps you connect with the audience and will get them to listen up as you illustrate the relevance of that book or production. we discussed three areas. if you opened with an anecdote. we can!‖ as a way to get them excited about his message and to remember it. Use a quote from a well-known person. For example. If possible. Leave your audience with something memorable. www.com 32 . just refer to an outline for brief phrases. To recap. Essentially. Be heartfelt: If you don‘t believe what you‘re saying in your speech you shouldn‘t say it. mention that incident again when you close. As with the opener. So use any of these suggestions to give your audience a speech they‘ll never forget. Never read your close verbatim. Refer to a popular movie or book: You can refer to a book or movie that you believe is particularly meaningful to the audience and use examples or quotes from it to support your claims. Close your speech by summarizing the points that you covered in the body of your speech—never introduce new information.thezeitgeistmovement. he got Americans from coast to coast to call out ―Yes. Invest time in your final remarks because that‘s your last time to make an impression on your audience. More Tips on Developing Your Conclusion: Your eye contact should be powerful at the close of your speech. talk from your heart.thevenusproject. the body of the speech or overall content. Call and Response: Get the audience to repeat a phrase that you used in your speech. the person saying the quote is at least as important as the actual quote you select because you‘re relying on that person‘s popularity and credibility to drive your point home. write the closing first.

Stay in the moment: Whether you‘re crafting your speech. think about the things that you can say to serve your listeners. More importantly. You‘ll do a better job by being yourself. 7. All of this builds trust and will make it easier for you to speak to them. plan to direct your talk to the crowd not your visual aids or anywhere else. anxious. 9. 5. No matter which method you use. you should rehearse your speech frequently so you don‘t have to read your speech but have committed it to memory. or actually delivering it.2. 8. Instead of inserting these distractions in your speech. the purpose for their attendance.thezeitgeistmovement. Evaluate room setup: Check out the room where you‘ll be presenting your speech well in advance. practicing it. Some people write out their speech word for word and others just put bullet points on 3x5 index cards. Find out who will be sitting in your audience. Also. it‘s easy to become scattered.com 33 .com | www.thevenusproject. it‘s important that you completely focus on whatever activity you‘re working on. When the pressure is on. Nix the zero words: ―Ums‖ and ―ahs‖ provide no informational value to your talk and they can keep your audience from really listening to what you have to say. 4. Clarify and cover at least two or three objectives for your speech: Think about what you want your audience to know or do as a result of hearing you speak and work toward that goal. This may help you improve. practice saying your speech in a mirror or with friends. and what problems you can help them solve. or frustrated but you have a better chance of success if you stay on task. 3. Get personal: By sharing your personal stories with your audience you show them that you‘re like them and you can relate. Be natural: Don‘t try to imitate another person. Know your audience: Earlier we discussed the importance of understanding your audience demographics but also know how they believe you can best service them. Make sure the audio/visual equipment is in working condition and determine whether the room temperature* needs to be adjusted. stop and pause. They‘ll also be more eager to listen to you. Focus on your audience—not yourself. Also. And don‘t try to memorize your speech verbatim because that will increase your anxiety and cause you more mistakes. *Room temperature for general human comfort ranges from 20°c (68°F) to 25°C (77°F). 6. Write it down: There are a couple of ways to approach your speech but you need to at least have some form of it on paper or index cards. then proceed to speak. People also learn from your mistakes or mishaps and will feel more comfortable sharing their own tales. www.

now it‘s time to add the finishing touches.com 34 . Take heart. At first glance.10. www.thezeitgeistmovement. it may be a little overwhelming to think about all the things you need to do to prepare the speech and you haven‘t even delivered it yet. you need to reinforce your message and complete your mission by leaving with a strong finish.thevenusproject. you‘ve completed much of the groundwork.com | www. Close your speech with a bang: Now that you‘ve reeled them in with a powerful opening and maintained their interest during the bulk of your talk.

you would use speaker notes or an outline to remind you of the elements of the speech you‘re not reading it word-for-word. what are you going to do with it? When it comes to public speaking. and writing your text.thezeitgeistmovement. you‘re not going to connect with your audience in a meaningful way. We‘ll look at verbal and nonverbal communication. All ears are tuned in. your delivery is as important as your message. Though.Chapter 4: Stand and Deliver Well-timed silence hath more eloquence than speech. Special Deliveries: It‘s time for you to think about how you‘re going to deliver your speech. However. you‘re not going to service them and if you don‘t do that. You‘ve got the audience‘s attention. rehearsed speeches. Research studies have found that your verbal delivery and body language can have a tremendous impact on your audience and may even win them over even if the content is weak. you really don‘t have all of the components of a compelling speech until you‘ve finalized the delivery as well as the message. The bottom line is that your delivery emphasizes. If you‘re not able to present your information effectively. Extemporaneous speeches involve researching your topic. you‘re doomed. Consider these four speech delivery alternatives: Extemporaneous: These types of speeches have the look of a person speaking spontaneously but are actually very well prepared. you can alter the actual spoken words to keep the speech fresh and spontaneous. ~Martin Fraquhar Tupper It‘s time for you to take center stage.com | www.thevenusproject. well researched. and have great content but if you‘re unable to effectively deliver it. as long as you maintain the essence of the speech. you can kiss your chances of receiving another invitation goodbye! Your speech may be organized. enhances. www. In fact. and what things you can do to develop your own speaking style. More importantly. external factors that may affect your presentation. and reinforces your message. organizing your findings. But first you need to understand your options. This chapter examines the various elements involved in delivering an effective speech.com 35 . All eyes are on you.

paragraphs. they include volume. it‘s because they are natural. To determine the appropriate volume and whether or not you‘ll need a microphone. The good news here is that the more proficient you become at delivering other types of speeches. As a good speaker. It offers you the greatest control over the wording of your speech. Sounding off about Verbal Communication Your verbal communication skills are of particular importance when you‘re delivering a speech. and organized if you want to deliver an effective message. pitch. you may want to read from a manuscript when you‘ve taken the time to embellish your speech and want to ensure that you deliver it exactly as you wrote it. At the same time. or preselect the right words you‘re going to use. take some time to gather your thoughts so you can organize them as much as you can. The voice has several elements that you can vary as a means to enhance your speech. concise. Practice this speech as much as you can so you sound natural and as you become more confident try adding a few spontaneous changes at the time of delivery. You should be loud enough so that everyone in the room can hear you. a memorized speech can sound overly rehearsed or canned. Even with impromptu speeches. People who memorize speeches frequently such as politicians or actors say the best way to deliver these types of speeches is to just practice. Even if you are asked to do a last minute speech or if you find yourself on the spot.Manuscript: Reading from a manuscript is the most formal type of delivery. Volume: This determines how loudly your voice is projected throughout your presentation space. and rate.com | www. There‘s no time to prep. practice. Memorized: These speeches can be the hardest to deliver because it requires a word-for-word presentation without the use of any aids. Impromptu: If you think impromptu speeches sound the most natural. clear. you shouldn‘t sound as if you‘re shouting. the better you‘ll get at giving an impromptu talk. This delivery alternative is typically used when speaking on highly sensitive information or during a crisis situation where using specific words and terms are important. consider the size of the room and the amount of people that will www. Also. or phrases. Also. Speakers can sometimes confuse words. it‘s your responsibility to familiarize yourself with these areas so you can manipulate them for greatest effectiveness. Just don‘t rob this presentation of its spontaneity.com 36 . you still need to be coherent. tone. write down your thoughts.thevenusproject. The message you deliver is based on what you have in your head.thezeitgeistmovement.

be filling the space. it‘s the way you say it. a political speech should be more forceful and demanding than a speech on a child‘s daycare facility which should probably be pleasant and upbeat. At the same time. During an exciting part of your speech. consider whispering when talking about a secret or private conversation and pump up the volume as you speak about a challenge or victory. Your speech is your own personal music and you have your own ―natural register‖ and that‘s the notes on the musical scale that you speak most comfortably. you raise your voice at the conclusion of a question and lower your voice at the end of statement. As long as you don‘t overdo it. jittery. or inviting. You can have a tone that‘s positive. You should also consider altering your voice according to your speech. As with other elements in your speech. A fast pace indicates a sense of urgency or may seem pushy. For your speech. sarcastic. Generally. you can speak in a lower tone to draw the audience in or raise your voice to underscore a particular point. www. Research shows that an audience can better relate to positive tones than negative ones. using excessive pitch (speaking too high or too low) could be distracting. The key here is to ensure your pitch varies enough to maintain your audiences‘ attention but only using those notes that are pleasing to the ear. try to rehearse your speech in your actual presentation or in a room like it. Sprinkling variety in your volume adds spice. and the content. As you determine your tone. If possible. convincing. Tone: It‘s not what you say. panicked. People generally speak at a rate at 115 words per minute. joyous. In conversation. They also prefer upbeat or positive speeches over negative ones.com | www. strike a balance by selecting the tone that feels most natural to you. you don‘t want to speak in monotone or in one pitch because you‘ll be considered boring and your audience with tune you out. You may also want to slowdown when you‘re delivering a story. varying is key. Pitch: The high or low notes you produce when you speak is referred to as pitch. pessimistic.thevenusproject. Slowdown if you have a strong dialect or accent so people understand you. negative. hopeful. Similarly. speed up to draw attention to the point you‘re trying to make. confident. For example. or confusing. Your tone encompasses all of the elements that put a particular spin on your speech. the listener‘s expectations.thezeitgeistmovement. A slow speech may be comforting or relaxing but can also be boring. Pace: The rate or pace is the speed that your words are spoken. fearful.com 37 . most people have a range of eight notes.

record yourself delivering the speech and then count the number of nonfluencies. Just in case you want to start improving your enunciation and pronunciation right away. excitement. always keep a dictionary and a thesaurus handy. To ensure you pronounce and enunciate the words in your speech accurately. If you need help with this. unpreparedness. ya know. here is a list of suggestions: Instead of da Bronx dancin’ dat fadda Febuary Gazinto Gonna How ya doin’ meetcha at the store ta go Whatcha doin’? Say The Bronx Dancing that father February goes into Going How are you doing? Meet you at the store To go What are you doing? www. record your speech. A pause between words or phrases adds emphasis. Enunciation has to do with how clearly you articulate each syllable in a word. and move his lips. increase his pitch. Mumbling is an enunciation issue that occurs when the speaker closes his mouth and maintains a low pitch.Pauses also influence the pace. Be sure to get a handle on these two elements because errors in these areas can ruin your delivery. speakers often fill in the natural pauses with ―zero words. problems arise when the speaker utters one or more syllables incorrectly.com | www.thezeitgeistmovement. Since pronunciation and enunciation are closely interrelated. or ah are a distraction and add nothing to your presentation. or just inexperience. Nonfluencies Use: Whether it‘s from nervousness. You can use pauses to highlight certain points. If you‘re unclear.thevenusproject.‖ Nonfluencies such as like. the speaker should open his mouth.com 38 . Pronunciation and Enunciation: There is no excuse to mispronounce a word during your speech. it‘s probably not as long as you think it is. eh. regulate your pace (and prevent you from speaking too quickly). and add dramatic effect. Instead of dropping in these space fillers. then assess your presentation for clarity. settle for the silence. As a remedy. um. then redo it as much as you need to eliminate those unnecessary distractions. prepare your speech in advance. look up the word in the dictionary to view the phonetic spelling or use your thesaurus to locate a friendly substitute.

such as in the front. This will enable you to hear your voice in the same manner as other people do. Maintaining eye contact also allows you to gauge how you‘re doing? If you‘re met by droopy eyes or puzzled faces. you could just record yourself. middle. Once you review a video of yourself. Look directly into people‘s eyes as you‘re talking to them and if you can. movement.Sometimes we aren‘t aware of the communication issues that we have because we don‘t actually hear ourselves speak.thezeitgeistmovement. scan the room by making eye contact with people in different sections.com | www. pitch. play it back and analyze it for volume. This is a very effective way to get instant feedback. you may appear to be dishonest or not fully confident in the information you are presenting. To connect with people during your talk. Posture and Stance: If you‘re ready to deliver your speech. If you fail to look at a few choice audience members in the eye. To do that. call some people by name. Then cup your other hand over your mouth as you direct the sound to your cupped ear. tone. Make sure www. facial expression. posture. Pause instead of dropping in influencies throughout your speech. and the nonfluencies. Pause for drama and emphasis. stance. When you look people in the eye during a speech. cup your hand over your ear and pull that ear slightly forward. Get your entire audience involved and don‘t just focus on the people who appear interested or are taking notes. because our culture tends to rely on eye contact for clues on whether the person is being honest or providing valid information. they feel as if you‘re talking to them and them alone. Make sure you know how to enunciate and pronounce all of the words in your speech.com 39 . you‘ll be able to ensure your eye contact. pace. Stand with your shoulders back. gestures. chest out. Enhance your verbal delivery using inflection. and appearance positively connects with your audience. and stomach pulled in. you need to stand tall. More Tips on Verbal Cues: Vary your volume and rate to add spice to your speeches. Sharpening Your Nonverbal Cues The nonverbal cues are the easiest skills to assess and improve. and left. Or. you know you need to pick up the pace of the speech or clarify a few of your points so your audience can better appreciate your content. Eye Contact: This is extremely important when making a speech.thevenusproject. This increases your credibility with your audience.

As long as you don‘t overdo it. Gestures and Movement: Use gestures to emphasize an opinion or idea or express a thought. and doing anything that will draw your audience‘s attention from you to the object you‘re focusing on. There are some gestures you should never do when delivering a speech. those include scratching your head. Iraq. hold onto the podium or keep your hands in your pockets. or use your fingers to coordinate the number you‘re currently talking about if you‘re discussing a rundown. Be conscious of your movements and avoid random pacing because unnecessary steps or sways just distract your audience. Be sure to put only one coin in your pockets so it doesn‘t jingle and so you can give your fingers something to hold onto while they wait for the conclusion of your speech. twisting your hair. find out if there are any offensive gestures to that particular culture. You‘d be surprised how many common American gestures are insulting to other groups. Gestures add expression and interest and help maintain the audience‘s attention.com 40 . they need to be natural because your audience will be able to pick up on staged actions. If you‘re going to use gestures. Other random gestures like clicking your pen or crossing your arms can also interfere with your message. If you find your hands are just getting in the way. you‘re removing the artificial barrier between you and them.thevenusproject. an erect posture demonstrates confidence and physically promotes an environment for a fuller voice. Make sure your movements are purposeful whether it be a turn of the head or a movement from a few steps from the lectern. For example.thezeitgeistmovement. South America. As you move away from the lectern and closer to the audience. Body Language: Your body language is key to giving a successful speech. coming from behind a podium helps you create a personal relationship with them. Sardinia. In Thailand. Make it a point to look at the audience and smile when appropriate. communicate the space of a particular item using your hands.com | www. hitting the lectern. Use your body language to underscore excitement and passion for your subject matter. hand gestures can add interest and flair to your presentation. If you can‘t move fully—maybe you have a microphone attachment and you‘re being videotaped—you still can make a connection from a podium by leaning forward from the waist and making a few gestures with your hands. For smaller groups. www.your feet are shoulder length apart and that your weight is equally distributed on both feet. According to research. the same symbol has the same meaning as the middle finger does here in America. You may be ―naturally‖ moved to show a demonstration. the ―Thumbs up‖ symbol means ―Up yours. pal!‖ in Middle Eastern countries. and West Africa. For speeches to an international audience.

Appearance: Clothing counts when it comes to public speaking. For example. the attendees will feel disconnected and you‘ll spend a lot of your time trying to draw them in. So how do you keep external conditions in check? Stick to the plan. Be sure your hand gestures aren‘t going to be offensive to your audience— particularly you international attendees.com 41 .Facial Expression: Your facial expression should be natural. as well as appropriate for the presentation. simply pause until the noise ceases. Dress comfortably and appropriately. if the room is too big for the group. A Roper Organization Study found that women notice the clothes that other women and men wear. But also. dress neat. Men did notice clothing when it came to other men. that‘s not exactly true. For a great impression. clean. then there needs to be appropriate desk space. hand gestures in your speech to add interest and emphasis. On the other hand. you can manage a large majority of them. In most cases. Deal with outside noises: If your speech gets drowned out by outside noises. the attendees will be distracted or cause a distraction due to the lack of seats. Incorporate natural. comfortable. Don‘t try to spruce up your speech with contrived gestures. while men are more interested in checking out a woman‘s physique than the attire. You should also ensure that the room accommodates other activities too. It tells us that there are certain things out of our control. unrehearsed. you should still ensure there is enough light for audience members to enter. if you expect your audience to take notes.thevenusproject. like a kid yelling down the hall. ensure your expressions are appropriate for the content you‘re delivering. Ensure there is sufficient light for you and the audience: Even if the you‘re going to be speaking in a room that only lights up the stage. will go wrong. Well. Though you can‘t control every single factor that may affect the success of your speech. the following guidelines may help: Ensure the size of the room accommodates the number of attendees: If the location is too crowded. and find their seats. exit. More Tips on Nonverbal Cues: Make eye contact with as many people as you can in the room. Taking Care of External Factors: Murphy‘s Law says everything that can go wrong.com | www. people appreciate a pleasant facial expression throughout a speech.thezeitgeistmovement. If the www.

www. Please check the amplification system to ensure it works. Adjust your voice so that it sounds pleasant to the human ear and so that everyone in the room can hear you.situation is getting too out of hand.thevenusproject. Here are some of the highlights: Wear clothes that are flattering and appropriate but not distracting. Add hand gestures to your speech to emphasize points. When it comes to external factors. Think about how you plan to deliver your speech to determine the type of microphone you plan to use. or do anything else to throw you off your game. talking on a cell phone.thezeitgeistmovement.com | www. Plan ahead: Take a look at where you‘re supposed to stand before your talk. let them know you‘d appreciate it if they reduced the noise or handled their business outside. Pause in your speech to emphasize a point. Also. or avoid using nonfluencies. you want to speak at a rate that‘s slow enough to be understood but fast enough to demonstrate your enthusiasm. and show space. maintain about six inches between your mouth and the piece you hold in your hand or have on a stand. Let your personality shine during your speech and don‘t try to imitate anyone else. Handle the disruption: As the speaker. Can’t Miss Speech Delivery Tips This chapter was chock full of information to help you tighten your speech delivery skills so you can provide your audience with a powerful message and know that it was well received. Make eye contact with as many people as you can in the room. you‘re responsible for ensuring that the atmosphere will facilitate successful communication between you and your audience. Use a Microphone: If you‘re talking to more than 200 people you need a microphone. If you‘re going to be moving around. With a standard microphone. set up an anecdote or humor. Eliminate fidgeting or other nervous gestures through practice. Pace your speech effectively. Pronounce and enunciate your words properly. They‘re small and can allow you to move close to your audience. you‘re in charge. collect your thoughts. visually illustrate pieces or segments of information. it‘s okay to let your audience know you need to take a minute or so to address the distraction. Conduct a sound check to determine whether your equipment is functioning. use a clip on microphone called a lavalier.com 42 . be sure that the podium or lectern you requested is actually in place. If someone is making noise.

take your place on the stage and deliver! www.thezeitgeistmovement. 4) timely. Now that you know what it takes to develop an effective speech.com 43 . thorough research.Connect with your audience by ensuring your speech is 1) based on honest. The rest is up to you.thevenusproject. 3) relevant to your audience‘s needs or interests. 2) interesting and engaging. and 5) delivered using a means they can understand and appreciate.com | www.

com 44 . consider adding any of the multimedia choices that are available to you. you can go online to find the most suitable media for any speaking occasion and you don‘t have to break the bank to get it. you could bore them. and social life. make sure those tools don‘t outshine or overshadow the information you were charged to deliver. It‘s no wonder. review. The Internet has become an integral part of America's economic. images. They‘ve raised the bar for the presenter and you need to walk a fine line between content and entertainment. Technological toys range from the dinosaur-type ones like overhead projectors. This chapter offers tips for incorporating technology into your next speech and suggests a few tools you can use. too many bells and whistles may confuse them. consider the audience. As you think about what types of technological toys to add to your talk. consider www. video productions. learns.Chapter 5: Click Here for Technology Advances in computer technology and the Internet have changed the way America works. or add material to your speech. and communicates. political. ~Bill Clinton For your next public speaking gig. including video.com | www. When used effectively. At the same time. webinars. Audiences are more sophisticated today than they have been in the past. highlight. slides. and other computer solutions. Studies also show that interactive multimedia presentations provide audiences with a better understanding of the material and this is particularly useful in training settings. studies show that these tools help audiences retain information. and online chats. Computer technology has a wide range of uses and applications. Ask yourself a few questions: What does your audience want? How should you give the information to them? What do you want them to experience? Your choices are endless. and master content quickly. digitized sound. learn faster. As you explore your options. and flip charts to more modern day tools that facilitate conference calls. Fortunately. As you incorporate technology into your speech. charts. Also. Why You Need Technology for Your Next Speech If you want to revolutionize your next talk.thevenusproject.thezeitgeistmovement. you may be looking for technological solutions to support your presentation. think of ways that technology can complement your presentation. If your talk is bogged down with too much information. You can use it to reinforce.

As long as you use these options in moderation.thevenusproject. sounds. Sometimes people in your audience have a different way of absorbing information and a varied approach could ensure you connect with as many people as you can. If you like. As this occurs. or become familiar with the subject matter before you actually hit the stage. you need to consider screen projection systems that interface with the computer and the Internet to support your speech. pictures. maybe they‘ll be recording your talk by using their tape recorder or cell phone.com | www. multimedia can give life to complex concepts in a much more effective way than traditional communication methods. If you don‘t start using technology. you can provide your audience with prep materials in advance so they‘ll know what to expect. As a bonus.com 45 . Bells and whistles will also make your speech more memorable. On the flip side. These days. It‘s a dramatic way to present new ideas or concepts. you‘re going to lose touch with the people you‘re supposed to communicate with. you can use technology to provide your audience with leave behinds. Your level of technology use also communicates whether you‘re current with the latest trends. this strategy may help keep your audience interested and aid in their comprehension. words. The time has passed for transparencies and chalkboards. it behooves you to put your antiquated ideas aside and make room for modern-day multimedia.thezeitgeistmovement. Or. Technological tools can supplement your speech too. answer certain preliminary questions. Rules of Engagement Ready to plug some technology tools into your presentation? Here are a few tips for using audio-visual aids: www. Just don‘t get too carried away with technology because you can‘t make the right statement if your tech tools are overstated.various types of media. and visuals. graphs. or announcements of upcoming speaking engagements. The use of technology can facilitate active learning as well as exciting communicating possibilities. Another benefit of using technology is that you can use animation. Technology is fast becoming the standard for public speeches and oral presentations. When compared to traditional talks. You can expect audience members to be jotting down notes on their laptop or Blackberry. and simulations to illustrate complicated information. including graphs. you can give audience members a DVD or CD that includes portions of your speech and send follow-up e-mails that include newsletters. People like to be affiliated with and pay attention to presenters that they believe are in the know. That‘s the way you want people to perceive you. additional resources.

thezeitgeistmovement. Recheck handouts. flipcharts.S. don‘t just think content think context. Match the Media to the Audience: As you‘re developing your media. and pictures. Once you review them. check the audio as well. Overall. Do you a dry run so you can get comfortable with the presentation and identify any last minute changes. Also. Some technology choices may be overblown for a smaller intimate crowd and may be too overwhelming for the room size.thevenusproject. including colors.com | www. think for your audience. Also. Take charge: Face the audience and not the screen. Adjust your laptop so you can view it easily for clues but practice so you‘re not fully relying on it. logos. and readable. and whiteboards: Ensure the information on these items is clear. place the screen to your left and your audience‘s right. which may require a font change for emphasis. or small logo.com 46 . give them to someone else for a second look. Use Similar Styling: Each page on your presentation should essentially include the same font type and font size. www.Keep it Short and Simple: Limit the use of elements that don‘t specifically relate to your content.I. Be Proactive: Avoid embarrassing or unpredictable situations by ensuring your equipment properly works before it‘s time for you to present. Also use the Excellence in Speaking Institute rule of 5s and 6s. Make sure the sound coordinates properly with the slides or video and ensure the volume and other controls are appropriately set. consider a sans serif font like Tahoma or Arial for easy on-screen reading.S. principle and strive to keep your slides as simple and as brief as possible by eliminating extra or unnecessary information. such as a name. remember the K. contact information. It suggests that you use no more than five lines on a slide with each line having no more than six words. Be Consistent: Ensure the pages have the look and feel of one cohesive unit by featuring similar elements on each. uncluttered. Proofread Your Slides: Ensure your slides are error-free by eliminating silly mistakes and typos. The only exception applies to graphs or charts. Conduct a sound check: As you review your visuals. ensure the background colors are the same on every slide. Since people read from right to left. Also.

deliver your own 20X20 Pecha Kucha slide presentation. Also. Your choices are endless.‖ is a concept that was developed by architects Mark Dytham and Astrid Klein to help their younger colleagues give punchier presentations. remember that brief is better. fun gatherings where attendees stuck to the PechKucha20x20 format. Use Pecha Kucha to make PowerPoint Presentations Pop! Pecha Kucha—pronounced pecha koocha—is a straightforward format where you speak about 20 images for 20 seconds each. Your audience will probably appreciate it and if they need more information.com 47 . The entire talk runs for a total time of 6 minutes and 40 seconds. The business owners started PechaKucha Nights in February 2003 in Tokyo as informal. rehearse your talk with moving slides so that you stay focused and know the message you want to convey.org).Remember. look for ways to be remarkable and different.com | www.thezeitgeistmovement. you‘re mistaken. which is a Japanese term that means ―chit chat. Make every slide count. Or. For more information on Pecha Kucha. And if the situation allows it. In many cases. The subject matter has expanded beyond the architectural field and the social gatherings are beneficial for the listeners as well as the presenters.com/watch?v=9NZOt6BkhUg). Public Speaking Tech Tools You Can Use So what are the types of technology tools (and toys) you can incorporate into your public speaking engagements? If you think PowerPoint is your only alternative. Your primary objective should be to connect to your audience with your powerful message not with an overblown on-screen presentation. Audience members enjoy concise punchy visually stimulating speeches on a variety of subjects while the person delivering the message is forced to be organized. disciplined. Now PechaKucha Nights have gone global and are enjoyed by revelers in more than 230 cities worldwide. Pecha Kucha. Sites www. In addition. they can ask questions at the end. but here are just a few options to consider: Video Conferencing: Use this option to bring in an expert that may be offsite or to connect you to a wider audience at another location. boring PowerPoint slideshows.youtube. and on point. you may be one of many speakers so you need to do something to standout. Gone are the days of long-winded. you can connect to the Pecha Kucha website (www. your multimedia presentation should complement your speech not replace it. you can do a search on the web and watch actual presentations on YouTube (www.thevenusproject.pecha-kucha. But how can you incorporate this new phenomenon in your upcoming presentations? As you develop your speech and choose to incorporate PowerPoint slides.

Social Media: Use these sites to connect with other business professionals.com).oovoo. Webinars: Public speeches don‘t always have to take place in a brickand-mortar institutions.freeconference.sightspeed. Online Event Management: Many of the options above will also help you manage your event by sending out online invitations or allowing you post announcements on your profile.facebook.eventbrite. You can also publicize your event on these sites to attract attendees.gotowebinar.skype. Podcasts: Include relevant audio to underscore a point or supplement your presentation. and Free Conference (www.amiando.dimdim. Break (www.twitter.com).Dailymotion.blogtalkradio.com). Sites like Podcast Alley (www. In the meantime. and Fast Pitch (www.yelp. but this can be tricky since members are typically bombarded with invitations—you should probably consult a social media expert to find out which sites are most relevant for your field and uncover ways to promote to that audience.linkedin.com).youtube. documentaries as well as short films. Videos: There are several sites that feature free movies.com) that could have relevant audio for use in your presentation.com).fastpitchnetworking.com (www.thevenusproject.break.com) or Live365. If you still need additional online event management help.com).myspacetv. LiveLeak (www. You can give your talk via the web using various types of interactive software including DimDim (www. Ning (www. web applications like Event Brite (www. ooVoo (www.stumbleupon. Check them out to see if they have any videos that include relevant material. There are also internet radio sites like blogtalkradio (www.podcastalley.com).com).com).com). videos.com).com).live365.com) as well as Stumble Upon (www.com 48 . LinkedIn (www.ning.com). Yelp (www.thezeitgeistmovement. This allows you to share your desktop with others or host a talk via phone for free or a nominal fee depending on the number of attendees. Some sites to visit include MySpace TV (www.com) feature a list of popular podcasts that may cover the topic of your speech.com).com | www. you can conduct your own search on the Internet or check out sites like Facebook (www.com).com).liveleak. and Twitter (www. Eventsbot www. Amiando (www. SightSpeed (www. or see relevant postings. Goto Webinar (www.such as Skype (www.com). and YouTube (www.metacafe. and Aim (www.aim.com).com) facilitate online video and audio exchange for a nominal fee or for free. Dailymotion (www. interview subject matter experts.com). Metacafe (www.com).

com) and others help you track attendees as well as ticket sales.(www. should be the primary reason you take the stage. How? An interesting.madeit. adding technology will help you better serve your audience. Made It (www.com | www.com).com 49 . after all. and that.eventsbot.thezeitgeistmovement. interactive visual can relieve some of your stress because it gives the audience another focal point plus it frees you up from relying on your notes or index cards as you take cues from your slides. Skip. Click Now that you know how you can use technology to support your speeches as well as the wide range of technological alternatives that are available—explore them! Internet technical tools can greatly enhance your speech and help you become a better speaker.thevenusproject. www. More importantly. Hop.

Introducing… Unlike Johnny Carson. you‘re able to deliver a powerful. If you‘ve followed the information outlined up until now. compelling presentation that addresses your audience‘s needs and incorporates the most appropriate.Chapter 6: There’s More… Speak properly.thezeitgeistmovement. ~William Penn At this point it seems we‘ve covered everything but the kitchen sink. Your bio should include points that are relevant to the listeners. and performance—to keep your introduction on point: Preparation: Provide the person that will be introducing you with a onepage biography at least a few days in advance. for the end of speech is not ostentation. Even though your children and pets are important to you. purpose. but to be understood. So what else is there? There are just a few extra tips that need to be covered to make this everything public speaking guide complete. You appearance is stellar and your deliver is so tight you couldn‘t unravel it if you tried. yet exciting. don‘t mention them unless this will help you connect with the audience. there are a few things you can do to make it easy on the person who is going to introduce you. What you need to know is that your speech actually opens way before you hit the stage and there are really two presentations you need to prepare when you‘re going to speak: your main speech and the question and answer session.com | www.thevenusproject. but always plainly. Even still. It‘s nearly perfect. Try to keep it brief because people don‘t read long biographies anyway and you want them to be able to scan it again quickly www. This chapter will look at the true beginning of your speech (which is the part where someone else introduces you) and the true closing of your speech (which is really the Q&A or question and answer session). The focus here is the before and the after. Let‘s closely examine these areas so you can let your light shine as you enlighten your audience.com 50 . Remember the 3ps—preparation. and in as few words as you can. technological tools available. you probably won‘t have the benefit of being introduced by Ed McMahon who enthusiastically belted H-e-r-e-‗s Johnny! for more than 30 years.

There‘s a presentation after the presentation and you need to be ready for an action-packed Q&A session. The same is true for you during the Q&A session of your speech. Oprah. Now that you‘ve been properly introduced. smile (if appropriate). you need to remember to keep your best face forward even after the audience thinks you‘ve officially closed. make sure your hair and makeup are already in place. always carry copies of your bio with you. The show is still being zapped to viewers. You’re Still On: Tips for Hosting the Q&A Talk show queen. the audience members are watching you and taking mental notes. know that eyes may be on you and not the person making the introduction. Bios get misplaced all the time and you want yours to be readily available. In your correspondence to the organization. If your name is hard to pronounce.com 51 . Even if the microphone isn‘t officially attached.thezeitgeistmovement. and working.right before they introduce you. That brings us to the next tip. You can always add more in your actual speech. why the information is important and relevant to their audience. has a segment of her show called ―After the Show‖ that‘s televised on her own network. Ensure the purpose is somehow highlighted in your introduction. made up. just include facts that demonstrate your credibility for the purposes of this talk. When you meet the introducer. the truth is that Oprah is still dressed. Although the title gives the impression of a let-yourhair-down segment. Sit up in your chair. Performance: Remember.thevenusproject. The Q&A session is a very important part of your talk. When you‘re being introduced. you can‘t afford to let get off your game just because the main part of your speech has concluded. Oprah is still on. state your name again as you greet them so they‘ll be able to connect the bio with your face and so you‘re sure they know how to pronounce your name.com | www. include the phonetic spelling in brackets so the person knows how to properly pronounce it. Your job is to serve the audience—not yourself. and why you have the expertise to effectively deliver this message. and look like you‘re ready for prime time before you even hit the stage. always reiterate the topic of your talk. It‘s the presentation after the presentation and you‘re still on! www. That means you need to be conscious of everything you say and do as soon as you enter the premises. the microphone is always hot and the camera is always live. Purpose: Don‘t forget why you‘re at the event. If you need to cut your bio down.

If you take too long to respond to a question. continue your sales pitch. don‘t respond to it—at least directly. Jumpstart the Q&A Session: When you‘re ready to take questions. ask ―Who has the first question?‖ If no one responds. For example. When audience members ask questions to clarify certain points this minimizes the chances that anyone will leave confused or uncertain about your presentation. During your speech.com | www.thezeitgeistmovement.thevenusproject. The enthusiasm around your presentation sinks if no one appears to have a question so you want to encourage audience inquiries during the Q&A. If you want to perform as well during this presentation as you did during the main portion of your speech. if someone asks ―What is your company doing with the extra money you‘re getting from the price hikes?‖ You respond by saying. the audience will get bored.‖ do that to keep the session moving and to maintain the audience‘s attention. if they know that there will be a Q&A at the end. Don’t respond to loaded questions: If a question is phrased to put you on the defense. ―You might be wondering why…‖ or ―A question I‘m often asked is…‖ This should spark other questions. restate the question to give yourself better footing. the Q&A session is another opportunity for you to shine as it provides you with more time to reinforce your message. ask the person that introduces you to let the audience know that you‘ll be available for questions. If you can keep your answer to a ―Yes‖ or ―No. ―I understand your concern www. Repeat the Questions: When you do get a question. As you conclude your answer.The Q&A session is key to your overall message because it affords benefits to your audience as well as yourself. For you. ask a question yourself and then answer it.com 52 . When you‘re ready to answer the question. and calm your audience‘s concerns. Instead. Say something like. let them know that you plan to take questions. For these reasons. look at the person who asked the question again to make sure that you fully answered the inquiry poised. the Q&A can be viewed as another important presentation. Also. use these suggestions: Prep the Audience for the Q&A: People are more likely to save their questions during your talk and then ask them. address the entire audience so they don‘t feel left out and make sure you include information that will benefit everyone even if the question is a specific one. repeat it to ensure that the entire audience heard it. Stick to the point: Be concise and don‘t turn your answer into another speech. look at the person who asked it to see if you properly understood it. As you repeat the question.

move onto the next question as quickly as possible. the person won‘t know if you cut them off or just thought that he or she was finished. ―Thanks for your comment…Next question.regarding the price increase. ―Before I close.com 53 . be honest.thevenusproject. You don‘t want to get into an argument with the person because you have more to lose than they do.thezeitgeistmovement. it gives you a crisp. professional way to end your talk versus ―okay. you need to politely cut them off.‖ Keep Your Cool: As much as you try to predict your audience‘s questions. www. If the person is not happy with the way you rephrased the question then suggest that you see them after the Q&A session. If someone asks something that you can‘t answer. If you‘re able to get them an answer at a later time. Also. Manage Audience Comments: If someone makes an extended comment rather than asks a question. please‖ and turn your attention to the opposite side of the room. To do the latter. Refrain from Praising Questions: When you say. does anyone have question?‖ By having a prepared closing. well if there are no more questions. You should strive to make everyone feel good about asking questions by saying ―Thanks for asking that question. that‘s all. One approach is to track their speaking rate and then when he or she pauses say. ask for questions by saying.‖ The bottom line is that you have to maintain your composure at all times and you can‘t get sidetracked by a bad question. If a question isn‘t relevant.‖ Have a Conclusion After the Q&A: You can either develop a separate conclusion that you deliver after the Q&A or before ending your speech. It‘s important to manage speeches or extended comments because audience members sometimes use the Q&A as an opportunity to state their company name or effort (a free commercial) but more importantly they prevent other audience members from asking key questions. In the meantime. you should expect the unexpected.com | www. you can end the Q&A session once you‘ve reached the time allotted. ―good question‖ to one person and not the other you may stifle some people‘s willingness to speak because they feel you‘re placing a value judgment on the questions asked. let them know when you will deliver the response and keep your promise. At that point. I think you‘re asking why we found it necessary to increase the prices?‖ The difference between the two questions is subtle but the second option puts you in a better position to respond. let the person know that the question is ―outside of the context of our discussion.

Sure there are things you can‘t control.thevenusproject. or some noisy high school students take an unplanned detour in front of your room—these are occurrences you can‘t control but you can always control your response to them and that may make all the difference. it happens to everyone.com | www. the success of the presentation starts and ends with you. www.com 54 .thezeitgeistmovement. Just remember that when your technology goes on an unexpected blitz. an audience member makes a ridiculous comment.You Determine Your Success When it comes to public speaking.

hks.quotationspage. encyclopedias. quotations. newspaper searches.harvard.kidsturncentral.com 55 .com – Find quotations by topic or author.htm Harvard Kennedy School – a comprehensive list of public speaking resources for adults. www. www. and hundreds of links. www.itools.edu/degrees/oca/students-alumni/comm/online-resources/speaking Links to Entertaining and Historical Speeches Will Ferrell at Harvard History Channel – Site contains audio/video clips of great speeches in modern history.bartleby.com – Source for free online books. www. www.NewsVoyager. and more on one site.com – Features links to the websites for thousands of local newspapers nationwide www. including American history.gov – The Library of Congress website features on-line resources and materials for various topics.thezeitgeistmovement.refdesk.com | www. www.com – Contains dictionaries. www.thevenusproject. encyclopedias.com/speeches Kurt Vonnegut at Rice University Kurt Vonnegut at Syracuse Research Tools www.org – A directory that feature searchable links to free online scholarly journals on a variety of topics. translators.loc.historychannel.com – A little bit of everything: news. www.com/links/speakinglinks. www. search engines.com – Links to free magazines that are available online.magatopia. www. A good place to start if you are doing online research.doaj.More Public Speaking Resources Communication Websites Kid‘s Turn Central – a list of public speaking resources for kids.

reference.thezeitgeistmovement. www.actden.com | www. www.www. Style Websites www.edu – Site presents an interesting discussion and exercise on how to eliminate clichés in your work. dictionaries. www. chat rooms and other resources.com – Almanacs. thesauruses.com 56 .thevenusproject. and more.writing2. resources.crlsresearchguide.com – A website to help people overcome the fear of public speaking.richmond. www. speakfreak.stylewizard. atlases.org – Plug in your information in this free printable online outline generator.slonet.com/pp – A kid-friendly free online PowerPoint tutorial. www. The site includes articles.com – This free site connects you to MLA and APA citations for your bibliography and other referenced sources.org/~tellswor – An archive of family jokes and humor that is searchable by keyword.

how am I doin‘?‖ It was his way of finding out from his audience—the citizens of the big Apple—how well he was serving them. You need to evaluate yourself and let others assess you too. Then incorporate your finding into your next speech so that you‘ll improve with every engagement. Critique other people‘s speeches so you‘ll know what things you should avoid and what techniques you need to incorporate into your own presentation. Then periodically review them to ensure that you‘ve taken steps for improvement and that you‘ve noted your progress. keep these tips in mind: Speak whenever you can and join public speaking groups to improve your skills. Once you‘ve read all of the feedback forms for a particular speech. ask your audience to complete an evaluation form that you provide to them prior to your presentation.com 57 . Sprinkle in some humor to reduce the stress for you and your audience. motivate. more exciting. Maintain control and don‘t lose your cool when things go wrong. you may start to believe that you‘ve hit your peak. file them. Remember. Conduct your own self-assessments for every speech. You should be grateful for all of the comments because they will ultimately help you become a more effective communicator and speaker.thezeitgeistmovement.com | www. If you keep an open mind and constantly look for courses and reading material to update your skills. Try your best to understand the comments that you receive and make sure you leave space so that the respondents can provide further commentary. or persuade. www. you need to determine how well your message is connecting with the people you are charged to inform. As you read the responses. Not so! You should always look for ways to make your presentations more interesting. Audiotape and videotape your speeches and record where and when they were given as well as the audience‘s response so you can improve. you‘ll always discover new techniques that will set your presentation apart from the rest of the pack. Be open to criticism and know that the feedback your receive is only a reflection of how you came across.Epilogue A popular former New York City mayor used to start his speeches with ―So. entertain. don‘t get defensive. To get constructive feedback. As you strive for public speaking perfection. the audience is often unaware or unconcerned about little mistakes or mishaps. and more valuable for your audience. If you want to be an effective public speaker.thevenusproject. At some point.

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