HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATION

ALBERT S. DELA CRUZ

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FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
- A SUDDEN CHANGE IN ATTITUDE - TECHNOLOGY FAILURE FAILS BECAUSE OF PEOPLE

- MANY OF OUR MOST CRITICAL PROBLEMS ARE NOT IN THE WORLD OF THINGS, BUT IN THE WORLD OF PEOPLE. - I MAY BE CRAZY BUT I AM NOT AS STUPID AS YOU ARE.

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NATURE AND SCOPE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Definition: - Any act of an individual person which is considered human behavior. - A reflection of his/her thoughts, feelings, emotions, sentiments whether conscious or not. - It mirrors his/her needs, values motivation, aspirations, conflicts and state of life

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Thoughts Feelings Emotions Sentiments Creator Needs Values Motivation Aspirations -ALL HUMAN ACTIVITIES Conflicts State of life 4 .

Decision making .Leadership .Followership .Communication 5 .Behavior -consists of all human activities -Universal and is at the core of: .

LEADERSHIP 2. COMMUNICATING 5. MOTIVATING 4.NATURE AND SCOPE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR UNIVERSAL IN 1. PLANNING 2. COMMUNICATION 4. DECISION MAKING 5. Chinese & American 6 . CULTURE THE FUNCTIONS OF MGT 1. Ex. ORGANIZING BEHAVIOR 3. from one country to another. FOLLOWERSHIP 3. PROCESSES IN ORGANIZATION 6. LEADING 6. CONTROLLING It is in the implementation and practice that differ from group to group.

Some Key Behavioral Science Assumptions. Concepts. and Principles ‡ human act & acts of man ‡ Human act ‡ an act with free will ‡ responsibility ‡ choice 7 .

Concepts. and Principles ‡ human act & acts of man ‡ acts of man ‡ there is a force ‡ risk ‡ no choice 8 .Some Key Behavioral Science Assumptions.

There are no simple cookbook formulas for working with people. neither an ideal person. 9   . The characteristics of an organization influence the behavior of the entire organization and the behavior of the individuals. Every person is constantly active.ASSUMPTIONS     Every person is significantly different. goal oriented. Every person is dynamic. No one best answer. Behavior cannot be predicted. no ideal organization.

10    .CONCEPTS   All behavior are learned. Stimuli are those forces w/c impact the sensory organs of our five sensory input channels. PRINCIPLES   Law of effect. Human beings adapt. There are no two individuals who are alike in all dimensions. Classical conditioning is a powerful technique. Behavior is caused but its causality is uncertain.

(instead of reactions) ‡ understanding of the actions of people. (preventive) ‡ lack on sensibility and perceptiveness problems. etc« 11 creates .Reasons for Studying Human Behavior ‡ The need to understand the behavior of others. ‡ anticipation is pro-active. ‡ to anticipate and predict how others may act makes events easier and smoother. ‡ is certainly indispensable in the formulation of laws. rules.

12 . ‡ the need for conflict resolution and peace-making remain central in society¶s well-being. ‡ gives importance to science and technology. ‡ business will not thrive w/o the study of people¶s wants and desires.Reasons for Studying Human Behavior ‡ The need to understand the behavior of others. ‡ can increase productivity for it provides information and knowledge as bases for improving performance.

13 . ‡ the need for and usefulness of understanding and appreciating the values that underlie or are reflected by our behavior brings out distinctions b/n right and wrong. good and bad.Reasons for Studying Human Behavior ‡ The need to understand the behavior of others. useful and useful behavior. ‡ we don¶t only study the personality of others but also our own personality. proper and improper.

Reasons for Studying Human Behavior ‡ The need to understand the behavior of others. ‡ underlies the quality of one¶s actions: ‡ Relationships ‡ Motivation ‡ Self-improvement ‡ Aspirations ‡ Social usefulness ‡ Responsibility 14 .

Models of Human Behavior in Organization .

Three-Level Model Milton proposes a model of studying human behavior at three levels: individual. group and organization.´ Third Level Second Level First Level The Organization (Doctoral Program) The Group (Masteral Program) The Individual (Undergraduate Program) DIMENSIONS OF STUDY AND THEIR CORRESPONDING LEVELS OF ANALYSIS . It can also be called the ³I-G-O Model.

. personality. status. motivation. ‡ At the individual level. ‡ Physiology and anatomy gives information and principles on the body and how it works. influence.Interdisciplinary Model ‡ Human behavior in organization is inter-and-multidisciplinary. power. ‡ The science of sociology offers insights into roles. learning. norms. Various theories are integrated to contribute to it¶s better understanding. ‡ Culture and its artifacts are the main contribution of anthropology in the study of behavior in the organization. psychology provides knowledge of perception. authority.

Anatomy GROUP Sociology and other Sciences Like Social Work. Law. Education ORGANIZATION Anthropology and other Sciences like Economics. Medicine VARIOUS SCIENCES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR .Interdisciplinary Model HUMAN BEHAVIOR INDIVIDUAL Psychology and other sciences like Physiology. Business.

creativity. competency and selfrealization through proper maintenance. recognition and development programs. These basic and potent needs are recognized and fulfilled by the organization which considers them as ³ the central resource in any organization and any society.Developmental Model People grow and move on to higher levels of resourcefulness. 19 . Kieth and Davis call this ³human resources (supportive) approach.

Developmental Model PHILISOPHY FUNDS TECHNOLOGY PEOPLE VALUES FACILITIES STRUCTURE Significant Components of an Organization 20 .

Their staffs are. The systems theory posits that these parts are interdependent and interrelated with each other.Systems Model A social system is a complex and dynamic set of relationships among its actors interacting with one another. expected to interface more frequently than those between the public relations and manufacturing departments. Ex. The marketing department is in high interdependence with the production department and vice ± versa. An organization is a social system consisting of various parts at its subsystems. 21 . therefore.

OPEN SOCIAL SYSTEMS MODEL Community & Environment Strategic Subsystem Administrative Subsystem Operating Subsystem ORGANIZATION 22 .

Contingency  Is contingent on variables prevailing particularly where problems are highly people-related. 23 . when s/he graduates becomes an output. Student into school is an input.   Every problem must be studied and analyzed in light of complex factors that may be highly interrelated with each other. The output of a certain organization may vary depending on the inputs. Academic vs Group of Workers. Ex. Ex.

PROCESS Transformation Process Technology Leadership Communication Power Authority Conflicts Relationships Interaction Influence OUTPUT Goods Services Individual Energy Motivation Information Measured and evaluated in quantity and quality 24 .SYSTEM AFFECTED BY FACTORS IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS INPUTS Goals Funds People Materials Time Information Put in various quantity and quality.

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Organization ‡ is a formal structure of planned coordination. in order to achieve a common goal. involving two or more people. ‡ characterized by authority relationships and some degree of division of labor. 25 .

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Organizational Behavior ‡ is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people ± as individual and as groups ± act within organizations. (Newstrom) ‡ ex. A friend catches a cold 26 .

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Five Levels of Analysis 1. Whole Systems 27 . Individuals 2. Groups 4. Interpersonal 3. Intergroups 5.

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Goals of Organizational Behavior ‡ Four goals of OB 1. Predict 4. Understand 3. Control human behavior at work 28 . Describe 2.

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Key forces affecting Organizational Behavior People ‡ Individual ‡ Groups Environment ‡ Government ‡ Competition ‡ Societal Pressures Structure ‡ Jobs ‡ Relationships Organizational Behavior Technology ‡ Machinery ‡ Computer Hardware and Software 29 .

Elements (gravity) of nature are uniform a 30 .UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior ‡ Every field of social science has philosophical foundation of basic concepts ‡ Ex. Debit Credit ‡ Ex.

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior The Nature of People ‡Individual Differences ‡Perception ‡A whole person ‡Motivated Behavior ‡Desire for involvement ‡Value of the Person 31 The Nature of Organizations ‡Social Systems ‡Mutual Interest ‡Ethics .

32 .  Psychology can help us understand why people are different and why they have different personalities. ways. the how we grow up and whom we work with will not affect it. acquire new skills and adopt different attitudes is all laid down by our inherited characteristics. We learn to communicate more effectively and so understand better what others are doing. Trying to understand some of these differences can help us to work better with each other in the following. and other. We have different personalities.  NATURE AND NURTURE    inherited characteristics (nature) upbringing (nurture) if our ability to learn language. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND PERSONALITY     The great delight of being part of human race is that we are all different.

learned ³superego´ ³id´.saying something with a hidden Slipmeaning instead of what we intended.  the difficulties for all of us in learning to control anger and aggression in socially acceptable ways. Freudian Slip.  Ex. Introvert and extrovert by Carl Jung 33 .  Ex.personality consisting of the basic instincts that ³id´make us going and become involved with our surroundings.individual drives that focus a person¶s nature.  the anger felt by children over the external control implicit in toilet training.  early period of breastfeeding.  Freud argues that personality develops through a series of traumatic experiences.  ³superego´.  Different models of why people differ Psychoanalysis  Theories of Sigmund Freud  Personality consisted of three separate parts  ³ego´ .  disapproval demonstrated by society of childhood sexuality.

34 . Stimulus evokes a response. where the response leads to a reinforcing reaction the individual is more likely to respond in that way in the future. Reinforcement (rewards) rewards) As that which the person will work for.F. Behaviourism  B. Skinner We learn through our experiences and that these experiences affect who and what we become.

The emphasis is on becoming an independent.R. Rogers has described stages for adults in becoming fully functional person. the need to be open to experience and move away from defensiveness. Humanistic Psychology         The central belief that each of us has within ourselves the capacity to develop in a healthy and creative way. physically. rather than relating everything to the past. emotionally. mature. increasingly the person trusts themselves more. 35 . the ideal person takes responsibility for themselves and their actions. is a tendency to live each moment fully. and now. Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs C. and mentally. adult who can take responsibility for our own actions.

His writings was published in 1911 . The Economic Man Frederick Taylor & Scientific Management .The Father of Scientific Management .Called attention to the low productivity of workers in the US steel industry 36 .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 1.US Steel Industry .

d. Lack of Standardization of work methods by management c. 37 .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 1. b. The Economic Man . Restriction of output by workers. Ineffective incentive systems to reward workers for greater productivity.Reasons a. The absence of systematic methods for defining output standards for different jobs.

Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 1.Called for a mental revolution on the part of both management and labor based on shared perception of the community of their interests. .In Scientific Management Taylor wrote: ³ And yet throughout the industrial world. a large part of the organization of employers as well as employees. and that perhaps the majority on either side do not believe that it is possible to arrange their mutual relations that their interest become identical«. The Economic Man Frederick Taylor & Scientific Management . is for war rather than peace. 38 .

Advocated ³high wage but low labor cost´ * where labor could be given high wages but where production costs would remain low because of high labor productivity. .Tools for standard methodologies * methods analysis * time and motion study * functional foremanship * piece rate system 39 . The Economic Man Frederick Taylor & Scientific Management .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 1.

The result of the experiment in a very different way.Associated with the famous Experiment in the Western Electric Company (1927-1932) * To set out empirically determine the optimum level of illumination. .Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger Hawthorne . .The increase in productivity as mainly a response of the workers to the psychological. not the physical environment. 40 . The Social Person The Human Relations Movement .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 2.

The workers enjoyed their sense of importance given by the management . 41 .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 2. The Social Person The Human Relations Movement .The most important psychological. * * factors are social and Giving workers sense of importance Overcoming worker management suspicions about * The influence of formal groups were potentially more important variables in improving worker performance that the work methods and other physical factors in the work environment.

Gave way for the use of Behavioral Sciences on the problems of Management 42 .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 2.Scientific Management views a person as an Economic Person while Human Relations views a person as a Social Person . The Social Person The Human Relations Movement .

that person¶s needs fall into a hierarchy of relative prepotency.the theory on the complex person was posted by Abraham H.Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 3. Self-Realization Esteem Social Safety & Security Physiological MASLOW¶S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 43 . Maslow . The Complex Person .

their absence rarely leads to dissatisfaction.Satisfying factors . . but their absence makes the person dissatisfied.Frederick Herzberg found out from its Pittsburgh studies that individual worker have two different categories of needs that are essentially independent of each other but affect behavior in different ways.Hygiene factors . 44 .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 4.produce no real growth in the worker¶s motivation and output. The Motivated Person . . .act primarily as motivators.

The Motivated Person Relating to Relating to Hygiene Factors Environment Around the Job Satisfying Factors Job itself Policies & Administration Supervision Working Conditions Interpersonal Relations Money Security Achievement Recognition for Accomplishment Challenging Work Increased Responsibility Growth & development HERZBERG¶S TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION 45 .Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 4.

The Three-Tiered Satisfied Person . . Aldelfer . .do not always make the best managers.Clayton P. Maclelland .High-task managers-low relationships behavior . The Achiever .people with high need to achieve do achieve more than those with low need and with no need at all.Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 5.Needs (ERG) Existence Relatedness Growth 6.the person demonstrates a high need to achieve if they can influence the outcome and prefer to work on a problem rather than leave the outcome to chance.David C. 46 .

High-task managers-low relationships behavior . .Three basic types of motivating needs: 1. The Achiever .the person demonstrates a high need to achieve if they can influence the outcome and prefer to work on a problem rather than leave the outcome to chance. Need for power 2. . . Maclelland . Need for affiliation 3.do not always make the best managers.Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 6.people with high need to achieve do achieve more than those with low need and with no need at all.David C. Need for achievement 47 .

instrumentalities and preferences that he/she has at the time. People have certain instrumentalities (probabilities) about performance that will lead to nthe attainment of desirable outcomes.Victor Harold Vroom. The Expectant Person . 4. 1964 1. 3. Individuals have expectancies about the likelihood that an action on their part will lead to satisfactory performance. 48 . The action a person chooses to take is determined by the expectancies.Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 7. Individuals have preferences for various outcomes (goals) 2.

Origin of Contemporary Management Thought Perceived Ability Extrinsic Outcomes Preferences Equitable Reward Expectancies Motivation Effort Performance Satisfaction Intrinsic Instrumentalities outcomes EXPECTANCY MODEL 49 .

wishes to avoid responsibility. ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely.  Under the condition of modern industrial life.  The average human being prefers to be directed . 50  . not only to accept but to seek responsibility. The Managed Person  Theory X  The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if she can. wants security above all. not narrowly. most people must be coerced. and has relatively little ambition.  Because of the human characteristic dislike of work. People with exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. threatened with punishment. Theory Y  The expenditure of physical and mental effort is as natural as play or rest. to get them to put forth adequate effort. the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized. distributed in the population.  The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination.  Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 8.  External control and the threat to punishment are not the only means of bringing about effort towards organizational objectives.  The average human being learns. under proper conditions.

Stimulus evokes a response. where the response leads to a reinforcing reaction the individual is more likely to respond in that way in the future.Origin of Contemporary Management Thought 8.B. The Learning-Reinforced Person Behaviourism . Reinforcement (rewards) rewards) As that which the person will work for. Skinner We learn through our experiences and that these experiences affect who and what we become. 51 .F.

 Helps OB problems understandable & manageable 52 . The Nature of Organizations  Three (3) Key Concepts 1.  Two types of social system 1. Formal (Official) 2. Informal  Everything is related to everything else  Provides a framework for analyzing oranizational behavior issues. they also have social roles and status. Social Systems  Organizations are social systems  Activities are governed by social laws as well as psychological laws  Just as people have psychological needs.

Mutual Interest Organizations need people and people need organizations Organization have a human purpose They are formed and maintained on the basis of mutuality of interest Makes sense in developing cooperation and assembling groups 53 . The Nature of Organizations 2.

 The Nature of Organizations  Mutual Interest Employee Goals Ethics Employee Goals Superordinate goal of mutual interest Mutual accomplishment of goals Employee Goals Organizational Goals Employee Goals Mutual interest provides a superordinate goal ± one that can be attained only thru integrated efforts of individuals and their employers 54 .

 Ex. 55 . Ethics Is the use of moral principles and values to affect the behavior of individuals and organizations with regard to choices between what is right or wrong Code of ethics. set-up procedures to handle misconduct. rewarded employees for notable ethical behavior. publicized statements of ethical values. publicized positive role models. provided ethics training. The Nature of Organizations 3.

 A MODEL OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR Ethics Study of moral issues and choices Ethical and unethical conduct is the product of a complex combination of influences. 56 .

Internal Organizational influences Ethical Codes Organizational Culture Organizational Size Structure Perceived pressure for results Corporate strategy Neutralizing/enhancing factors Top Mgt team characteristics Political/Legal Industry Culture National Culture Environment Role Expectations External Organizational Influences Political/Legal Industry Culture National Culture Environment Individual *Personality *Values *Moral Principles *History of reinforcement *Gender Ethical behavior A model of ethical behavior in the workplace 57 .

A Decision Tree for Ethical Decisions

Yes

Do it.

Yes Does it maximize Shareholder value?

Is it ethical? (To answer, weigh the effect on customers, employees, the community, the environment, and suppliers against the benefit to the shareholders. No Don¶t do it.

Yes

Is the proposed action legal?

Yes No

Don¶t do it.

No

Don¶t do it.

Would it be ethical Not to take the action? (To answer, weigh the harm or cost that would be imposed on shareholders against The costs or benefits to other stakeholders) No
Do it but disclose The effect of the action to shareholders 58



Limitations of Organizational Behavior

Problems exist in OB¶s nature and use 
Importance

is the use of research to identify payoffs in the areas of absenteeism, turnover, stress levels, and employee performance. Limitations: 
Will

not abolish conflict and frustration; can only reduce them  It is a way to improve, not an absolute answer to problems

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Limitations of Organizational Behavior

Three (3) major limitations 1. Behavioral Bias 
may

give narrow viewpoint that emphasizes satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of the organization in relation to all its publics. assume that the objective of OB is to create a satisfied workforce is a mistake, for that goal will not automatically translate into new products and outstanding customer service.
60 

To

61 . Behavioral Bias Can be misapplied that it can harm employees Some people in spite of their good intentions. Limitations of Organizational Behavior Three (3) major limitations 1. so overwhelm others with care that the recipients are emotionally smothered and reduced to independent and unproductive indignity.

After a certain point. The Law of Diminishing Returns In economics the law of diminishing returns refers to a declining amount of extra outputs when more of a desirable input is added to an economic situation. The concept implies that for any situation there is an optimum amount of a desirable practice. the output from each unit of added input tends to be smaller. such as recognition or participation. Limitations of Organizational Behavior Three (3) major limitations 2. 62 .

63 . Unethical Manipulations of People The philosophy of human behavior is supportive and oriented toward human resources. People who lack respect for the dignity of the human being could learn organizational behavior ideas and use them for selfish ends. Limitations of Organizational Behavior Three (3) major limitations 2. Knowledge and techniques can be used to manipulate people unethically as well as to help them develop their potential.

 Limitations of Organizational Behavior Three (3) major limitations 3. Ethical leadership recognizes principles such as: Social responsibility Open communication Cost-benefit analysis 64 . Unethical Manipulations of People Ethical managers will not manipulate people.

Positive organizational behavior 3. Impacts of the internet revolution 65 . Human and social capital 2. New Directions in OB - - - The field of OB is dynamic work in progress. OB is being redirected and reshaped by various forces New directions for OB 1.

The Strategic Importance and Dimensions of Human and Social Capital Strategic Assumption: People. individually And collectively. Are the key to organizational success Individual human capital ‡Intelligence/abilities knowledge ‡Visions/dreams/aspirations ‡Technical and social skills ‡Confidence/self-esteem ‡Initiative/entrepreneurship ‡Adaptability/flexibility ‡Readiness to learn ‡Creativity ‡Enthusiasm ‡Motivation/commitment ‡Persistence ‡Ethical standards ‡Honesty ‡Emotional maturity Organizational Learning (Shared Knowledge) Social Capital *Shared Visions *Shared values *Trust *Mutual respect/goodwill *Friendship/support groups *Mentoring/positive role modeling *Participation/empowerment *Connections/sources *Networks/affiliations *Cooperation/collaboration *Teamwork *Camaraderie *Assertive *Functional *Win-win negotiations *Volunteering 66 .

performance feedback. Definition The effectiveness of managers¶ and leaders¶ ability to optimize the organization¶s human capital thru communication. Human  Capital  Is the productive potential of an individual¶s knowledge and actions. demonstration of key org. Five Human Capital outcomes. values The organization¶s success in optimizing the performance of its workforce by means of developi9ng and sustaining talent. efforts to instill confidence. and guiding and managing its application on the job 67 Leadership/managerial practices Workforce optimization .

engage. Human Capital Definition The organization¶s overall ability to learn. change and continually improve Learning capacity Knowledge accessibility The extent of the organization¶s collaborativeness and its current efforts and ability to share knowledge and ideas across the organization Talent engagement The organizations¶ ability to retain. and optimize the value of its talent 68 .

trust. goodwill. and cooperative effort Skills and best practices in building human and social capital Managing Diversity Self-efficacy Self Management Emotional Intelligence Goal setting Managing Conflict Communicating Empowerment Positive reinforcement Group Problem-Solving Group development Building Trust Teamwork Leadership Organizational Learning 69 . Social  Capital Is the productive potential resulting from strong relationships.

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